Scientific American. / New Series, Volume 9, Issue 4
A WEEKLY JOURNAL OF PRACTICAL INFORMATION IN ART, SCIENCE, MECHANICS, ChEMISTRY AND MANUFACTURES
NEW YORK, JULY 25, 1863.
Improved Cotton-opener and Cleaner.
The accompanying engraving is a representation of
a new and improved cotton-oPener and~ cleaner,
which has been recently introduced in various parts
of the country. There are no feed rollers to it, and
the general arrangement of the several parts will be
fully understood by referring to the subjoined de-
scription and illustration. Alt parts of the machine
are not visible in the position it stood at the time it
was photograt~hed, but the explanation will supply
what is lacking.
The oblong casing, A,
is covered with a hood,
B, and constructed with
suitable bearings for the
two horizontal shafts, C
C, which nin length-
wise through it. The
shafts are patallel with
each other, and have
beaters, D, secured upon
them spirally about
their axis in such rela-
tions to each other that,
those upon the shaft, C,
revolve between the
spaces of those on the
shaft, C; the shafts
themselves revolving in
opposite directions. The
grating under the shafts
(not seen in the engrav-
ing) is accommodated
to the circle described
by the ends of the beat-
ers. On the top of the
machine is a hopper, B,
in which the cotton to
be fed is placed, and
near the other end of
the hood there is a
box containing a rota-
tating screen, F, placed on one side of the machine,
which has a free communication with the box, A;
the shaft of the screen is parallel with the beater
shafts. The beaters are arranged along the whole
length of the shaft, as may be seen through the hood,
a portion of which is broken away to show the in-
tetior. An endless apron, G, is provided, which runs
on two rollers arranged parallel with the beater
shafts, and extending from the end of the grating
within the box, A, to the box, F, and out through
an opening in the back of the same; this apron
worlis close under the rotating screen. The roller,
H, is capable of being revolved by the endless apron,
or by the friction of the cotton upon it. In the end
of the box next to the hopper, there are openings,
I, above the grating, and also one below for the ad-
mission of air ; the latter is fitted with a slide to
regulate the force of the draft. The driving shaft,
C, transmits motion to the screen through the me-
dium of a shaft, J, arranged at the back of the box,
A, which shaft is driven by a belt or gearing, as de-
sired, and so connected with the rotating screen that
it revolves very slowly. The apron is driven by
suitable gearing, and the fan runs at a high velocity,
through a belt, from a pulley on shafts, C and C.
There are also two shafts, K, fitted with pawis and
ratchet wheels below the grating, D, which carry
two cams, quickly operated by wrenches, for the pur-
pose of raising or lowering the grating as may be re-
quired, according to the length or condition of the
fiber to be cleaned. These are the principal details.
Respecting the operation of them the inventor says
The cotton is fed in at the cud opposite the blower
where it undergoes a semi-scutching operation; this
is afterwards repeated by the second cylinder return-
ing it again to the firstthe cotton being drawn
along lineally through the shafts by the draft of the
blower. The lighter portions of the fiber are drawn
through quickly with very little Working, while the
heavy or more compact portions remain in the ma-
chine until they become as light also, they having
received much more beating in consequence of their
VAN WINKLES PATENT WILLOWER.
remaining longer in contact with the revolving
beaters, while dust and all fine particles of foreign
matter are most effectually separated and blown
It will be seen that the cotton receives no violent
tearing operation, as is the case in most willows
when it is held by feed-xollers, and chopped off and
thrown out at a single blow, but is acted on as if a
piece was loosely beaten about by the hand operation
until it is perfectly softened and cleaned. All roll-
ing is prevented by placing the draft apertures below
the grate; the air passing up through keeps the cot-
ton suspended among the beaters in a lively manner.
In offering this machine to cotton manufacturers
the patentee would say that manufacturers in and
about Paterson have already adopted them,also others
in Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and
Connecticut; some are running in each of those States,
and orders have been received for more. The first
machine that was made, as an experiment, was sold
to a manufacturer in Connecticut. All of those per-
sons who have used them give the highest testimo-
nials in their favor over their own signatures, while
not the first word of fault has ever been found with
them. To the operatives in factories they are a
great benefit, by ridding the picking room instantly
of the dust which is so oppressive and detrimental to
their health. One machine is able to run through
about four thousand pounds of cotton per day, of any
quality suitable for twist, or by setting it close and
feeding slower it will clean and open frcm ten to
fifteen cwt. of the worst refusehard, moldy cakes,
or any other damaged or dirty stuff.
The price of this improved willower is $250. It
is manufactured exclusively at the Machine Works
of J. E. Van Winkle & Co., of Paterson, N. J.
The patent for this invention was procured through
the Scientific American Patent Agency, on June 2,
1868, by J. E. Van Winkle, of Paterson, N. J., of
whom further information can be obtained.
THE Enucruic LIGIIP rou LIGHTHOUSESA parlia-
mentary paper, re-
cently issued, con-
tains further reports
of Professor Faraday
on the employment
of the Electric Light
at Dungeness, on the
English coast. It h~s
been on trial for nine
months failed only
once,for two minutes,
another time for thir-
ty seconds, and, on a
few other occasions,
for shorter intervals.
Professor Faraday es-
timates the light to
be eight times as in-
tense as that of the
which is one of the
most brilliant in
sight of Dungeness.
No reliable experi-
ments have yet been
made to ascertain the
superior degree of
power of the electric
rays in penetrating a
which is a point of
great importance. Regarding the question of cost,
it appears from the parliamentary return, that the
expenses incurred for the establishment of the appa-
ratus at Dungeness, amounted to 6870; and that
the estimated annual charge for maintaining the elec-
tric light is 724, or $3620 per annum. Its great
cost has caused it to be rejected by those who have
charge of the lighthouse system.
A CUPOLA iron-clad has lately been built for the
Royal Danish navy, at Glasgow, Scotland, by Robert
Napier & Sons. She is called the Roif Krake, and has
two revolving cupolas 4~ feet above deck and 21 feet
in diameter. Her length Is 185 feet; breadth, 33
feet; depth, l6~ feet, and she is 1,246 tuns burden.
She is armed with 4~--inch plates from stem to stern,
increasing to 7~ inches at the port hole lined with
teak 9 inches in thickness. The engines are 240
nominal horse-power; the decks are 5 feet out of
water, with folding bulwarks. She is intended for a
good sea-going vessel, and her speed, upon trial,
slightly exceeded ten knots per hour.
THE Corinth (Vt.) copper mines are being worked
under the direction of a New York company. A
number of English miners have already gone to
work, and more are expected.
A MIXTURE in equal proportions of flour and salt
will have the desired effect in stopping bleeding
grape viwies, when grafting wax and burning have
SINGLE COPIES SIX CENTS.
~$3 PER ANNUMIN ADVANCEj
~J~xe ~denU& ~inevi~an.
Testing Gilded and Silver Articles.
The following methods are employed in the Ger-
man revenue-offices, for testing the value of articles
that are gilded and silvered, as described in the Zeit-
schr. Deulsek. lngenieure
TESTING OF GOLD. The ordinary method of. testing
gold is founded upon the insolubility of this metal
in nitric acid. If a mark be made on the touch-
stone with the article under examination, the gold
is not dissolved by this acid, whereas golden-colored
alloys of inferior value are dissolved and disappear
immediately. When articles are very thinly gilded,
the detection of the gold in this manner is uncer-
tain, in which case the following method may be
used with advantage. This process depends upon the
fact that an aqueous solution of chloride of copper
is without action on gold, whereas on golden-colored
alloys, as brass, pinchbeck, & c.,it produces a black
A little carbonate of copper is put into a test-tube,
and to this is added, drop by drop, pure hydrochloric
.acid till the blue powder has dissolved to a clear
green fluid, occasion~iiy warming it over a spirit
lamp. This concei trated solution of chloride of
copper is diluted for use with from ten to eleven
times its volume of distilled water. Before testing,
the metallid surface must be well cleaned. This can
be done effectually, by brushing it for a minute or
two with a little spirits of wine; or better, withab-
The surface having dried, a little of the testing
fluid is dropped on, and allowed to remain in con-
tact for about a minute. The fluid is then removed
by means of a small pipette, and the surface of the
metal completely dried with bibulous paper; if no
dark spot be then visible, the article is coated with
pure gold. If the metallic surface is but lightly
gilded, a very slight blackening is sometimes re-
marked, which may throw a doubt upon the result.
In such a case, to make quite certain, a little of the
surface may be scraped off, and then the testing fluid~
again applied. If a dark spot is then perceived, the
article may be considered as very thinly gilded.
if a further and more direct proof of the presence
of gold is required, the article to be examined, or a
piece of it., may be put into a porcelain cup, and as
much pure nitric acid poured over:as will half cover
it. The thin layer of gold covering the surface does
not prevent the metal from being attacked by the
acid, and the gold becoming separated, floats in thin
films on the top of the liquid. The green metallic
solution is now removed, and more nitric acid poured
over the gold spangles it is then somewhat warmed,
and water finally added. The gold has now been
fully tested by its insolubility in nitric acid, and it
only remains to ascertain that it dissolves to a yellow
solution in warm aqua regia.
Thin gilding of this description is often met with
in the French mock jewelry; the coating is some-
times so thin that it not only deceives the eye, but it
is difficult to test by the ordinary methods. Instead
of putting the entire article into the acid, and thus
risking its demolition, a portion of the surface may
be scraped off with a knife, and tested with the nitric
acid. When an article appears to be made of massive
gold, the testing by means of the touchstone
should be first resorted to.
TESTING OF SILvER.The ordinary and very accu-
rate method of testing of silver is founded upon the
insolubility of chloride of silver in dilute acids and
in water. This otherwise satisfactory test is, how-
ever, difficult to carry out when an article is very
thinly plated with silver; but in all these cases a
simple and very accurate test can be used, which is
based upon the reaction of chromic acid upon metal-
lic silver. For this purpose testing fluid is prepared
by adding pure nitric acid to powdered red chromate
of potash, and mixing them in such a manner that a
part of the latter remains in suspension, the whole
being kept well stirred during the mixing. Equal
parts by weight of each may be taken. The nitric
must be quite free from hydrochloric acid, and have
the proper degree of concentration, being neither too
fuming nor too dilute; it should have a specific
gravity between 1.20 and 1.26. When the mixture
has been prepared for a few hours, and then stirred
several times, the reddish-colored liquid is poured
off from the residue and kept; in a stoppered bottle.
A drop of this liquid is then brought in contact with
the metal to be tested, and immediately washed off
again with water. If a visible blood-red spot re-
mains, silver is present.
This method requires only~ the following precau-
tions :Firstly, the metallic surface must have been
quite cleansed from grease, & c., with spirits of wine;
secondly, water must be poured over the treated sur-
face before judging of the color., as that of the test-
ing fluid is altered by the metal and the red precipi-
tate is not distinctly visible until the colored liquid
has been washed off. The red spot can after ward be
very easily removed with the finger.
By this method the slightest trace of silver in an
alloy may be ascertained. When an article is sus-
pected to be only thinly plated, a very minute drop
of the testing fluid should be used. With no other
metal or alloy does this red spot, so characteristic
of silver, appear. In some cases the testing fluid only
corrodes the surface of the metal, while in others
colored precipitates are formed ; which, however,
cannot be confounded with those of silver. German
silver, brought into contact with the testing fluid,
affords no red spot after being washed. The spot
will, however, have been strongly corroded.
Britannia mutal yields a black spot; zinc is strong-
ly corroded; platinum is not attacked; lead gives a
yellow precipitate ; tin is strongly affected by the
fluid; when the brownish-colored testing fluid is
washed off, a yellow precipitate is perceived, which
adheres tightly to the metal; copper is strongly
attacked; a tarnished surface of this metal is bright-
ened by the action of the acid. Bismuth yields a
yellow precipitate; antimony does not; by this
means, therefore, these two metals, somewhat sim-
ilar in many respects, can easily be distinguished.
Mercury, or an amalgamated surface, yields a red-~
dish-brown participate, which, however, is entirely
washed away by the water, and is not likely to be
confounded with the silver reaction.
Who makes the Bad Shells?
A rebel 13-inch mortar, and, I believe, the only
one that they have in the West, is located in a case-
mate, about a mile from our lines, in a frescade of
trees and vines. It has done some splendid execu-
tion.. Four out of five of their shells Btrike within
a radius of three hundred feet, and ninety out of a
hundred explode. You will naturally ask why ours
do not do as well? We have eight of just the same
size in the Mississippi river, within two miles of the
city. The answer is a humiliating one. The ord-
nance that is made by contract for our army is nearly
all deficient. I have seen ten shells fired but only
two exploded. The rebels collect our shells, and get
the powder out of themgiving six dollars a
pound to their men for it. This is blameworthy be-
yond denunciation. The blame is with contractors
and inspectors. We pay for good ammunition, and
receive what is worthless.
Our artillerists are as good as any in the world.
I have seen a cotton bale pointed out at 1,600 yards,
struck with a Hotchkiss shell; and a bush that
concealed a rebel sharpshooter a thousand yards off,
torn up by the roots with the same, and it was be-
cause they could calculate on two of them being
alike. I dont know where they are made, but they
are the only water-tight contract shells that I have
seen. In most of them the lead plug is not tight,
and there are sand holes in the shell. In some of
them, by actual timing, a fuse cut the same length
and fired at the same elevation, will explode a hun-
dred feet further off than another of the same length
and same charge from. the same gun. This should
not be. Under the old regular army, when ammu-
nition was inspected, and all other things, they could
fire a ho witzer with such precision as to strike a
summer house, or any small object, say a tent or
wagon, at a th& usand yards, nine times in ten. This
is a thing that can and should be remedied immedi-
ately. It is enough to risk the fire of the foe, with-
out having to fear an enemy in friends at the rear.
Tliz Italian frigate, Re dIfalia, is rapidly receiving
her plating at the Novelty Iron-works. A number
of streaks are already in place. The plates are
inches thick, about 20 inches wide, and 10 feet long,
rough computation. They are all planed on the edges,
and the work is being thoroughly executed.
Incidents before Vicksburgh.
The Western papers are full of interesting, occur-
rences constantly transpiring before Yicksburgh. A
correspondent of the Louisville .JournaZ, writing from
the beleagured place, on June 3d, says
The enemy having put some 64s in position in
our front yesterday, thought it would be a fine
thing to try their range to-day, so boom! crr---rer
errr---pop! went a shell, loftily, over our promis-
cuous heads. Next came a solid, conical shot, sing-
ing whizzzzendonechuck! Full three miles
this traveled, and anchored in our cattle-yard, but
did no damage. Another shell burst over some of
our troops, but did no harm more than to frighten
them; they having just arrived, and never having
been shelled before. The next salute was with can-
ister, which did us no injury. By this time our war-
dogs commenced barking. The first was a 10-pound
Parrott, called our Fist; the second a 20-pound
Parrott, called our Pointer and Setter; the third
class30-pounderthe Lion, whose roar is terrific,
and whose~effect is terrible.
One of them first tried a shell, with such good.
success that the officer in charge thought it would be
a fine thing to try the. efficacy of a solid shot on one
of the enemys 64s. The Lion took the dose
the medicine soon worked (worse than lobelia)then,
flashchitchithititttcrash! and up goes
Mr. Reb. s 64, end over end, to trouble us no more
Cannonading soon ceased, but the eternal din of
musketry kept. up its warring poppoppopall
along our lines. It may be goQd policy to shoot mus-
ket-balls at twelve-feet walls, but I cant see it.
if a rebels head sticks up, why, of course, pop! but
if nothing can be seen of an animated rebel, hold
your fire. Bullets do not grow on bushes, any more
than soldiers do on pumpkin-vines; therefore, a
little moderation, and a long pull at this horn of the
dilemma, I think, would accrue to our advantage.
Slaughter in War.
The Revue Confempos-aine publishes an article by
Count de Latour, on the important part which cav-
alry is likely to play in future wars. The Count,
among other things, says that the opinions now gen-
erally held regarding the power of fire-arms are
greatly exaggerated, and shows that many more men
were lost in the great battles of the Empire, than
in the last Italian campaign. At Austerlitz, the Rus-
sians lost 80 per cent, and the Austrians 44 per cent of
their army. The French lost 14 per cent. At Wa-
gram, the loss of the Austrians was 14, that of the
French 13, per cent. At La Moskowa, the Russians
lost 44 per cent. At Waterloo, the Allies lost 31 per
cent, the French, 36 per cent. At Magenta, on the
contrary, the Austrian loss was not more than 8 per
cent, that of the French only 7. At Solferino the
Austrians sustained a similar loss, and the Franco-
Sardinians only lost one-tenth. This may be ex-
plained by the fact that a long range obliges the pro-
jectile to describe a large curve. Thus, according to
M. dAzemar, if the column of the Place Vendome
was placed between the gun and the mark, the latter
being at a distance of twenty-five hundred yards, the
projectile would pass over it without touching.
Iv is thought that one of the large screw propel-
lers cast for the Italian frigates, will be lost to thu
manufacturers. The screw is of brass, and is an en
ormously heavy and complicated piece of work~
weighing no less than 30,000 pounds. Some defect
in the mold when it was cast, caused a portion of it
to give way, whereby a large quantity of metal was
diverted from its proper place, thus destroying one
of the large bearings Efforts have been made to
remedy this disaster, by burning on a quantity of
metal to supply that lost; but so far the operation
has not been successful.
Two out of the six new steam revenue-cutters or-
dered by Government, have been launched. They
will have direct-acting oscillating engines, with cylin-.
ders of 36 inches bore and 30 inches stroke. Th&
models are very handsome, and give promise of speed.,
THE wool crop for Somerset county (Maine), the.
present year, will not be far from. 200,000 pounds.~
At 60 cents a pound, it will airtount to $120,000.
An Iron-clad Vessel for California.
An armor-clad vessel for the defense of San Fran-
cisco harbor, was recently constructed by Messrs.
Secor, of Jersey City,Mr. Birbeck Superintendant
in sections, which were put together at the works,
then taken npart, and shipped for their ultimate des-
tination, there to be again fitted together, completed,
and equipped. This vessel, which is of the Monitor
class, is called the (amanche. Her dimensions are as
Extreme length over armor, 300 feet; extreme
length of boat proper on water line, 190 feet; length
outside of stem and stem posts, 159 feet; extreme
beam over armor, 46 feet; breadth of beam of boat
proper (mold) 37 feet 6 inches; depth of hold amid-
ships, from top beams to skin, 11 feet 10 inches;
crown of deck amidships, 5 inches; shear of deck
me sured on gunwale, 12 inches; distance from stem
to extreme end of armor forward, 16 feet; distance
from stern-post to extreme~ end of boat aft, 20 feet
3 inches ; distance from stern-post to extreme end of
armor aft, 25 feet.
The keel is of the best quality of flange iron, ~ of
an inch thick; butted and strapped every six feet,
hollowed out 4 inches deep, and 18 inches wide,
forming a water-limber. The fore. and-aft vesscl
straps are ~ of an inch thick, 8 inches wide, and
thoroughly fastened with four rows of ~ inch rivets.
The fore-and-aft center keelson is formed of plates
32 inches wide, ~ inch thick, and 7l~ inches long,
well bound with angle iron. Around the outside of
the vessel, and in plane with the hip portion of the
hull, there is a horizontal armor shelf 46 inches
amidships, diminishing by a fair line, to 62 inches
wide near the ends. The side armor, which is fas-
tened to the wooden bulwarks, is composed of five
courses of plates, measuring 5 inches in thickness.
The armor extends 3~ feet below the water line, all
round the vessel; projecting 3 feet 8 inches beyond
The turret is 21 feet internal diameter, 9 feet high,
and composed of 11 plates in thickness, which meas-
ure together 11 inches through. These plates are
applied in twenty sections, and join vertically, break-
ing joints. The top of the turret is formed of
wrought-iron plates, ~ inch thick, resting on forged
beams and railway bars, placed 3 inches apart inside
the turret. In the center of the plating is a circular
aperture six feet in diameter, over which the pilot-
house of equal diameter is placed.
The engines consist of two cylin~ers,~40 inches in
diameter, and 21 inches stroke; combined in one
piece, and supported by a strong frame, cast in one
piece, firmly secured to the wrought-iron keelson.
The blower-engines and blowers are of greater size
than those of the illonitor; and, instead of being
placed in the engine room, are applied under the
turret, for the purpose of drawing down the cold air
through the turret roof, and forcing it into the boiler
room and other parts of the vessel.
Two boilers are attached, on Martins plan, of 10
feet face, 9 feet 3 inches high, and 12 feet 6 inches
long, with 8 furnaces in each. The propeller is made
of cast-iron, 12 feet in diameter and 15 feet pitch.
The Siege of Port Hudson.
bales, sand b~gs, and earth. The rebels did not
attempt by firing to interfere with the construction
of this fort, but when it was finished, a fierce. artill-
ery fight occurred and the rebel citadel was knocked
to peces. The diary of an officer, captured ~ipon
his person, states that the Union artillery was tear
ing their camps to pieces, that the men were getting
sick, and food was very scarce. This is further con-
firmed by the great number of desertions which oc-
cured daily. The rebels had suffered very severely
from the fire of our artillery, several hundred had
been killed and wounded. The soldiers were very
much disheartened, and were ready to yield if their
leaders would consent. They all admit that the
Confederacy is gone so soon as Port Hudson and
Yicksburg have fallen, and the glorious intelligence
from Port Hudson is, that it has passed in under the
Union flag, never to go out again.
Coolness of our Soldiers under Fire.
History is full of anecdotes of the remarkable
nerve and indifference displayed by soldiers of differ-
ent nations when under fire. It is to be hoped that
the future historian of the present war will not omit
to chronicle, among other incidents, the following
paragraph illustrative of the qualities rcferred to
We asked an officer if the loss of life had been
great from rebel shell. No, said he, we take them
as a joke; there will be one along diiectly and you
can see. What time is it, Ben? Just fifteen min-
utes since the lasttime is uphere she comes-
hello, old fellow! Plash! and the shell buried it-
self, exploding in the ground, throwing the dirt over
the tent, and some of the pieces falling within reach
of usthe hole only twenty feet from the door.
They laughed heartily, why, we could not tell; it
was anything but amusing to us. We were about to
bid them good day, when they kindly invited us to
stay and see another. It will not be long, gentle-
men, there will be another in fifteen minutes; dont
hurry. We did not see it in that light, and sped on
our adventurous way. Had the ground been hard or
rocky, the shell would in all probability have ex-
ploded on the surface, and then there would have
been two enlighteners shot.
A laboratory for the preparation of medicines for
the army, has been established in Philadelphia. It
is designed to manufacture in this laboratory all the
quinine for the Government. A building in New
York is used in bottling liquors and putting up pre-
pared medicines, but not in their manufacture.
The employes, including laborers, number fifty-
one. Of the e, twenty-eight are girls, occupied in
the sewing-room, and bottling and labelling depart-
ment. As far as practicable, the male employes
have been selected from discharged soldiers, and the
females from those who have parents or relatives in
the army on whom they are more or less dependent
The establishment is an experiment of Surgeon
General Hammond, the object being the production
of a superior quality of drugs at less cost than the
contract prices. From the laboratory there are now
being furnished to the army, drugs and liquors of
every sort. Fourteen sewing machines are also em-
ployed, in making sheets, pillow cases, and other ar-
ticles of a like character, for the hospitals.
The public suspense in reference to Yicksburg be-
ing ended by its surrender, general attention is now
concentrated on the progress of the other siege at
Port Hudson. Though the fall of Vicksburg en-
sures the fall of Port Hudson, yet the conduct of The Cumberland Valley,
the siege by Banks is a subject of interest. That There is no richer, better cultivated or more pros-
skillful commander appears to be pushing forward perous agricultural region in the whole North than
his work successfully in every movement. The an- that which has recently been overrun and plundered
noyances upon his rear from the rebels do not seem by the rebels. The Cumberland Valley extends from
to disturb or make him apprehensive~ He has a the Susquehanna to the Potomac, a distance of about
splendid corps of engineers, and under their direD- eighty miles. It comprises the counties of Cumber-
tion his works have advanced in one place to within land and Franklin, in Pennsylvania, and the county
fifty feet of the rebel breastworks. Major Bailey of Washington, in Maryland, containing an aggregate
has thrown up a battery to confront the rebel cita- population of nearly one hundred thousand souls.
del, which is armed with two 9-inch navy guns, From two and a half to three millions of bushels of
three 24-pounders, two 30-pound Parrotts, three wheat are annually produced in the valley, together
20-pound Parrotts, two S-inch howitzers, and six Na- with vast quantities of rye, oats, corn, hay, potatoes
poleon guns. There are besides, three mortars, and all manner of produce. The soil is a rich lime-
one 8-inch howitzer, and a separate battery along stone, not easily affected by drought, and admirably
side. The breastworks are laid out in two straight adapted for grazing, as well as grain-growing. The
lines, meeting almost at an angle of forty-five de- number of horses and cattle in the valley was very
grees, and cover an extent of little over four hun- large, and the southern end has been quite~stripped
dred feet, the whole being constructed of cotton by the invaders.
The ancient Indian name of this valley was the
Kittatinny, and the mountain range that forms its
north-western boundary, from the Susquehanna to
Chambersburgh, still bears that name. At the latter
place this range ceases abruptly, and thence to the
Potomac the valley widens and is bounded by the
Manufactures in the Vermont State Prison.
The State Prison contains seventy-nine convicts,
about two-thirds of whom are French and Irish, and
of this number six are females. The male convicts
are occupied chiefly in the manufacture of scythea.
Thirty dozen are made d ily; the concern being run
by Goodnow & Lamson, 53 Beckman street, New
York. The company furnishes all the machinery
and some workmen, and pays the State thirty-five
cents per day for each man. The State has about a
dozen men as a police, supplied with loaded muskets.
The income during the last ten years has paid the
expenses, to wit, about $8,000. The Episcopal rec-
tor, the 11ev. Malcolm Douglas, preaches to the con-
victs at 1 oclock P. M. every Sabbath, many of them
taking part in the exercises. The solitary cells, tier
above tier, with their iron bedsteads, some of them
decorated with crosses and pictures, the convicts
with their endlesi industry, their dress one side grey
and the other almost -black, the huge style of cook-
ing,, the high walls with the bastion-like houses
thereon, the neatness and good order prevailing over
the whole, and the kindness and skill of the super-
intendent, Mr. Harlow, all combined, compose a pic-
ture infinitely less repulsive than is presented by
some of our county jails.
The rifle factory located on Mill Brook, contains a
steam engine, and has about 275 employes, who have
been engaged for nearly two years on a contract to
supply the United States Government with 50,000
rifles at $20 each. It now daily turns out about 100
rifles, and is owned and managed by Gooduow, Lam~
son & Gale. The stocks are made of black walnut,
obtained chiefly from Pennsylvania, sometimes from
It is stated that the Paris manufacturers of bronze
ornaments returned from the International Exhibi-
tion with orders so numerous for the products of
their skill, that, after having engaged all the unem-
ployed artists and mechanics, they found it necessary
to prolong the ordinary period of work by three
hours a-day. The Exhibition has also conferred im-
mense benefit, not only on the manufacturers of
bronze articles, but likewise on the French gun-
makers, who at present export immense quantities of
arms. The Parisian shoe-makers allow that the
English beat them in the manufacture of mens
boots and shoes; indeed, there are several shops
in Paris established expressly for the sale of mens
boots and shoes of English manufacture. On the
other hand, none can compete with the Parisians in
the manufacture of ladies boots and shoes, of which
they export immense quantities to England, to Rus-
sia, and the far East; they export also a second
quality to the French West Indies, Brazil, and Chili.
The twenty-five thousand cabinet-makers in the Fan-
bourg St. Antoine claim that no coux~try can com-
pete with them in the form or delicacy of the arti-
cles manufactured by them, the suitableness of each
for its intended purpose, the excellence of the sculp-
ture, and the care exercised in avoiding every useless
ornament of great expense but of doubtful taste,
with which, the produce of other countries is over-
loaded. French artisans and French tools are em-
ployed in the most celebrated English cabinet manu-
BOTTLING Cnzzuuzs.In answer to 11 Country
Curates inquiry, I can assure him, if he try the
following recipe, he cannot fail to have delicious
fruit for tarts through the winter :To every pound
of fruit add six ounces of powdered lump sugar.
Fill the jars with fruit; shake in the sugar over;
and tie each jar down with two bladders, as there is
danger of one bursting, during the boiling. Place
the jars in a boiler of cold water, and after the water
has boiled, let them remain three hours; take them
out, and when cool, put them in a dry place, where
they will keep over a year. We have tried this
recipe for several years and never found it fail.Lon-
THE CHEMISTRY OF ANIMAL SUBSTANCES.
Every person possesses an interest in knowing
something about the chemistry of his own body.
We have condensed the following from a chapter of
Professors Brande & Taylors Chemistry, a most clear
and comprehensive work, recently published by
Blanchard & Lea, Philadelphia.
The human body is partly composed of mineral
substances, which are called inorganic; and are
chiefly found in the bones. It is mostly built up
however of organic substances which are the product
of growth, and dependant upon life for their develop-
ment. They are very peculiar in their character,
and have received the name of nitrogenous sub-
stances, and nitrogenous principles, because nitrogen
is one of their principal elements. Neutral nitro-
genous substances are found in the vegetable and
animal kingdoms; in the former they are repre-
sented by gluten, albumen, casein or legumin; and
in the latter by fibrin, albumen, casein, and gelatin.
In addition to carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, they
all contain nitrogen, and the greater number contain
variable quantities of sulphur and phosphorus: but
animal gelatine contains neither of these two ele-
ments. These nitrogenous principles are ~important
as articles of food to animals, and are frequent-
ly described as flesh-forming substances, in order to
distinguish them from the neutral compounds of the
three elementscarbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, - of
which starch, gum, and sugar are composed, and
which according to modern theory are only heat-pro-
ducing. There is no material difference in the com-
position of these substances, whether they are direct
from the animal or the vegetable kingdom. Albu-
men is composed of 0 54.8: H 7.1: 0 21.2: N 16.9
(carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen). Casein is
composed of C 54.9: H 7.1: 0 222: N 15.8. Gluten
O 55.2: H 7.5: 0 21.4: N 15 9. Fibrin C 54 6: H
6.9: 0 22.8: N 15 7. There is also about one per
cent of sulphur and phosphorus in the above sub-
stances. All of these when out of the living body
undergo spontaneous changes when exposed to mois-
ture in the atmosphere. In a state of transition, of-
fensive effiuvias are evolved from them, and this
change is called putrefaction.
PUTILEFAcFION OF ANIMAL CONSTITUENTS.The con-
ditions of putrefaction should be generally under-
stood. At very low temperatures animal substances
do not putrefy, and it is the same with them at ele-
vated temperatures. An elephant was found in a
good state of preservation in Siberia, among ice,
where it had remained perhaps for thousands
of years. In the warm dry climate of South
America, cattle are killed in the open air, and in a
very short period the flesh dries, and may be kept in
that state for months without becoming decomposed.
A condition essential to putrefaction is moisture.
Wheu flesh is carefully dried by a current of warm
dry air, it resists decay, and retains its nutritive
powers. The various forms of gelatin and albumen
when desiccated are imperishable, but in a solution
of water, or in a moist state they are the most per-
ishable of all animal proximate principles. Air pro-
motes putrefactive changes, but flesh may be pre-
served fresh in some gases, such as the deutoxide of
nitrogen for mQnths. When meat is immersed in
water that has been boiled to expel all the air from
it, and is then covered with a layer of sweet oil, it
may be kept fresh for a long time. In warm weather
therefore meat should be kept in a dry cool place.
The most favorable temperature for putrefaction
ranges from700 to 1000 Fah.
PuEsEnvINa MEATs AND VEGETABLE5.Partially
boiled or roasted meat, free from all taint, and half
dressed vegetables, are introduced into a tin canister,
which is then soldered up, with the exception of a
small hole in the lid. The canister Is then placed in
a bath of boiling salt brine, which is heated a few
degrees above the boiling point of water, and when
it is noticed that steam issues copiously from the
aperture, the canister is lifted, and the hole in the
lid instantly filled with a drop of solder, thus her-
metically sealing the vessel. The success of this
operation is indicated by the end of the canister be-
coming slightly concave by the pressure of the at-
mosphere upon it. Meat thus preserved has kept
fresh for twenty years. Pure butter melted and
brushed over the surface of fresh meat preserves it
from contact with the air, and it will remain un-
changed for a much longer period than when ex-
posed to the air. Vinegar containing a few drops of
creosote brushed over fresh meat, will also preserve
it from decomposition for several days during warm
Animal substances, such as birds, & c., may be pre-
served for scientific purposes for years in a solution
composed of 4 ounces pure salt, 2 ounces alum, 2
grains corrosive sublimate, 1 quart water. This so-
lution is poisonous. It is useful to taxidermists,
and for those who wish to prepare skins without re-
moving the fur.
ALBUMEN.Thi5 term is applied to an organic prin-
ciple,which is most widely diffused in the animal body.
It exists as a liquid in lymph, chyle, milk, and in
the blood (of which it forms 7 per cent); in the
salivary, and pancreatic fluids; the humors of the
eye, and in the brain. As a solid, it is a constituent
of the skin, brain, nerves, glands, and cellular
membrane; and is the chief component of horn, the
nails, hair, feathers, wool, and silk. Albumen also
occurs in the juices of various vegetables, such as
the potato, carrot, turnip, cabbage, & c. It is a con-
stituent of seeds, grasses, almonds, and most of the
oily nuts. It generally abounds in the shoots of
young plants. The white of eggs is composed of
albumen and water, contained in a very delicate
membrane. It may be separated from the cellular
membrane, by agitation, in 4 parts of cold water,
and when filtered it becomes very clear. When
heated to 160~ Fah., it coagulates, and becomes
white and hard. When 100 parts of egg-albumen
are evaporated in vacuo, a residue of from 10 to 15
parts solid albumen remains. The white of egg is
called globulin; the yelk vitellin. The latter con
tains 37.1 per cent of albumen; the former 12 per
cent. A yellow oil, containing a little phosphorus,
gives the yelk its yellow color.
SEILALBUMEN.TIli5 exists in the serum of the blood.
It resembles the white of the egg in all its chemical
properties. When heated to 170~ Fah., it coagu-
lates, forming a white substance, like that of a hard
boiled egg. The cause of its coagulation by heat is
not well understood. Before coagulation, it is solu-
ble in cold water; but heat renders it insoluble. It
is a remarkable substance, changing in an egg dur-
ing incubation, from a soluble to an insoluble state;
afterwards to be converted into feathers, beak, claws,
and cellular membrane, in the chicken. Chemistry
cannot account for this metamorphosis. Lime com-.
bines with albumen, forming a plastic cement, which
is employed for luting the glass retorts of chemists,
as it resists the action of acid fumes.
Serum, and the white of egg, are coagulated by a
large number of metallic salts, such as those of iron,
copper, lead, mercury, silver, and antimony. Hence,
albumen is a valuable antidote in cases of poisoning
by these substancesespecially to corrosive subli-
Under the name of globulin, albumen constitutes
the transparent humors of the eye, including the
crystalline lens. It is also associated with the color-
ing matter of the blood. The substance called
ptyatin, is a modification of albumen existing in
saliva. It possesses the property of transforming
starch, and dextrine, into grape sugar, when heated
for a short period of time to 1000 Fab. Pyin is an
albuminous principle, found in pus. It is a formid-
able poison, as also is echidninethe poison of
snakeswhich is similar in Its chemical constitu-
tion. Albumen is a most remarkable organic sub-
stance. No other we believe, assumes so many
forms and states. In the white of the egg, and in
the human eye, it Is transparent as the diamond;
while in the hoof and horn of the animal, and the
shell of the tortoise, it becomes harder than timber.
In wool it forms the fiber which makes our broad-
cloth, and in feathers, the soft down that clothes
the neck of the swan.
Vegetable albumen is generally associated with
gum, sugar, starch, or oil, in the vegetable king-
dom. It may be procured by macerating the succu-
lent shoots of young plants, such as turnips, & c., in
cold water; allowing the liquid to become clear, by
subsidence; then filtering. It has all the properties
of a weak solution of egg-albumen.
CAsEIN.This term is applied to the coagulable
principle of milk; and forms cheese. A similar sub-
stance is occasionally found in the blood, and in the
pancreatic liquids of the ox and sheep; it also oc-
curs in vegetables. It can be procured from skim-
med milk by heating it to 1500 Fah., and adding a
few drops of acetic acid. It is then thoroughly
washed, and digested in boiling alcohol, to deprive
it of oil. Thus obtained, it is white, and opaque;
resembling coagulated albumen, but less firm. It is
without odor or taste; and is insoluble in water or
alcohol; but soluble in solutions of the alkalies,
and common salt. Its compounds with the metal-
lic bases are insoluble in water. Hence, milk is an
antidote for poisoning by the salts of copper and
lead; and it has been used successfully in some cases
of poisoning with arsenic. Casein called legumin,
is abundant in peas, beans, and the seeds of legu-
minous plants, being associated with starch, albu-
men and oil. It may be obtained from peas, by
digesting these in a mealy state in tepid water, for
two hours; then allowing the starch to subside, and
filtering the liquid. It does not coagulate by heat;
but forms a clear viscid solution. It usually con-
tains about 0.36 per cent of sulphur. In making
cheese, the milk should be heated to disseminate the
oil through the mass, prior to curdling it; as cheese
is tasteless and poor in quality, when the oil of the
milk is separated from it. The deep, reddish color
of some cheese, is no sign of richness; this being an
artificial color imparted to it by annotto.
GLuTEN.This is a term applied to the opaque,
white, tenacious, and slightly elastic substance ob-
tained from wheat flour, by washing and kneading it
with cold water in a bag of cotton cloth. The starch
in the flour is washed out with the water, leaving the
gluten in the bag. It is capable of being drawn into
long fibers, and when dry it becomes horny, forming
the well known maccaroni. It is insoluble in water;
in a partially decomposed state it forms yeast, and
it induces alcoholic fermentation in saccharine
liquids. The tenacious properties of dough and the
paste of flour are due to it. It is more abundant in
wheat and rye than other cereals, hence the flour of
these grains is best suited for making raised or leav-
ened bread. The quantity in wheat. flour ranges
from 7 to 14 per cent.
PERFUMES AND PERFUMERY.
Mr. Septimus Piesse, who has contributed many
very interesting articles to the columns of the ScIEN-
TIFIC AMERICAN, is one of the largest manufacturers
of perfumery in England, in company with Mr.
Lubin. Their establishment is in Bond street, Lon-
don, and is a large and beautiful architectural struc-
ture, called the Laboratory of Flowers. It has
been lately visited by Charles W. Quin, F. C. S., who
has given a description of his observations in the
last issue of the Chemist and Druggist.
He states that the science of perfumery has greatly
progressed of late years. Messrs. Please & Lubin
have extensive flower farms near Nice, In the south
of France, where they grow large quantities of roses,
violets, and other odoriferous flowers, which are
manufactured on the spot into greases, oils, ottos,
and extracts. At Mitcham, in Surrey, England, they
have large lavender gardens, besides an extensive
bonded warehouse at the London Docks, where they
make their perfumed spirits for foreign and colonial
consumption. Their flower-gardens at Nice produce
violets, roses, jasmine, tuberoses, jonquils, orange-
blossoms, acacia, and numberless other fragrant
flowers, from which scents are extracted principally
by four processesexpression, distillation, macora-
tion, and absorption or enfleurage.
The first process is used in the case of plants whose
parts contain large quantities of odoriferous essen-
tial oil, such as lemon, oriuige, and citron peels.
These portions of the plant are put Into a press, con-
sisting of an iron vessel of immense strength, fitted
with a perforated false bottom, on which is placed
the material from which the oil is to be expressed.
A powerful screw, connected with a piston fitting
into the vessel, and worked by a lever, squeezes out
the liquid portions. The oil obtained is of course
largely contaminated with watery extracts, from
which It is separated by decantation. Distillation is
adopted when the amount of essential oil is less than
in the last instance. The distillation of oil of lav-
ender may be taken as an example. The leaves are
thrown into a still either heated by steam or by the
naked fire, and containing a large quantity of water.
As the heat rises, the steam passes into the refriger-
ator, carrying with it the essential oil of the plant.
By an Ingenious contrivance, the condensed steam is
made to re& ster the head of the still, leaving behind
it the essential oil in the refrigerator, thus allowing
the same water to be used over and over again. In
the stills employed by Messrs Piesse & Lubin, steam
at from ten to fifteen pounds pressure is used as the
source of heat, it having been found that the French
method of working by the direct action of the fire
is liable to give the distillate a peculiar empyreumatic
or burnt odor. The third method is used for finer
odors, such as the rose or violet. A certain quantity
of purified beef or deer suet is mixed with purified
lard, and put into a clean porcelain or metal pan.
Steam heat is applied, and the flowers from which
the odor is to be extracted are carefully picked and
thrown into the melted fat, wherein they remain for
one or two days. The fat dissolves the essential oil
or other odoriferous principle contained in the flow-
ers, and of course becomes thereby highly perfumed.
The process is continued with fresh portions of
flowers until the grease is of the desired strength,
the different strengths being indicated by the French
manufacturers in numerals. Where perfumed oil is
required, fine olive oil is substituted for fat. The
oils thus prepared are known as the huile antique of
such and such a flower.
The fourth process of absorption or enfleurage is
the most important of them all. This process is used
for those fiowe~s whose delicate odors would be de-
stroyed or changed by heat, and yields all those fine
toilet articles known as French pomades and
oils. The whole operation is conducted in the
cold. Square frames, three inches deep, two feet
wide, and three feet long, are provided with glass bot-
toms, upon which is spread a layer of fine grease
about a quarter of an inch thick; on this the flowers
are sprinkled from which the scent is to be ex-
tracted. Another frame similarly charged is placed
on this, and so on until a large pile is made. The
flowers are changed from time to time during the
whole of the blooming season. The pomades made
by enfleurage are much stronger than common poma-
turn, as a small piece of the size of a walnut contains
sufficient essential oil to perfume a large quantity of
grease. To obtain this fragrant essential oil the
pomade is taken out of its case, and placed in an iron
cylinder perforated with slits at the bottom. In
this it is subjected to pressure by a piston, which
forces the grease through the slits in the form of
long ribbons. These ribbons of scented grease are
then macerated in alcohol for several days, and the
essential oil is thus extracted. The solution of essen-
tial oil in alcohol is used to make the variows bou-
quets of the perfumer in which the skill of the ol-
factory artist is highly exerted. The injudicious
mingling of odors is like the inharmonious blending
of notes, or colors. Thus a mixture of the extracts
of orange peel, lemon peel, and lemon-grass, gives
the imitation of the simple extract of verbena. Be-
sides the extracts obtained from the enfleurage pom-
ades, ottose and the essential oils obtained by distil-
ation are also used for making the variegated bou-
quets. On one of the floors of Messrs. Piesse &
Lubins establishment, a boy is constantly employed
in making the ribbon of Bruges, which is now
largely used as a fumigatory. It consists of tape
soaked first in a solution of nitre, to give it smol-
dering properties, and afterwards drawn through
benzoin, myrrh, and other odoriferous substances.
The ribbon is cut into yard lengths, and put into
boxes provided with a slit in the upper cover. The
ribbon is drawn out to the length of an inch or so;
lighted and blown out, it smolders down to the slit
in the box, gradually diffusing a pleasant odor
throughout the room.
Alum in Bread.
Alum has long been employed by bakers, and it
certainly has the effect of rendering available, for
bread-making, many qualities of flour, which must
otherwise be wasted. Dr. Odling says If we mix
a solution of starch with infusion of malt, in the
course of a few minutes only, the starch can no longer
be detected, being completely converted into dextrin
and sugar; but the addition of a very small quantity
of alum altogether prevents or greatly retards the
transformation. The action of diastase on undis-
solved starch is very gradual; but here also the in-
terference of the alum is easily recognizable. Bread
made with infusion of bran or infusion of malt, is
very sweet, sodden, brown-colored, and so sticky as
almost to bind the jaws together during mastication.
But the addition of alum to the dough causes the
loaves to be white, dry, elastic, crumbly and unob-
jectionable both as to taste and appearance. I have
found that flour which is of itself so glucogenic as to
yield bread undistinguishable from that made with
infusion of malt, could, by the addition of alum, be
made to furnish a white, dry, eatable loaf.
Alum is also said to prevent bread from turning
sour and moldy. The sourness often observed in
bread of inferior quality, arises from the conversion
of part of the starch into lactic acid. Now, as alum
prevents the transformation of starch, it may be ex-
pected also to interfere with the production of lactic
Considerable discussion has taken place as to the
probable effects of the habitual use of alumed bread
on the digestive functions some medical men as-
serting that alum, unless taken in much larger
quantity than is likely to occur in bread, is quite
harmless, while others attribute to it the most in-
jurious effects. Here, as in other cases, the truth
probably lies lathe middle. Many of the statements
which have been put forth on this, as on other ques-
tions relating to the adulteration of food, are doubt-
less grossly exaggerated; nevertheless it would be
unsafe to assert that the use of alumed bread is quite
free from objection. Dr. Dauglish says : Its effect
on the system is that of a topical astringent on the
~surface of the alimentary canal, producing constipa-
tion, and deranging the process of absorption. But
its action in neutralizing the efficacy of the digestive
solvents is by far the most important and unques-
tionable. The very purpose for which it is used by
the baker, is the prevention of those early stages of
solution which spoil the color and the lightness of
the bread whilst it is being prepared, and which
it does most effectually. But it does more than
is needed; for whilst it prevents solution at a time
that is not desirable, it also continues its effects
when taken into the stomach ; and the consequence
is, that a large portion of the gluten and other valu-
able constituents of flour are never properly dissolved,
but pass through the alimentary canal without afford-
ing any nourishment whatever.
Another objection made against the use of alum
viz., that it has the power of causing the bread to re-
tain a larger proportion of water than it otherwise
would, so that bakers who use alum defraud their
customers by selling water instead of breaddoes not
appear to rest on satisfactory evidence. Dr. Odling
examined eighteen alumed, and seven non-alumed,
loaves, and found that the former contained on the
average 43.68 per cent, and the latter 42.78 per cent
of water, the difference being quite insignificant as
compared with the difference between the individual
loaves, whether alumed or not.
Anti-fouling Compositions for Iron Ships.
The difficult problem of discovering a mode by
which the bottoms of iron ships shall be entirely pre-
served from fouling, has been but little advanced by
the experiment lately completed at Devonport,
England. The premium offered by the Lords of the
Admiralty for producing the long-desired preven-
tives, continues, therefore, open to competition. The
iron-screw steam tender Atinx, of 808 tuns, which has
engines of 100-horse power, commanded by Mr.James
Pook, does harbor service for the Channel fleet and
supplies the ships with water. She received, last
September, on her port side, amidships, three samples
of different compositions, each 10 feet wide, and ex-
tending down to the bottom of the keel. The sam-
ple forward was that manufactured by Mr. Fidemore,
the next was that supplied by Mr. Elsworth, and the
third was a preparation recommended by Mr. Ed-
wards, assistant-master shipwright in Devonport
dockyard. The remainder of the port side, forward
and aft, and all the starboard side, received the com-
position of Mr. Hay, chemist, of Portsmouth. So
prepared, the Minx was floated on the 10th of Octo-
ber, 1862, since which time she has been constantly
occupied on harbor duty. Ships so employed foul
much more speedily than those making long voyages.
After three or four months experience, it was found
that sea-weed and grass had grown considerably on
the port side of the Minx, which made her very un-
handy with her helm. Recently she was placed
high and dry in dock, and an opportunity was given
for examining her bottom minutely. There is con-
siderable difference between her draught when laden
with water, provisions, & c., as a tender, and when
in ballast; and as she had been mostly in one or
other of these conditions during the last seven
months, the load line, and the ballast or light line,
are most distinctly marked all round. Between the
two there is not much vegetation, but on the lower
line, where the compositions of Messrs. Finemore,
and Elsworth, are laid on, there Is a distinct fringe
of weed, two feet long. Below the fringe, in the for-
mer, light sea-grass, small barnacles, and much rust,
prevail. On Elsworths composition, there are bar-
nacles and thick grass, but very little rust. On
Hays composition, there are some weeds, and many
small barnacles, but very little rust. Before this
preparation was laid on, a coat of bitumen was ap-
plied to the iron. The test applied to the Minx, ac-
cording to the present trial, places Mr. Hays com-
position first, Mr. Elsworths second, and Mr. Fine-
mores third, in order of success.
Gardening in Japan.
Mr. Robert Fortune, in his book on Japan, says
It is of all countries the most beautiful in spring.
The trees were now clothed with leaves of the fresh-
est green, and many of the early kinds were in full
blossom. On every hillside and in every cottage gar-
den there were some objects of attraction. The
double-blossomed cherry-tree and flowering peaches,
were most beautiful objects, loaded as they now were
with flowers as large as little roses. Camellias, form-
ing goodly-sized trees, were common in the woods,
and azaleas adorned the hillsides with flowers of
many hues. Here the A obtusa, with flowers of the
most dazzling red, was peculiarly at home. Cydonia
japonica was seen in a wild state creeping amongst
the grass, and covered with red blossoms; and sev-
eral varieties of primrose were met with under trees
in the shady woods. On the outskirts of Yeddo,
park-like scenery, trees and gardens, and neatly-
clipped hedges succeed each other. The whole coun.
try here (the village of Su-mae-yah) is covered with
nursery gardens. One straight road, more than a
mile in length, is lined with them. I have never
seen, in any part of the world, such a large number
of plants cultivated for sale. Each nursery covers
three or four acres of land, is nicely kept, and con-
tains thousands of plants, both in pots and in the
Cotton in Southern Illinois.
A correspondent of the Prairie Farmer states that
in Southern Illinois cotton looks well. Respecting
his own crop he says : During the dry month of
May it did not grow at all, and that which was not
planted till late did not come up till June. It is now
growing at a iapid rate. At one time I thought of
plowing mine np and planting in late potato~s, but
now I would not thank a man should he offer me
$100 for what I expect to raise from each acre. I am
thinning out the plants, so that they should not be
nearer than six inches from each other; I would not
care if they were a foot apart. The common plan
here is to have the plants sown as thick as hair on
a dog; but I take old planters from the South as my
guide, a~d the distance they decide upon is a foot.
Coal Mine Explosion.
At a coal mine explosion near Hyde Park, Pa., the
other day, eight persons were killed and three
wounded. Several horses and mules were also de-
stroyed. The cause of the accident is unknown. It
occurred in the morning, soon after the men had en-
tered the drifts to commence their usual labors.
Efforts were immediately made to recover the bodies
of the dead and wounded, and among those rescued
were three who were apparently lifeless, but they
were restored by a remedy which is said to be com-
monly used in such cases, viz :4heir heads were im-
mediately buried in fresh-dug earth. This is cer-
tainly a very whimsical and foolish process. Com-
mon sense would indicate that fresh air was of the
first importance as a remedy in such cases.
The Value of Practical Knowledge.
Of the uses of practical knowledge we yesterday
saw an illustration. A mammoth sexagonal crystal
was shown to us by its owner, Mr. Mitchell. It is
nearly a foot in diameter, and about eighteen inches
long. Next to a specimen ln Barnums Museum, it
is the largest we have ever seen. The base of the
specimen is opaque quartz rock; the other portion
is as clear as crystal. It was found by the Rev. Ed-
mund Craig Mitchell; on the farm of Dr. Johnson,
near Ellicotts Mills, Md. The young divine was on
a visit to Dr. Johnson. From the house a path leads
to a spring that supplies the family with water. Mr.
Mitchell, walking with Dr. Johnson in the path, ob-
served a stone about an inch above the ground.
Theres a splendid specimen, said he. Of
what ? asked the Doctor. Why, of crystal
quartz, was the reply. The Doctor said he had
passed that stone every day for thirty years, and
knew it to be nothing more than a common paving
stone. Mr. Mitchell asked leave to wrench it up.
A pick was procured, and, to the surprise of Dr.
Johnson, the stone was buried about eighteen
inches deep, and beneath the ground was a perfect
six-sided prism of crystal, almost as pellucid as
French cut glass. The young man knew enough of
geology to recognize it by the butt end, above the
ground, though none but an expert would have seen
in it anything but an ordinary boulder, on a small
scale. A little learning may be a dangerous thing;
but somehow or other knowledge is quite as produc-
tive as ignorance.
Benefits of Harvesting Ilachines.
A correspondent of the Prairie Farmer, says in ref-
erence to reaping machines, that it has long since
become an acknowledged fact that no nation has
made such rapid progress in improvements in labor-
saving machines as our own; and more especially is
this true of agricultural implements. The fame of
our reapers, threshers, & c., has become world wide;
and the value of these and similar inventions to our
own people is beyond the power of any man to esti-
mate. It is only when we consider the immense
grain crop of our countrythe eight Northwestern
States alone furnishing 620,000,000 bushels per an-
numand realize the utter impossibility of gather-
ing it without the aid of these machines, that we can
begin to appreciate their value to us as a people.
The most of these improvements have been made
within the last quarter of a century, and their
progress has been constantly accelerated, increasing
annually in arithmetical ratio. As we are mainly an
agricultural peoplethat being the great interest of
the nation, upon which all other. interests are based
it becomes highly important that our agricultur-
ists keep themselves fully posted as to all improve-
ments which may aid or cheapen their labors, or
increase their products. Ne ny or quite all these
improvements or inventions are connected more or
less directly with patents.
Extraordinary Endurance of a 13-inch Cast-iron Gun.
The first 18-inch Dahigren gun made by the Build-
ers Iron Foundry, Providence, R. I., was subjected,
during last week, by agents of the Government, to the
most severe powder test ever applied to any gun in
this country, if not in any country. It burst on the
26th nIt., at the 178th round. The gun in its fin
ished state weighed 36,000 pounds ; and the test ap-
plied was 30 pounds of powder for the first 10 rounds,
40 pounds for the second lOrounds, and 50 pounds for
the remaining 168 rounds. The powder employed was
much finer than is used in service, and of course its
explosive power was proportion~ tely greater. The
15-inch guns on board the Monilor8, were tested with
30 pounds of powdey, and have never been used with
a larger charge than that; but deeming it necessary
to use heavier charges behind solid shot of the great
weight used in these guns, this gun was made of
greatdr proportional weight of metal than the 15-inch
gun. The ball used at each charge weighs about 350
pounds, and exactly fits the bore.
This gun was tested at the risk of the Government,
and the company which made it have orders to pro-
ceed with the manufacture. They have already cast
two others of the same size. No one was injuAtd by
the immense fiagments which blew off when the gun
~t~e ~IdentWig ~rned~zn.
TIN-LINED LEAD CISTERNS AND PIPESAt a late
meeting of the Liverpool Chemists Association,
specimens of lead pipe and sheet lead, electro-plated
with tin, were exhibited by Mr. Holt; and some dis-
cussion ensued respecting the use of lead coated in
this manner for water cisterns and pipes. It appeared
to be the opinion of the meeting that a coating of
tin, instead of preserving the lead, was far more
likely to ensure its more rapid corrosion; for if the
coating of tin by any means happened to be scratched
off, even to the slightest extent, galvanic action
would take place, and the lead would be destroyed
very quickly. Dr. Nevius and Dr. Edwards stated
that their experiments had proved that such would
undoubtedly be the case: Dr. Edwards remarking
that in one case which he had examined, a cistern
made of lead, in which was an accidental admixture
of tin, was eaten out by well-water in six months,
the lead being rapidly precipitated in the form of sul-
phate, & c.
REMAINS OF GIGANTIc ANIMALsRussian geologists
are making preparations to promote the discovery of
congealed remains of mammoth animals in Siberia.
It is stated that during the last two centurieS, at least
20,000 mammoths, and probably twice or thrice that
number, have been washed out of the ice and soil in
which they were imbedded, by the action of the
spring floods. The tusks only have been preserved
for their commercial value in ivory. An effort is
now to be made for the discovery and preservation of
one of these carcases as perfect and entire as possible,
as it is considered that microscopic investigation of
the contents of its stomach might throw a powerful
light on a host of geological and physiological prob-
RASPBERRY WINEBruise the finest ripe raspber-
ries with the back of a spoon; strain them through
a flannel bag into a stone jar; allow one pound of
fine powdered loaf sugar to one quart of juice : .stir
these well together, and cover the jar closely. Let
it stand three days, stirring up the mixture every
day; then pour off the clear liquid, and put two
quarts of sherry to each quart of juice OF liquid.
Bottle it off, and it will be fit for use in a fortnight.
By adding Cognac brandy, instead of sherry, the
mixture will be raspberry brandy.
A DIscovERY, it is said, has been made in Russia,
whereby the mercury used in the manufacture of
looking-glasses may be so hardened as to bid defiance
to humidity, friction, or blows. The plate-glass
thus prepared may be transported without fear of
damage; and, the silvering being accomplished by a
cheaper process than any yet known, the glass is ten
or twenty per cent cheaper than at present.
ONE WORD MORE. A clerk in the Dead Letter
Offico, of an inquiring mind, was curious to find out
how many letters were written without a postscript.
One tlay last week he found that out of six thousand
eight hundred and fifty letters written by females,
only three hundred and seventy-five were without
postscripts. Some of the other letters contained
A WOODEN LIBRARY.An odd work is being car-
.ried out for exhibition at the Permanent Industrial
Exposition in Vienna. It is a wooden librarythat
is, a hundred octavo volumes, the covers of which
are formed of wood; the backs of bark, inscribed
with the names of the trees they are made from
and the interiors of specimens of the leaves, flowers,
fruits, & c., of the trees.
AUGUSTA, Maine, is one of the largest (not most
populous) cities in the world. According to the Ken-
nebec Journal it contains sixty square miles. In
some of the wards they kill wild bears.
ON the 4th inst. a mason fell from the top of the
chimney of the Morgan Iron-works, in this city, and
was instantly killed; the chimney is upwards of 160
A MEMBER of the Connecticut legislature, who pos-
sesses the Yankee passion for whittling, and indulges
extensively in that amusement, received one day last
week a bundle of shingles by express.
SEVEN first-class locomotives were turned out from
Rogers Locomotive Works at Paterson, N. J., during
the month of June.
THE Philadelphia Ledger states that up to July ~th
there have been 1,683,333 tuna of coal transported
this year upon the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad,
against 1,124,941 for the same period last year. By
the Schuylkill Navigation Company there has been
transported in the same time 333,885 tuna against
377,937 for the same period last year. The coal pro-
duced thus far exceeds that of last year for the same
time by 513,840 tuna.
THE French preserve grapes the year round by
coating the clusters with lime. The bunches are
picked just before they are thoroughly ripe, and
dipped in lime-water of the consistency of thin cream.
They are then hung on wires, and when dry are
dipped the second time, and then hung up to remain.
The lime coating keeps out air and checks any ten
dency to decay. When wanted for the table, dip t
clusters in warm water to remove the lime.
WROUGHT-IRON CANNON.A firm in Bridgewater,
Mass., are making a gun from wrought iron, which
will weigh, when completed, about seventeen tuna.
It is forged solid, in an octagonal form, with the
cavity bored out thirteen inches in diameter, and
will be hooped with strong bands of iron put on by
hydraulic pressure. The lathe on which the metal
is being turned is one of the largest in the world.
LABQRWould you be an honest man and enjoy
competency with pYeasTire, unknown to hasty wealth
or sly roguery? Work! Let your sweat- drops wash
your gains from all dishonesty. You shall live to
tell your children that you have observed and felt
the wisdom of the royal preacher : Wealth gath-
ered by vanity shall be diminished, but wealth gath-
ered by labor will increase.
THE PEARL-BEARING OYSTER.The great pearl-fish-
ery of Aripo, in Ceylon, which has been in abeyance
for some years, is about to be renewed under very
promising auspices. The bank producing the pearl-
bearing oysters is seven miles long, and two and a-
half broad, and is calculated to contain between two
and three million oysters.
REMEDY AGAINST MoTHSOne ounce of gum cam-
phor, and one ounce of powdered red pepper,
macerated in eight ounces of strong alcohol for sev-
eral days, then strained. With this tincture, the
furs or cloths are sprinkled over, and then rolled up
in sheets. This remedy is used in Russia under the
name of the Chinese Tincture for Moths.
NEW INvENTIONA genius down East intends ap-
plying for a patent for a machine which, he says,
when wound up and set in motion, will chase a hog
over a ten acre lot, catch, yoke, and ring him; or
by a slight change of gearing, it will chop him into
sausages, work his bristles into shoe-brushe , am
manufacture his tail into a cork-screw.
THE project of establishing telegraphic communi
cation between the West India colonies, is being agi-
tated in London. A deputation from the West India
Committee, lately had an interview with the Duke
of Newcastle, at the Colonial Office, when the subject
OLD ST. PAuLs.The ball on top of the dome of
St. Pauls, London, weighs 5,000 pounds and is 6 feet
in diameter. Workmen are engaged in re-gilding it,
and they are watched by crowds of people through
telescopes as they work at the giddy hight.
THE largest mass of rolled iron exhibited in the
London Exhibition of 1851, weighed one tun and a
half, and this was considered extraordinary. In the
Exhibition of 1862, the heaviest specimen weighed
no less than thirteen tuna.
INDIAN SEAS AND BIRDSThe absence of sea-birds
forms a singular trait in the character of the Indian
seas; scarcely a single living thing appears in the
sky above, or the sea below, betwixt Bombay and the
OMNIBUS STEAMBoATsSome won4erfully fast little
omnibus steamboats have just been put on the Seine
to run between Paris and St. Cloud. It is impossible
to keep pace on horseback with one of them.
A LARGE TAx.A. T. Stewart, the dry-goods prince
of New York, recently paid the snug little sum of
$60,000, as his income-tax for the past year.
THE coal-traders of Philadelphia have decided to
ship no more coal for the present. This will tend to
increase the price.
~flxe ~denti& ~me~i~ux.
Importance of our Sheep Husbandry.
The United States Economist contains an elaborate
and well-written article on the importance of sheep
husbandry to the loyal States, from which we con-
dense some interesting ideas which are worthy of the
attention of all our farmers
For years past the quantity of wool manufactured
in the United States has averaged full 125 millions
pf pounds. Of this quantity not more than one half
has been grown here. While we have been export-
ing grain and provisions to an immense amount, we
have imported wool from Australia, the Cape of
Good Hope, South America, China, Russia, India,
and in short from every other quarter of the globe,
and are doing so to-day, though it is an indisputable
fact that no country on earth is better adapted to
sheep husbandry than the North-west. Should the
agriculturist neglect to grow a suffidient quantity of
wheat and corn to supply our home demand, it
would be regarded as a most surprising evidence of
lack of enterprise, and yet facilities of soil and cli-
mate are no better for producing corn and wheat
than they are for the growing of sheep. In Australia
and the Cape of Good Hope, where sheep husbandry
is carried on extensively and at a large profit, the
climate is not so favorable, the soil is barren, and
there is no market for mutton; while in the West the
soil is rich, the climate dry and cool, and our large
cities furnish a ready market for mutton, at higher
prices than in London and Paris. For years past the
people of the West have seen the wool-buyer run-
ning through the country esger to contract for wool
on the sheeps back. How much more will they
be in the future, wben the consumption of wool has
increased fifty per cent, as it is likely to be! Al-
though the clip of wool will be larger this year than
upon any former occasion, still our Western farmers
do not realize the immense increase of the demand
which will be created fot this great staple by the
cutting-short of the cotton supply. We have at
present in the loyal States twenty-five millions of
sheep, and we believe that, this number could be
doubled without producing a sufficient quantity of
wool or mutton to supply the demand for the next
five years. There is no mystery about sheep hus-
bandry. All that is required to conduct the busi-
ness successfully is the exercise of plain common
sense, which dictates that all domestic animals (and
sheep in particular), to thrive well, require to be
well fed, to have plenty of room and to be protected
from storms. The soil and climate of the North-
western States are admirably adapted to sheep hus-
bandry, and the farmers of that section could not
possibly turn their attention to a more profitable
branch of agriculture. The sheep best adapted to the
production of worsted are the Leicester and Cotawold
breeds, and can be obtained in Canada to any extent
and at reasonable prices. The carcasses are large
and the fleeces of long staple, which makes these
breeds more valuable both for the clip and mutton.
The Culture of Water-cress.
The water-cress is cultivated upon an extensive
scale in the adjacent districts of country for the
London market. The following description of its
cultivation is from the Cottage Gardeners Dic-
tionary :The trenches in which water-cresses
are grown are so prepared that, as nearly as possible,
a regular depth of 3 or 4 inches can be kept up.
These trenches are 3 yards broad, and 87 yards
long, and whenever one is to be planted the bottom
is made quite firm and slightly sloping, so that the
water which flows in at one end may run out at
the other. If the bottom of the trench is not suffi-
ciently moist, a small body of water is allowed to
enter to soften it~ The cresses are then divided into
small sets or cuttings, with roots attached to them,
and these are placed at a distance of 3 or 4 inches
from each other. At the end of five or six days a
sliglxt dressing of well-decomposed cowdung is spread
over all the plants, and this is pressed down by
means of a heavy board, to which a long handle is
obliquely fixed. The water is then raised to the
depth of 2 or 3 inches, but never higher. Each
trench is thus planted annually, and furnishes twelve
crops during the season. In the summer the cresses
are gathered every fifteen or twenty days, but less
frequently during winter; care is taken that at each
gathering at least a third part of the bed is left un
touched, so that neither the roots may be exhausted
nor the succeeding gathering delayed. After every
cutting, a little decayed cowdung, in the proportion
of two large barrowfuls to each trench, is spread over
the naked plants, and this is beaten down by means
of the rammer above-mentioned. After the cresses
have been thus treated for a twelvemonth, the man-
ure forms a tolerably thick layer at the bottom of
the trench, and tends to raise its level. To restore
it to its original level, all the refuse should be thrown
out upon the borders which separate the trenches
from each other. These borders may be planted with
artichokes, cabbages, or cauliflowers.
The Effects of Congelation upon Water.
Dr. Robinet, a member of the Academy of Medi-
cine, Paris, has published an account of experiments
conducted by him to test the effects of congelation
upon drinking-water. It is well known that the ice
which is formed in the sea yields nothing but fresh
water, all the salt having been eliminated by con-
gelation. In the Northern parts of Europe this
propertyis turned to account for the extraction of
salt from sea water; for a large sheet of the latter
having been left to freeze, the ice is afterwards cut
away, and the unfrozen water left below is so rich in
salt as to require very little evaporation to yield it
in a solid state. This property will also serve to
analyze wine. Suppose it was required to determine
the quantity of water fraudulently added to a certain
wine; by exposing it to the action of artificial refrig-
eration, all the water Would he alone, and the wine
left in its purity. By a similar process, ships at sea,
being short of water, might be supplied with thIs
necessary article. We will suppose the temperature
of sea water under the tropics to be 30~ centigrade.
If a quantity be exposed in a vessel to the action of
a mixture of sulphate of soda and hydrochloric acid,
two very cheap commodities, the temperature of
the water will fall to 100 below freezing point.
Let it then be exposed to a second mixture of the
same kind, generally eight parts of sulphate to five
of the acid, and the temperature may he lowered
to l7~ below freezing point. Congealed water is
then obtained free from salt, and may be used with
impunity. Dr. Robinet has added a new fact to
this theory by showing that the water of springs
and rivers loses all its salts by congelation. These
salts are chiefly those of lime and magnesia. The
water subjected to experiment was that of the lakes
of the Bois de Boulogne, the ice of which was
found to be entirely free from the above-mentioned
salts. Such, indeed, is the chemical purity of the
water thus obtained, that it may in most instances
be substituted for distilled water.
Among mechanics, punctuality is a great desider-
atum. Show us a mechapic who will get our work
done by the time specified, and we will cherish him
as the apple of our eye. But to the mechanic who
makes us call twice (fire and sickness excepted), we
bid farewell a long farewell he is not the man
for our money. The mechanic gains nothing by false
promises except a bad name. In order to grasp at all
the work in the neighborhood many a mechanic will
promise, when he knows it is not in his power to
perform. What is such a man but a liar? To say
nothing of the vice of lying, than which there is
nothing more low and contemptible, the mechanic,
in the end, gets far less work by false promises than
he would by a strict adherence to the truth. Punc-
tualify in a mechanic is the soul of business, the foun-
dation of prosperity, and the security of a good repu-
Tssz CoNsuMPTIoN or WooLThe consumption of
wool in the United States during the past year has
been unusually large, amounting in the aggregate to
some 126,000,000 pounds. The quantity of raw
material required for army supplies alone, during
the past year, is estimated at 50,000,000, for the
navy 1,000,000, for civilians wear 65000,000, and
the amount required to replace cotton, formerly in-
corporated to a much greater extent in mixed fabrics,
A WESTzRN editor says of a hail storm on the lakes
in his vicinity, that it came so suddenly that the
pilot looked round to see which one of the passen-
I gers was throwing stones at him.
The term dialysis is applied to a method of separ-
ating different substances in solution by membran-
eons tissues, and was discovered a few years ago by
Professor Graham of the British Mint. He noticed
that certain substances possess the power of diffus-
ing themselves with great facility through water in
comparison with others, and that they could be sep-
arated mechanically in solutions by proper appli-
ances. Take four deep glass vessels, such as long
phials, and place in the one a few grains of common
salt ; in the second an equal quantity of sugar; in
the third some gum; in the fourth dried albumen.
Let each of the glasses now be filled up cautiously
with water, and their contents allowed to stand un-
til they are dissolved by the water. These sub-
stances gradually diffuse themselves through the
water, but not all in the same period of time. The
salt diffuses most quickly, then the sugar in about
twice the length of time; the gum takes four times
longer, while the albumen takes about twenty times
longer. So different is the diffusive power of com-
mon salt and albumen in water that, if the two sub-
stances in equal quantities are mixed together in
water, the salt will completely diffuse itself through
the water before the other is dissolved. Substances
which are crystaijine are the most diffusible ; those
least so which resemble gum, glue and albumen.
The names crystalloid and colloid have been given to
these two classes of substances. The crystalloids
also possess the remarkable property of diffusing
themselves through solutions of the colloids almost
as rapidly as through pure water; while the latter
do not possess this property.
A colloid and crystalloid in solution may be sep-
arated as follows :-Take a hoop, like that of a com-
mon wire sieve, and cover its bottom with parch-
ment paper, and float this vessel on clean water con-
taihed in another vessel, then pour into it a solution
of common salt and albumen. In a short period
afterward, the salt will diffuse itself through the
parchment, and leave the colloid or albumen behind.
In this way compound crystalloid and colloid solu-
tions may be separated. The parchment vessel is
called a dializer. Dialysis may be usefully em-
ployed in a great number of cases of chemical analy-
sis to facilitate operations. Flint, which is one of
the most insoluble of substances, has been obtained
dissolved in pure water by the aid of the dializer.
It cannot be dissolved in its natural state, but is first
rendered soluble by a chemical process, then boiled
in water, and afterward separated by the dializer.
Thus the flint is first fused with an excess of soda
(or potash) which converts it into soluble water
glass, or silicate of soda. It is now treated with
hydrochloric acid, which unites with the soda and
forms common salt. The latter is a crystalloid, the
former a colloid. When placed in a dializer the salt
solution passes through, while the silica is left be-
hind, and when it is allowed to stand for some days
A SUBsTITUTE ron LEATHER Leather, to a great
degree, is to be superseded. The London Times en-
dorses the claims of an invention, owned by -a Mr.
Szerelmy, of England, which, according to the de-
scril)tion of the article, possesses every quality of the
real leather, and is vastly superior to it on many ac-
counts. It will not crack, is tougher, will wear
longer and will resist water as effectually as rubber.
The leather-cloth can be of any color, and a pair of
boot tops which cost of calf skin, $1 50, will cost, of
this material, only 25 cents. The invention is of
[A very full and complete account of this inven-
tion can be found on page 354, Vol. VIII. (new
series) of the Scizzrrrrc AMERIcANEns.
THE ram Dunderberg is well under way, and hopes
are entertained that she will be launched on or about
the middle of September. The plan of the ship, ex-
ternally, is very well outlined in her present condi-
tion, and she is certainly the largest mass of solid
wood, in ship form, that we have ever seen.
A rzw nights since, a large section of the rock on
the north or Canada side of Niagara Falls fell into
the yawning abyss below, giving the Falls on that
side a more decided horseshoe appearance-~than they
the reV- i e quantities measured by the instru-
ments, and Fig. 2 is a sectional plan of the con-
necting machinery. A A, are meters of the class
termed wet meters, of the ordinary construc-
tion; they are placed back to back with sufficient
space between them for the introduction and man-
agement of the connecting machinery. The axles or
shafts, b 6, of the inside drums of the meters, pass
through the outer casings, a a, of the meters, and
are provided with spur wheels, c c. In order to
avoid the friction of stuffing-box journals, both
meters have cases, d d, attached to them, surround-
ing the said wheels, and extending above the water
level of the meters. The wheels are thus made to re
Improvement in Gas made from Petroleum or other
Since the blockade of the Southern ports has been
enforced, the use of rosin for gas-making purposes
has been necessarily dispensed with, and most of
the small private works, through the country, that
depended on it, now use petroleum-tar or other
hydro-carbon oils as a substitute. One of the prin-
cipal difficulties experienced in the use of petroleum
has been that the gas made has such an excess of
carbon that it will not burn through an ordinary
coal-gas burner without smoke, thus rendering its
use offensive and deleterious to health and furniture.
By reducing the burner to a very small size, this has
been partially overcome,
but other practical diffi-
culties have arisen; the
flame is very weak, liable
to be affected by draughts
of air, and is not of a
clear white color. To ob-
viate this many attempts
have been made to de-
compose water, and mix
its hydrogen with the
rich hydro-carbon petro-
leum gas; thus forming
what has been known as
water gas. These ex-
peiiments have been un-
successful in most in-
stances, owing to practi-
cal difficulties; one of
which has been the want
of uniformity in the qual-
ity and quantity of the
hydrogen gas, thus pro-
ducing a variable and
inconstant light. The
device herewith illustra-
ted (the inventor claims)
has entirely overcome
these difficulties, as PARRISHS PATENT GAS-MIXER.
proved after the experience of many months practical volve in the water contained in these casings, which
working under the most severe tests, in several communicates and remains on a common level with
places. It is now in successful operation at the St. the water in the interior of the meters, preventing
Nicholas hotel, in the city of New York, supplying any leakage of gas through the bearings of the
about 3,000 burners, shafts. A spur wheel, e, gearing with the wheel, c,
The object accomplished by this invention is to revolves a shaft, ,f, and has at the outer end of its
reduce the heavy rich gas obtained from the tar of long sleeve bearing a disk, g, attached: (see Fig. 2),
petroleum with atmospheric air, after it passes from the intervening space being occupied by three wheels,
the gas-holder, and before it reaches the burners. p q r, of various diameters; these wheels are so fitted
The air is mixed in variable proportions to suit the that each is independent of the others in its move-
quality of the gas made, giving the light the great. ments, and that either one may be attached to the
est illuminating power. It burns with a white flame, disk, ,q, by means of apin, h, while the others re-
free from smoke, through any ordinary burner.
Gas mixed with air is not explosive, until the pro-
portion of air is from SO to 90 per cent., so that this
process is entirely free from danger, 60 per cent. of
air being the maximum. Although air is about uni-
f9rm in quality, the gas made from petroleum is
uniform, varying with the quality of the oil,
temperature of the retorts, and the manner in which
the oil is supplied to them. Consequently the same
per-cenPge of air will not always produce the
economical result in lighting, or prevent the gas
from smoking. These difficulties have been re-
moved by this simple contrivance, which may be at-
tached to the delivery pipe of any oil gas-works, be-
tween the gas-holder and the burners, without other
alteration of the works. The nature of the inven-
tion consists in combining two ordinary gas meters,
or other apparatus for measuring gas, insuch a man-
ner that the operation of one, by the pressure of gas,
will transmit a positive motion to the other, which
acts as an air meter; the devices employed for trans-
mitting this motion being so arranged that the rela-
tive speeds of the two instruments, and the quantity main idle; i, is a shaft extending across the whole
of gas and air measured by either of them, may be space between the meters, and having its bearings at-
instantly varied and adjusted to the desired propor- tached to the water boxes, d, or the exterior of the
tion, making the mixture required to give the most meter. This shaft is at one end provided with the
perfect light through an ordinary gas-burner; the wheel, Ic, gearing with the wheel, c, and has upon
relative proportions used are recorded on the index its other end the wheels, a t and u, of such relative
of each meter. In order that the invention may be diameters as to bring them in gear with the wheels,
fully understood a reference to the accompanying p q r. It will at once be evident that with the above
engraving will show the arrangement of the ma- combination of wheels the proportion of speed of
chine. the two meters may be subjected to three variations,
Fig. 1 is an elevation of the two meters, with the by simply changing the position of the pin, Ic, so as
mechanisgt for the improved mode of adjusting to throw either one of the wheels, p q r, into action,
and by the introduction of more wheels, the num-
ber of ~hiriations in th~e relative capacities of the
two meters may be Increased to any desired extent.
1, is the ordinary delivery pipe from the gas
holder, connected with the inlet pipe of the mixer
for conveying the pure gas ; and 1 is the outlet pipe
for the mixed gases. The register indices, m m, show
the amount of air and gas, separately, that passes
through the Instrument. The pipe, a, connects the
two meters through which the air passes to the out-
let pipe for the mixed gases. The pipe, o, admits
the atmospheric air into the meter.
This invention was patented on May 12, 1863,
by William ID. Parrish, of Philadelphia, Pa.; for
further information ap-
ply at the Gas-works of
the St. Nicholas Hotel,
No. 63 Mercer street,
New York, where the
machine can be seen in
operation ; or address
ID. Parrish, Jr., Gas
Engineer, St. Nicholas
Hotel, New York; or
Win. ID. Parrish, 1,416
Arch street, Philadel-
fhe Monitor Torpedo.
It has been claimed
for the rebels that they
set us a lesson in the use
of torpedoes attached to
irOn-clad vessels to blow
up any vessel with which
they may come in con-
tact. This is a mistake.
The JJfonztors were the
first to have these tor-
pedoes attached, though
our naval officers s6emed
- afraid to use them. The
New York Herald says:
The Monitor torpedo consists of a monster shell,
thirty feet long, weighing upwards of 6,000 pounds,
with a charge of 700 pounds of powder. By means
of a raftthe devil these shells are pushed some
fifty feet ahead of the monitor, suspended at any de-
sirable depth. We shall know in good time how the
rebels succeed in obstructing the passage of the
Monitors when armed with these terrible shells, the
explosion of which will resemble an earthquake
under water. It appears that the naval officers were
afraid of employing the potent means placed at their
disposal for clearing Charleston harbor of obstruc-
tions, for fear the explosion of the shells would act
backwards on their vessels. As might be supposed,
the constructor has guarded against such an occur-
rence. The Secretary of the Navy, with a view of
removing all doubts on this point, ordered a trial to
be made last winter with one of the rafts, the very
devil afterwards towed to Port Royal. The trial
proved eminently satisfactory; for, although the
shell pushed up a mountain of water fifty feet high
above the surhce of the Hudson, near the head of
the raft, not t he slightest injury was sustained by
the latter. The perfect preservation of slender pieces
of wood attacl ed under the raft, proved beyond a
doubt that the effect of the explosion was, as had
been designed, in the forward direction only. This
singular feature of the Monitor torpedo we are not
at liberty to deecribe. What we have stated on the
subject can do no harm, as it is known at Richmond
well as at Washington. So also is the fact that a
Douple of shiploads of these under-water pioneers
are now at hand where their good services are most
needed. We therefore acquit Mr. Welles on the
charge of want of enterprise as regards the torpedoes.
But is it not time to order Admiral Dahlgren to put
steam on the Monitors and push the torpedoes past
Sumter up against those rebel obstructions ?
THE large coffee speculators have not all made a
good thing out of their little enterprises. The price
has become so enormous since last year, that thou-
sands of families have entirely discontinued the use
of coffee, and immense lots of the article remain on
the speculators hands in New York and elsewhere
they losing the interest.
~e ~citidi~c ~mc6can.
MUNN & COMPANY, Editors and Proprietors.
LA No.37 Park Row (Park Building), New York.
0. D. MUNN, S. H. WALES, A. E. BEACH.
TERMSThree Dollars per annumOne Dollar in advanee, for
Single copies of the paper are on sale at the office of publication, and
at all periodical stores in the United States and Canada
Sampson Low, Son & Co., the American Booksellers, No. 47 Ludgate
Hill, London, England, are the British Agents to receive subscriptions
for the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN.
See Prospectus on last page. No traveling agents employed.
VOL. IX, ~lO. 4... [NEW Szaizs.] Nineteenth Year.
NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JULY 25, 1868.
ARMY flEAD...HEALTH OF SOLDIERS.
Our soldiers, when in active field-service, we have
been informed, are subject to dyspepsia and dysentery.
When affected with either of these diseases, even for
a limited time, a soldier becomes feeble and unfit for
duty. The causes and prevention of these maladies
should form a subject of earnest inquiry. A person
with whom we recently conversed, who has had two
years experience in the army of the Potomac, and
who had been a prisoner for some time in Richmond,
stated that when our soldiers were fed for sevdral
weeks on hard tack (the name for army biscuit)
and pork, their stomachs became disordered and dys-
entery followed. He stated that although food was
less abundant in the secession army, the men were
very healthy, and he attributed this condition to the
use of fresh flour as part of the rations of the seces-
sion soldiers. For want of bakeries in the South to
manufacture biscuit, flour and corn meal were served
out to the soldiers, and they were accustomed to
make cakes in camp and bake them on griddles
sometimes formed of flat stones. Another person of
considerable experience in the army, with whom we
have conversed, confirmed the statement as to the
frequency of dyspepsia and dysentery in the army,
stating his belief that these diseases were due, in a
great measure, to inferior bread. He asserted also
that the contract taken for this month to provide
this bread was as low as 3.94 cents per pound, including
boxing, & c., all ready for deliverj. Thus the con
tract calls for bread to be made of extra State flour,
which, at the rate of $5 80 per bafrel, will yield
180 pounds of bread if thoroughly baked, for which
$7 10 is the sum that will be received from the Gov-
ernment. Our informant states that it will cost for
the flour, packing, and boxing, not including the ex-
penses of baking, $7 77. He therefore concludes
that an inferior quality of flour must be used in
making the army bread, and that it is not suffi-
ciently bakeda considerable amount of moisture
being left in it. He also states that this bread is
baked in ovens heated with the products of combus-
tion wliich pass from the furnaces through perfor-
ated flues direct into the ovens. In other words,
the bread is baked in a heated atmosphere of carbonic
oxide and acid gases. The opinion was given that
the bread thus baked absorbed carbonic acid gas, and
was thus rendered injurious to the stomachs of the
soldiers, tending to poison their systems. We
are also told that it is very difficult to heal the wounds
of our soldiers in hospitals, which fact is attributed
to the use of unwholesome bread.
We are aware that while carbonic acid gas is poison
to the lungs, it is not injurious to the system when
taken into the stomach in moderate quantities. It
does not, therefore, seem to us probable that the gas
in the bread baked as stated can be the cause of the
diseases in our army. That the evils stated do exist
in our army to some extent there can be no doubt,
but we believe that they have been greatly exagger-
ated. We have directed attention to the hard army
bread as the possible cause of such diseases; this is
the opinion of persons who have had opportunities
for extended observation in the army. They may be
mistaken in their conclusions, but whatever may be
the caussa of these maladies they deserve investiga
tion, and they should be removed if it is in the power
of man to do It. Our soldiers who have gone forth
to peril their lives for the support and perpetuation
of the Government, deserve to receive the best food
that can be provided.
CONSERVATISM AMONG MECHANICS.
Tradition is a good thing in its way, but mere
blind reliance upon it sometimes leads men astray.
The teachings of the past, applied to the arts, form
what is termed experience, and by recalling to mind
exigencies where extraordinary means have been em-
ployed to overcome difficulties, men perform duties
with more ease and certainty than if they had not
such memory at their service. The reader may ask,
Suppose a man has not had extensive experience in
some branches of his business, how shall he thus
familiarize himself with them ? We answer, in-
form himself by taking advantage of every means
within reach that lead to the desired end. Conver-
sations with practical men; consultations with books
or papers devoted to the specialty he wishes to be-
come acquainted with; these have an important in-
fluence which cannot fail to be an advantage to the
The mechanical ideas of this age of the world lead
men ever onward; that is to say, that every hour
discloses some vital question on which the masses of
mechanics are ignorant because they have never
given attention to the subject; as, for instance, the
most impenetrable armor; the most deadly gun,
rifled or smooth bore; the best forms for the hulls
of batteries and iron-clad ships; and countless other
points which will suggest themselves to all. This is
why we say the spirit of the age leads ever onward,
and hence the necessity which exists for investigating
the labors of those who have precedcd us. Is it not
palpable to every one that the individual who has a
knowledge of three or four different processes of
doing the same thing, is a far more valuable member
of society than he who adheres obstinately to his
old-time method in the firm conviction that it alone
is worthy of attention? Most undoubtedly. Yet
we go over workshops and see men at work with
tools that the best authorities have discarded long
ago as useless, and have superseded them by more
efficient ones; we see lathes in use with narrow
shears, small spindles, light screws; planers with
chains instead of screws or racks, and pinions, chain-
feed on the lathes aforesaid, and other exploded and
thrown-aside devices that time has outstripped and
supplanted by more efficient ones. These are the
old-school men, and they would succeed much better
in business if they took advantage of the discoveries
and theories reduced to practice by other men.
Pull out the old-fashioned machines and replace them
with others better capable of doing the work! They
occupy room and waste time every day that ought to
have been economized.
It is a somewhat remarkable fact that the children
of celebrated men by no means inherit the peculiar
talent of their parents or parent. History, past and
present, is full of instances which might be quoted
to prove the truth of this assertion; and the reader
has only to reflect to call to mind, among those of his
own day, statesmen, who, dying, left behind them an
enviable fame, yet transmitted no portion of the ge-
nius which acquired it to their progeny. So all expe-
rience in the Old World goes to sustain the fact that
genius is by no means hereditary, but latent. A wise
father may have a fool for a son, and vice versa. May we
not fairly question whether mere genius is of any par-
ticular value to its possessor? We say genius alone;
a mere faculty for constructing, an aptitude for
mechanical pursuits, or a love for the fine arts; all
these, uncultivated and misdirected, are rather an in-
cumbrance, and a disqualification for sterner work
than any direct advantage to individuals. We have
often heard, and not without regret, of certain young
men, distinguished by their admirers as geniuses,
(to coin a word for the occasion) and upon investiga-
tion have found such claims based upon a sort of
sleight-of-hand, which enabled them to whittle very
bad imitations of boats, out of blocks of wood that
might be made serviceable for some better purpose
boats that neither swim nor sail, but topple over like
nut-shells and have an obstinate desire to move side-
ways. These productions are viewed by fond parents
and relatives, as the first efforts of a remarkable
geniusone who shall put George Steers fame far in
the shade, and outstrip all previous efforts in ship-
building. The same facts may be noticed in the case
of painting, a talent for modeling in clay, and kin-
dred branches of art.
Far be it from us to disparage the first efforts of
self-taught, persevering men. These remarks by
no means apply to them; but are directed toward
that class of idle, whining, shiftless young men who
lounge in the house, wear out their clothes and the
patience of their families by homilies on fate,
destiny, the coldness of the world, and simi-
lar phrasesthe stock in trade of geniuses all
over the world. To such young men we would say
your talent lies in handling an ax; your genius is
concealed in the handle of a blacksmiths hammer;
get up and learn a trade; get out of the rocking
chair and go to the forge, and if you have any genius
inert and dormant in you, it will soon work its way
to the surface and shine among men. We have ob-
served a great many so-called geniuses in this
world, and seen some of them grow to manhood.
They generally have some remarkable model of a
steamship that will sail 40 miles an hour on about
a pound of coal. ~They_are out at the elbows, and of
a generally dispirited cast of countenance; they are
sanguine on perpetual motion, and, much more
modest than Archimedes, only require a peculiar
spring or a screw to move the world ; and it is with no
little regret that we have seen their feeble efforts
baffled and set aside because they were not thor-
oughly and earnestly prosecuted. There is nothing
more certain in the world than that real talent and
genuine genius is certain of its reward, if it only
manifests itself in a proper way. Men are not
generous enough to each other to go searching about
the world for the light that is hidden under a bushel,
and if any individual thinks to attract the notice of
his fellows by the dismal glimmer of a penny dip,
set in a candlestick of surpassing beauty, he may
abate his pretensions at once and for ever. Set to
work in earnest, oh, young men of the nation !turn
in and fall to, on the work of the world! War leaves
the fields desolate, the loom idle, the workshop ha
silent as the cemetery. Bestir yourselves ! and if you
have genius, make it evident by producing something
to set in motion the forces that falter. Make the
wilderness blossom as the rose, cause the shuttles
to fly more swiftly to make up for lost time, and
make the ponderous hammers to rise and fall with
increasing velocity. If you have genius, let it shine!
bring it out, and bestow it upon mankind, and in re-
turn, your~fellows of the present day, and posterity
also, will concede all that your vanity now prema
REPORTED FAILURE OF THE STAFFORD PRO.
Commodore Turner on board of the iron-clad New
ironsides, in obedience to official instructions, has
lately experimented with the Stafford projectiles.
He states that every precaution was taken to give
them a fair trial, the instructions for their use being
carefully observed. They were fired with 16 pounds
No. 7 powder, from the 150 pound Parrott guns of
the N~w Ironsides. In every instance, says the
Commodore, they failed, and in the four first
discharges, the easing of wood in which they are im-
bedded was shivered to pieces immediately, and so
near the ship as to make it perilous to use them. I
am convinced that with this class of gun they are
utterly useless; I should not think of using them in
action, after the experience I have had. I desire to
make a very emphatic report to the Bureau on this
subject, for either these projectiles are a great impo-
sition, or the instructions accompanying them have
been misinterpreted as to the manner of using
It is stated that each of these projectiles cost $46,
and that a charge of $60,000 has been made against
the Government for a quantity furnished.
The Stafford projectile has heretofore been regarded
as one of the most wonderful and valuable auxiliaries
of war. Repeated experiments had demonstrated
its marvellous success ; reports of various tests to
which it has been subjected have appeared in the col
urnns of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. Many of these
trials were made under the direction of experienced
Government officers, specially appointed for the pur-
pose, and they appeared to establish the fact that
the invention was one of a remarkable character.
Some of the targets were clad with 6 inches of iron,
with a strong wood backing; but the projectiles
passed through the mass without the least difficulty.
In other instances the projectile has been thrown a
distance of 4~ and 5~ miles. Of course no such re-
sults could have been obtained had there been any
tumbling or other defective operation of the shot.
We are constrained to believe that in Commodore
Turners trial there was either some mismanagement
in the handling of the shot, or some defect in their
construction. We must have further evidence of
failure before we give up our faith in what has here-
tofore been demonstrated to be a good invention.
One of the peculiarities of Staffords projectile is
that it is generally made smaller than the bore of
the gun, the intervening space being filled up by
wood or other casing, attached to the shot. This
casing flies from the shot when the latter leaves the
gun, giving the projectile a free flight. It is alleged
that by this method a large area of explosive force is
made to act effectively upon a projectile of small
diameter. Immense velocity and great penetrative
power. are thus obtained. Engravings of the Stafford
projectile will be found in No. 14, Vol. VIII (new
series) of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN.
DISTILLATION AND EFFECTS OF HEAT.
There are two kinds of distillation, which are en-
tirely distinct in their nature and results, and by
which the effects of heat in changing the character of
substances are exemplified in a most remarkable
manner. These processes are called common, and des-
tructive distillation. The former consists in applying
a moderate degree of heat to a substance, such as
water by which it is converted into vapor, and after
this it is again converted into water by refrigeration.
Or it is peahaps more clearly explained by the treat-
ment of a liquid, such as a mash of malt, which con-
tains ardent spirits combined with water. By the
application of a lower temperature than that of boil-
ing water, to the mash in a still, the spirits
pass over in the condition of vapor, are condensed
in a refrigerator, and thus they are separated or
distilled from the mash. This is common distillation
by which no chemical change is effected in the na-
ture of the substances treated. The water is first
converted into vapor by he. t, then converted into
water again by cold; and as the spirits boil at a
lower degree of temperature than watery they are
separated from. the water by distilling at a low tem-
perature, and then are converted into a liquid state
again by cooling.
Destructive distillation consists in applying a high
degree of heat to substances in retorts, by which pro-
ducts of an entirely different chemical character from
the substances treated are obtained. Some of the
most astonishing results connected with modern
chemistr.y and the practical arts are due to destruc-
tive distillation. For example, when a charge of
bituminous coal is placed in a retort raised to red
heat, a great portion of this solid is cOnverted into
the gas whichis used for illumination, and it will
flow unchanged for miles through tubes exposed to
the lowest atmospheric temperature. Common oil
subjected to the same treatment will also produce
gas, but it is not converted by refrigeration into oil
again. Many liquids and several solids subjected to
such a degree of heat, produce similar results ; hence
cal characteristics. A full cherry red heat is that at
which coal in a retort is treated to obtain the best
illuminating gas. If the heat is .raised much above
this, a greater quantity but an inferior quality of gas
results. The manufacture of a heavy oil and tar
from distilled-coal, was conducted-by Lord Dundonald,
in Scotland, about 1768, long before gas was made for
public illumination. The tar was employed for coat-
ing.the bottoms of ships, to preventthe attacks of the
ship worm, before copper sheathing was generally ap-
plied. In the spirit with which the manufacture of
tar was pursued, Lord Dundonald narrowly missed
producing coal oil for commercial purposes, although
he used a retort similar to some that were employed
within the last four years for distilling coal in mak-
One of the most remarkable products of distilled
coal, peat, & c., is parafine, which was discovered by
the German chemist Reichenbach, about 1833, as one
of the products of tar. It is a white substance, re-
sembling wax in some of its features. This chemist
also obtained oil, which he called eupion, from tar.
About the same time that parafine was thus obtained
from coal tar, Dr. Christison, of Edinburgh, also
produced it from Rangoon petroleum, and called it
petroline. From this petroleum he also distilled
several oils, such as those which are now in common
use for illumination. Prior to 1860, the distillation
of coal had been carried on - for several years upon a
very expeAsive scale in Europe and America for ob-
taining illuminating oil; but the great supplies dis-
tilled in natures extensive laboratory, situated in
the valley of the Alleghany, have supplanted all the
similar products of coal distillation, and the amount
exported this year, up to the present time, exceeds
fifteen millions of dollars.
A good idea of the varied and remarkable effects of
heat upon coal in distillation may be communicated
by stating that forty-two different substances have
been separated from coal and classified, and the pro-
duction of some of these engages important branches
of industry. Among them are illuminating gas,
coke, ammonia, naptha, benzole, heavy oil, parafine,
tar, aniline and all those beautiful colors derived
from it which are now so common on silk and woolen
fabrics. Distillation, and the effects of heat upon
various substances, form most interesting and instruc-
tive studies to inquirers after scientific knowledge.
the trooper can rely upon his weapon, with perfect
confidence that it will not be found unmanageable in
the hour of peril. Let moisture have a fair chance at
the rifle also, so that the public may know how the
parts interchange and play in this condition. Let the
gun be thrown rudely to the ground, so that all in-
terested may know to a certainty just how much
rough usage a breech-loader can stand ;whether it is
a bona-fide weapon, or merely a delicate combination
of machinery liable to become deranged at the slight-
est irregular proceeding. Let us know whether it is,
in gunnery, what the spy-glass is in optics; or whether
it be like the wicroscope, which requires previous
education to manipulate and understand. These are
vital points in the utility of breech-loaders, which we
should like to have proved or disproved beyond cavil.
The greatest value of a muEEle-loading gun is that
it is, under all reasonable circumstances, wholly reli-
able; and it is of very little importance to a .trooper
or sharpshooter, when his weapon fails him at a crit-
ical time, to know that a number of ..experts have
decided that the arm then in his possession is infal-
lible. We do not propose that unreasonable violence
should be offered the weapons; but we are decidedly
opposed to the sort of encomiums generally lavished
upon arms, which are not at all borne out or justified
by their mechanjcal value, or their subsequent per-
RECENT AMERICAN PATENTS.
OiZ Skimmer.In boiling fish or other materials for
the purpose of extracting the oil, and in heating
other substances or liquids for the purpose of evap-
oration or otherwise, the surface of the liquid is gen-
erally covered with scum, and the impurities or dregs
precipitate, and occupy the bottom part of the tank
or still, the clear good liquid being in the middle.
The object of this invention is to draw off the clear
liquid from the middle, free from the scum on the
top, and from the dregs on the bottom. The inven-
tion consists in the employment of a shallow saucer-
shaped vessel, provided with one or more floats, and
with a pipe leading from its lowest point to the bar-
rel or other vessel which is intended to receive the
oil or other liquid ; said pipe being sustained by one
or more floats in such a manner that the saucer-shaped
vessel can be adjusted to float on a level with the
____________________________ surface of the clear liquid, under the scum and above,
BREECH-LOADING RIFLES AT THE NEXT FAIR the dregs; the vessel being balanced by the floats
OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE, attached to it, and the pipe being sustained by the
floats which are secured to the same, the clear
We learn from the officers of the American Insti- liquid draining off through said pipe until the
tute, that a prominent feature at the Fair, this sea- saucer-shaped Vessel settles -down on the dregs at or
son, will be a general exhibition of breech-loading near the bottom of the still or tank. Address Israel
rifles. An opportunity will be given for a conipeti- Peck or W. H. H. Glover, the inventors, Southhold,
tive trial of the various kinds manufactured, and a N. Y.
diploma or premium will be awardedto the best gun. Dredging and Ditching Apyaratus.These improve-
This will doubtless be the most attractive and pop- ments are more especially designed to be applied in
ular part of the exhibition. We also suggest to the combination with an apparatus termed a suction
managers to permit a trial, at all ranges, between dredging boat, patente4 May 10, 1863, their object
the best breech-loaders and the best muEEle-loaders, when so applied being to cut, bore, pick, break and
in order to settle the mooted question whether a tear up all obstructive deposits of mud, sand, clay
breech-loading rifle with fixed ammunition car- and other matter from the beds of rivers, harbors
ries as accurately as a perfect muEEle-loader. On docks and other places, or to deepen the same, and
account of the great convenience of breech-loading to cut and break up turf and earth in swamps and
rifles, there is no dOubt that they will entirely super- marshes and other places, and reduce all such sub-
sede the old-fashioned arm, provided that they stances and material to a soft or pulpy or sufficiently
carry the bullet with equal precision. But a defect diluted condition or get -them so mixed with water as
in this paiticular will more than counterbalance all to admit of their removal by the pumps of that ap-
their other advantages; for, if there is anything that paratus; also for cutting ditches and canals, and
is sure to disgrtst a sportsman with his rifle, it is to for forming dikes or embankments and filling up lots
have it send the bullet to a place different from that and improving swamps and marshes and other low
at which it is aimed. It is also asserted by some that lands, and bringing them to the grade of uplands for
as the character of the products is entirely changed thecomplication of the breech-loader is fatal to its cultivation, by
depositing upon such swamps, marsh-
by the operation, it has been called destructive dis- general introduction in the army. While but few es or low lands, the material
taken up in cutting the
tillation. persons are found who object to the employment of ditches or canals from the adjacent waters. The said
The wonderful effects of heat in distillation are this class of weapon as a national arm; there are improvements may, however, be
used in connection
shown in the variety of products obtained, and the others who m.aintain that the delicacy of workman- with any other kind of boat
for the purpose of bring-
study of these deserves general attention. For ex- ship unavoidable in a breech-loading rifle, materially ing the matters and
substances specified to a con-
ample, in the distillation of cannel coal, a different detracts from its utility for field or cavalry use. dition to be removed by
the action of a natural cur-
chemical product is obtained with almost every These are disputed points, which we hope to see set- rent, or the tide or by any
other suitable means;
different degree of heat to which the coal is subjected. tied in favor of the breech-loader; and we desire to and in some instances
the said improvements might
If the heat is gradually raiged, a very clear oil first have the coming tests made thorough and severe, be arranged upon a carriage
to run upon land, where
passes over, at a comparatively low temperature, Let us have no holiday decisions; but submit the a stream of water may be obtained
to effect or facili-
then darker colored oils, then thick tar. On the competing guns to searching scrutiny, at least. as tate the carrying away or
removal of the material
other hand, if the coal is subjected at once to a low thorough as they will undergo in actual service. Let which is loosened by the
cutting, boring, packing,
red~heat, most of the matter that would otherwise the breech-loader be exposed to.a cloud of dust, such breaking, and tearing-up
operations. William Atkin-
have passed off as oil and tar is converted into gas, as is inevitable in a long days cavalry ride, and then son, deceased, late
of Brooklyn, N. Y~, was the in-
and all these prodncts are different in their chemi- see whether the closely-fithd joints willwork so that ventor of this
improvement; and further informa
~xe ~dentifk ~m~*an.
tion relating to it may be obtained of Charles Atkin-
son, of Moline, Ill., or Joseph Atkinson, of New-
Pulley BlockThe ordinary tackle or purchase
blocks have their pulleys so arranged that they will
turn as freely as possible on their axis, both in rais-
ing and lowering articles which are suspended to
them. This free turning of the pulleys is of-course
an advantage in raising the articles, but in lowering
them it is a decided disadvantage, as the operators
have not sufficient control over the descent of the
articles, owing to an insufficiency of friction, and fre-
quently a great deal of time and labor is expended in
lowering articles to the desired spot, and also in keep-
lug them in a proper line of ascent. To obviate this
difficulty Is the object of this invention, which con-
sists in arranging with the pulleys, ratchets, pawis
and side flanges, in such a manner that, in lowering
suspended articles, the pulleys will be subjected to a
requisite degree of friction to give the operator full
control over the tackle blocks in lowering the articles.
J. J. Doyle, of No. 871 Eighth street, New York, is
the inventor of this improvement, half of which has
been assigned to C. L. Perkins, of No. 54 Exchange
Place, New York.
Valve ChestThe main obstacle which has hereto-
fore presented itself to the successful use of piston
valves for the induction and eduction of steam en-
gines has been the unequal expansion of the cylin-
drical bearings or seats in which such valves work,
which has caused the valves either to bind during a
portion of their stroke, or else to fit too loosely dur-
ing another portion thereof; but for this difficulty,
such valves, owing to the simple manner in which
they can be balanced, would have been more gen-
erally adopted. The object of this invention is to
provide for the equal expansion of the cylindrical
bearing or seat throughout its whole length, and to
this end it consists in a certain arrangement of a
steam jacket surrounding or partly surrounding the
whole length of the bearing or seat, and communi-
cating with both ends thereof, in such a manner that
the steam will heat the said bearing or seat equally
throughout the whole length. T. S. Davis, Jersey
City, N. J., is the inventor of this improvement.
Door LockThe object of this invention is to
combine a bar with a lock in such a manner that the
bar, which is at the inner side of the door, may be
opened by means of the lock from the outer side of
the door, the bar being so arranged as to extend en-
Mrely across the door, and serve as a far more secure
and efficient fastening then the ordinary lock bolts,
and more so than the bars and bolts which are ad-
ust& d from the inner side of the door, as the bar in
this improvement cannot be raised or operated upon
by cutting through the door, but only through the
medium of the lock. A. Clabaugh, of Atlanta, Pa.,
is the inventor of this improvement.
Solar-time GlobeThe object of this invention is
to arrenge a terrestrial globe in such relation to
a dial plate and index, that the culminating time of
the sun, and consequently the true solar time and
also the clock or mean time, can be observed simul-
taneously at any moment. The invention consists
in the arrangement of a terrestrial globe on a hon -
zontal axis, in combination with a revolving annular
dial incircling the globe, and adjustable by means of
set screws and w~tth a stationary index or pointer, in
such a manner that, by the index, the culminating
time of the sun on any part of the globe can be ob-
served, and at the same time the clock or mean time
can be read ott for a certain location for which the
dial has been adjusted. T. 11. Timby, of Saratoga
Springs, N. Y., is the inventor of this improve-
Sad-iron and HeaterThis invention relates to
an improvement in sad-irons or flat-irons as! they
are frequently termed, and consists in constructing
the side with a shell or case in which a sliding or
adjustable heater is placed, arranged in such a
manner that the iron may be applied to a coal-oil
lamp~ made to serve as a draught chimney for the
same, and he heated very expeditiously, a cold iron
being applied to the lamp as a heated one is removed,
an order that the lamp may always be provided with
a chimney, and a heated iron be always at command
during the process of ironing. 0. W. Preston and
C. Barry, of Corning, N. Y., are the inventors of
ISSUED FROM THE UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
FOR THE WEEK ENDING JUNE 30, 1863.
Rep tedO ally for theS en A jean.
y Pamphlets containing the Patent Laws and full par-
ticulars of the mode of applying for Letters Patent, speci-
fying size of model required, and much other information
useful to inventors, may be had gratis by addressing
MUNN & CO., Publishers of the ScIENTIFIc AMERIcAN,
39,107,Device for operating Churns.Henry C. Addis,
I claim the combination of the spring, L, and treadle, I, with the
rock-shaft, D, weighted pendulum, F, adjustable arm, c, adjostable
pivoted dasher-rod, B, and chorn, A, all in the manner and for the
purpose herein shown and described.
[The object of this invention is to obtain a means whereby recipro-
cating churns, that is to say, those which are provided with rising and
falling dashers, may be operated with greater facility than by the or-
dinary application of the hands to the dash-rod.]
39,108.Potato Digger.Theodore Baker, Stiliwater,
N.Y. Ante-datedJuly 2, 1862:
I claim the arrangement of the flaring bars, E, and the spiral arms,
L, attached to the shaft, F, constructed and operated as and for the
39,109.Metallic CartridgeWilliam Bakewell, Pitts-
I claim the use of metallic cartridges so constructed that that por-
tion of the case which enters the charge chamber or breech of the
fire-arm (whether tapering or having its sides parallel to its axis),
shall be of such shape that a cross section at right angles to its axis
will be an ellipse, triangle, square, or other curved or polygonal
figure, the perimeter of which will be less than the circumference of
a circumscribed circle, so that the cartridge fitting closely in the
charge chamber when the piece is loaded, shall, by the expansive
force of the discharge, have its longest diameter reduced sufficiently
to loosen it when the piece is fired, substantially as herein before de
39,110.Shingle Machine.Joseph Beaudrean, Fond du
I claim, first, The endless chain carriage constructed if segment
formed links, hi h2, cross-bars or ties, hi, the latter at each end, pro-
jecting beyond the links, and forming guides, h4, which travel in ways
m, and thereby support the bolts, as they are successively fed to the
saw, in a propes position to have a shingle cut from the underside of
each bolt; in combination with the tilting table, n, and horizontally
revolving circular saw, c, when the whole is arranged to. operate is
the manner and for the purpose specified.
Second, The tilting sable, n, and triangular shaft, 04, in combina-,
tion with the spring, s, and arm, n6, or their equivalents; when ar-
ranged to operate in the manner and for the purpose specified.
Third, The pins, a, projecting from the under side of the endless
chain carriage, in combination wi;h the gear or toothed wheel, n5,
and triangular shaft, 04, when arranged to operate in the manner
and for the purpose specified.
Fourth, The worm or screw, d, and helical spring, d2, In combina-
tion with the beveled toothed cog-wheel, c, and shaft, f, when ar-
ranged to operate in the manner and for the purpose specified.
[This machine is of that class in which the shingles are cut from
bolts by horizontally revolving circular saws, a number of bolts being
fed successively to the saws by an endless chain belt. This invention
consists in certain novel devices, whereby the machine is made to
automatically adjust itself so as to cut the shingles, tip and butt alter-
nately from each side of the bolts. It also consists in a novel device
whereby the saws are protected against injury when brought in con-
tact with a hard or knotty place in the bolt.j
39,111.Composition for sealing Preserve JarsJesse
Beckley, Cincinnati, Ohio:
I claim the composition for sealing preserve jars, composed and
compounded as set forth.
39,112.Projectile for Rifled Ordnance.Alfred. Berney,
I claim the combination with the polygonal extension, b, of the de-
pression, a a, notches, d d, and the hollow conical packing ring, B,
formed with a shoulder, a, all the parts being constructed, arranged,
and combined to operate together in the manner herein shown and
[The object of this invention is to obtain a simple mode of combin.
lug a packing ring with an elongated projectile which shall both com-
pel it both to transmit to the projectile the rotary motion which it
acquires in passing along the rifle grooves of the gun, and to remain
securely attached to the projectile during the flight of the latter. It
has been proposed to combine the ring with the projectile by con-
structing the interior of the ring of polygonal form and constructing
the projectile with a polygonal projection on its bass to fit the so-con-
structed ring but while this may have provided for the rotary motion
ol the projectile it has afforded no adequate provision for preventing
the ring from flying off after the discharge of the projectile from the
gun. This invention consists in making the front portion or portions
of one or more of the sides of such polygonal prqjection with inward
inclination, giving the said projection the character of a dove-tail by
which the ring is prevented from flying off; also in providing notches
or recesses in the shoulder formed upon the projectile in front of the
said pr~jection, into which portions of the ring may be driven by the
action of the gases diminated by the firing of the charge of the gnu
and thereby made to aid the ring in transmitting rotary motion to the
39,113.Machine for cutting Thin TimberBenjamin F.
Betts, Tonawanda, N. Y.:
I claim the combination and arrangement of tlte sliding box with
oblique motion, thereby giving by movement of the block a drawiitg
cut to the knife, in combination with the diagonal position tuf the
knife attached to the immovable bed-plate; and the arrangement of
eccentrics for elevating or depressing the movable bed-plate.
39,114.Instrument for indicating the Depth of Water in
Cisterns.H. L. Brevoor, Brooklyn, N. Y.:
I claim the arrangement of the flexible diaphragms, b b b, to form
an expanding chamber within the box, A, and in combination with a
spring, i, substantially as herein specified.
[This invention relates to instruments for indicating the depth of
the bilge water in a ship or other vessel, or of the water in a tank or
otherreservoir by the agency of the pressure of the column of such
water acting through the medium of air. In carrying out the Inven-
tion there is used a series of flexible, sectional, or annular diaphragms
such as are used in the bilge and leakage indicator which constitutes
the su~ject matter of setters.]
39,115.Tea Pot.Alexander M. Bristol, Detroit, MIch.:
I claim as an improved article of manufacture a tea-pot and water-
urn, arranged and combined in the manner substantially as set
[This invention consists in having a vessel composed of two separ-
ate compartments, one for tea and the other for hot water, and hav-
ing each compartment provided with a spout, whereby both tea and
hot water may be obtained from the same vessel and the tea kept at
a proper warm temperature by the hot water, which receives ils heat
from a lamp underneath the vesseL]
39,116.Mosquito Bar.Asa L. Carrier, Washington,
I clajm, first, A portable insect shield so constructed as to be oper-
ated from theoutside, substantially as described by means of levers,
A and B.
Second, Levers, A, constructed and operating as described, in
combination with levers, B.
Third, Levers, B, constructed and operating as described, for the
purposes set forth.
Fourth, The clasp, C, constructed and operating as described for
the purposes set forth.
Fifth, The braces, D, constructed and operating as described, in
combination with tension cords 1 and 2.
39,117.Lock.Andrew Clahaugh, Altoona, Pa.:
I claim the disk, C, provided with the spring, g, the slide, D, tum-
bler, F, and slide, B, all arranged and combined to operate in con-
nection with the bolt, H, as and for the purpose specified.
I further claim the semi-circular slide or gutard, K, when combined
and arranged with the disk, C, slide, D, tumbler, F, and slide, B, for
the purpose specified.
39,118.NIole PlowStiliman A. Clemens, Rockford,
I claws, first, The mole, a, attached near its forward end by a pivot
pin near to the front edge ot the lower end of a cutter bar, b, sub-
stantially as described and for the purposes specified.
Second, A cutter bar, battached to a mole plow beam, h, by the
herein described or an equivalent mode which allows free pendulous
and hinge movements tothe-cutter-bar, substantially as described
and for the specified purposes.
39,119.Machine for preparing Tow from Tangled Flax
Straw.George F. Clemons, Springfield, Mass.:
I claim, first, The breaking rollers, K, cylinder, H, constructed
with concave ends, j, and having holes, k, mode in it as shown and
provided with teeth, h, and wings, i, and i be upon endless apron, J,
when all are combined and arranged to operate as and for the pur-
pose herein set forth.
liecond, The side-pieces or strips, g g, placed over the endless
apron, F, for the parpos of reducing the width of the same, when
said side strips or pieces are used in connection or combination with
the cylinders, D, If, concaves, B I, breaking rollers, c C K, and end-
less apron, J, for the purpose herein set forth.
[This invention consists in a combination and arrangement of
breaking rollers, toothed cylinders and concaves, and discharging
andfeed aprons, one of the toothed cylinders being so constructed as
to serve as a fan or blower, whereby the desired work, to-wit the
preparing of tow from tangled flax, may be accomplished ln a rapid
and thorosugh manner.]
39,120.Breech-loading Fire-arm.John Webster Coch-
ran, New York City:
I claim, first, The safety guard or guide, i, in connection with the
recoil block, b, as set forth.
Second, I claim the arm, j, attached to the hammer, f, for throw-
ing it back to half-cock by coming in contact with another lever or
spring, j, when opening the breech by throwing the recoil block
down as described.
39,121.Hooks and Eyes for Connecting Cords.Abiel
Codding, Jr., North Attleboro, Mass.:
I nlaim the improved socketed hook and eye, having the socket
tubes, a, thereof provided with serrations, teeth, or prongs, arranged
in the manner and for the purpose as specified.
39,122.Seed Planter.Edward Cox, Point Pleasant,
I claim the arrangement of the slide, H, and spring, J, with the
pulleys, E G, belt, I, seed cops, h, concave, F, box, D, spout, K, gate,
B; and seed hopper, L, all in the manner herein shown and described.
[This invention consists in a novel seed-distributing device com-
posed of an elevator formed of cups attached to an endless band or
chain having a tension spring connected with it in such a manner
that the belt or chain will always be kept in a proper state and
made to operate perfectly.]
39,123.Locomotive Boiler.Benjamin Crawford, Pitts-
I claim, first, The arrangement of the super-heating tubes, c c, in
line with the flues, a a, when the chamber which contains the tubes,
cc, is constructed with a vertical diaphragm, g, and the whole en-
closed by the case, H, of the boiler, substantially as and br the pur-
pose set forth.
Secosd, The combination of heads, d d, flues, c c, steam pipes,
D G, and diaphragm, g, arranged and operating substantially as here-
in described and for the purpose set lortb.
39,124.Plumb, Level and Square.D. G Davison, E.
Pullen, Prospect Plains, N. J., and J. S. Davison,
We claim the mode of combining a plumb, level and square to-
gether, by means of forming tbat part of the square wher in the
plumb is hung hollow or like a case, with an opening on either side
at the lower part so that the plumb can be easily seen and brought to
an exact perpendicular by means of marks or other indications as
above set forth and as sh~uwn in the various figures, or when the
afuiresaid combination us attained by other means, substantially the
same as those herein arranged and described.
39,125.Valve Chest for Steam Engiues.Thomas S.
Davis, Jersey City, N. J.:
claim the arrangement of the open-ended valve cylinder, B withIn
the casing, A, in such manner that a steam jacket or space, a, us
brined between them, which surrounds or nearly surrounds the
whole Isuigtb of the said cylinder and which communicates with the
said cylinder at the ends thereofi for the induction of the steam
thereinto, substantially as and for the purposes herein specified.
39,126.Corset.~Horace H. Dayton, Worcester, Mass.:
I claim a corset combining the adjustable shoulder-straps, D, body.
A, and extensor, J, or the rqruivaleut thereol, substantially as shown
39,127.Cooking Stove.William S. Deisher, Hamburg,
I claim, first, The fines, II II, provided with openings, H and I, in
combination with the air-heating space, J, and flue, L, when arranged
in tie manner and for the purposes specified.
Second, The cocubinatfot of the flues, B and L, with the openings,
b and a, valves, B 5, and Oven, C, when arranged in the manner and
for the purpose specified.
[This invention consists in a novel aruangement of passages or fines
in a cooking stove, whereby, without detracting in the least from the
efficiency of the stove for cooking purposes, a large amount of heating
surface is obtained which may be used for heating air and this alt-
used for warming the apartments of the building in which the stove
39,128.Hay ElevatorJames M. Dick, Buffalo, N. Y.:
I claim, first, The employment of the screw, B, in the manner and
for the purpose herein described and set forth.
Second. I claim the bolt D, in combination with the flange, B, and
screw, B, when used for tine purpose herein specified.
?fi~e ~ UtZ~ZA~ ~flWV~UZ.
Third, I claim the hook, L, in combination with the handle, A, and from adhering and drying together or to surfaces injurlug them.
screw, B, when used as herein act forth. rendering them useless, as specified and set forth.
39,129-Coal Oil Heater.H. W. Dopp, Buffalo, N. Y.: 39,148.Bill and Currency Holder.George B. Isham,
I claim, first, The adloclable small dick, a, in combination with the Burlington, Vt.:
perforated distributing plate, A, for the porpose as set lorth. I claim the arrangement of the trap doors, B, provided with cross-
Second, I claim the mode of vaporizing coal oil of any gravity, or shapedprojections, k, in combination with slots, 1, in the rear
other hydrocarbon liqoids for heating acid cooking purposes, by of the several compartments of the tray, A, constructed and operat-
means of a retort without wicking or packing of any kind or form, 50 ing as and for the purpose herein shown and described.
arranged that the supply of oil enters into the retont below the point And I also claim the arrangement of the hooks, m, on the
of vaporization as described, walls of the several compartments in combination with springs, m,
Third, I claim the combination of retort, C, and draw-off valve, ~ and with the handles, j, of the trap doors, B, constructed and
for the purpose described. atingin the manner and for the purpose substantially as specified.
39,130.Tackle or Purchase BlockJohn James Doyle, [The object of this invention is acompact, simple and cheap device
New York City: for holding in different compartments and separate from each other
I claim the employment or use in tackle blocks of ratchets, E, and
pawls, F, arranged and combined with pulleys, D, and either with or letters, bills and currency of the various denominationsin such a
without the flanges, G, to operate as herein set forth. position, that such bills or letters can be readily put in or taken out
39,131.Spring~CatcliTor Lamps.Daniel A. Draper, East either singly or in quantities of two or more and ihat the same when
Cambridge, Mass,: put in, are held in place by suitable weights and protected against
I claim the construction ofihe spring catch, and its application or being blown off. An engraving and description of this invention
arrangement, relatively to the deflector holder and the wick-tube, the been published in No. 29, Vol. VIII., of the ScIENTIFIC
whole being substantially as above described.
39,132.Clod-crusher and Harrow.George W. Dubuis. 39,149.Skate.Luman F. Johnson, Buffalo, N. Y..
son, Jerusalem South, N. Y.: 1 claim, first, The application and use of a lifting screw shaft, F,
I claim the combination of the clod-crusher, A, and harrow, C, con- placed between the skate runner audwood for the purposes and
nected by hinges or joints, 0, and arranged substantially as herein stantially as set forth.
shown and described. Second, I also claim the metal dick, C, having an undercut dove-tail
notch in combination with a runner bent at both ends and fitted in
39,133.Riding Stirrup and Hood.Robert Nelson Eagle, said notch, as a means of fastening the runner to the wood, substan-
Washington, D. C.: tially as described.
1 claim, first, A stirru frame of wood bent as described, with 39,150 Combined Knapsack, Tent and Litter,Louis
arms close together at t~ieir upper ends in combination with a cap Joubert,
strap or band, applied to the inside or outside or both inside and Omit- Paris, France
side of the frame to sustain the means of suspension, substantially I claim the arrangement of the knapsack, A, with ctraps, h h k
as set forth. noles, E E, croos.bars, F, with hinged legs, e, straps. I, and canvas,
Second, A toe-piece or hood of leather 7 or analagous material, D, all combined and operating in the manner and for the purpose sub.
stamped or prepared by dies in proper form, adapted to fit within or stantially as herein shown and described.
on the outside of the frame, or partially within and partially on the [The object of this invention is to combine all the elements
outside, substantially as set forth.
[This is an impiovement on the army stirrup in sommon use. By sary to make a litter or one-half or a tent with a knapsack, in such a
the improvement an article is produced possessing much greater manner that the came can be conveniently carried by a soldier, giving
strength and durability, and an improved appearance at a reduced him the opportunity to provide the means for carrying a wounded
or sick comrade from the battle-field, or to shelter himself against
cost-] the sudden changes of the weather.I
39,134.~Egg-beater.Timothy Earle, Smithfield, R. I. 39 151 Bit Stock.Sansuel U. King, Windsor, Vt.:
I claim the use of a series of cutting edges, a a a a, when attached
substantially as do- I~claim the improved bit-stock, as having the shank and handle
to a frame, A, which is capable of being rotated, pivoted together as described, and combined with a chambered sleeve
scribed for the purposes specified, made and applied to both in manner and so as to operate therewith
39,135.Manufacture of Alkaline Silicates.Thomas El- substantially as specified.
kinton, Philadelphia, Pa.: 39,152.Carpet Bag Frame.Samuel Lagowitz, Newark,
I claim manufccturing silicate of soda by permitting a supply of the N. J~:
ingredients of which it is composed to fall on to the bed of a furnace, I claim having the cover, B, made of elsstio wood and
down which as well as down other beds if required, the fused silicate one of the wooden jaws, A, by slays, all as herein shown and
flows in a continuous stream to the outlet opening, and while taking scribed.
its course is subjected to the direct heat of the furnace as described
[This invention consists in a frame for carpet bags made of wood
39,136.Breech loading Fire-arm.William H. Elliott, in such a manner that a cheaper frame is produced than the ordin-
Plattsburgh, N. Y. Ante-datedJan., 23, 1863: ary iron frame, and a frame which is less liable to get out of order,
I claim, first, The use of the sliding breech, d, lever, h, and link, g
when these devices are arranged and employed substantially as hereiA which is stronger, more durable, easier to transport and easier
specified in relation to each other, and to the rest of the arm, manufacture I
Second, The use of the sliding breech, d, lever, h, and link, g, when
these devices are arranged and employed substantially as specified in 39,153.Lamp Wick.E. B. Larcher, New York City:
relation to each other, and when the sliding breech moves back and I claim for the wicks of lamps, the holder containing asbestus,
forward upon shoulders or guides which are so curved as to conform stantially as described, in combination with common wicking
to the shape of the arm, as set forth. fog down into the reservoir of the lamp, substantially as and for the
39,137.Braiding Machine.Henry Fletcher, Providence, purpose specified.
H. I.: 39,154.Lamp.A. B. Latta, Cincinnati, Ohio:
I claim the combination of the switch cam, C, of the racer with one First, I claim the connection of a common burner with the
or more pins, 0 D, or the equivalent thereof, raised on the race ed metallic chimney, C, by means of solder, so as, when used with a
plate, the same being arranged so as to operate substantially in the single metallic cone, to make a conductor of heat from the
manner and for the purpose as herein before specified, the air inside the chimneythereby rareifying the air and producing an
upward current therein.
39,138.Braiding Machine.Joseph Fletcher, Providence, Second, I also claim the combination of the inverted chimney, C,
H. I. with the oil chamber, (1, when used with a single metallic cone, so as
I claim an improvement in the breiding machine, the same consist. to direct the current of air passing between the Inverted
lug in having the racers and driving wheels or gears and the supports and the oil chamber, G, against the flame on all sides,
of the racer so constructed, that the weight of the racer shalt be taming the flame withoutthe aid of a glass, chimney or other
borne on each of the said driving gears, while in the act of being ances.
driven by such gears.
And I also claim the combination of the recessed plate, n, or its 39,155.Sap Spile.J. M. Le Count, Hartford, Wis., and
equivalent, with the racerbase, b, and the driving wheel or gear, C, G. H. Boynton, Chicago, Ill.
on which such plate is aflixed, such plate being for the purpose, and We claim, first, A machine for forming sap spites from sheet
to operate in manner substantially as herein before explained. when constructed in a similar manner and for the purposes herein
for Roofing.Joseph J. Fuller; Brooklyn, described.
39,139.Fabric Second, We claim the combination of the several parts of said ma
N. Y.: . chine, when constructed in like manner and for the purposes here.
I claim preparing sheets of roofing paperjwith~the water-proofing inbefore described.
compound set forth in the manner specified. 39,156.Boot aird Shoe.G. W. Ludlow,Elizabeth, N. J.:
39,140.Ventilating Railroad Cars.Charles Dana Gib. I claim the application of a spring, b, to the back seam of a boot
son, New York City: or shoe, in the manner and for the purpose substantially as shown
I claim the arrangement of a shaft, C, provided with right-and-left- and described.
handed screw-wheels, N and ill, in the water-tank of a locomotive [An engraving and description of this invention was published in
tender, above the level of the water, in combination with suitabl
openings in the sides of the lender, and with an escape pipe, p, om~ No. 24, VoL IX. (new series), ScIEnTIFIc AMERICAN.]
the top of the tender, and operated in the manner and for the pur
pose as described and set forth. - 39,157.Oil Can.John Mayher, East Hampton, Mass.:
I claim, first, Taking the air in at the bottom of the can, A, instead
39,141.Wringing ~Machine.Heman Glass, Honeoye of at the top, as specified.
Falls, N. Y.: Second, The arrangement of the conical reservoir, D, with the tube,
I claim the standards, A A, provided with the stiaight and bevelled F, in combination with the air tube, E, extending imp through
opening, c c, the curved clamp, G, connected wlth the cross support, bottom of the can, A, as and for the purpose shown and
b, by the guide pins, g g, and elastic strips, h h, and the tightening [Thisinvention consists in the arrangement of an air passage
screws, ii, the whole arranged, combined andoperating substantially tending from the bottom of an oil can up near to its top, in
as and for the purpose herein set forth.
39,142.Beehive.John A. Gruver, West Union, Iowa: manner that free access to said passage can be had at alt times with-
I claim a bee-house or bee.palsce provided at its sides with hon- omit taking the oil can to pieces, and that the same can be
zontal shelves, e e, and flaps or doors, E, to receive the spare honey from stopping up ; the invention consists also In the
boxes, I, and also provided with horizontal intenmial ledges, d, to sup-
port the hives, a door, D, at each end, and an inverted pyramidal a reservoir on the inside of the bottom of the can and surrounding
lower part, a, with a flap H; the house or palace being supported by the air tube leading through the bottom, in combination with a
a suitable framing, A, all constructed and arranged as and for the
purpose set forth. extending from the top of the reservoir to the top of the can, in such
39,143.Hame-tug.Levi Hall, Henrietta, Mich.: a manner that the oil which may find its way Into the upper tube
I claim, first, By making hame-tugs for harnesses in two separate collects at the bottom of the reservoir, and is not permitted to
parts except the forward end where the hame rivets on, so as to ad- out at the bottom of the can through the air passage.]
mit the trace between the two pieces of the hame-tug
Second, By fastening the trace to the hame-tug by two bolls or 39 158 Bal
thumb-screws, in the manner herein described ,and represented by . lug Press.D. L. Miller, Madison, N. J.
the drawings. First, I claim the ropes or chains, C, and the cones, G G, on the
shafts, F F, in combination with the driving shaft, J, worm wheels,
39,144.Shoe Fastening.E.C. Harrington, Fair Plains, H H, andscrews, II, all arranged substantially as and for the pur
Mich.: pose herein set forth.
I claim the elastic detachable bands, D, as applied to the shoe sub- Second, Having the driving shaft, J, fitted in rods, K K,
stantiatty as described - connected to cranks on a shaft, L, substantially as shown, for the pur-
pose of throwing the screws, I I, in and out of gear with the wheels,
39,145.Balance.Sandy Harris, Philtideiphia, Pa.: H H, as herein specified.
I claim the manner, mode and means, substantially as set forth ]This invention consists in operating the follower of the press by
and described, of arranging, moving, and denoting the movements of
the weight to and from the fulcrum or knife-heads, for weighing pur- means of right and left screws formed on a driving shaft and
poses, or for testing the pressure of,steam, and whether used in this in worm wheels which are fitted on shafts placed at the ends
or any other form of balance. press box, said shafts being provided with conical pulleys to receive
39,146.Grain Separator and ,Cleaner.David W. Harsh- the chains or ropes which draw up the follower, and the driving
banger, Myersburgh, Pa.: shaft being fitted in adjustable bearingS, all being arranged in such a
I claim the arrangement and combination of the concave and con- manner as to admit of the desired work being rapidly done and in an
vex hulling stones, 1 1, spindle, 11, adjusting beam, L, cam-wheel, d
rock tever, ID, vibrating screen, C, and conveyer, H, in such a man efficient and proper manner.]
ner that the grain is screened and conveyed to the stones, and said noin ~, Apparatus for Domestic UseWin Mills,
stones are adjusted without affecting the action of the screen, sub oo,ioo.~ao
stantially as herein set forth, and 0. H. Burdett, New Athens, Ohio
I also claim the fan beater, N, revolving in the chamber, M, the We claim, first, The arrangement of the concaves, E, or their
perforated botiom, m, compartments, n 0 p. and the auxiliary ex- atent, forming a zig-zag or winding passage in the interior of the
haust fan, F, the two fan chambers being connected by the passages, fier, constructed and operating in the manner and for the
q r, the whole arranged combined, . and operating substantially as subsiantially as described,
and for the purposes specified. - Second, The arrangement of a lime chamber in the movable lid, F,
I also claim the specific arrangement of the whole machine, where- of the purifier in combination with the flexible tube, I,
by a draft is produced between the stones and through the grain, and operating as and for the purposes set forth.
from the time of its ingress to its exit, substantially as herein de- [The object of this invention is to produce a gas apparatus
39,147.Devicefor preserving Postage~Stamps.James of supplying a dwellIng house with gas, and so simple and cheap in
P. Herron, Washington, D. C.: its construction and operation that it can readily be put up and oper.
I claim to preserve postage stamps, & c., after being damp on wet ated in every house.]
39,160.Foldiag Guide for Sewing Machines.John Mor-
rison, Birmingham, England. Patented in England
Sept. 30, 1858:
I claim the improvement in or addition to sewing machines herein-
before described and illustrated in the accompanying drawing, that
is to say, an instrument or apparatus constructed and operating as
herein described, so as to regulate the width of the fold, and to be
attached to or used in connection with sewing machines, for the pur-
pose of folding or doubling the edge or elges of the fabric or material
to be sewed, substantially as herein described, Ihe said instrument or
apparatus consisting essentially of the two guiding plates, h i, and of
two plates or strips, a b, of sheet metal or one plate folded, as herein
described and the levers, n or 1 ; the said plates or strips, h i, being
situated parsllel or nearly so to one another, and the said plates or
strips, a b, being twisted into a screw-like form and tuber or both
grooved or plain on their inner on opposed surfaces.
39,161.Automatic Sounding Apparatus.H. M. Naglee,
U.S.A., San Francisco, Cal.:
I claim the within-described self-sounding apparatus composed of
a nod or its equivalent hung to the side of the vesset and permitted to
traverse the bed of the river on harbor, substantially as set forth, for
the purpose specified.
39,162.Apparatus for detecting and exploding Subma-
rine Tonpedoes.H. M. Naglee, U.S.A., San Francis-
I co, Cal.:
claim, first, Searching for and exploding torpedoes by means of a
raft, A, or other suitable object permitted to float with the tide or cur-
rent from a vessel at anchor, and having the appliances herein de-
scnibed on their eqnivalent, to be operated from the deck of the said
vessel, the said appliances being such as to omit on to catch, seize or
become entangled with the discharging cords of the torpedoes, as
herein set forth,
Second, The leven,B, its plates, H, and pawls, I, or other simi lay
appliances, the whole being attached to the raft, A, or other fioatimfg
object, and the lever being controlled by a cord or rope, (1, commnmii-
caling with the vessel, M, all sobstantlally as set forth Ion the pur-
39,163.Mode of lacing Boots.Robert Newton, Phila-
I claim securing boots and shoes by laces passing through boles in
the leg and through a tongue, when the latter is formed and arranged
in respect to the boot on shoe, as described for toe purpose specified.
39,164.Guide for Scroll Saws.Geonge Niderkorn and
John Dubornet, New York City:
We claim the arrangement of the horizontal adjustable slotted guide,
g, in the hox~,-e, attached to the vertically-adjustable square nod, c, in
combination with the endless band saw, A, constructed and operating
in the manner and for the purpose herein shown and described.
[This invention relates to an improvement in that class of scroll
saws in which the saw blade forms an endless band stretched over
two pulleys to which a rapid rotary motion is impanled by steans or
other suitable power.]
39,165.Bridle Bit.J. H. J. ONeill, New Haven, Cohn.
Ante-dated May 15, 1863:
First, I claim the Open adjusting rings described, when the came
are fosed in combination with the bridle bits, in the manner aid fur
the purposes substantially as herein set forth,
Second, I claim the combination and arrangement described of the
ban, B, gag, A, thimbles, N N, and levers, P P, constructed amid oper-
ating substantially in the manner and for the purpose as hereimi set
forth and described.
39,166.Apparatus for pasting and mounting Photo-
graphs, & c.-M. Ormabee, New York City:
I claim, first, Covering the pasting and rolling-down or pressing
rollers with rubber or its equivalent, substantially as and for the pur-
I also claim the arranging of the pasting and pressing-down rollers,
in different planes with regard to the handle, substantially as de-
I also claim the combination of the paste reservoir, pasting and
pressing rolls, frame and handle, for thepurpose of pastingand press-
ing or rubbingdown with one instrument, substantially as described.
39,167.Balancing and ventilating Mill-stonesS. N.
Page, Salona, Pa.:
I claim, first, The weights, F, provided with set screws, c, and fitted
to slide on a circular way, E, which is supported in a position con-
centric witfi the stone by fisuches or wings, b, projecting from the
circumference of the same, as and for the purpose specified.
Second, The flanches on wings, b, projecting from the runner stone
in combination with the inclined partition, J, box, I, fendem-, k, and
openingj, when constructed and arranged to operate in the manner
and for the purpose specified.
[The nature of this invention consisis in providing the runner stone
with a number of weights capable of being adjusted so as to balance
the stone and cause its face, as it rotates, to preserve its exact paral-
lelism with the face of the bed stone. It also consists in a novel do
vice for oscillating the run of stone.l
39,168.Furnace.Bennard Palazot, Bordeaux, France:
I claim the Improved combination of the vaulting or plate, C, with
the air entry, A, and register, B, applied to boiler and otherfurnaces,
the whole constructed and arranged in manner and for the purpose
substantially as herein specified and shown in the figures of the an-
39,169.Device for drawing-off and skimming Oils, & c.
Israel Peck, Southltold, N. Y., and W. H. H. Glover,
New York City:
We-cl& im the combination of the floats, B B B ID, with the saucer,
A, and pipe, C, substantially In the manner andfon the purpose herein
shown and described.
39,170.Traveling Kitchen.Mornis Pinner, New York
I claim the construction or a locomotive cooking apparatus by con-
necting a steam generator or cooking range, boilers and steam pipes
with movable frames, constructed substantially as above set forth,
which frames contain and hold the boilers in place, while the vehicle
containing the whole apparatus is in motion.
39,171.Sad-iron.O. W. Preston, Jr., and Charles Barry,
Corning, N. Y.:
We claim the iron, ID, composed of a shell, c, and a sliding on ad-
justable heater, f, fitted within it and arranged substantially as shown
so as to serve while being heated as a draught chimney for the lamp,
as set f9rth.
39,172.Steam Trap.W. L. Ray, North Adams, Mass.:
I claim the plunger or valve, E, weight, G, and stop, J, combined
with each other and with the expanding pipe, B, and box, A, or us
equivalent, 10 operate substantially as and for the purpose herein
[This invention consists in a novel mode of combining a valve, s
weight, expanding pipe and a stop, in a steam trap, whereby it is ren-
dered very simple and durable and of very certain operation,]
39,173.Chuck for turning Staves.Francis Robbins,
I claim the heads, F and Gin combination with the shaft, C, and
nuts, b, or their equivalents, arranged and operating in the manner
substantially as set forth for the purpose specified.
39,174.Improvement in the Quality and Ornamentation
of Metals.William Rose, Halesowen, England. Pat-
ented in England August 31, ]855:
I claim for the purposes of ornamentation and strength, the piling
on combining of melals into a billet, so that the lamina of the meld
of some of the bars shalt be at right angles to that of some of the other
bars in the pile, for the purpose of giving the mass, when worked, a
checkered appearance ibroughout, as herein more fully set forth and
39,175.Life PreserverSocrates Scholfield, Norwich,
I claim the combination of a floating valve, F, with the pipe, B,
on its equuivclent, substantially as described,
I also claim Ihe combination of a floating valve, F, with the pupes,
C C, or their equivalent, substantially as descnibeth
~Aientzfk ~nxevi(~fl. 61
39,176.Condenser for Steam Engines.T. E. Sickels, two flaps or backs of the frame, arranged and operated for the
pur- 39,204.Composition in preparing Paints.Eliza M. Sea-
Kennett Square, Pa. pus set forth and shown, or any other arrangement substantially the bury, Brooklyn, N. Y., administratrix
of Jacob Sea-
I claim the combination and arrangement in a condensing steam same for the accomplishment of the same end. bury, deceased
engine of an air pump and surface condenser with a blower to force 39,192.Fishing Tackle for Deep-sea Fishing.William I claim ihe
pigments herein ilescribed composed of a combination
a current of air through the condenser to effect the condensation of Woodbury, Gloucester, Mass. Ante-dated October of the
ingredients spe~dfied as and for the purposes set forth.
the steam and to heat the air, substantially as set forth. 2, 1862 39,205.Churn.R. W. Whitney (assignor to himself and
39,177-Attaching Hubs to Wagons.A. E. Smith, Bronx- I claim introducing the spring, g, or its equivalent, into the length A. G.
Neally), South Berwick, Maine
yule, N. Y.: of the fishing line in the neighborhood of the book, substantially in I claim the improved churn as not only
constructed with the lever,
the manner and for the purpose specified. c, and the curved arm, D, arranged relatively to the reservoir, A, and
I claim the use of the ledge, lit, formed on the inside of the screw
cap, L, in combination with the revolving linch pin, K, and axle, A, 39,193.Centering Anvils.John Adt (assignor to him- the dasher,
E, as specified, but as having the strut. F, combined and
for the purpose hereinbefore set forth.
self and Elisha Turner), Waterbury, Conn.: arranged with the curved arm, D, and thedasher, E, so as to operate
Press.S. J~ Smith, New York I claim the center punch, b, in combiaation with the cap, c, substantially as
39,178.Hand-stamping blocks, g, and scroll, f, as and br the purpose specified.
I claim, first, Ths combination of a swinging stamp with the inking 39,194.Dredging and Excavating MachineCharles
table and impression bed, when said inking table is elevated above Atkinson, Moline, Ill., and Joseph Atkinson,
New- 1,509.Sheet-metal Spoon.Florian Grosjean, New York
the impression bed for the purposes specified.
Second, I claim two arms swinging on one gudgeon and carrying bury, Vt., executors of William Atkinson, deceased, City.
Patented Jan. 28, 1862
different stamps, substantially as specified, in combination with ink- late of Brooklyn, N. Y. : I claim stamping or swaging
spoons, of single pieces of sheet-metal
ing and impression tables, so placed that either stamp can be inked We claim, first, The employment, in combination with what
has with a middle corrugation or raised ridge, extending along the narrow
and impressed, as set forth, been herein termed the suction dredging boat, or wiub any other boat or weaker part of the handle, and
prolonged into the bowl ol the
Third, I claim the adjustable inking table, I, formed as a shallow- or carrisge, of a system of reciprocating spade cutters, F F,
operating spoon, so as to give full strength to the junction of the bowl and
fiat cup setting upon the arm, c, as and for the purposes specified. substantially as and for the puirpose herein specified. handle,
either leaving the handle fiat on both sides, or with a bead
Fourth, I claim the shallow cup and cloth pad, forming Ihe inking Second, The employment, in combination with the suction
dredging around the middle corrugation, substantiahty as and br the purposes
table, in combination with a stamp fitted upon an arm and gudgeon tO boat, or any oIlier boat or carriage, of a system of
reciprocating and herein specified.
swing from such inking cup to the impression table, as set forth. rotating spade cutters, I, applied io operate substantially as and
for 1,510.Artificial Leg.Douglas Bly, Rochester, N. Y.,
for Projectiles.C. W. Stafford, Burling - the purpose herein set forth.
39,179.Sabot Third, The employment, in combination with the suction dredging assignee of R. H. Nicholas and Douglas Bly. Pat
ton, Iowa : boat, or any other boat, of a system of reciprocating and rotating ented July 28, 1857
I claim, first, A sabot constructed with a conical shell, c, to form chisel-pointed cutters, K, applied and operating substantially
as and I claim a universal joint in connection with two parts, A B, of an
an abutment between ihe disk, A, and the rear of a spherical or other for the purpose herein set forth, artificial leg, substantially
as and for the purpose herein set forth.
shot Fourth, The employment, in combination with the suction dredging Also, two tendons, t t, and their springs, as, or their
Second, A sabot constructed with a disk, A, flange, B, conical disk, boat, or other boat or carriage, of a rot, ry boring tool. L,
applied and combination with two parts, A B, of an arlificial leg, for the purpose
c, rings, E B But Butt, auud band, G, substantially as described, for operating substanutally as and for the purpose herein
described, of holding the said parts properly together, and keeping the action-
use in connection with a sub-caliber shot or shell. Fifth, The cylindrical casing, B, applied in cumbinatuon with ~ hating surfaces
of the joint in constant co-aptation, substanilally as
[The objects of this invention are to reduce the strain upon the gun screw-like construction of the tool, L, to form a pump,
substantially herein specified.
as herein specified.
and improve the accuracy and range of the shot - The sabot is adapted Sixth, The employment in combination with the suction
the full force of the explosion on an area larger than boat, or any other boat or carriage, of a rotary boring tool or
to receive that of cutters, Pt, arranged in a swinging carriage, Q, substanliahly as
of the shot, guide the latter in an accurately central position through and for the purpose herein specified. 1 796 to 1,799.Blind
Binding (3 cases).H. W. Hensel,
the bore and separate from it at the instant ol heaving the gun.] Seventh, The employment, in combination with the suction dredg
- log boat, or any olber boat or carriage, of a cutter cylinder carrying a Philadelphia, Pa.
39180ProjectileC W. Stafford, Burlington, Iowa: series of cutters, 5 5, and operating substantially as and for the pur- 1,800
tol,802.Plate of a Cooks Stove (4 cases).S. B.
pose herein specified
I claim, first, An elongated shot, A. guided and supported within Bighth. The employment, in combination with the suction dredging
Ransom, Albany, N. Y.
the bore by a hollow spheroidal band, 0, which may continue with it boat, or any other boat or carriage, of a chopping, cutting or
uuu its flight, and by a sabot, D, which, after receiving the full explosive blade, x, applied and operating substantially as and
for the purpose 1,803.Plate ef a Stove.Garrettson Smith & Henry
force of the charge will separate from the shot by atmospheric resist- herein set forth.
ausce, substantially as explained. Brown, Philadelphta, Pa., assignors to Marsh & Sisler,
Second, The detachable conical-faced sabot, D, and expansiblepack- 39,195.Coal-oil Lamp.Louis Bader (assignor to him-
lug disk or cup, B, constructed as described, in combination with the self and C. F. Elwert), Philadelphia, Pa.
sub-cati,ber bolt, A, for the purposes specified. I claim the burner composed of caees inclosing chambers, J K L
[The heading oltjects of this invention are to impart accuracy, range and B, arranged in respect to each other and to the wick, and
and high velocity to a sub caliber projectile for the purpose of pene- municating with each other, substantially as described for
the purpose Regulator for Self-acting Mnles..E. C. Sawyer, Salem,
trating opposing bodies, mail-clad or otherwise, and destroying them 39,196.Machine for manufacturing Lozenges.Oliver R. Mass.
Patented July 3, 1849
by explosive or incendiary agents.] Chase, Birmingham, England, assignor to Chase & I claim the regulator constructed and made to
as above described, the same consisting or the combination of the
Valve for Steam Engines.A. J. Stevens, I Company, Boston, Mass. : weighted centrifugal lever, e, the lever huawi or click, h, the
39,181.Slide claim the combination and arrangement of the extra-delivery wheel, k, its cam, I, and the lever, n, applied
together and to the main
l~an Francisco, Cal. Ante-dated April 29, 1863 : apron, G, with the main-delivery apron, F, or carrier of the reducing driving
shaft, A, and the slide, U, of the hoist cam, essentially as
I claim, first, The connected puppet valves, g gt, applied in combi- and sugaring apparatus, and with mechanism for stam~uiog the
lumen- above specified.
nation with separate chambers, e et, and in relation to the main ges from the paste, the object of the said delteerug apron, when
used And as auxiliary to the above, I claim the second centrifugal weight-
valve, substantially as and for the p01-pose herein specified. as set forth with the main delivery apron or carrier, and the appara-
ed lever, rt, and the ring, t, and retractive spring in combinatious
Second, The follower, 0, combined with the valve by means of an toe for reducing the paste and sugaring it on both sides, being to
en- therewith, the same being br the purpose above explained.
internal gland, B, sod otherwise applied, as herein specified, to serve able the sheet of paste to be seen on both of its sides
not only for the protection ot the back of the valve from the pressure to the cutters.
of steam but as a means of communication between the anti-coin- I also claim the combination and arrangement of the delivery apron,
pression valve chest and the exhaust pipe or atmosphere, as herein G, the cutter board, H, the series of cutters, L, and the
set furth. charging apron, Itt, the same not only enabling the shee
39,182.Sugar Cane-crushing Mill.Isaac Straub, Cm- drop vertically and fall by its own weight preparatory ~ IIMIPORTANT 7ro
seing cut, but causing the cutters to discharge the lozenges on a dis
cinnati, Ohio : charging apron or boards placed thereon, in manuser as set forth.
I claim the arrangement of projections, G Gin, on the under aids of I also claim the arrangement and combination of the
surface-charg- PATENTS FOR SEVENTEEN YEARS.
the top plate, A, and on the upper side of the bottom plate, At, and ing apron, I, with the cutteu- board, H, the delivery apron, G,
so that the ends of the rollers for only a small portion of their extent, series of cutters, L, and the lomenge-dischargiisg apron,
and immediately at the point where the crushing Is performed, shall as specified.
abut against them, all substantially in the manner and for the purpose I also claim thearrangement and combination of the comb
plate, ESSBS. MUNN & CO., PROPRIETORS OF THE
described. 0, with the cutters, I, and their stamping board, B, or device for sup-
39,183.Solar-time Globe.Theodore R. Timby, Saratoga pouting the paste while it is beingatamped. . Soasaxiiic AXERIOAN, continue to
solicit patents In the United
Springs, N. Y. : 39,197.Circular Loom.William Darker (assignor to States and all foreign countrieB, on
I claim the arrangement of the toothed ring, D, and adjustable dial, J. B. Thompson) , Philadelphia, Pa. : I the most reasonable
0, revolving once in twenty-four hours, in combination with the globe, I claim, first, The employment for acting upon the warp
threads also attend to various other depart-
A, secured to the revolving ring and adjustable in the same and with in a circular loom to produce an open shed for theintroduction
ofthe . ments ofbusinesspertainlngto pat-
the stationary index, F, all constructed and operating in the manner weft, of a series of leaders, D D, applied and operating
substantially ents, such as Extensions, Appeals
and for the purpose substantially as shown and described. as herein specified.
39u184,CurrencY and Stamp Box.L. L. Tower, Cam- Second, The employment, for passing the uveft thread or threads . before the United
bridgeport, Mass. : through the open abeds of the warp tn a circular loom, ofa carrier.
G, supported by a surrounding series of grooved pulleys, G G, which - . . Interferences, Opinions relative to
I claim my combined stamp and currency box, having its parts, A serve both to sustain it in its proper position and to give it
and B, provided respectively with receptacles and retainers, con- motion, substantially as and for the purpose herein specified. .
~ Infringements, & c. The long ex-
structed and arranged substantially in the manner and for the pur Third, The cam, K, attached to the carrier, 0, and operating . ,
. perlence Messrs. Musw & 0o. have
poses set forth. through the agency of levers, L L, and wires, k k, or their e ci~ uiva- had In preparing Specifications
tents, to produce the operation of the leaders, D P substantia ly as
. and Drawings has rendered them
39,185.Composition for Lubricating.James Turner, and for the purpose herein specified.
New York City:
I claim a lubricating compound made of the Ingredients herein [The principal features of this invention consist of certain
novel perfectly conversant with the
specified, mixed together in the manner and about In the proportion means of opening the sheds of the circularly-arranged warp and
in mode of doing business at the
Also, the use of sawdust in combination with fatty suibstances and ~ novel device for carrying the filling through the open sheds j
United States Patent Office, and with the greater part of the inventions
alkaline lye or lime water, as and for the purpose specified. 39,198.Breech-loading Fire-arm.Jarvis Davis (assignor hich have been
patented. Information concerning the patentability
[This invention consists in mixing together paraffine or the heavy to Patrick Smith), Buffalo, N. Y. : Inventions Is
freelygiven, without charge, on sending a model or
oil contained in petroleum and saponified red oil or the residuum from I claim the hooked bar, G, operated by the hammer,
substantially awing and description to this office.
the fat, or other material used in the manufacture of candles, with described, in combination with the block, Gt, and hinged
abut- THE EXAMINATION OF INVENTIONS.
0, so Ihat the hooked bar is thrown out of engagement with
lime water or other alkaline lye, and sawdust, in such a manner that the cartridge when the hinged abutment is closed,
substantially as Persons having conceived an idea which they think may be patent-
by the sawdust the lubricating qualities of the fits are retained and set forth, able, are advised to make a sketch or model of
their Invention, and
a compoundis produeced which can be used with great advantage and . 39,199.Composition for dyeing the Covers of Railroad submit it
to us, with a fnhldsscription, for advice. The points of nov.
economy for lubricating axles and heavy gearing.] Seats, & c.A. A. Grandelle (assignor to Thomas elty are carefully examined, and
a written reply, corresponding with
Brown) , New York City:
39,186.Harvester.Thomas and Israel W. Ward, Lane I claim the composition of matter herein described for dyeing the facts, Is
promptly sent free of charge. Address MUNN & 00.,
Depot, Ill. : cushions and other articles, prepared and employed in the manner 1T0. 37 Park How, New York.
We claim the two frames, A I, conneeted together by the hinges or herein set forth.,
joints, d, as shown, in connection with the draught bar, D, connected [The principah objflct of this invention is to re-dye the
cushions of PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS AT THE PATENT OFFICE.
at its front end to the frame A by hinges or joints, b b, the two railroad car seats with aniline colors without ripping them open
and The service we render gratuitously upon examining an Invention
frames having arms, U Y, attached to them, which are connected by does not extend to a search at the Patent Office, to see If a like
cords, V Z, to the shaft, It, and tube, W, all arranged substantially as taking them to pieces.] tion has been presented there, but
is an opinion based upon what
and for the purpose specified.
Wefurther claim the tubularjoints or pintles, d, forconnecting the 39,200.Washing Machine.B. S. Hill, Wattsburg, Pa., knowledge we
may acquire of a similar invention from the records In
two frames, A I, in combinatio0, with the pitman, j, for driving the assignor to himself and Sterling Doolittle, Amity our Home
Office. But for a fee of $5, accompanied with a model or
sickle, K, when arranged as shown, to admit of the adjustment of the
two frames without interfering with the sickle-drivin~ mechanism. township, Erie Co., Pa. awing and descrip
[This invention consists In a novel and useful combination of two . I claim the combination of the pounders, F B and B, and the in-
dr tion, we have a special search made at the United
chined plane, G, substantially as set forth for the purpose specified. States Patent Office, and a report setting forth the
prospects of oh-
frames and a draught bar, arranged in a
and platform may be . and uch a manner that the sickle 39,201.Roller for Wringing Machines.H. W. Holly and taming a patent, & c.,
made up and mailed to the inventor, with a
lowered to any desired length, so- A. F. Smith (assignors to A. F. Smith) , Norwich, pamphlet, giving instructions for further
proceedings. These prehim
cording to the length of cut required, and the sickle always kept in 5. Coun. : mary examinations are made through our Branch Office,
corner of F
proper horizontal position, and at the same time a very simple, econ- We claim, first, In the construction of soft and ehastlo
rolls the em- and Seventh streets, Washington, by experienced and competent per-
omical and efficient harvester obtained.] phoyment of soft pieces, 0 0, hard pieces, B B, and the splined or
equivalent shaft, A At, arranged to operate together in the manner sons. Many thousands ofauch examinations have been made through
39,187.Carding Engine.John C. Whitin, Northbridge, an~l for the purpose herein set forth.
Mass. : econd, We claim, in connection with the yielding pieces or disks, this office. Address MUNN & 00.. No. 37 Park Row. New
I claim combining the self-stripper of Wellman with the cylinder 0, and hard pieces, B, arranged as specified, the employment of ~
TO MAKE AN APPLICATION FOR A PATENT.
the projections, b bt, or either of them, arranged substantially as and
stripper of Gambrill and Burgee, essentially as above described. for the purpose herein set forth . Every applicant for a patent
must furnisha model of his invention
39,158.Row-lock.W. H. Willard, Cleveland, Ohio. Third, We claim the combination of the tightly fitted covering, G, If susceptible
of one or, If the invention is a chemical production,
I claim the herein-described construction ol a row-lock, consisting with disks of soft material, 0, and suitable means of confining
of the plate, A, thole pins, D, plates, F, and springs, G, the several same, substantially as and for the phrpose set forth. he must
furnish samples of the ingredients of which his composition
pacts hem arranged and operating substantially as and for the pur- Fourth, We claim the spurred plates or wheels at one er both
ends consists, for the Patent Office. These should be securely packed, the
of the roll, as represented by B e, arranged as represented relatiyely
pose speci ed. ~ the open plate, II, covering, G, and in, H, or their respective equiv- Inventors name marked on them and sent,
with the Government fees,
39,189.Casting Boxes for Carriage Axles.Samuel Wil- alents, for the purpose herein set forte. by express. The express charge should
be pre-paid. Small models
liamson, Cincinnati, Ohio : 39,202.Composition for Paint.Josiah Miller, Moore from a distance can often be sent cheaper by mail.
The safest way
I claim the cast-iron flask, H H, ate, A, in combination with the Township, Pa.: assignor to Harrison Trumber, Ho- to remit money
is by draft on New York, payable to the order of
sand core, C, attached to the chill, , operating in the manner and kendauqua, Pa., and W. C. Kieppinger, Alba town- MUNN & co.
Persons who live in remote parts of the country can
he purpose substantially as set forth.
39,190.Self-lubricating Bols~r for Spinning Machines. I ship, Pa. : usually pursihase drafts from their merchants on their New York
M. i. Wilmarth, Smithfield, R. I : claim a paint mixture prepared substantially as hereinbefore respondents ; but, if not
convenient to do so, there Is but little risk
I claim the arrangement of the cap, C, with the absorbent, B, and ~ 203.Door Lo
annular recess, c, or their equivalents, substahitially as described for , ck and Latch.W. T. Munger (assignor in sendingbank-bills
by mail, having the letter registered by the post-
the purpose specified, to Thomas Kennedy), Branford, ~ Conn. : master. Address MUNN & CO., No. 37 Park Bow, New York.
39,191.Photographic Printing Frame.Michael Witt, I claim the combination of the horseshoe, B, latch bolt, D, and The revised
Patent Laws, enacted by Congress on the 2d of March,
Columbus, Ohio : cam, H, or Its equivalent, substantially as herein specified. ~ are now in fuhl force, and prove to be of great
benefit to all par
Second, I claim the combination described of the latch bolt, fi, and
I claim the apphicalion of the self-adjusting spring-cushion to Ifie cam, H, for the purpose substantially as herein specified. ties
who are concerned in new inventions.
The duration ofpatents granted under the new act Is prolongedto
SEVENTEEN years, and the Government fee requiredon filinganappli-
cation for a patent is red d from $30 to sib. Other changes in the
fees are also made as follows
On filing each Caveat $10
On filing each application for aPatent, exceptfor a design. $15
On Issuing each original Patent $20
On appeal to Commissioner of Patents $20
On application for Re-iasue $30
On application for Extension of Patent $30
On g ranting the Extension $30
Onfilinga Disclaimer $10
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The law abolishes discrimination in fees required of foreigners, cx.
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signs) on the above terms. Foreigners cannot secure their inven-
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During the last seventeen years, the business of procuring Patents
for new inventions in the United States and all foreign countries has
been conducted by Messrs. MUNN & CO., in connection with the
publication of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN; and as an evidence of
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the country, we would state that we have acted as agents for at least
TWENTY THOUSAND inventors! In fact, the publishers of this
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TO OUR READERS.
RECEIPTS.WheIi money j5 paid at the office for subScrip-
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PATENT CLAnies.PerSonS desiring the claim of any inven-
tion which has been patented within thirty years, can obtain a
copy by addressing a note to this office, stating the name of the pat-
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copying. Wecan also furnish a sketch of any patented machineissued
since 1553, to accompany the claim, on receipt of $2. Address MUNN
~ CO., Patent Solicitors, No. 57 Park Row. New York.
Models are required to accompany applications forPatents
under the new law, the same as formerly, except on design patents
when two good drawings are all that are required to accompany the
petition, specification and oath, except the Gover nine ni fee.
INVARIABLE RuLE.It is an established rule of thisoffice
to stop sending the paper when the time for whic-h It was pre-paid
NEW PAMPHLETS IN GERMAN.WO have just issned a re-
vised edition of our pamphlet of I r - to Inseelers, containing
a digest of the fees required under the new Patent Law, & c., printed
In the German language, which persons can have gratis upon appli-
cation at this office. Address MUNN & CO.,
No. 37 Park-row, New York.
J. H. P., of N. Y.You state your case so that it is diffi-
cult to decide. You say, the steam pipe enters the boiler just
below the crown sheet, so there is plenty of steam space. Do you
not mean the shell of the boiler? The crown sheet is the top of the
fire-box. The trouble you refer to is caused by the water following
the steam passing through the main pipe. The water in the boiler
is raised by the steam and carried over with it, and of course, shows
itself at the upper gage. When the steam is shut off, the water
which is left subsides, and is, consequently, far below the water-
line. You blow the steam off too fast ; let it go more slowly
and you will, probably, have no trouble. The feed pump is not
large enough to supply the demand; steam condenses in the main
pipe because it is cold, and water passes over with the steam, caus-
ing a double consumption of water and fuel.
S. Q., of Canada West.Boilers are liable to foam When
they are new, when their steam space is too confined, and when
their water is font. An injector is a most efficient substitute for a
feed-pump. Messrs. Sellers, of Philadelphia, manufacture Giffards
C. lii. H., of Wis.We liave never seen experiments made
with the turbine wheel to which you refer, and cannot tell how
much water it discharges when running free; but in all likelihood
it discharges like some other wheels, more than when driving a full
train of machinery and running at a lower velocity.
L. K. W., of Iowa.Governors for marine engines have
been successfully introduced. If you have anything valuable in
that line you had better send us a sketch and description of it for
examination. We shall send you, by mail, a copy of our pamphlet
of advice absut patent matters -
E. B., of Mo.If the parties to whom you refer manufac-
tured your invention within the limits of the United States, you can
recover damages from them, as it is an infringement to make a pat-
ented invention without the patentees consenl~ -
H. L. S., of 111.It Would have been very easy for yen to
try the experiment, whether two magnets placed twelve inches
apart will move together. They will nut. A magnet will not
draw the iron ball to it from a distance of twelve inches.
J. C. J., of N. Y.Feathers may be dyed a scarlet color
by boiliiig them in a clean tin vessel with some water, ground cochi-
neal, a little cream-of-tartar, and a few drops of the mui-iate of tin.
Put these ingredients into the vessel, and, when boiling, place the
feathers therein, and boil for fifteen minutes; then take them out
and wash them in qpld water. This color is permanent, and one
ounce of cochineal will dye one pound of feathers, which should be
washed in soap before being dyed. Feathers may also be dyed yel-
19w by boiling them in a strong decoction of quercicron and a few
drops of the muriate of tin. These colors are suitable for toe leath-
ers of hooks intended for fishing.
R. A. B., of L. 1.The turret plates of tho hors ors were
not bent near the deck in I e en~~-,oment at Charleston (as we
have been informed), so as Ii p ~ss.l the turrets from revolving.
W. M., of N. Y.A dimiund does not neutralize the mag-
netism of a magnet. ~Vlsoever told you to the contrary is mistaken.
If you place a piece of steel in the inside of a glass tube, and apply
a magnet on the outside, the steel will he attracted.
S. B. 0., of Pa.When two cisterns are placed at differ-
entlevels below a spring or fountain head, and the water is conveyed
to them by a branch pipe, the overflow will be by the waste pipe of
the lower cistern. Water always seeks the lowest level.
F. W. E., of N. Y.There is no reliable way of ascer-
taining the quantity of air that passes through your register into the
chimney, without first finding out its velocity. This could be done
with an aerometer, for measuring the force of air currents. By
multiplying the velocity of the air, in feet, per second, into the area
of the register in square feet, the quantity which passes through in
a second will be given in cubic feet.
S. W., of N. J.The mode which you propose for pro-
tecting the steam pipe of your engine, by enclosing it in a wooden
box filled with saw-dust, to prevent the condensation of steam, will
answer very well. Plaster-of-Paris, however, is superior to the
saw-dust as a sale non-conductor; so is common plaster mortar
that is mixed with hair.
H. M4 of Canada West.The powder ignited in a gun
exerts the same amount of pressure -upon the breech that it does
upon the bullet. You should make an experiment to test the ques-
lion of securing the harness traces of the horse in drawing a load
so as to exercise his power most advantageously.
J. C. A., of N. Y.Sixteen years ago we saw a small
boat propelled by the reaction of water on the East river, in this
city. The water was forced through a tube passing out at the stern
of the boat. The principle is old, having been first suggested and
tried by James Huinsey about 1786. It is an inferior system to the
paddle and screw, and we advise you to spend no money in making
experiments with it.
J. MoD., of Maine.Your lileas respecting the construc-
lion of screw steamers with iron frames, an inside skin of iron
plate, and an outside planking of wood are good. Such vessels
could be sheathed with copper and thus be free from the fouling
so common to iron-plated vessels.
J. B., of Vt.Charcoal and Clean sand are about the best
substances you can use for filtei beds. The charcoal should be fine,
but not reduced to powder, and the beds about one foot in depth.
H. K., of N. Y.-Lead pipes tinned inside for conveying
water are of old date, and have been used to some extent in this
city. If the tin becomes detached, in small spots, from the lead,
a galvanic action ensues, and the lead is decompssed more rapidly
than if it had not been coated with the tin. Such pipes, therefore,
have not been approved.
W. McT., of Pa.The magnetic oxide of iron has been
used for purifying water. When broken into small pieces and ar-
ranged in a layer of a few inches in depth, muddy water was ren-
dered clear by being passed through it. You can easily make an ex-
perimeutwith it and satisfy yourselt~
M. A. ~W.,of L.I.A blower would greatly increase the
draft of your chimney.- As you find it difficult to apply it to the
several furnaces of your boilers, it may answer every purpose to ap -
ply it direct to the chimney, if not, branch pipes must be osnuected
with the furnaces. The exhaust steam from the cylinder of your
engine wsuld also increase the draft of your bsilers.
J. B., of 111.By case-hardening the slots in the shanks of
your reaper blades they will wear three times longer.
H. W. L., of Wis.In manufacturing shot for fowling
pieces a small quantity of arsenic is mixed with the lead, otherwise
it will not drop with facility through the sieves.
T. B., of Ohio.--The velocity of a falling body is ascer-
tained by multiplying the square root of the hight by 8, which is th e
co-efficient for the action of gravity in falling one foot. Thus a
body having fallen 16 feet has a velocity of 12 feetthe square root
of 16 being 4, which, multiplied by 8, gives 32. This rule will en-
able you to calculate the velocity of water at the foot of falls of any
W. W. V., of N. J.The sulphate of lead is formed with
solutions of alum and the acetate of lead. Dissolve one pound of
alum in two gallons of hot water, and one pound of the acetate of
lead in an equal quantity of water, and mix them together, when
double decomposition will be effected, and the acelate of alum and
sulphate of lead will be formed. This solution is used for rendering
cloth water-proof. Immerse the cloth in the clear liquor after the
sediment has settled; take it out and dry it in a warm room, and it
will shed ~vater like the back of a duck..
A. J. H., of N. Y.Your communication upon The
Science of Projectiles may be very excellent, but the penmanship
is so wretched that we could not get through with more than five
lines of it.
J. T. F., of Mass.Locomotive boilers could be made just
as efficient and strong without steam domes as with them.
H. 0. W., of N. Y.The most permanent red color on
wool is obtained from madder. Aniline and cochineal reds are
morebeautiful, but they do not stand washing with soap and ex-
posure to sunlight like madder red.
J. T. of Pa.The prussiate of potash answers well for
case-hardening small articles; but the old method of operation
with bone-dust, pieces of hoofs, and leatheris superior for large
RATES OF ADVERTISING.
Twenty-live Cents per line for each and every insertion,
payable in advance. To enable all to understand how to calculate the
amount they must send when they wish advertisements published,
we will explain that ten words average one line. Engravings willno I
be admitted into our advertising columns , and, as heretofore, the
publishers reserve to themselves the right to reject any advertisement
hey may deem objectionable.
Adapted to mechanical purposesMACHINE BELTING. STEAM
PACKING, VALVES, HOSE, EMERY, VULOANITE WHEELS,
& c. & c. Directions, prices, & c., can be obtained on appiteation to the
NEW YORK BELTING AND PACKING COMPANY,
Nos. 37 and 35 Park Row, New York..
Josize H. CREEVER, Treasurer. . 4tf
FOR SALETHREE NEW STATIONARY ENGINES
Cylinder 7 inches bole, 14 inches stroke ; fly-wheel 4 feet diame-
ter 11 inches face ; complete, with cocks, pump, & c - Boiler, double
rethrn flue, 36 inches diameter, 15 feet long ; fitted with valves, cocks
and pipes to connect with engine. Also 25 feet iron chimney, and all
fixtures required to put the engine in operation. Price $800 each, se-
curely packed. ALBERTSON & DOUGLASS MACHINE CO.,
4 .25 . New London, Coun -
GAS FROM KEROSENE TAR AND HARD WOOD
for factories. & c. ; 400 feet from one gallon of tar. The char-
coal buys the wood. Address H. Q. HAWLEY, Albany, N. V. l~
STEAM AND WATER GAGES, GLASS TUBES, PAT-
ent gage cocks, whistles and engine counters, for sale. Also
indicators for ascertaining the working horse-poaer nf steam en-
gines, heat gages and signal gsnge for steamboats.. H. BROWN, 311
Walnut street, Philadelphia, P~
THE UNRIVALLED DOUGLASS ARTIFICIAL LIMBS
are adapted and applied to all forms of amputations. Recom-
mended by the leading surgeons ; liberally patronized by the U. S.
- Army and Navy officers - Manufactured by D OsForrest Douglass,
Burts Block, Springfield, Mass. 4 2~
A VALUABLE WORK FOR INVENTORS,
PATENTEES AND MANUFACTURERS.
The publishers of the SCIENTIFIC AMERIcAN have just prepared,
with much care, a pamphlet of information about Patents and the
Patent Laws, which ought to be in the hands of every inventor and
patentee, and also of manfacturers who use patented inventions.
The character of this useful work will be better understood after read-
in. the following synopsis of its contents:
The complete Patent Law Amendment Act of 1861Practical In-
structions to Inventors, how to obtain Letteis Patent, also about
Defective PatentsValidity of PatentsAbandonment of Inventions
Best Mode of Introducing themImportance of the Specification
Who are entitled to PatentsWhat will prevent the Granting of a
PatentPatents in Canada and European PatentsSchedule of Pat-
ent Fees; also a variety of miscellaneous
tions. been items on patent law ques-
the design of the publishers to not only furnish, in con-
venient form for preservation, a synopsis of the PATENT LAW and
PRACTICE, but also to answer a great variety of questions which have
been put to them from time to time during their practice of upwards
of esce teen p vs which replies are not accessible in any other form.
The publishers will promptly forward the pamphlet by mail, on re-
ceipt of six cents in postage stamps.
Address MUNN & CO., Publishers of the SCiENTiFIC AEERiCAN,
No. 37 Park Row, New York. 9
PRovosT MARSHAL GENERALS OFFICE,
WASHINGTON, July 10. 1863.
The following extracts from laws of the United States, now in force,
are published for the information and guidance of all concerned
Section 12, of the Enrolment Act, after directing how the draft
shall be conducted, says : And the person so drawn shall be unfi-
lled of the same within ten days thereafter, by a written or printed
notice, to be served personally, or by leaving a copy at the last place
of residence, requiring him to appear at a designated place of rendez-
vous, to report for duty.
Section 13, of the Enrolment Act, contains the following : And
any person failing to report after due service of notice as herein
prescribed, without furnishing a substitute or paying the required
sum therefor, shall be deemed a DESERTER and shall be arrested by the
Provost Marshal and sent to the nearest military post for trial by
Court-martial, unless, upon proper showing that he is not liabie to do
military duty, the Board of Enrolment shalt relieve him finns the
The 20th Article of War contains the following : All officers and
soldiers . - - convicted of having deo~rted, shpll op ci- DEATH, or
such other punishment as by sentence of court-martial shall he in-
flicted. JAMES B. FRY,
1 Provost Marshal General
IATHITES PATENT GOVERNOR AND CHECK VALVE
VT A perfect regulator of steam, and always safe, as it checks
the speed of an engine if the governor belt breaks or comes off,
which alone is worth the price of it. Territory for sale. For partic-
ulars inquire of A. WHITE & CO., proprietors and manufacturers,
Geneseo, Henry county, 111. 4 3~
metallurgy, analyses, and commercial essays of every kind plans of
factories, rhemical fabricateurco, recipes, & c. Ac. Address Prof. H.
DUSSAUCE, chemist, New Lebanon, N. Y. 4 2
IRON ROOFINGLIGHT, CHEAP, DURABLE AND
perfectly Ore and water-proof, constructed and put up by W
G. REED, Chelsea, Mass. Patenlrights for sale. 3 25
RIGHT FOR THE STATE OF NEW YORKFOR SALE.
Improved Automatic Weighing Scale. This scale operates without
the use of weights or springs, is compact, simple and cheap, always
reliable, never gets out of order, has every advantage of the spring
balance without its disadvantages, and can be adapted to every kind
01 scale now in use, and is superior to any scale now in use. sFor
terms & c., address as soon as possible L. C. CROWELL, 187 Salem
street, Boston, Mass. 33*
WATER WHEELS.REYNOLDS PATENT.THE
best turbine in use ; powe-ful and economical in use of water
Call upon or address us at our office. Works at Oswego.
34 TALLOOTT & UNDEItHILL, 482 Broadway, New York.
WOOD-WORKING MACHINES.A FULL SETT
for car and sash and door work. Two Woodworth planers 6
rolls, 14 inches. One Gray & Wood planer 16 by 20, one Daniels
planer, one planer and matcher, two molfling, two tenening, and
two mortising machines, two scroll saws, one boring machine, two
saw tables, one circular saw mill, one Wicks re-slitting mill, one
cut-off saw, one blind slat machine, belting, & c., all in good order
and chean for cash. Address CHARLES H. SMITH, 138 North Third
street, Phitadeiphia, Pa. 3 4
M ACHINERY.SLIDE LATHES, IRON PLANERS,
upright drills, bolt-cutting machines, milling machines, gear
cutting engines, punching machines, universal chucks, Ac., at 135
Borth Third street, Philadelphia, Pa., CHARLES H. SMITH.
F A N BLOWERSDIMPFELS, ALDENS, MCKENZIES
and others, for Steamboats, Iron Works, Founderies, Smith
Shops, Jewelers, c., on hand for sale by LEACH BROTHERS, 86
Liberty street, New York. 2 l3~
IRON PLANERS, ENGINE LATHES, DRILLS AND
machinists tools, of superior quality, on hand and finishing,
for sale low. For description and price address NEW HAVEN MAN-
UFACTURING COMPANY, New Haven, Coun. ltf
P AYES PATENT FORGE HAMMERADAPTED TO
both heavy and light forgings, with an adiustahie stroke of from
one inch to three feeu, on hand for sale by LEACH BROTHERS, 56
Liberty street, New York. 1 l3~
LANES PATENT LIFTING JACKYERY EASILY
operated, compact, simple and cheap. For cut and description
see page 405, Vol. VIII. (new series), SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. Stats
rights br sale. Communications in relation to rights or orders for
Jacks may he addressed no J. G. LANE, Washington, N. V. 1 5
250 RARE RECEIPTS-ONE HUNDRED OF THESE
receipts cost over a thousand dollars. The book sent by
mail for fifteen cents. HUTCHINSON & CO., Publishers, 442 Broad-
way, New York. 24 6~
PORTABLE STEAM ENGINESCOMBINING THE
maximum of efficiency, durability and sconomywith the minimum
of weight and price. They are widely and favorably known, more
than 2110 being in use. All warranted satisfactory or no sale. A large
stock on hand ready for immediate application. Descriptive circulars
~eni on application. Address J. C. HOADLEY, Lawrence, Mass.
PORTABLE STi~AM ENGINES6, S AND 10-HORSE
at$500, $625 and $780. For sale by S. C. HILLS, No. 12 PlaIt
meet, New York.
A MESSIEURS LES INVENTEURS.AYIS IMPORT-
LI.. ant. Lss inventeurs non familiers avec Ia langue Anglaise, et
qui pr0fdreraient none communiquer leur 5 inventions en Fran~ais,
penvent nuns addresser dens lenin langue natale. Envoyez none no
dessins et une description concise pour online examen Toutes com.
munications seront repues en confidence. MUNN & CO..
Scientific Americau office, No. 37 Park Row, New York.~
p T. BABBITT ON MAKING BREAD, WITH FULL,
.1...) directions on each package ofSalaratus, showing how to make
the best of bread from materials Ihat farmers always have on hand.
Bread made in this manner contains nothing but flour and common
salt and water; it has an agreeable taste; keeps much longer than
common bread; Is more digestible and much less disposed to turn to
acid. Common bread, like every thing that has been fermented, fer-
ments again to the great discon,9DrI of many stomachs, and not only
so, but acting as a ferment, it commnnicates to all food in contact
with it. The bread being free from all yeasty particles, is more diges-
tible and not so likely to create flatulence or turn acid on weak stom-
achs as fermented bread is apt So do, and, when of the finest quality,
it is hene6eial to those who stiffer from headache, acidity, flatulence,
eructations, a sense of sinking at the pit of the stomach, distension
or pains after meals, and to all who are subject to gout or gravel; it
is also useful in many affections of the skin~ a saving of 23 pounds of
flour per barrel is effected by this process. Be sure and get that with
B. T. BABBITTS name on, or you will not get the recipe with sour
milk, nor the quality. For ss,le by store-keepers generally or at the
manufactory, Nos. 64 to 74 Washington street, New York. 25 If
TO MANUFACTURERS AND MACHINE BUILDEBS.
The undersigned being engaged in the purchase and sale of ma-
chinery, such as steam engines, mill and f dory machinery, lathes.
tools, and all kinds of manufactured machines and implements, and
assisting commission merchants and others in their purchases, solicits
from manufacturers their circulars, price lists, terms, & c., also any
illustrations of their machinery or works they may have. Parties in-
troducing new inventions or improvements will find it to their inter-
est to communicate with him, giving such information in regard to
their improvements as they deem neceosory, which will receive the
attention due to their merits. J. E. STEVENSON, Machinery Broker,
200 Broadway, New York. References:The Novelty Iron Works,
New York; Franklin Townsend, Albany, N.Y.; Lowell Machine Shop,
Lowell, Mass.; Hunsworth, Eakins & Naylor, Peoples Works, Phil-
adelphia, Pa. 1 35
F IBEROLEANING MACHINETHIS VALUABLE
of Eduardo J. y Patrullo, and illustrated
on page 368. lest volume, SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, is noMon exhibition,
where the public ore invited to examine it, at the astablishment of
TODD & RAFFERTY, No. 13 Dey street, New York. 213
W~TEDSCRAP IRON. OLD BOILERS, AND OLl
MachineryThe subscribers will pay cash for any quan
tity of Wrought or Cast Scrap Iron, Old Boilers, and Old Iron Ma-
chinery, delivered at their warehouse, 28. 30, and 12 Terrace street~
Buffalo. or at their Rolling Mill and Nail Factory, Block Rock, N. V..
Buffalo, Jnly, 1863. . PRATT & CO
~OMETHING NEW! AGENTS WANTED 1OUR NEW
IKII fancy Card Thermometer, Hemmer & Shield for hand
sewing, Improved Indelible Pencil for marking linen, and 10 mois
novel, useful and indispensable articles selling rapidly. New inven-
tions sold on commission. For circulars and terms address RICE &
CO.. 37 Park-row, New York, Inventors and Agents Deopt. lIf
$60 A MONTH! WE WANT AGENTS AT $~0 A
mouth, expenses paid, to sell our Everlasting Pencils,
Orienta.i Burners, and thirteen olber new, useful and curious articles.
Fifteen ilinculars sent free. Address SHAW & CLARK, Biddeford,
Maine. 21 11
PECKS PATENT DROP PRESSALL THE SIZES
used in the manufacture of silver, brass or tinware, lamps,
spoons, jewelry, 0.; also for forging purposes, on hand or made to
order, by MILO, PECK & CO. New Haven, Coon. 22 13
H OMANS EXCELSIOR HORSE HAY RAKE.
Those wishliug rights in THE BEST, either for manufacture or
speculation, should apply immediately. New England States already
disposed of. Described in Nos. 22 and 25, VoL VIII. (new series), of
the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. Circulars sent free. C. B. HOLMES,
Dowagiac, Mich. 25 6
NERVOUS DISEASES AND PHYSICAL DEBILITY,
arising from Specific causes, in both sexesnew and reliable
treatment, in Reports of the Howard Associationsent in sealed let-
ter envelopes, free of charge. Address Dr. J. SKILLIN BOUGH-
TON, Howard Association, No. 2 South Ninth street, Philadelphia,
BOLTS, NUTS AND WASHERS OF ALL SIZES CON-
stantly on hand for sale by LEACH BROTHERS, 86 Liberty
street New York. 1 13
COTTON GINS! COTTON GINS!! THE NEW YORK
Cotton Gin Company manufacture and offer for sale the Excel-
sior Roller Gin for Sea Island or long staple cotton; also Browns cele-
brated Double-cylinder Saw Gin for upland or short staple. The above
Gins are acknowledged to be without their equal; they do more work
and produce a better sample than any offered in the market. We
also manufacture a large varietyof hand Gins, both for long and short
staples. Persons intending to order for the coming crop of cotton
will do well to do so soon, in order to secure their Gins in season.
FRANKLIN H. LUMMUS, General Agent, No. 82 John street, New
York. 25 13
B LACK DIAMOND STEEL WORKS, PITTSBURGH
Pa. PARK, BROTHER & CO., manufacturers of best quality
Refined Cast Steel, square, flat and octagon, of all sizes. Warranted
equal to any imported or manufactured in this country. Office and
Warehouse, Nos. 149 and 131 First street, and 120 and 122 Second
slineet, Pittsburgh, Pa. vol. 8 11 lye
ANDREWS PATENT CENTRIFUGAL PUMPSARE
economical, simple and durable ; pass coal, corn, sand, gravel,
Ac., without injury. Size from 20 gallons to 40 (100 gallons per min-
ute. Ranufactuied by WE. D. ANDREWS & BRO., 414 Water St.,
New York. Pumps to hire for wrecking, coffer-dams, sand pnmping,
F OR SALE.A PATENT GRANTED ON MARCH 17,
in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, Vol. VII., No. 20.
A spring skate which is light and durable, with an improved revolv-
ing heel screw. Samples can be seen at Waltons Skate Emporium
No. 67 Warren street, or at the owners, 178 Water street, New York.
23 105 . JOSEPH M. YATES.
P LATINA! ALL SHAPES! FOR ALL PURPOSES.
Imported by SUTTON A RAYNOR, 748 Broadway, N. Y. leo4
F AIROF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE, 1863.
The Board of Managers of the American hustitule hereby give
notice that they have rented -
THE ACADEMY OP MUSIC,
In Fourteenth street and Irving place, for the month of September, in
which to hold this
GREAT NATIONAL EXHIBITION.
The exhibition will be general, embracing MANUFACTURES of all
kinds, NEW INVENTIONS, IMPROVEMENTS IN AGRICULTU-
RAL IMPLEMENTS and the MECHANIC ARTS generally, except-
ing only machinery propelled by steam-power. Premiums, consist.
lug of Gold, Silver, and Bronze Medals, and Diplomas, will be
awarded on the decision of competent and impartial judges. Articles
for competition for the premluims will be received commencing
August 28, 1863, and the Fair will be opened to the public on
WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 2.
Circulars giving full particulars can be had at the rooms of the Insti-
tute in the Cooper Union Building.
By order of the Managers,
WE. H. BUTLER, Chairman,
WM - S. CARPENTER, Vice-Chairman.
JOHN W. CHAMBERS, Secretary. 2 Snow
F OR HUB-MORTISING MACHINES, SPOKE PLAIN-
ERS. Slanchard Lathes and. Wheel Machinery, address J. A.
FAY & CO., or E. C. TAINTER, succeeding partner, Worcester,
Mass. 24 1 & 4Vol.9~
THE CHEKPEST MODE OF INTRODUCING
INVENTORS AND CONSTRUCTORS OF NEW AND
useful Oontnlvances or Machines, of whatever kind, can have their
Inventions Illustrated and described In the coluimne of the SCIENTI-
PlC AMERICAN on payment of a reasonable charge for the engrar-
No charge is made for the publication, and the cuts are furnished in
the party for whom they are executed as soon as they have been used.
We wish it understood, however, that no second-hand or poor engrav-
ings, such as patentees often get ~xecuted by inexperienced artists br
printing circulars and handbills from, can be admitted Into these pages.
We also reserve the right to accept or reject such subjects as are pre-
sented for publication. And It is not our desire to receive orders for
engraving and publishing any but good Inventions or Machines, and
such as do not meet our approbation In this respect, we shall deelin
For further particulars address
BIUNN & CO.,
Publishers of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN.
No. 37 Park Row, ~New York City.
OIL! OIL! OIL
For Railinutads, Steamers, and for Machinery and Burning.
PEASES Improved Engine and Signal Oil, indorsed and recom-
mended by the highest a thority in the United States. This Oil
possesses qualities vitally essential for lubricating and bu.~ning, ane
found in no other oil It is offered to the public upon the most reli-
able. thorough and practical test. Our moot skillful engineers and
machinists pronounce itsuperior to and cheaper than any other, and
the only oil that is in all cases reliable uid will not gum. The
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, after several tests, pronounces it superior to
any other they have ever used for machinery. For sale only by the
Inventor and Manufacturer, F. S. PEASE, No. 61 Main street,
Buffalo, N. V.
N.1B.Reliable orders filled fofany part of the United States and
C UILD & GARRISONS CELEBRATED STEAM
7 PumpsAdauted Is every variety of pumping. The principal
styles are the Direct Action Excelsior Steam Pump, the improved
Balance Wheel Pump, Duplex Vacuum and Steam Pumps, and the
Water Propeller, an entirely new invention for pumping large quan.
lilies at a light lifI For sale at Nos. 55 and 37 First street, Wil-
lismsburgh, and No. 74 Beekman street. New York.
1 if GUILD. GARRISON & CO
VALUABLE DOCK PROPERTY FOR SALE.THE
subscriber offers for sale a valuable ptot of ground on Newlown
Creek. near Penny Bridge, in the city of Brooklyn. The property Is
very desirably situated in the Seventeslth Ward, Meeker avenue, a
----t thoroughfare, forming the southerly bousodary of the premises.
X valuable dock privilege of over 400 feet on Newlown Creek, renders
the property very desirable for large manufacturing or storage pur-
poses. Vessels of six or eight. feet draft can navigate the creek at low
tide, and uuf much greater capacity at high watet-. The upland and
water privilege comprise about nineteen acres, and will be sold very
cheap, and the terms of payment made liberal. For further particu-
lars, address J. B. BULLOCK, attorney for the owners, No.39 Nassau
street, New York. 22tf
THE CELEBRATED CRAIG MICROSCOPE WILL BE
mailed, prepaid. for $2 25: with 6 beautiful mounted objects for
$3; with 24 objects for $5, by HENRY CRAIG, 180 Center street (3d
floor). New York. Liberal discount to dealers
The Craig Microscopes are just what they claim to.be, and those
who wish for ouch an article will nol. be disappointed if they sho,nld
obtain one of theseN. Y. Methodist. . 19 13
the Whesier and Wilson Sewing Machine), adapted to all photographic
work; such as Landscapes. Stereoscopic Views, Carte Visites, Am-
binotypes, Ac. Can be ussed by amateurs and others from printed
directions. Send for a circular. Address A. B. WILSON, Walerbusry,
Conn. - l6if
IMPORTANT TO THOSE USING STEAM BOILERS.
Blakes Patent Self-regulating Apparatus for supplying boilers
with water. It keeps the water at a uiniform bight against any pres-
sure. Very simple and sure. All interested can see themin opera-
tion at our wouks, or cirrulars describing them will hesest by mail.
BLAKE A WHEELOCK, 71 Gold street, New York. State rights
sale. 23 9
F LAX, HEMP, JUTE AND MANIiLLA.RICHARD
KtTSON, Lowell, Mass., manufaclurer ~of needle-pointed card
clothing for carding flax, hemp, jute and manilla. 21 11
75 A MONTH! I WANT TO HIRE AGENTS IN
$ every county at $75 a month, expenses paid. to sell my new
cheap Family Sewing Machines. Address S. MADISON, Alfred,
Maine. 21 13
ThAMPER REGULATORSGUARANTEED TO EF-
J..J fect a great saving in fuel, and give the most perfect regularity
of power. For sale by the subscribers, who have established their ex-
clusive right to manufactuore damper regulators, using diaphragms
or flexible vessels of any kind. Orders promptly attended to, or in-
formalion given, by addressing CLARKS PATENT STEAM AND FIRE
REGuLAToR COMPANy, No. 5 Park Place, New York.
Responsible agents wanted. 16 26
WATER WHEELS.WARRENS TURBINE WATER
Wheel and Tuirhine Regulator are used successfully in over 500
extensive cotlon and woolen mills. where the greatest economy
water is at stake. Send for illustrated pamphlel Address ALONMO
WARREN, Ageu~t for American Water Wheel Company, No. 31 Ex-
chanee street Boston, Mass, 248
POWER LOOM WIRE CLOTHS AND NETTINGS,
superior in quualiny and allow prices, by the CLINTON WIRE
CLOTH COMPANY, Clinton, Mass. N. BOur trade-mark Pow-
er Loom Wire Cloth. . vol 5 24 31
~3ut ~Z3eaeIjtun~ fur beutfdje (~vfiu~er.
Bit Unter~eii~ilelen I)tlbfll ejue Iloleifung, bit Rrflubern ba~ 33erl)et..
ten eugilul, P01 fill) il)re i)ulenlt in fid)frll, l)eraodgeglben, 1mb oerebfvl~
geo feld)f gmtif an biefelluen,
Ilinfluter, Heidle nidi lull her enolifdieu Eginad~e betanut flub, Ilincee
(l)re 0lilll)eiluogen in Icr b~uifd~en Eprad~e unadieut. Elilien men Ir~
finbungeu 0111 inrilo, beullidy gcfdfriebellen ~eidsreibultgec beliebe ices
on ilblre(jlfIIt itn ilIhIliN ~
31 i)Of I Eels, EeH~jeet,
~Enf her ifllee HIrI beuth eefprc4en.
l~~,t~SCft Oft Ill ~abcn s.
- ~ IC ~ateut-~e~e~e be~ ~~~ereiuigteu ~shoaten.
cell) ben Illegein PIll her l35efd~iifiecrbnnng ber ~aleiul.~Zffice ufib iInIet~
lnngeu fur leo infinIte, uni fiel) 1j)ulenie in fidwino, itt bus Slier, l~l. fe
atl)I aid in ~nrepa. 3erner SIniPuge and beti ))atfIul-18f(eien frgmbet
dnber nub baraci beOllelidle lltalbidiliiqe; ebenfalid uuglhI 312*n?e fjy
i~r uler nub felel)e. stel-die nteuuiireii ineho -
teld Ad,, ,,cr lit 1 .5.
Improved Marine Governor.
It is a fact well known to all marine engineers
that the engines of sea-going steamers race, or
run away with themselves, when pitching and toss-
ing on the surface of the sea. This is very danger-
ous to the engine, as the increased velocity, and sud-
den strain)t is subjected to when checked by the
vessel plunging into a heavy sea is liable to do great
injury. Engines are usually checked by hand dur-
ing heavy weather, requiring a man at the throttle
valve continually. To obviate this evil, a great num-
ber of marine engine-governors have been invented
and introduced, and we illustrate one of the latest
improvements herewith. The governor is of the
usual kind, and is supported in the frame, A; this
frame is hung on centers at B B, in the secondary
frame, C; this secondary frame is also hung on cen-
ters at ID, thus giving a universal joint or movement
to the governor proper, working in the frame, A, and
maintaining it in a vertical position at all times, so
that the balls are free to work, and the collar to
slide up and down on the shaft without binding, no
matter at what angle the deck or keel of the ship
may be. The pedestal, F, is of course fastened firm-
ly to the engine frame in any desired position, and
motion is communicated to the balls by a pulley on
the shaft, F. The throttle valve connects to the stem,
G, which has a ball-and-socket joint, H, so that it
communicates the variations of the governor to the
throttle equally well in all directions. The small
screw, a, works in a slot, and prevents the stem from
turning. This invention was patented on March
24, 1868, by Henry J. Behrens, model and pattern
maker, of New York city; further information can
be had by addressing him at 170 Chatham street,
During warm weather decaying organic aubstances
hear dwellings emit offensive and unhealthy gases.
In situations where the putrid substances cannot be
removed, disinfecting agents should be employed for
neutralizing their effects. The common gas which is
emitted from sinks and sewers is sulphureted hy-
drogen (H 8). It has a peculiarly nauseous fetid odor,
resembling that of rotten eggs, and it is so diffusable
that a single cubic inch of it e5csping into a large
room will render the atmosphere offensive. It is in-
flammable, burning with a pale blue flame, and when
respired it is dangerous. Even when diluted with a
considerable amount of atmospheric air, it produces
nausea, headache, faintness and loss of appetite, when
inhaled for a moderate length of time. Chlorine
is a powerful disinfectant of this gas, because the
hydrogen of it combines with the chlorine, and sul-
phur is deposited. The chloride of lime is, therefore,
a most convenient substance to use as a disinfectant.
It may be sprinkled in the solid state among de-
caying substances, or it may be placed where the
chlorine will evaporate into the atmosphere and com-
bine with the fetid gas, or it may be mixed with
water and sprinkled over floors or poured into sinks.
Chloride of zinc also decomposes it, and this has been
used extensively as a disinfecting fluid. This gas is
rapidly absorbed by charcoal, the hydrogen being
oxidized and sulphur deposited. If a weak solution
of sulphureted hydrogen is shaken with powdered
charcoal, the smell of the gas rapidly disappears.
Owing to this property of charcoal, respirators con-
taining charcoal have been recommended for persons
whose occupations compel them to breathe the exha-
lations of sewers.
One of the most efficient substances for the re-
moval of suiphureted hydrogen, either in the state
of gas in the atmosphere, or in a solvent form in sew-
ers and sinks, is the hydrated peroxide of iron. This
substance is now largely employed in some places
for the separation of sulphuretted hydrogen in coal
gas. The peroxide of iron may be prepared by roast-
ing the sulphate of iron (copperas) in a stoneware
bottle exposed to a full red heat; sulphuric acid is
driven off through the neck of the bottle, leaving tte
peroxide in the state of a red powder. Copperas it-
self is a good disinfectant and is very easy of appli-
cation by any person. One pound of copperas dis-
solved in a pailful of boiling water and poured into
a fetid sink will banish all the foul odor in ten min-
utes. Fresh slaked lime is also a disinfectant, but
copperas is superior to it, especially where ammonia
is present, as in a sink. The odor of suiphureted
hydrogen reveals its presence when it only forms
1-200,000 part of the atmosphere. For disinfecting
sewers and other such receptacles of decaying organic
matter upon a large scale, we recommend the hy
drated peroxide of iron, but for families to use in
sinks copperas i~ about the best substance that can be
A cORRESPONDENT of the Boston Cidtivator considers
it an important item in the cultivation of potatoes
to pick off the blossoms as soon as they appear, for
the reason, as he says, that it hurts a potato as
much to go to seed as it does a radish or any other
BLOcKADz RUNNING.The Charleston Mercury says
there were 28,000 bales of cotton exported last year
from that city, and 9,800 the first quarter of this
THE BEST MECHANICAL PAPER IN THE WORLD.
- VOLUME IX.---NEW SERIES.
The publishers of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN beg to announce
that on the fourth day of July, 1863, a new volume commenced, and
It will continue t6 be the aim of the publishers to render the contents
of each successive number mere attractive and useful than any of its
The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN is devoted to the interests of Popu.
lar Science, the Mechanic Arts, Manufactures, Inventions, Agricul-
ture, Commerce, and the Industrial pursuits generally, and is valuable
and instructive not only In the Workshop and Manufactory, but also
In the Household, the Library and the Reading Room.
The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN has the reputation, at home and
abroad, of being the best weekly journal devoted to mechanical and
industrial pursuits now published; and the proprietors are determined
to keep up the reputation they have earned during the eighteen
years they have been connected with its publication.
2ib the Mechanic and Manufacturer!
No person engaged in any of the mechanical pursuits should think
ot doing without the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. Itcosts but six cents
per week ; every number contains from six to ten engravings of new
machines and inventions which cannot be found in any other publica.
tion. It is an established rule of the publishers to insert none but
original engravitigs, and those of the first class in the art, drawn and
engraved by experienced artists, under their own supervision, ex.
pressly for this paper.
Chemists, Architects, Millwrights and Farmers!
The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN will be found a most useful journal
to them. All the new discoveries in the science of chemistry are given
in its columns, andthe interests of the architect and carpenter are not
overlooked; all the new inventions and discoveries appertaining In
those pursuits being published from week to week. Useful and prac-
tical Information pertaining to the interests of millwrights and mill-
owners will be found published In the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN,
whicbnformat ion they cannot possibly obtain from any other source;
subjects in which planters and farmers are interested wIll be found dis.
cussedlin the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN;most of the improvements in
agricultural implements being illustrated in its columns.
To the Inventor!
The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN is indispensable to every Inventor
as it not only contains illustraled descriptions of nearly all the best in
ventions as they come, but each number contains an Official List
the Claims of all the Patents issued from the United Slates Patent
Office during the week previous ; thus giving a correct history of the
progress of inventions in this country. We are also receiving, every
week, the best scientific journals of Great Britain, France and Ger-
many; thusplacing in our possession all that Is transpiring in me-
chanical science and art in those old countries. From those journals
we shall continue to transfer to our columns copious extrasts of what
ever we may ileem of interest to our readers.
To mall subscribers :Three Dollars a Year, or One Dollar for four
months. One Dollar and Fifty Cents pay for one complete volume of
416 pages; two volumes comprise one year. A new volume com-
menced on the fourth day of July, 1863.
/ CLUB RATES.
Five Copies, for Six Months
Ten Copies for Six Months 12
Ten Copies, for Twelve Months 23
Fifteen Copies, for Twelve Months , 34
Twenty Copies, for Twelve Months 40
For all clubs of Twenty and over the yearly sobscription is only
$2 60. Names can be sent in at different times and from different
Post-offices. Specimen copies wilt be sent gratis to any part of the
Western and Canadian money or Post-office stamps taken at psr
for subscriptions. Canadian subscribers will please to remit 23 cents
extra on each years subscription to pre-pay postage.
MUKN & CO., Publishers,
31 Park Row, New York.
~5Os 155 STIoM 55555 OF -0155 A ORAP
BEHRENS PATENT MARINE GOVERNOR.