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Scientific American. / Volume 4, Note on Digital Production 0004 000
Scientific American. / Volume 4, Note on Digital Production A-B

Scientific American. / Volume 4, Issue 1 [an electronic edition] Creation of machine-readable edition. Cornell University Library 418 page images in volume Cornell University Library Ithaca, NY 1999 ABF2204-0004 /moa/scia/scia0004/

Restricted to authorized users at Cornell University and the University of Michigan. These materials may not be redistributed.

Scientific American. / Volume 4, Issue 1 Scientific American, inc. etc. New York September 23, 1848 0004 001
Scientific American. / Volume 4, Issue 1 1-8

0 cientific 2tmt~kau, THE ADVOCATE OF INDUSTRY, AND JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC, MECHANICAL AND OTHER IMPROVEMENTS. )3o1. ~ ~ pork, ~~ptcmbct 2~, 1~i$. ~ti. 1. THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN: CiRCULATION 11,000. PUBLISHED WEEKLY. At 128 Fulton Street, New York (Sun Building,) and 13 Court Street, Boston, Mass. By lYIunn & Company. The Principal Office being at New York. WERMS$2 a year$l in advance, and the remainder in 6 months. Oil-See advertisement on last page. 1J3 ottni. WHAT IS LIFE ~ The day grows pensive at its close, And wears a sober grey, And on its face the langour shows, Of autumns yellow ray; Soon night will spread its sable pall, The day is dying fast, How ghost-like are the shadows tall, That on the ground are cast Like pilgrims to the shade of night, The shades are hastning on, To where the brightest grows the light, When day begins to dawn: A deeper, tofter sadness shows, In gentle evening dew, And night oer every feature throws A sad and sombre hue. And now the sound of streams and floods, Becomes a hollow moan The rushing of the trees and woods, Hath now a wailing tosse, And plaintive through the air is heard, The night-hawks piping call, Theres not a leaf by zephyr stirred, But bath a dying falL An emblem of our life below, In every passing day, More thi5ughtful at its end we grow, When we are growing grey, Like pilgrim shadows in the shades, We soon shall hence be gone But when lifes day the soonest fades, A brighter day will dawn. The darkness of the silent tomb, To which we are consigned, Will cast a sad and solemn gloom, Oer those we leave behind, And tears will then bedew the cheek, And fall upon the bier And sad will be the words they speak, To friends who loved us here. WAITiNG AND WATCHING. Be waiting and watching The signs of the times, And daily keep thundering At prevalent crimes: The evils will lessen With every stout blow; The brighter the weapon The weaker the foe. Till totter and crumble The pillars of Wrong; Tis Justice that maketh Weak instruments strong. The Right! it must prosper, Whatever oppose; However malignant Or stout be her foes Like the steps of the morning, Msjestic and tree, Shell onward and triumph, How gloriously ELYS RAILWAY STATION INDEX, Figure 1. It is the general custom upon most of our leave the cars. Two or three minutes only is Rail Roads, for the conductor of a train on its the usual stopping time at each place, barely arrival at a station, to call out through each long enough for passengers to get in or out of car the name of the place reached, in order the cars, and then the train proceeds. In the that passengers destined to any particular bustle and confusion caused by the arrival of station along the route, may know when to a train at a station it frequently happens that Figure 2. ii passengers misunderstand, or cannot hear the conductors voice, and ignorant of the place reached are carried beyond their destination, thereby suffering a most vexatious and often- times expensive delay. Others likewise, from the same cause, frequently leave the cars too soon, and suffer the same inconvenience, while accidents of a serious nature are not of rare occurrence where passengers through mistake of the station, endeavor to get on or I off from the cars while in motion. The great convenience and utility of the invention which we now present to our readers will be at once apparent to every one. It consists [Fig 1.] of a large dial having the names of all the different stations of the route, plainly marked thereon, with an arrow, or other suitable poin- ter to indicate a given place. One of these dials is placed at each end of the car. They are so made to operate that on the arrival of a train at any station, a gong behind each dial is (Continued on page 4.) RAIL ROAD NEWS. The Ogdensburg Railroad. This road is in such a state of forwardness that it is expected will be ready for travel in the fall of 1849. The engines and cars, of the most approved kind, are in the hands of the makers. The distance between the lake and the river St. Lawrence is 118 miles ; the rails are of the same description as those on the Portland road, and the cars will be ena- bled to pass over them with great rapidity. Before long this road will be linked with others now in progress, and form an uninter- rupted chain to the city of New York. Vermont Central Rail Road. This great Railroad Is now open to Roxbury, about eight miles this side of Northfield and sixteen from Montpelier. It will be opened to Northfield in October. The rails on the Windsor division are now about to be laid. About forty-four miles are now run daily, with good business. Georgia Rail Road. Very few railroads in this country can show greater per centage of increase in their receipts for the last six months than the Ma- con and Western Railroad, Georgia. From a statenent just published, it appears that the total receipts for August 1848 were $12,- 476, 59 ; for August 1847, $9,440,95, show- ing an increase of $3,035,64 in favour of the former month. Railways in England. The extent of railways open for public travel in Great Britain and Ireland on the 1st of July last was 3,830 miles, and the total produce of trafic upon them within the first six months was 4,477,000, averaging 1,- 169 per mile The length of all the roads open on the first of July, 1847, was 3,150 miles, and the produce for the six months about four millions or 1,270 per mile, show- ing a diminution of income per mile of about 9 per cent, but an increase in the agregate of 11 per cent The reduced rate of increase is attributed in part, to the depressed state of the trade of the country, and in part, to what must have been anticipated, that the newly constructed roads, consisting in great part, of branches and extended lines over parts of the country of comparatively small population and business, are far less productive, and continue to be so, than the routes which were first occupied. It does not follow from this view of these improvements, that they may not be extreme- ly useful, although their promise of remune- ration to the proprietor.s is less flattering. A Grent Rope. A new rope has been manufactured for the inclined plane of the Columbia, Pa. Railroad, which is eight inches thick, over a mile in length, and required more than thirty thous- and pounds of hemp for its manufacture. It was made in five parts, and, of course, is to be put together at the plane. There is, in the manufacture of such a rope, beside the large amount of material used, a vast deal of labor, and, altogether, it is a piece of work, which, without machinery, could never be accom- plished. _____________________ Another DIving Bell. A correspondent of the Easton, Pa., Sentinel says that a company of gentlemenfrom Boston are now at work near Grand Menan, with an apparatus invented by a gentleman who be- longs to Boston. The operator has to de- scend to the depth of one hundred and twenty feet from the surface, whe~e he is enabled to remain one hour, or longer. The British governmhnt have established a regular line of mail steamers between Singa- pore, in the East Indies, and Australia. ~cienti1ic 2~rnctican. Gold, Gold. News has reached us from California, of the discovery of an immense bed of gold of one hundred miles in extent, on American Fork and Feather rivers, tributaries of the Sa- cremento, near Monterey. Mr. Colton, the Alcalde of Monterey, states that the gold is found in the sands, in grains resembling squirrel shot, flattened out. Some grains weigh an ounce each. It is got by washing out the sand in a vessel, from a tea saucer to to a warming pan. A single perion can ga- ther an ounce or two in a day, and some even a hundred dollars worth. Two thousand whites and as many Indians are on the ground. All the American settlements are deserted, and farming nearly suspended. The women only remain in the settlements. Sailors and captains desert the ships to go to the gold re- gion, and laborers refuse ten dollars a day to work on the farms. If the crops should fail around Monterey, the golden sands would make fine pudding. Another Gold Itline. The Frederick (Va.) News, noticing there- cent retirement of Mr. Heiss from the Wash- ington Union, who has acquired a large for- tune in that establishment, says that in con- nection with Commodore Stockton, he has become the purchaser of the White Hall Gold Mine in Spottsylvania, within eighteen niles of Frederjcksburg. It learns that a vein was struck a few days since, of incalculable va- lue, so valuable that a large standing guard is employed to protect it against depredations. This mine is nearer home than the one in California, but it is a real anti-republican concern in comparison,for in California every decent man can dig that chooses. Copperas a Disinfectant. If the sulphate of iron be disolved in water and thrown into ceaspools jt renders them pure, even where the gas is in such quantity as to be oppressive to the lungs and irritating to the nose. The rationalia of the process is this. The sulphuric acid of the salt combines rapidly with the ammonia, forming a sulphate of ammonia, and the ironis thrown out as an oxide. This salt of ammonia (sulphate) is very soluble in water, and to a great extent inodorous. In addition to this, the ammonia- cal gas is most rapidlyThhsorbed by the water of the solution and thus arrested until the sulphuric acid has time to leave the iron and unite with the ammonia. Turnip Meal. A kind of meal made from turnips has been introduced in Scotland. It is made by pas- sing Swedish turnips~through a potato starch mill. After having been passed through the washing machine, they are ground down by the rasping apparatus, and the pulp is passed between rollers which squeeze out the greate- part of the moisture. The squeezed fibre is then dried on a kilnand ground into meal by mill stones. Thejliquid which is expressed is evaporated, and the dry solid part is mixed with the meal. The meal therefore contair~s nearly all the solid parts of the turnip in a state which prevents decay, and in a light and portable form. It is confidently expected that this article will prove a~good substitute for grain for feeding stock in that country. Prof. Johnston, analysing it, found it to contain 13.68 per cent, of protein compounds, 48.72 of sugar, 4.14 of gum, and 1.11 percent. of oil. ___ Zoudon says that a distance of 250 of latitude occasions a total change not only of vegetable production, but of organized beings. Each separate region, both of land and water, from the frozen shores of the polar circles to the burning region of the torrid zone, possesses some peculiarity of its own. Botanical geographers have divided the globe into 27 botanical districts, differing almost entirely in their specific vegetable produc- tions. New Locomotive Boiler for using An- thracite Coai. The American Railroad Journal of the 9th inst., contains a beautiful lithograph draw- ing of an improved Locomotive Boiler for using anthracite coal, invented by Mr. S Norris of Philadelphia The idea of using anthracite coal for any purpose that wood is now used as a heat generator, has never ap- peared to us problematical and we hope this invention will demonstrate this fully. We have in some instances seenanthracite adopt- ed successfully in place of wood, in the face of much doubt. The difference between wood, bituminous and anthracite coal, for generating steam for locomo- tives, is this. The two former generate a more volatile, the latter a more concent rated heat, and the present locomotive boilers are con- structed to use wood in the most perfect man- ner for the quick generation of steam (the only limit we may say to the speed of the engine.) To render anthracite as available for locomotive purposes as wood or bitumin- ous coal, Mr. Norris constructs a far larger grate surface, and brings it closer to the ab- sorbing surface of the boiler. This is cor- rect undoubtedly, and he will thus render available in the highest degree all the radient heat of the anthracite. Mr. Norris intends to have the blast pipes of larger diameter than those now used, so as to have a smaller amount of artificial draft than the boilers now in use have. We could not give an opinion on this pointpractice_will alone test its virtue. HydrophobiaImportant Theory. The Philadslphia Ledger says that Dr. G. Spackman, of that city, from a recent dis- covery and the confirmation of an indulged opinion in several cases, as to the cause of this dreaded and incurable malady, is induced to offer a theory which may prove of inestim- able benefit to science and humanity generally. He suggests that it arises from the deposit of a poisonous virus introduced by the perforation of the animals teeth; that it remains latent fora time, by the absorbents is taken up, and by acombined chemical action with the blood, generates a gaseous or aeriform fluid, which results in congestion, producing the usual spasmodic action terminating in death. Secrets of Ventilation. Let the air enter the house freely by a large aperture, like a common window, and capa- ble of regulation in the same way. Let it enter astoie-roomn, and be there completely warmed, and then let it pass freely through the whole house, and enter all the apartments either at the doors or by express channels Take off the used air by the chimney and an open fire ; or for crowds, provide a larger and express openingthere is no more to be done. Houses that we have seen ventilated in this simple, unpretending, unmysterious manner, are the best ventilated we have ever entered. It is too often the fate of the mysterious little pipes, funnels, tubes, and valves by which ventilation is frequently symbolized, rather to indicate ventilation than to effect it. The Ring of Saturn. The ring of Saturn is not visible at the present time. This phenomenon takes place once in fifteen years. A writer at the Cam- bridge observatory, says with the Cam- bridge telescope the ring was constantly~seen whenever the state of the atmosphere was favorable. While the Earth continued above the plane of the ring, the unilluminated side was presented to us, and appeared like a dark belt stretched across the body of the planet, and extending on each side as a delicate thread of light, with, generally, two minute beads on the preceding side. The same beaded or broken appearance was also noticed on several occasions on the right, or following side of the planet. The distance of these points of light from the limb of the planet, were repeatedly measured ; the result show- ed no change of distance. They were in comparison with the smaller, quick moving satellites. The conclusion derived from these points of light were occasioned by the reflection of the sun-light from the inner edges of the outer and interior rings. The disc of Saturn, as seen with the Cambridge teles- cope, has extensive dark spots, indicating a variety of surface similar to what is seen on the nearer planets. Quince Marmalade. Let the fruit hang on the tree till one falls to the ground, then gather the crop. Pare, quarter, and core them ; but scrupulously save every pip. The pips of quince abound in mucilage as may be perceived by taking one into the mouth and chewing it well it will make the lips stick together as a piece of gum arabic would. Put the quinces with pips into a stew pan, with a sufficiency o~ lump sugar, and just enough water at the bottom to keep them from burning. As the sugar dissolves and the liquor boils continue stirring the whole mass. When the fruit becomes tender,:break and mash it well with a spoon. In about an hour from the com- mencement of the operation it will be cooked enough. It may then be turned into preserve jars ; a portion should be put into shape, to be used at dessert in the same way as Bul- lace and Damson cheese. The next morning it ought to be perfectly stiff and gelatinous, from the strong mucilage of the pips having been thoroughly incorporated with the whole mass. The quantity of sugar used may be rather less than is necessary for other pre- serves. If tied down the usual way it will keep good for a long time. The medicinal qualities of this preparation are applicable to those cases in which mucilage is adminis- tered internally ; and a pot of quince marma- lade would be as agreeable a prescription to a dysuretic patient, as a dish of roasted oni- ons or a dose of linseed jelly. Everybody whose garden or orchard is above the very smallest size ought to have at least one quince tree, particularly it it con- tain any low moist corner. To such a situ- ation they may be removed at a considerable size; their cost at the nursery is trifling, and many a useless shrub, such as the Snowberry or the Privet, might advantageously be up- rooted to make way for them. Few low growing standards are more ornamental. In a small space they exhibit all the members and proportions of a full sized tree ; some- thing like the Chinese Koo-shoo, or artifici- ally dwarfed Oaks, Horubeams, & c., that are grown in pots ; there is the old looking trunk, the pendant and grotesquely contorted bran- ches ; there is the scattered foliage, like the natural day, dark one-half and light the other; in the apring there are large, delicate bloa- soms, and in the autumn drooping fruit. Irish Trade since the Union. It appears from Pa rliamentary returns that the tonnage of shipping three years before the union was 112,333, while in 1842 it reach. ed 569,304, showing an increase of 456,971 tons. In 1823 there were no steam vessels in the coasting trade of Ireland, but in 1836 which is the date of the last officijl returns, the tonnage entered inward amounted to 579,- 395; since that period there can be no domrbt that the increase has been very considerable. It is not true that the linen trade was de- stroyed by the union. It appears from Mor- eaus tables, that from 1781 to 1800 there were exported 678,798,7-21 yards of linen, while from 1802 to 1821 the qnantity was 832,403,860 yards, showing an increase of 153,605,139 yards. Chinese Barber. The itinerant barbers apparatus is complete, the water always boiling on a fire over his head, while in his rear, on a pole balanced over his shoulder, are water, basin, razors, towels, & c.; if he be in requisition, he picks out a convenient spot, shaves the head, cleans the ears and eyes, cracks the joints and sham- poos thebody, in an incredibly short space of time. Hair is only worn on the crown of the head in shape of a queue. The shaving is a matter of necessity to the mandarin and gentleman, while scarcely a laborer goes more than three or four days unshorn. This trade is in constant exercise, but the death of an Emperor is a sure holyday to the barber, shaving and mourning being inconsistent with each other. Tinker, tailor, and shoemaker, each has his pack, and, basking in a sunny spot, plies his trade, fiiishes off one job, and utters his peculiar cry for another. It is said there is a farmer in North Caroli- na, whose corn crop is about 200,000 bushels a year. Chalk in the United States. It is a generally received opinion that there are no chalk formations in the States, all of that article used in this country being brought from England. A communication from John Pickell, to Professor Silliman, however, controverts this opinion. The wri- ter says that in 1831, being engaged under the direction of the Topographical Bureau, to determine the practicability of the con- struction of a ship canal across the peninsula of Florida, it became necessary to sink several shafts. At the head of a small stream running into Black creek, and near the Santa Fe river, an excavation was carried to the depth ot fifty-five feet, a stratum of chalk was per- forated, containing flint nodul re of various sizes. The chalk was perfectly white, and by short exposure to the atmosphere indura- ted to the hardness of the foreign article. The writer expresses the belief that this chalk formation continues through Georgia and the Carolinas, and perhaps to the coal region in Virginia. Salt Water and Fresh. The London Emigrant says: We have just had the pleasure of drinking a goblet of water taken from the sea at Margate, as spark- ling and aqueable as if drawn from the best pump in London ; indeed, it was impossible to tell the difference. The water had been previously distilled in the usual way, and then treated by the simple galvanic process, as patented by Mr. Ciosse. The invention, for emigrant ships and others on long voyages, will be invaluable. Optical Illusions. On looking out of the window of a railway carriage, for instance, if the eye be fixed on a row of stones or of palings, the - image seems confused and to be rapidly moving away ; but if the axes of the eyes be suddenly turned to some nearer spot, then the stones or palings are for an instant distinctly seen stationary. Sir David Brewster said he could not yet ac- count for this phenomenon. A treatise on Campanology published in Norwich (England) states according to an ac- curate calculation, that the number of com- binations of definite sounds, that can he pro- duced on 24 bells, is so great, that at the rate of 2 in a second it. ~sou1d require tn strike them 117,000,000.000,Ooo years. Mercury. Meicury, is quite pure, is not tarnished in the cold, by exposure to the air and moisture; but if it contain other metals, the amalgam of those metals oxidizes readily, and collects as a film upon its surface. It is said to be oxidized by long agitation in a bottle half full of air. The receipts at the State Fair in Buffalo amounted to $6,114 96. It is estimated that at least fifty thousand persons visited it dur. ing the two days it was open to the public. When gutta percha is immersed for a few minutes in water above 1500 Fahrenheit, it kiecomes soft and plastic, so as to be capable of being moulded to any required shape or form, which it retains upon cooling. If a strip of it be cut oft and plunged into boiling water, it contracts in size, both in length and breadth. This is a very remarkable phenom enon. The sunflower im a valuable crop. Its oil burns well, and it does very well to mix with linseed for some kinds of painting. Nineteen bushels of seed make twenty three gallons of oil. It makes good guano when mixed with ashes. The root of the yellow poplar, or Amen. can tulip tree, made into a strong decoction applied outwardly and taken inwardly, is said to be a sure cure for the most venomous snake bite. In some newly-opened coal mines at North- hope, England, a live caterpiller was discov- ered in a piece of coal, and lived two days after being taken out. The insect and the coal were sent to Kings College, London. White huckleberries have been found grow. ing in Ipswich upon the lands of Capt. Michael Loard, quietly fraternizing with the blacks. 2 3 The Dead Sea Expedittoa Lieut. Maury has given a brief description of the expedition to the Lake of Asphaltus from which we select the following deeply inter- esting extracts. Lieut. Lynch was the person who planned and proposed the expediton and the Secretary of the Navy received favourably the proposition. Having to send a store ship to the Mediterranean squadron, and as, after her arrival, she would have no employment for months, the Secretary determined to send Lieut. Lynch and his party in her; so that, after meeting the wants of the squadron, she could proceed up the Levant, and land Lieu- tenant Lynch and his companions. This was done. The storeship Supply was provided with two metallic boats, one of cop- per, the other of iron ; the former named Fanny Mason, and the latter Fanny Skinner. On their arrival at their destina- tion their troubles began, and in their march to Lake Tiberius their boats had to be trans- ported over the most formidable mountain gorges and heights, and to be lowered down precipices with ropes. But these difficulties were surmounted with true sailors skill and perseverance, and on the 8th of April the two Fannies, each with an American ensign fly- ing, were afloat upon the beautiful blue wa- ters of the sea of Galilee. Emblematic of its Master, it alone of all things around them remained the same. Just as the Apostles saw it when our Saviour said to it, Peace, be still, this little band of rovers now beheld it. The navigation of the Jordan was found to be most difficult and dangerous, from its fre- quent and fearful rapids. Lieut. Lynch solves the secret of the depression between Lake Tiberius and the Dead Sea by the tortuous course of the Jordan, which, in a distance of sixty miles winds through a course of two hundred miles. Within this distance Lieut. Lynch and his party plunged down no less than twenty-seven threatening rapids, besides many others of less descent. The difference of level between the two seas is over a thou- sand feet. The water of the Jordan was sweet to with- in a few hundred yards of its mouth. The waters of the sea were devoid of smell, but bitter salt, and nauseous. Upon entering it, the boats were encountered by a gale, and it seemed as if the bows, so dense was the water, were encountering the sledge hammers of the Titans instead of opposing waves of an angry sea. The party proceeded daily with their explorations making topographical sket- ches as they went, until they reached the southern extremities of the sea where the most wonderful sight that they had yet seen waited them. In passing the mountain of Uzbom (Sodom) unexpectedly, and much to our astonishment. says Lieut. Lynch, we saw a large, rounded turret-shaped column, facing towards south- east, which proved te be of solid rock salt, capped with carbonate of lime, one mass of crystallization. Mr. Dale took a sketch of it, and Dr. Anderson and I landed with much difficulty and procured specimens from it The party circumnavigated the lake, returned tojheir place of departure, and brought back their boats in as complete order as they re- ceived~them at New York. They were all in fine health. This is a specimen of the skill, system, discipline of the American navy. No nation in the world has such a service. The time is coming when it will give proofs of that fact~palpable to the most dull understan- ding. ,, Thanks to the good management of Lieut. Lynch, the whole cost of this scienti- fic~exploration of the Dead Sea, [except, ot course,~the cost of the equipage and mainte- nance of the crew of the ship,] was but se- ven hundred dollars. From the letters of Lieut. Lynch, quoted by.Lieist. Maury, we transcribe the following facts elicitedby the exploration The bottom of the northern half of this 5ea is almost an entire plain. Its meridian- al5lines at a short distance from the shore scarce vary in depth. The deepest soundings thus far, 188 fathoms, (1128 feet.) Near the shore the bottom is generally an incrustation of salt, but the intermediate one is soft mud with rnany~ rectangular crystalsmostly cubes of pure salt. At one time Stellwagers lead brought up nothing but crystals4~The south- em half o f the sea is as shallow as the north- ern is deep andfor about one-fourth of its en- tire length and depth does not exceed three fathoms (18 feet.) Its southern bed has pre. sented no crystals, but the shores are lined with incrustations of salt, and when we land- ed at Uxhom in the space of an hour, our foot- prints were coated with crystalization. The opposite shores of the peninsula and the west coast present evident marks of disrup- tion. There are unquestionably birds and in- sects upon the shores, and ducks are some- times upon the sea, for we have seen them but cannot detect any living thing within it; although salt streams flowing into it contain salt fish. I feel sure that the results of this survey will fully sustain the scriptural ac- count of the cities of the plain. He thus speaks of Jordan The Jordan, although rapid and impetuous, is graceful in its windings and fringed with luxuriance while its waters are sweet, clear, cool, and refreshing. After the survey of the sea, the party pro- ceeded to determine the height of mountains on its shores, and to run a level thence via Jerusalem to the Mediterranean. They found the summit of the west bank of the Dead Sea more than 1000 feet above ita surface, and very nearly on a level with the Mediterra- nean. It is a curious fact, says Lieut. M that the distance from the top to the bottom of the Dead Sea should measure the height of its banks, the elevation of the Mediteranean, and the difference of level between the bottom of the two seas, and that the depth of the Dead Sea should be also an exact multiple of the height of Jerusalem above it. Another not less singular fact, in the opi- nion of Lieut. Lynch, is, the bottom of the Dead Sea forms two submerged plains,.an ele- vated and a depressed one. The first, its south- ern part of slimy mud covered by a shallow bay; the last, its northern and largest portion of mud and incrustations and rectangular crystals of saltat a great depth with a nar- row ravine running through it, corresponding with the bed of the river Jordan at one ex- tremity and the Wady, el Jeib, or wady within a wady at the other. The slimy ooze, says Lieut. Maury, upon that plan at the bottom of the Dead Sea will not tail to remind the sacred historian of. the slime pits in the vale, where were joined in battle the four kings with five. Wire Pence. Chesnut posts are first planted in the ground about eight feet apart and of such height as may be desired ; the first one being much larger and set deeper in the ground than the succeeding ones, because of the great re- sistance it has to make in stretching the wire. After the posts are properly atranged grooves are sawed into the side of each post for the wire to lay in, The wires are placed one above the other from six to seven inches apart. The fulcrum and lever is then placed at the extremity of the extremity of the wires to draw and tighten them. When they are suffi- ciently tight, they are secured firmly into the post by small staples made of wire. This fence sufficiently resists the encroachments of all kinds of stock but hogs, and they never should be allowed to run loose. This fence may be capped with board, which would make it more solid. The wire should be No. 10, boiled in linseed oil and then dri- ed. Or the fence may be put up and the wire coated with varnish afterwards at but little oxpense. Coarse varnish will do and then there would be no fear of rusting. The ends of the posts should be dipped into a hot li- quid of the sulphate of copper and then into boiling pitch. This might be a little trouble- some, but the post prepared thus, although of poor timber, will endure for an almost incre- dible space of time. Wire fence must yet su- persede all other kinds owing to its cheapness and portability. The power and weight on an inclined plane balance each other, when the former is to the latter, as the height of the plane to its length. In estimating draught up a hilt, if the hill rises one foot in four, one fourth part of the weight must be added to the draught on level ground. For the Scientific American. Sympathetic Inks. Sympathetic, or secret Inks, are those fluids, which when written with on paper, are in- visible when dry, but become visible, and acquire color, by simply heating the paper, or by applying to the invisible writing an- other chemical agent. The writing with these inks may be made to become visible or in- vsible successively, by treating as directed. GREEN INK If letters be traced on paper with muriate of cobalt, the writing is invisible; but by hold- ing it before the fire the characters speedily assume a beautiful green color, which again disappears as the paper cools. A very pretty effect is produced by drawing the trunk and branches of a tree with a fast ink in the or- dinary manner and tracing the leaves with the sympathetic ink as above. The tree ap- pears leafless till the paper is heated, when it suddenly becomes covered with a foliage. BLUE INK. This ink which may be used like the pre- ceeding, may be prepared in the following manner Take one ounce of cobalt reduced to pow- der, put it into a Florence flask and pour over it two ounces of pure nitric acid. Expose the mixture to a gentle heat; and when the cobalt is dissolved, add, by small quantities, a solution of potash, udtil no more precipitate ensues. Let this precipitate subside ; decant the supernatant fluid, and wash the residuum repeatedly in distilled water, until it passes tasteless ; then dissolve it in a sufficient quan- tity of distilled vinegar, by the assistance of a gentle heat, taking care to have a saturated solution, which will be known by part of the recipitate remaining undissolved after the vinegar has been on it for some time. SILVER INK. Write on paper with a dilute solution of sulphur acetate of lead of commerce ; the writing will be invisible. To make the cha- racters legible, hold the paper whilst the letters are still wet, over a saucer, containing water impregnated with sulphuretted hydro- gen gas ; the characters then assume a bril- liant metalic and iridescent color. YELLOW iNK. Write on paper with a dilute solution of muriate of copper; the letters when dry will be invisible ; but if the paper be warmed before the fire, the writing will assume a yel- low color, and disappear again when the pa- per is cold. BROWN INK. Write on paper with a solution of nitrate f silver, sufficiently diluted, so as not to in- jure the paper ; the characters, when dry, will be invisible, and remain so, if the paper be closely folded up, or it the writing is, in any other way, defended from the light ; but it the paper be exposed to the rays of the sun, or merely to the common light of day, the characters speedily assume a brown color, and lastly turn black. Animal-shaped Mounds or Wisconsin. They consist of elevations of earth, of di- versified outline and various size ; for the most part constituting effigies of beasts, birds, reptiles, and of the human form; but often circular, quadrangular and of oblong shape. The circular or conical tumuli differ from those scattered over the whole country, in no outward respect excepting that they are much smaller in their average dimensions ; the lagest seldom exceeding fifteen feet in height. Those in the form of parallelograms are sometimes upward of 50,0 feet in length, sel- dom less than 100; but iii height they bear no proportion to their otherwise great dimen- sions, and may probably be better designated as walls, embankments, or terraces, than mounds. These works are seldom insolated, but generally occur in groups or ranges, sometimes, though not always, placed with apparent design in respect to each other. In these groups may be observed every variety of formthe circular, quadrangular and ani- mal shaped structures occurring in such con- nection with each other as to fully josh. fv the belief that they are of contemporane- ous origin. At first glance, these remains are said to resemble the sites or ground-plans and foundation-lines of buildings ; and it is not until their entire outline is taken into view, that the impression of an effigy becomes decided. This is not surprising, in view of the fact that they are usually of inconsi- derable height varying from one to four feet; in a few cases, however, rising as high as six feet, Their outlines are, nevertheless, represented to be distinctly defined in all cases where they occupy favourable positions. Their small altitude should cause no doubt of the fidelity of representations which have been made of these figures; since a regular elevation of six inches can be readily traced upon the level prairies and bottom-lands of the West, especially when covered with turf. Preserving Fruit. In the first number of the Transactions of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, there is an accouut of the new mode of preserving apples and pears. The inventor of the mode, M. Paquet, of Paris, has received from the Royal Society of Horticulture, a medal. He presented on the 12th of June, one hundred pears and apples, which it is stated not only preserved their beauty, freshness and flavour, but even their perfume. His fruit-house is described as a circular building, with an oat- er and an inner wallthe size of the build- ing being whatever is convenient. The dis- tance between the outer and inner wall is about three feet six inches. There are win- dows in both walls, a diffused light being preferred to darkness. The inner room, which is the depository of the fruit, is kept at a constant temperature of 50 degrees (fahr) as low as 39 would not be injurious, but 66 to 73 destructive. Boxes are made with drawers of oak; that wood being easier to be cleaned from the remains of fruit which might decay. In these drawers, says the account, the fruits are placed with small intervals between each, on a slight bed, one- sixth of an inch thick, of saw dust, (not pine, which would commenicate an unpleasant flavour,) highly dried in an oven, eight parts, and one part of very dry pulverised charcoal; and with this mixture the interstices between the fruits are filled to about two-thirds of their height, leaving one third exposed. This mode is deemed greatly preferable to keeping fruits in moss, cotton, paper or other substances. The fruit should be gathered with the greatest care, and not in the least bruised the fairest and finest specimens selected. It should be gathered ten days before it is ripe. After it is gathered, it is directed to leave it in ~sn open airy situation for about fifteen days, to sweet, and on no account be wiped previous to being disposed in the fruit-house. On the proportion of Nutriment to the Means of Living. According to a memorial presented to the French minister, 100 pounds of wheat bread on an average contains 30 pounds of nutri- tive elementsgluten and starch. Black bread much less. 100 pounds of flesh on the average 31 pounds of nutritive matter, (according to Wohler) fresh flesh seventy per cent water, the remain- der solid substancefibrine. 100 pounds of French beans, on an average, contain eighty per cent nutrition. 100 pounds of peas twenty three per cent. 100 pounds of lentils ninety four per cent. 100 pounds of beets pulse eight per cent. 100 pounds of carrots fourteen per cent. 100 pounds of potatoes twenty five per cent. Small Critics, This class of men are as profoundly impu- dent as they are ignorant. Their chief glory lies in the practice of assailing men who are infinitely their superiors in every respect men who deem it beneath them to treat such individuals in any other manner than with Si- lent coiitempt. Such creatures are so vain (for egotism and ignorance go hand in hand,) that they deem the silence of superiority al- ways as an effectual triumph. These small critics are the turkey buzzardsthe vermin tire .Mexican ranclseros of literaturethey not only torment but live on the life blood of genius and worth. As Burns has it, they are horse leeches in the path of fame. Beautiful iron bedsteads are now made in this city. 4 ~cicntific 2mctican. improved Lifting and Force Pump. We have seen the model of an improved Lifting an~ Force Pomp, the invention of Dr. N. Dodge of this city, which we think will unquestionably take the place of the common force pumps now used. Some of its advan- tages are the cheapness of construction, the small amount of power required for operation, together with great simplicity and durability. As we intend to present our readers with an engraving of it in the course of two or three weeks, we shall withold a more detailed ex- planation until that time, as we are certain it will attract much attention and wish all to understand it fully. A New instrument. A new kind of instrument has lately been exhibiting at Mr. Atwills Music store in this city. It is named the Keyed Violin, and is played like the parlor organ, by means of a pedal and keyboard, and its structure may be simply described as followsThere are forty strings (five octaves) stretched upon a hori- zontal frame, and brought to the proper ten- sion by means of the same apparatus as that employed in tuning the piano. At right an- gles with these strings, are forty horse hair implements, each resembling that part ot an ordinary violin bow, which comes in contact with the strings ; these are all attached to and stretched upon a frame, and by ingenious ma- chinery are worked up and down witk a steady motion, each bow continually passing within a minute distance of its correspond- ing string. The motion of the perpendicular frame and bows is caused by the use of the pedal, and the music executed in the same manner as upon the organ or piano. The pressure upon a key causes a simultaneous pressure laterally against one of the bows, bringing it in contact with its neighbouring string, and thus producing a sound similar to that made by bowing and fingering upon the violin now in use. Elys Railway Station Index. (Concluded from first page.) struck, thereby calling the attention of pas- sengers to the index, while the arrow points with unfailing certainty to the name of .the place at which the cars have arrived. No matter how much the cars may stop or go backwards, between the stations, the In- dex, as if endowed with instinct, will always point out the correct name of the station. The cost of constructing and putting up this invention, is about $7 per dial, or $16 per car. We trust that every rail road company in the United States will forthwith have their cars furnished with this very need- ful invention, as it will greatly add to the comfort and convenience of their passengers, and save themselves from the imputation of much blame and many curses. It should form as necessary a part of every car as do the seats, and since the expense is so trifling, we hope ere long to see it universally adopted. Munn and Co., proprietoys of the Scientific American, are the appointed agents of the in- vention, to whom all applications relative to it may be made. Rail road companies are in- formed that they can obtain the right to use it for a very small sum, or they can have as many dials put up as they wish at the above rates, opon short notice. Rights for several of the states are not yet sold, and if applied for soon, can be purchased on reasonable terms. An enterprising man may here find an opportunity to realize a large sum from a small capital. We shall now proceed to explain the inter- nal arrangement of the Index, referring the reader to fig. 2 on the front page. A is the back of the dial case. B and C are two ratch- et wheels, fastened together, and turning upon D, a stationary axle, which projects through the face of the dial, and upon which the arrow [Fig. 1,] is affixed. F is an arm or ratchet which meshes in the teeth of B, and is attached by a pinion at I, to the perpendic- ular shaft E. J is a coil spring, one end of which is attached to F, the other is screwed on to the case A. This spring serves the pur- pose of holding the arm F in contact with the ratchet wheel B. G is a branch of F, to which it is attached on the back side at H, and meshes into the other ratchet wheel C. By lifting the shaft E, the arm F, it will be seen pushes against a tooth of B, at the same time raises the arm G which is attached to it, thus forcing around together the two ratchet wheels B and C to the distance of one cog. A contrary motion is produced ~y drawing down the shaft E. The arm or ratchet wheel G is thus made to mesh into the ratchet wheel C, causing both the wheels B and C, being fastened together, to revolve in a direction contrary to that produced by pushing up the shaft E. Behind the ratchet wheel C is pla- ced a gong or bell, the hammer of which is operated by the cogs of C, so that by any movement of the ratchet wheels the gong is struck. The dial face [Fig. 1] is fastened to the ratchet wheel B, and revolves with it. The arrow is fastened to the immovable axle D, and consequeiitly remains stationary. The ratchet wheels contain as many teeth as there are stations on the route, and the dial being correspondingly marked off, it will be easily understood that any movement of the dial face will be indicated by the arrow. The opera- tion of the index then, depends wholly upon the movemerA up or down of the shaft E. In fig. 3, E is a continuation of said shaft, pass- FIG. 3. M ing down through the floor N, of the car, and terminating near the ground in a foot, repre- sented by M. L is a spiral spring, by means of which the shaft E is hung in a proper po- FIG. 4. sition. Fig. 4 represents a cam which pro- jects an inch or two above the rail, in order to move the shaft E up or down, when they come in contact. One of these cams must be placed on the track about ten rods on each side of every statioii house. As a train comes up, the shaft E, [Fig. 3] projecting down through every car, comes in contact with cam O [Fig. 4] at the point Q, which being curved causes the shaft to. rise, thus moving the index which points out the name of the place. On the return of a train the foot of the shaft M [Fig. 3] catches on the edge at R, [Fig. 4] and by the under edge, P. of the cam is drawn down, thus likewise moving the index. The shaft E having passed the cam, is liberated and returns to its position by means of the spring L [Fig. 3]. The shaft and connec- tions being placed in the partition of the car, nothing is exposed to the eye except the dial. which may be beautifully ornamented, accor- ding to fancy. There are a few other partic- ulars connected with the invention which it is unnecessary here to explain. Perpetual Motion. The Delaware Republican says one of the ingenious mechanics of that place flatters himself that he has invented a machine that creates its own power, and that it will run, when once set in motion, as long as the mate- rial of which it is composed may last. He says he can construct a machine of one roan power up to a hundred horse power, and that it may be used for driving all kinds of machi nery. LIST OF PATENTS Another mechanic in this city has just pub- IssUED FROM THE UNITED STATES PATENT lished that he has also discovered this power. So has another in Georgia, another in Missou- ri and another in Michigan. There is no man who has studied the princi- ples of mechanicsthe composition of forces that ever wastes time and talent in searching after an ignusfata~s. An Air Navigator. A series of experiments have lately been made beneath an immense tent in Cremorne Gardens, London, by a Mr. Stringfellowa fine name for suspension. The inventor mar- ches through the air by a machine which sus- tains and propels itself through the cicum- ambient fluid. The machine excited consid- erable attention and surprised all the specta- tors by it~ wonderful performance. The next expedition that is fitted out by the British government to explore the Niger and the country through which it winds its sluggish and pestilential way, should employ this Mr. Stringfellow with a nua:iber of his machines to make a flying exploration, untramelled with their heels in mud or water. Prevention of Steam Boiler Explosions, A late number of the London Mining Jour- nal states that Mr. Joseph Spencer, of the Bilso~ Iron Foundry, England, has invented a steam whistle to be attached to stationary boilers, to give notice when the water was getting low. It is very simple, and, we should say, effective and secure; consisting of a com- mon steam whistle, placed on the top of a boilerthe passage of the steam to which is closed inside the boiler by a valve opening downwards, having an open link attached, and kept close by a balance lever. The float lever works in this open link, and as the water gets low it pulls down the valve, and admits the steam to the whistle immediately giving notice to the attendants. The works being all inside cannot be tampered with. We must beg leave to tell our respected con- temporary across the water, that a patent was granted for this very invention by our Patent Office last year. We have seen both the draw- ings and specification of it. This is not a British invention with a Yan- kee name tacked to it, but vice versa. That Engine. We would inform the many persons who have written to us in regard to the 12 horse power engine and locomotive boiler, that they are now sold. A gentleman in Virginia was the lucky purchaser. We are constantly fil- ling orders for engines and machinery of eve- ry description from all parts of the Union Our extensive acquaintance among the prin- cipal machinists, and a long experience in mechanical matters enables us to select the best machines at the lowest prices. The 2j horse power engine and boiler which we advertise are not yet sold. They are bran new, made in a very substantial manner, and operate beautifully. The engine is attached to the boiler, rendering the whole so compact that the purchaser on receiving them would only have to make a fire in the furnace to put them in operation. Price $250 cash. Any one at the South or West who would like them, may send us a draft for the amount, and we will have them promptly forwarded at our risk, and delivered in perfect running order. The Great Britain. This heretofore ill-fated steamer, having been regenerated, is advertised for sale by auction in Liverpool in September. With her present engines, she is capable of carry- ing from 800 to 1000 men for a fortnights voyage; with smaller engines, by which her coal stowage coald be reduced, she could ac- comidodate 1000 emigrants for a distant voy- age. OFFICE, For the week ending Sept. 12, 1848. To William Stephenson, of Cincinnati, Ohio, for improved Door Lock. Patented Sept. 12, 1848. To Josiah Kirby, of Cincinnati, Ohio, for for improvement in machines for cutting Bungs. Patented Sept. 12, 1848. To Isaac Baker, of Warwick, Mass., for improvement in machinery for dressing Chair Seats. Patented Sept. 12, 1848. To William Bumford, of Ipiwich, Mass.) improvement in Needles for Knitting Looms. Patented Sept. 1-2, 1848. To Miles R. Payne, of Waldo, Ohio, for im- provement in Shingle Machines. Patented Sept. 12, 1848. To Christian Sharps, of Cincinnati, Ohio, for sliding breech pin and self-capping Gun. Patented Sept. 12,1848. To Stephen Baldwin, of Williamson, N. Y. for improvement in Washing Machines. Pa- tented Sept. 12, 1848. To William Stephenson, of Cincinnati, Ohio, for improvement in Door Locks Paten- ted Sept. 12, 1848. Frederick E. Sickels, of New York City, for improved method of controlling motive power. Patented Sept. 12, 1848. To J. C. Kneeland and George M. Phelps, of Tiny, N. Y. for improvement in machinery for cutting and arranging paper. Patented Sept. 12, 1848. To William Smith, of Bangor, Me., for im- provement in machinery for sawing Shingles. Patented Sept. 12, 1848. To Job Arnold, of Freeport, Illinois, for method of applying a Governor to a Horse Power. Patented Sept. 12, 1848. To Deshon & Webster, of New London, Conn., for improvement in double bellows Pump. Patented Sept. 12, 1848. INVENTORS CLAIMS. Straw Cutters. L. A. Harper, Russelville, Ky. for improve-. ment in straw cutters. Patented Aug. 15, 1848. He claims arranging the fly wheel and the line of its shaft, and the parts for operating the feed rollers with respect to the knife and feeding box. Ditching Machine. B. T. Stoweli, Wadhams Grove, Ill., for a ditching machine. Patented Aug. 22, 1848. What he claims is the combination of the ad- justable side ploughs with the central plough, the inclined endless revolving floor, and the depositing apron. Water Wheels. Lewis Wertz, Chambersburgh, Pa., for im- provement in water wheels. Patented June 20, 1848, reissued Aug. 15, 1848. What he claims is the combination of the cap with the inner ends of the converging buckets and the coliar for the purpose of forming a pocket or channel to prevent the water from spread- ing out laterally when it first acts against the wheel, and keeping it in a solid compact cur- rent until finally discharged. He likewise claims the combination of auxiliary converg- ing shutes with the principal shutes and the wheel. Reguinting Motion. Henry Allen, Brattleboro, Vt., for governor for regulating motion. Patented Aug. 22, 1848. What he claims as his invention is a wind wheel or fan. Who shail I get to take out my Patent I This is the enquiry of almost every inven- tor, and for an answer we would advise them to read our advertisement of Patent Agency in another column. Patents may be secured through the Scientific American Office on bet- ter terms than elsewhere, as our facilities for attending to such matters are unequalled. 4 ~icntific ~2~mctican. NEW YORK, SEPTEMBER 23, 1848. Progress nad the Press. When the art of printing was discovered, it thrilled upon the ear of slumbering Europe as the voice of Divinity thrilled upon the ear of the dead, awake thou that deepest and arise. From that moment the march of free- dom and knowledge has been steadily on- wards. Old systems of false philosophy have crumbled away and new and true systems have been firmly established. Bigotry no more rears up her frowning battlements to op- pose knowledge and overawe truth. Science is no longer confined to the college and clois- ter, and the useful arts are no more despised. War and eloquence still captivate and charm the proud and ignorant, but they are not now the exclusive objects of popular regard. The prosperity of nations is found now to depend on worth, industry and intelligence. By what chemical composition have these great reforms been brought aboutby what mighty lever have the valleys been exalted and the moun- tains brought low, to make a highway for knowledge among men ? The Pressthe Press. By it, the discoveries and investiga- tions of the most noble and powerful minds have become public property, and the poor workman who can read, can now hold com. munion with the most ~ifted and learned. And such is the nature of the human mind, that as iron sharpeneth iron, so doth the thoughts of one man sharpen the mental pow- ers of another. This leads to investigation, creates new desires, yea oftentimes opens up a hidden fountain of pure and dazzling geni- us. In all likelihood James Watt never would have directed his attention to improvements in the steam engine, if he had not been em- ployed to repair a rude model. The wind that bloweth where it listeth, aflects not alone the atmosphere The mighty ocean is disturbed and lake and pool that long lay still and motionless, are roused into action, sweet- ness and health. It is the same with the great minj of the world. The Press is the wind that stirreth up into healthful heavings its often languid and thoughtless hearta hint, a word, a paragraph, often suggests ideas that are fraught with golden itnport. It has been remarked, that after some invention or disco~ very has been made public, others of great value have quickly followed after. Ether and chloroform pressed rapidly on the heels of one another. This is one of the great benefits of the Pressthe importance of a newspa- perone or more in every department, each powerful and beneficial in its own sphere. The field which we occupy is one of great importance to the progress of arts and scien- ces in our country, and widely is this now felt and acknowledged. Weekly from a hundred diflerent sources is collected into our columns the peculiar matter which is sincerely design- ed to instruct and elevate. This requires much labor, care, and experience, and yet for all, mistakes and errors will be committedper- fection does not belong to man, but he must aim at nothing less, if he wishes to come near the mark. If he would progress he must have the mind of Newton ever learningyet to learn. The Scientific American has been much indebted during the last year, to her many able and powerful correspondents, for the va- luable and thoroughly practical character of their communicationsthis has constituted their crowning beauty, felt and acknowledged. We mention no names in praise, but v,e say this much, that there is not another paper in th~ world that can exhibit more original and useful correspondence. Our correspondents are stiil ready xvi th their minds and pens to communicate, and will communicate with us for the benefit of science. Many new cor- respondents have come forward and tendered their services, which will appear terse, clear and instructive in our columns. From the means at our command volume 4 of the Sci- entific American will be rendered the most useful and instructive repository of science and art ever published in Americaour mot- to is, and always has been progress. Opposition to improvements. There was a time when the opposition to improVements was not confined to the humble and lowly, but was most bitterly and unre- lentingly displayed by those who were the most enlightened. There seems to be some- thing in the human mind that resists en- croachments on established customs or usa- ges, let those customs be as brutal and foolish as they may. So difficult is the task of c~ti- verting even the most depraved and profli- gate, that it is compared to the removing of a mountain. And truly when we reflect upon the determined opposition that has al- ways been displayed against improvements in science and art, and reflect for a moment up. on what improvements have been made, we will be ready to attribute an overruling hand guiding man to a nobler destiny and a higher civilization. The times of ignorance the Creator winked at, is a singular expression, but it can apply no longer to us, no excuse will suffice for us to be ignorant or to oppese improvements in our day and generation. Nay more, he that does not form a spoke in the mighty wheel of universal improvement, is culpable in the highest degree. We regret to say that there are too many who are ig- norantly or selfishly culpable to improve- ments, be those improvements in the shape of moral or inventive reform. If there springs up an invention to lighten labor and to triple produce, it is sure to meet with opposition, and by those from whom we might expect something better. We remember with pain the bitter and contemptuous language that was used towards the telegraph when the first line in our country was in the course of erec tion. We blush for our race when we re- flect upon the see saw wise men that despised Robert Ftalton and all other great inventors, when first their inventions were brought be- fore the public. The success of so many inventions, that were looked upon as chimeras of madmen, has made for a time inventions somewhat popular. Seizing upon this feeling, some have unworthily for selfish objects, proclai- med with trumpet voice some nostrum which has deceived and disgusted many with a patent seal. This is to be expectedthere will always be tares among the wheat, but on that account no man should oppose im- provement. There can be no doubt but that there are many pretended improvements that are quite the reverse of what they pretend to be, yet for all this, let every man reflect twice before he speaks once against any mea- sure or machine that is brought forward to reform an abuse or improve a. manufacture. Had the cities of Albany and Brooklyn exhib- ited a true spirit of improvement, they would long ago have been supplied with an abun- dance of water which would have saved more property from destruction at the recent fires in those cities, than would need to have been expended f6r the improvements in ten years. Yet for all this, we would not be surprised if those cities would still be deaf to the voice of the charmer, common sense and cammon interest. Two steam engines of 50 horse power each, could supply Albany with water from the river, which could be forced to the top of thc highest street, there filtered and made available for domestic use or fires. Brooklyn could be supplied with water for fires by one engine of 60 horse power, or less. The press is the great mouth-piece 01 mod- ern improvementa l~inta word universal- ly disseminated does wonders in stirring up the public mind to objects of utility. All projected improvements should be well discussed before they are acted upon, but far better that ten schemes should be tried and~ fail, than one good scheme should be over- thrown by nothing but a spirit of opposition. Copper. One5million three hundred and sixty two thousand pounds of Copper, have been ship- ped driring the present season from Lake Su- perior. Spurgins Palace Bee Have. FIG. 1. 11~i I t.K This is an engraving of a new Bee Hive, in- vented by Jeremiah Spurgin, of Poplar Plains, Fleming County, Kentucky. It consists of an outer box or case and the boxes to oontain the bees are placed inside, three or more on the top of one another and in direct communica- tion. Figure 1, is the outer case or box. It has folding doors in front to be thrown open and closed at pleasure to protect the bees from the ravages of insects or inclement wea- ther, and to allow a person to arrange and shift the boxes at pleasure. A A, is the entrance for the bees at the back of the palace at the lower part. The bottom of the box is some distance from the ground so that no slugs, & c. can find an ertrance, as the bees light on A, and have to ascend an incline plane to get to their cells. This is shown in FIG. 2. This is the lower box in the palace. It is a square box fastened to the floor. A, is the entrance, and B is the incline board up which the bees have to travel to get to the cells. On the top of the box are nailed cross slats and there are three other boxes of the same form as this, with the exception of the inclineboard B, placed one above another The incline board serves not only to keep out injurious insects, but serves to carry away impurities that are thrown down from the boxes above, thus tending in a simple manner to cleanli. ness and health. Two tier of boxes are ar- ranged in the inside of the outer case with a gangway between them, and each box has a glass front with folding doors also, so as to inspect the cells, & c. The great evil com- plained of in the hives at present in use, is this. The bees have to breed and make their honey in the same box, and as the bees pre- fer to breed always in the lower combs and deposit their honey in the upper combs, there is no good way of taking out the honey, and cleaning the boxes without injury to the brood. All hives require a clean box in a few years, because if they are forced to breed in the same place, they leave a gummy lining behind and the new combs decrease in size, and therefore the bees reared therein become small, feeble, unable to work and finally die out, as they are a short lived insect. Mr. Spurgins hive, for which he has taken mea- sures to secure a patent, provides against this evil. By the arrangement of the boxes, he can remove the honey and clean the boxes at pleasure and with great ease, and he can ei- ther increase his cells or hive the bees at plea- sure. By his palace bee hive, he has two fa- milies of bees, and after the first year, he will raise about 100 pounds of honey in the sea- sonwith very little trouble and almost for nothing. The plan is good, simple, and high- ly creditable to the inventor. Fair of the Franklin Institute. The eighteenth exhibition of the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia will open on the 17th of next month and close on the 28th, which will make the exhibition to be open two weeks instead of two days, as noticed by us in No. 51 of last volume. The old Frank- lin will no doubt have (as she always has had) an excellent exhibition this year. The regulations will be substantially the same as those by which former exhibitions have been governed. The rule requiring that goods intended to be submitted to the exami- nation of the judges, and to compete for a pre- mium, shall not be deposited later than on the day previous to the opening, which was adopted for the first time at the last exhibi- tion, was found productive of such conveni- ence to the depositors and the managers, that it will be hereafter continued. The Institute has purchased a steam engine of sufficient power to drive all the working models of machinery which may be presented; and no disappointment will in future result from the heretofore necessary dependence up. on engines of faulty construction or inefficient power. The exhibition rooms will be prepared for the reception of goods on Friday, the 13th of October. No premium shall be awarded for an article that has received one at any former exhibition of the Institute. Three grades of premiums will be awarded, styled, a first, a second, and a third premium. When an article shall be judged worthy of a first premium, iii case the maker has receiv- ed a first pxernium for a similar article at a former exhibition, a certificate may be awar- ded referring to the former award, and sta- ting that the present is equal or superior ira quality: unless the improvement over the first award may be judged worthy of another first prepiium. Proof of origin must be fuinished, if re- quired, for every specimen offered for exhi- bition, and the strictest impartiality will be displayed. The Telegraph Law Case, which was re- cently decided in favor of Mr. Morse, at Lex- ington, Ky., is to be carried up to the Su- preme Court, which will of course confirm the decision of the Court below. It is idle to contend against Morses claim. It is as just as the claim that any man has to his own legal property. To Inventors. Those who wish to have engravings of in- ventions inserted in the Scientific American during the three weeks of the great Fair of the American Institute, in this city, next month, are requested to forward their models or drawings to this office as soon as possible. Models may be sent by express; drawings by mail. During the continuance of the Fair we shall issue extra editions of our paper for circulation among the many thousand visitors who annually attend. Those who can should embrace this opportunity, for it is a rare one, of having their inventions illustrated and no- ticed. There is no doubt that a great many rights may in this way be disposed of. The Scientific American is about the only paper upon which people depend for information about mechanical inventions. THE SCIENTIFIC AXERICAN. Persons wishing to subscribe for this paper have only to enclose the amount in a letter di rected (post paid) to MUNN & COMPANY, Publishers of the Scientific American, Ne~ York City. TERMs.$2 a year; ONE DOLLAR III ADVANCEthe remainder in 6 months Postmasters are respectfully requested to receive subscriptions for this Paper, to whom a discount of 25 per cent will be allowed. Any person sending us 4 subscribers for 6 months, shall receive a copy of the paper for the samelength of time ~cientifif 2~4ntenca~n. Boston Water and Lead Pipes. The Commissioners appointed to report UpOn the best material to convey the water of Lake Cochituate into the private houses of Boston, have reported in favour of lead pipe. They have gathered up a mass ef evidence to prove its perfect safety in the conducting of water, and some strong testimony against it, but on the whole they recommend lead l,ipe for being the cheapest, and that it is perfectly safe to use for domestic purposes. As this has been long a vexed question, the report is of more than common interest. They referred the subject principally to Prof. Hors- ford of Harvard University. The grounds on which lead is preferred for the composition of small distribution pipes are, that the metal is cheap ; it is easily form. ed into pipes, of any corsenient size or length; flexible and easily adapted to all situations, in which it is desirable to place it; it is of suffi- cient strength to bear the pressure of an or- dinary head of water, and if made of a suita- ble thickness, and provided with proper guards against the effects of a sudden check of the current, it is capable of resisting the extraordinary shock thus prodi~ced. It more- over preserves the water in a state of purity, and is itself durable, unless dissolved by the action of substances foreign to the source from which the city is to be supplied. Pipes of this material may be laid in a much shorter space of time, and at less cost, than those of cast iron. Attempts have been made to discover the nature and source of the mixtures which ma- part to water the power of acting more ener- getically upon lead. It is observed that ni- trates possess this power, and that they are frequently found in well water. The ohser- vations of Professor Horsford led him to the conclusion that the unequal proportion of these salts constitutes the chief distinction between different waters, in their relation to lead. These salts are often, if not uniformly found in the water of wells and springs so situated as to be replenished by the filtration of water through a soil enriched from the stable or by the wash from collectior~ of ani- mal substances, of any description. A small solution of saltpetre, or of a nitrate of any de- scription, in water, is found to impart to it the property of dissolving lead, and thereby forming the nitrate of lead. This substance renders the water undoubtedly deleterious and dangerous to the health of those who drink it or use it in the preparation of their food. This explanation, which seems to be fully confirmed by ample experiments, ac- counts sufficiently for the fact, that the wa- ter of wells situated as are a large portion of those in towns, and cities, and of springs situated in the midst of richly cultivated fields, or in the vicinity of animal deposites of any description, may produce the che- snical effect here described upon the leaden pipes used to conduct it, while the waters of rivers and lakes, not particularly exposed to contact with substances of that nature, will be destitute of any such power. Of the harmlessness tf the New York and Philadelphia waters, and others of a similar class, we have abundant testimony, of which we cite, by way of sample, the following statements. In regard to the New York wa. ter works, which have for several years sup- plied many thousands of families, Dr. Gris- corn in a letter to Dr. Webster, dated Dec. 14, 1841, and appended to the report of the con- ~sulting Physicians, says, nothing but lead pipes is now used in this city for the convey- ance of water into, and within the residences of the citizens. The water works of the city of Philadelphia have been in successful operation more than twenty five years, and they have afforded a wide fieldof experience, which has been of great value to directors of other similar works. has been settled here by long experience. It is, that lead alone is used to conduct the wa- ter from the street main into the houses, or for service pipes. No evil is experienced in London, either from these pipes, or the lead- en cisterns. Yet, as the latter are filled in general only twice a week the water must re- main in them for several days. Dr. McNaughton, of Albany, N. Y. where leaden pipes are partially used for the distri- bution of water, states that his own family have, for a period of sixteen years, freely used, for all purposes, water introduced to his house, a distance of at least one hundred and seventy-five feet, through a leaden pipe, and they have never had, in that time, a case of lead or other colic. He has known no case of lead poisoning from the use of the Albany Water Works, and he has been informed, on inquiry of some of the oldest physicians of the city, that they know of no such case. OPPOSITE PROOFs. On the other hand, a great number of cases might be cited, and many of them been made known to the public, in which the water of wells and springs either conveyed through leaden pipes, or received into cisterns lined with lead, has not only rapidly dissolved the lead, but has proved seriously detrimental to the health of persons who have habitually used it with their food. Repeated cases of both these descriptions have occurred, from the use of the water of certain wells in Boston, and in Worcester, Dedham, Cambridge, and other places. It is not possible to prove in reference to all these cases, what ingredient the waters contain capable of producing the effect, which is not contained in the water of rivers and lakes. The water of two wells in Cambridge, situated near each other, (those of Rev. Dr. Walker and Mr. Bucking- ham,) drawn through leaden pipes, were subjected to experiment by Professor Hors- ford. In the former, a trace of lead was discovered, and in the latter none. The use of the water of the former had also proved injurious to the health of the family. On subsequent inquiry, it was ascertained that the well of Dr. Walker was shallow, and was supplied from springs near the surface of the earth, and above the clay substratum. The well of Mr. Buckingham, after a discovery that the surface springs were insufficient, had been snnk deeper, and the water at the time of the experiment was drawn from a depth below the clay, which is impervious to rain water. Dr. Chilton, a most practical chemist of this city stated that he had been called on to analyse water taken from leaden pipes, in a house in the city which had been closed for some time previous, several persons having been made seriously ill from drinking the same water, and that he had detected the pre- sence of lead in it. He was also of opinion that the effect of lead from drinking Croton water under such circumstances is of frequent occurrence, but not recognized as such by the physicians. The question then seems to be settled that river water at least exerts no deleterious in- fluence upon lead pipes for domestic purpo- ses. Investigation of Science. Few people are aware of the extreme difficul- ty of the art of simple observation. That art consists not only in the ability to perceive the phenomena of nature through uncolored eyes, but also of the talent to describe them in unobstructed and transparent words. To observe properly in the very simplest of the physical sciences requires a long and severe training. No one knows this so feelingly as the great discoverer. Faraday once said that he always doubts his own observations. Mits- cherlich, on one occasion, remarked to a man of science of his aequaintance that it takes fourteen years to discover and establish a sin- The water of the London water- works is gle new fact in chemistry. An enthusiastic distributed from the houses in leaden pipes, student one day betook himself to Baron Cuvier and is usually preserved for use in tanks lined with the exhibition of a new organ, we think, with lead, and without complaint of any injo- it wasa muscle, which li~ supposed himself riou~ effects from the metal. On this subject, to have discovered in the body of some living Professor Graham of the London University, creature or other; but the experienced and an eminent chemist, iii reply to an inquiry by sagacious naturalist kindly bade theyoung man Professor Horsford, says, The point upon return to him with the same discovery in six which you desire information is one which months. The baron would not even listen to the students demonstration nor examine his Berkleyan theory, as it was an exhibition dissection, till the eager and youthful discover- merely of instinct, of the nature of which we er had hung over the object of inquiry for know nothing. It might as well be said half-a-year; and yet that object was a mere that children do not walk by experience and thing of the senses In a word, the records practice because some animals run about from of physical science are full of instances in the moment of their birth. Dr. Whewell which genuine researchers, men formed by maintained that experience showed that chil- nature and trained by toil for the life of oh- dren have little or no rdea of distance, for if servation, have misstated the least coniplic- they do not try to catch the sun or the moon, ated phenomena. Nor would the intelligent they frequently attempt to take hold of the public not be amused, as well as astonished, flame of a distant candle. if they only knew how very few of the noisy host of professing men of science, in even this matter-of-fact country, ever discover a single new fact ; ever describe with irre- versible fidelity a new phenomenon of any significance ; ever add one true word to the written science of the world. If, however, it be one of the hardest of problems to make observations with unbias- sed simplicity, and useful accuracy on inor ganic nature, the difficulty is greatly enhanced when there are superadded the phenomena of vitality to those of chemical affinity, mechanical cohesion and celestial gravitation, as is the case in the science of physiology. Mechanics is the science which was first brought to something like perfection; and the reason is obvious, for the phenomena with which it is conversant are not only the nearest to the senses of the observer, but they are the least complicated ones in creation. Then followed astronomy in the process of time and then chemistry, the phenomena of which are still more complicated than those of the science of stars and it is clear to every thoughtful and competent mind that physi- ology is now awaiting the consummation of chemistry. When the vast complexity of the science of physiology is considered with thoughtfulness, and when it is remembered that chemistry is still so far from perfection that the chemist cannot construct a particle of sugar, or any other organic substance, al- though he knows the exact quantities of char- coal and water of which it is composed, the reader will not be astonished to find that M. Comte, the amplest yet the most severe re- presentative of positive science that European influences have yet produced, speaks of the former department of knowledge as hardl3 set within the bounds of positive ssience. He characteriFes it as just emerging into that sphere. Starch a Cure for Scurvey. Dr. J Porter in an interesting article in the American Journal of Medical Science adduces much proof in favor of starch being an excel- lent anti-scorbutant. He says Experience has lqng shown that a diet consisting solely of potatoes is capable of affording nourishment, and of preserving the body in perfect health Certain nations, it is well known, subsist al- most entirely on rice, arrow root, and similar kinds of vegetable food. These are all .f the starch class ; and it may be that therein, as well as the potato, resides their chief value These articlesrice, arrow root, sage, tapioca and starchraay be made into excellent pud- dings with lemon juice and spices, and make a luxurious article of diet at sea. Arrow root may be purchased in any quantity in the islands of the Pacific and elsewhere and often as low as two or three cents the pound. Conversing a few days since, with one of our oldest shipmasters in the whaling fleet, I mentioned to him the theory in relation to starch, as being the chief ingredient in the potato. His crew had suffered most severely from scurvey in his last voyage. I inquired if he had any arrow root on board. No, was his reply, for I was disappointed in ob- taining it at the island; as it is my custom to do for puddings, & c. On my informing him that arrow root was almost entirely a form of starch, after some reflection, he said : I cannot but think that there is truth in the theory you have named, for, on looking back, I I find that during those voyages when I took most arrow root on board, I had the least scur- vey. Besides, he added, 1 was perfectly well during this last voyage, while all were sick around me, and two men died; and I know not what to attribute it to, unless it be to a practice which I have followed for years, of having, while at sea, a bowl of arrow root gruel at my breakfast. There is much truth in the above view. Starch is excellent for the purposes set forth Theory of Vision. At a late meeting of the British Association for the advancement of Science, a paper applied both outwardly and as an article of was dietthis we know from the testimony of in- read by Sir David Brewster, entitled An dividuals who have used it. The information Examination of Berkeleys Theory of Vision. is important to many. Sir David endeavored to overthrow the estab _______________________ lished theory that the idea of distance is oh- Cause of Waves. tamed merely by experience, and that all oh- The friction of the wind combines with je cts appear to the uneducated eye, as on the the tide in agitating the surface of the ocean, same plain. He mentioned several facts con- and, according to the theory of undulations, nected with pinocular vision to show that each produces its effect independently of the there is a line of distance impressed naturally other. Wind, however, not only raises on the retina; and all the instances to the waves, but causes a transfer of superficial contrary, derived from the observation of water also. Attraction between the parti- those who had received sight for the first des of air and water, as well as the pressure time, Sir David considered unsatisfactory, in- of the atmosphera, brings its lower stratum asmuch as the eyes of such persons were not into adhesive contact with the surface of in a natural state immediately after having the sea. If the motion of the wind be par- undergone the operation of couching. Ex- allel to the surface, there will still be fric- perience proved that children had ideas of tion, but the water will be smooth as a mm- distance, for they did not attempt to reach ror; but if it be inclined, in however small a the sun and the moon, and as regards animals, degree, a ripple will appear. The friction this fact was more striking, for the du~kling, raises a minute wave, whose elevation protects on coming out of its shell, ran to the distant the water beyond it from the wind, which water, and did not try to get into it as if it consequently impinges on the surface at a were within reach. He also mentioned some small angle thus, each ira pulse combining curious facts in connection with vision, which with the other produces an undulation which he thought militated directly against the continually advan~es. Berkelyan theory. When for example, a _______________________ person takes hold of a cane-bottomed chair, Pride. and directs the axes of ~iis eyes through the I never saw pride in a noble nature, nor pattern to some point on the floor, the pat- humility in an unworthy mind Of all the tern of the woven cane is seen in a position trees, I observe that God hath chosen the where it is not, and by no effort of the mind vine, a low plant, that creeps upon the help. can it be seen where it really is. The same illusion occurs when the eyes are directed steadily to the paper of a room; when the pattern is regularly placed in vertical stripes. Dr. Whewetl defended the Berkleyan theory, contending that the facts stated by Sir David confirmed instead of overthrowing the t~eory. With reference to the vision of animals, he 5aid, that could not be adduced against the less wall: of all beasts, the soft and patient lamb : of all birds, the mild and gentle dove. When God appeared to Moses, it was not in the lofty cedar, nor the sturdy oak, nor the spreading plane; but in a busha humble, slender, abject bush ; as if he would by these elections check the conceited arrogance of man. Nothing procureth love like humility; Nothing hate, like pride. 6 7 TO CORRESPONDENTS. M. P. of Conn; H. D. C. of Mass., and N. G. H. of Me.Your specifications have all been forwarded to Washington, and the models deposited -ith the forwarding Agent of this city. D. E. S. of .Mass.There would be a difficulty, if you do as you say, before making application. If your invention is of the least value, better not run any risk as the cost of securing it is trifling. Ill. W. of Pa.The engine is sold. W. 0. of N. J.Incubation by means of artificial heat is a very common thing now a days. C. M. M. of Pern.Your plan for a condenser is not new. Application for a pa. tent for the same was made last spring by ano- ther gentleman, of Connecticut. 5. N of N. Y.We fear your plan for propelling Canal boats would not be of any benefit. The paddle wheel, is in our opinion superior to any thing. Your plan is entirely new and we could without difficulty obtain a patent for you. $1, 0. K. W. R. Y.The whole amount for the engine must be paid in cash. S. G of Mass. The difference in apply. ing for a Patent is this; the longer you delay the more chance there is for others to super- cede you. Lose as little time as possible. The Patent Laws will be sent in a day or two. $1, Q. K. J. S. of Md.A good substantial engine for the purpose you name will cost $250. The power will be 2 horse. We would not re- commend less power as engines below are not easily managed nor do they work well in the long run. G. ~V. D. of N. Y.The brass can only become harder by the addition of more cop- per in the composition. R. W. of Vt.The man who makes tLc improvements, has the sole right to them, whether hired or not. No person can use them without his consentif hired to make a machine and he makes an improvement on it without being consulted, it shows that he gave consent to its usebut only that ma- chine. The manufacture of Woad is kept scmewhat private. Websters Unabridged DictIonary. Below we copy an article from the New York Tribune, which shows the vast celebrity this work has received even in the most dis- tant parts of the globe. The publishers of Websters Unabridged Dictionary, ir~ crown quarto, received an or- der for 12 copies of that work lately from Ceylon. Its fullness precision and accuracy renders it an indispensible aid, not only to the student at home, but to the Missionary abroad as he opens the treasures of the English lan- guage to the dark mind of his heathen scholar, or moulds to order and system the ruder ele- ments of his native tongue.. The revised edi- tion has already been published in England. See advertisement of this work in another column. Mechanical Principla. This is a new work by Charles Elbridge Leonard, containing all the various calcula- tions on water and steam power and the dif- ferent kinds of machinery used in manufac- turir~g with tables showing the cost of manu- facturing different styles of cotton goods. It is just such a work as is required at the pre- sent moment. It contains tables of beltings, speed and every calculation required in al- most all kinds of machinery - There are likewise introduced at the end of the work some two hundred Problems, showing the application of the different ta- bles. These Problems show that the tables contain all the necessary information required to perfect any problem that is connected with the subject of manufacturing. On the sub3ect of Cotton Manufacturing there are several problems introduced, show- ing the number of spindles with looms requir- ed to manutacture the estimated production of cotton of the United States into --t of goods; the number of operatives required; the amount paid them per year ; and also the amount paid out per year, including all ex- penses except the cost of cotton. The plan of this work differs very anateri- ally from any before publishedthe calcula- tions being so condensed and arranged, that those who possess but very little mathematical knowledge will be able to obtain the solution of the most intricate problems in mechanical science. Fi-om its scientific simplicity, it is believed that the work will prove very valua- ble and satisfactory to all who are interested in any of the subjects upon which it treats. The author Mr. Leonard, has had excellent opPortunities to produce an accurate and in teresting workselecting the best materials and arranging them in the most instructive and simple order. The volume contains 197 pages, price $l,50. We will send copies to any person who remits the above amount. Life and Writings of liogarth. J. S. Redfield, publisher, Clinton Hall, has favoured us with a copy of a sew edition of the life and writings of that inimitable humo- rist, Hogarth, which we recommend to every one that has not read his works. It is em- belished with numerous cuts representing his master pieces, which of course are very amusing. Cliff Copper Mine. The shipment of copper this season by the Cliff Missing compan3, (Lake Superior,) will yield at least $256,000. and will enable the company after discharging its old debts, and paying for its land, to divide to its stockhol- ders $180,000. Sending Receipts. It is impossible for us to enclose receipts to our subscribers in the paper without violating the Post Office laws and thereby rendering our- selves liable to be fined. But all persons who receive the paper may take it for granted that their money has come to hand, or that the time. for which they have formerly paid has not ex- pired, for in no case do we continue sending unless the pay has been received in advance. ~f3 THIS ~R~CI circulates in every State in the Union, and is seea principally by mechanics and manufacturers. Hence it may be consider~d the best medium of advertising, for those who import or man- ufacture machinery, mechanics tools, or such wares and materials as are generally used by those classes. The few advertisements in this paper are regarded with much more attentien than thes. in closoly printed dailies. Advertisements are inserted in this paper at the following rates: One square, ot eight lines one insertion, two do. three do., one month2 three do., six do., twelve do., TERMS:CASH IN ADVANCE. $ 0 50 75 1 00 1 25 3 75 7 50 1100 GENERAL AGENTS FOR THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. New Fork City, - GEe. DEXTER. Boston, - - - Messrs. HOTcHEIss & Co. Philadelphia, - - STORES & BROTHKR. LOCAL AGENTS. Albany, - - - - PETER COOK. Andover, Mass. - . E. A. RUSsELL. Baltimore,Md., - - - S. SANDS. Bermuda islands - WAOHINGTO-I & Co. Cabotville, Mass., - E. F. BROWN. Concord, N. H. RUFUS MERRELL. Dover. N. H. - - D. L. NORRIS. Fall River, Mass. - POPE & CHACK. Hartford, Ct., - - - E. H. BowERs. Houston, Texas, - J. W. COPES & Co. Jamestown, N. 17. - E. BISHOP. Lynn, Maas, - - J. E. F. MARSH. Middletown, Ct., - - Was. WOoDWARD Norwich, Ct., - - - SAFFORD & PARKS. New Haven, Ct., - - E. DowNEs. New Bedford, Mass., - S. F. Hovv. Newburg, N. Y. - S. A. WHITE. Newark, N. J., - - J. L AGENS. Newark, N. J - - Robert Kashaw. New Orleans, La. - J. C. MORGAN. Providence, R. I.,- - H. & J. S. ROWE. Rochester, N. 17. - D. M. DEWEY. Springfield, Mass., - - Was. B. BROCEET. Salem, Mass., - - - L. CHANDLER. Saco, Me., - - - - ISAAC CROOKEE. Savannah, Geo - JOHN CARUTHERS. Syracuse, N. 17. - - W. L. PALMER. Troy, N. V., - - - A. SMITH. Taunton, Mass., - - W. P. SEATER. Utica, N.Y. - - W. H. CANNIFF. Williamsburgh, - - J. C. GANDER. Webster, Mass. . - J. M. SHUMWAT. CITY CARRIERS. CLARK SELLECE, SqUIRE SELLECE. Persons residing in the city or Brooklyn, can have the paper left at their residences regularlybysend ing their address to the office, 128 Fulton at., 2d door The Best Patent Agency in the United States. HE subscribers would respectfully give notice .Lthatthey still continue to attend to Patent Office business as uoual. 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Those who wish to take out Pat. ents or enter Caveats, should by all means have the business transacted through the SCIENTIFIC AMERI- CAN OFFICE, as they may then RELY upon its being done in a straight forward and prompt manner, on the very lowest terms. All letters must be PesT PAID and directed to MUNN & CO., Publishers of the Scientific American, s9 1-28 Fulton street, New York. The largest, best and cheapest Dictionary in the English lasagunge, is confessedly WEBSTERS, the entire work, unabridged, in I vol. Crown Quar- to, 1452 pp. with portrait of the author, revised by Professor Goodrich, of Yale College. Price, $6. The most COMPLETE, ACCURATE, and RELIASLE Dictionary of the Language, is the recent testimo- ny given to this work by many Presidents of Col- leges, and other distinguished literary men through- out the country. Containing three times the amount of matter of any other English Dictionary compiled in this coun- try, or any Abridgment of this work, yet Its definitions are models of condensation and pu- rity. The most complete work of the kind that any nation can boast of.HoN. WM. B. CALHOUN. We rejoice that it bids fair to become the stan- dard Dictionary to be used by the numerous mil- lions of people who are to inhabit the United States. Signed by 104 members of Congress. Published by G. & C MERRIAM, Springfield, Mass., and for sale by all booksellers. a23 2m THE WEST STREET FOUNDRY, corner of Beach and West streets, will furnish at the shortest notice, Steam Engines and Boilers in all their varieties, and on the most reasonable terms, together with castings of brass or iron, and machi- nery in general. Orders attended to with dispatch, ano particular attention given to repairing. JOSEPH E. COFFEE, AGENT. Steam Boats, Engines, Machinery, & c. bought and sold on commissionapply as above. s21 Imo POWER TO LETRARE CHANCE. ?~ HREE rooms, 40 feet square, one room 60 by 40 -~ feet, 2nd floor, power from engine, 25 in. cylin- der, 4 1-2 feet stroke. Let together or in parts. Ap- ply at West street Foundry, corner of Beach and West streets. s21 3m TALIIOTS PATENT BLIND HINGE. VT HE undersigned having become interested in .5. the manufacture and sale of the above article, would state that their facilities are such, that they can supply any demand at short notice. This hinge, having stood the test of two years trial, has fully established itself as a useful and important in- vention, being all that can be desired for blind trimmings, as the blind is managed entirely from the inside of the house without raising the sash, COMPLETELY locks it, and prevents all unpleasant noise of the blind by wind. American Window Trimming Company, Taunton, Mass. Address GEG. GODFREY, Agent A. W. T. Co. 121 3m TO IRON FOUNDERS. Pulverized bituminous, or sea-coal Facing, an ap- proved article for mixing with moulding sand to make the sand leave the castings easily. Also fine bolted charcoal and anthracite coal dust, soap- stone, sad black lead on hand in barrels, and for sale by G.O.ROBERTSON, s23 4t0 Importer, 283 West 17th street, N. Y. GENERAL PATENT AGENCY. REMOVED. ~I HE SUBSCRIBER has removed his Patent Agent -L c yfrom 189 Water to 43 Fulton street. The object of this Agency is to enable Inventors to realize something for their inventions, either by the sale of Patent Goods or Patent Rights. Charges moderate, and no charge willbe made un tilthe inventor realizes something frembisinvention Letters Patent will be secured upon moderate terms. Applications can be made to the undersign ed, personally or by letter post paid. auS SAMUEL C. HILLS, Patent Agent. - Johnson & Robbins, Cons~siting Engineers and Counsellors for Patentees. Office on F street, opposite Patent Office, Washing ton,D.C. jl7tf To Cotton Manufacturers. T HESubscriber wilifurnish Cotton Manufacturers with his improved Cotton Willow. The fact of its being introduced into most of the best mills in New England is the best proof of its exccllence It is extremely simple in its construction and will do more and 5ETTRR woaa with a less expenditure of power than any other Willow it prepares the cotton so much better than any other that there is much less power and repairs needed on the suc- ceeding machinery. It is as safe from fire as a Card, and its form and action are such as to draw all the flyings and dirt from the journals ;it will convey the cotton to any desirable distance s~ort of 250 feet. It csn be placed in the basement of a mill or other place nearly worthless for other manufacturing pur- poses, and will blow the cotton into the rooms above. All necessary information given for placing and operating the machine in any peculiar or diffi- cult situation. Saws. ~ EAVITT & MDANIEL, Concord, N. H., make of -i-- the best cast steel the following Saws Circular, Mill Tennon, Cross-cut, Fellow and Ve- neering Saws. Also, TuIping and Billet Webs, and Butchers Bow Saws. Nd saws ever made equalto EDMUND BA CON. their Cast steel Mill Saws. Superinteadont Quinebaug Manufacturing Ce. The trade supplie4 on liberal terms. s23 2~T j24 tf Norwich, CoDa. Judsons Stave Dressing Ma chine. THIS Machine, on which Letters Patent were granted May 1st, 1847, has been in successful operation for the past year, and hundreds of thou- sands of staves have been dressed by it. It is war ranted to dress the same quantity of staves with as little power as any that can be started,- also leave the full thickness on thin edges and thin ends, and conform as near to the crooks and twists of the tim- her as can be desired. The jointing of the machine which accompanies it, has been subjected to the se- verest test, and pronounced superior to that perfor- med by hand. Application for a patent on the Joint- er has been made. Large quantities of Hoguheads and Shooks made with staves dressed and jointed with tiseir machsnes have been sold and used to the entire satisfaction of the purchasers. For rights and machines address the proprietors at their Manufactory, Artizan street, New Haven, Connecticut, where machines in full operation may be seen. JUBSON & PARDEE. New Haven, July 17,1748. jy29 3m5 UNIVERSAL CHUCKS FOR TURNING LATHES For sale by the Manu- facturers Agents, QUINCY & DEALA PIERRE, 81 John street New York. sS 3m5 Coal. THE Subscriber has constantly for sale by the car- go or ton all sizes of Coal for MANUFACTURERS and FAMILIES, from the best Schuylkill Rust Lehigh mines. Hazieton and Spring Mountain, lump and steamboat Coal. Tamaqusa Chesnut for engines. Peach Orchard and other red ash Coal. Mid lothian, Virginia, a superior artscle for smiths use. Cum- borland, Sidney and Liverpool Coal. For sale at the LOWEOT market prices. 2. P. OSTROM, RusS 3m0 corner 10th Avenue and 26th st. PREMIUM SLIDE LATHE. pEE subscriber is constantly building his improv- -Led Lathes of all sizes, from 7 to 30 feet long, and can execute orders at short notice. JAMsS T. PERKINS, Hudson Machine Shop and Iron Works, mIl Hudson, N. 17. Agricultural Implements. ~jr3-invento~s and Msau~ctnrers of superior Ag ricuitural Implements may And customers for their goods by applying at the Agricultural Warehouse of 5- C. HILLS & CO. 43 Fuitoa St. auS Machinery. p ERSONSresiding in any partof the United States who are in want of Machines Engines, Ladies, os ANY DESCRIPTION OF MACHINERY, can have their orders promptly executed by addressing the Pub- lishers of this paper. From at extensive acquain- tance among the principal machinists and a long ac perience in mechanical matters they have uncom- mon facilities for the selection of the best msschinery and will faithfully attend to any bualness entrusted totheircare MUNN & CO. all ~VG~ ~NGRAV~ 6c3The above is prepared to execute all ordersat the shortest notice and on the most reasonable ternia. Lap welded Wrought Iron Tubes FOR TUBULAh BOILERS, From 1 1-4 to 6 inches diameter, and any length, not exceeding 17 feet. HESE Tubes are of the same quality and mann? .Lfacture as those extensively used in England, Scotland, France and Germany, for Locomotive, Ma rine and other Steam Engine Boilers. THOMAS PROSSER, Patentee, d26 28 Platt street, New York Johnsons Improved Shingle Machine. Ff1 HE Subscriber having received Letteas Patent ..L for an improvement in the Shingle Machine, is now readyto furnish them at short notic e, and he would request all those who want a goo I machine for sawing shingles, to call on him and xamine the improvements he has made, as one eight rsmcre shin- gles can be sawed in the same given time than by any other machine now in use. Augusta, Maine, Oct. 1, 1847. J- G. JOHNSON. To Mill Owners. I-T AVILAND & TUTTLES Patent Centre Vent ~5. Pressure Water WheelThese wheels are now in successful operation in many towns in Maine, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island, and are found to surpass in power and facility of adaptation any wa- ter wheel now in use. This wheel was awarded the silver medal at the Fair of the American Institute recently held in New York and a diploma at the Mechanics Fair in Boston. The wheels are manufactured and for sale by the FULTON IRON FOUNDRY CO., South Boston, Mass.,where the wheels can be sean and any infer mation cencerning them had. Patent Rights for different States, Counties, & c. for sale - as above - m25 6sa5 Improvod Elcetro Magnetic Machine for snie cheap. (~ NE of Moreheads Celebrated Magnetic Machines in good order, and perfectly new. Price 10 dol- lars. It is encased in a beautiful rosewood box, and may be shipped to any part of the United States with safety. Address MUNN & CO. sO tf. Pub. Sd. Am. New York. STEAM BOILER. BENTLEYS Patent Tubular and other Boilers of any size, shape power, made to order, by SAMUEL C. HILLS & CO. auS 45 Fulton at. i~cientific 2trncvicQu. For the Scientific American. New Chemical Law. No 1. In surveying the present state of chemical science, now so rapidly advancing, it cannot but be perceived, that there is a great deal of confusion and misunderstanding in relation to the composition and classification of che- mical substances, and more particularly in the department of Organic Chemistry, about which but comparatively little is known. It is true that chemical analysis gives us the em- pirical composition of these substances; but what new idea does this teach? We know that the composition of almost all organic substan- ces, consist of the three elements, Carbon, Hy- drogen, and Oxygen, united in different pro- portions, but this is not sufficient, something more is wanted ; we want to know the true arrangement of the atoms which compose these substances ? and until this is accom- plished, but little advancement will be made, in this department of Chemistry. An analysis of a substance is not complete although we way know its exact composition. In order to have it complete, it is necessary, that we should also know the true arrange- ment 01 its atoms. This is of far more irapor- tance than most chemists suppose, at least it appears, that but little attention is paid to it by them, as most all analysises of organic substances laid down in chemical works, merely give the empirical formula, but pay not the least attention to the arrangement ~f the atoms. For instance the composition of Quinine is given as C20, H12, N, 02, now what great benefit is derived from this mode of stating the analysis? It certainly gives us but a very small amount of knowledge. If however the true arrangement of its atoms were also given, then our knowledge of it, would become complete, and we should be enabled to classify it with other substances of a similar composition. It is evident that a knowledge of the ma- terial substances which compose a building, as brick, stone, wood & c., could give us no pos- sible information as to its plan and arrange- inent, nor of its general appearance. The same is the case with a chemical substance and although we may know its composition by analysis, as generally given ; we do not understand the true arrangement of its atoms. It is therefore of the utmost importance to chemical science that the mode of the arrange- ment of the atoms of matter should be as- certained. It may be asked, does such an ar- rangement or order among the atoms of sub- stance exist? Who is there that has ever studied the Laws of Nature, and observed the constant order and regularity, with which they are always attended, but will affirm with- out any doubt, that such a law does exist. The material universe was founded upon or- der, consequently no law of nature can exist independent of it. It is this which leads us to affirm, that all future discoveries in science must necessarily be accompanied by this order. When therefore we seek to explain the law of the arrangement of the atoms of matter, we should look for it with the expectation of finding it governed by perfect order. The the- ory of Types, by Dumas, is an instance of this order, and beautifully shows how a substance may retain its Types, although every element in it, may be substituted for another: the num- ber of elements in it remaining the same. The new chemical law which I am about to describe, is an instance of an order among the particles, of matter which when correctly understood and applied will do more for the benefit of mechanical science than can ever be imagined at the present time. While it shows the true arrangement of the atoms of matter, it leads to other important laws, which when properly understood, may be ap- plied to the calculation of specific gravities, boiling points, and the affinity of sub- stances for each other, also to many other properties which are at present regarded as mysteries. It may also be employed in its perfected state, to find the composition of a regularly formed substance without the aid of chemical analysis, by having the specific gra- vity of its vapour, boiling point, its own speci- fic gravity, and its chemical properties given. This may appear ideal, and strange to many, and perhaps doubted; this however will not alter its truth, as the nature of the law is such, that its chemical composition is depen- dent upon the ~ipecific gravity of its vapor, boiling point, & c. The results which the ass- plication of this law gives, are recorded, and its truth may be seen by any one, who will take the trouble to examine it, Even in its infancy as it is now, it may be employed to approximately calculate the specific gravity and boiling points of substances whose che- mical properties are known. It is a subject therefore which admits of proof, and although many may consider it unworthy of examina- tion, yet it is capable of standing by the re- sults it produces, whoever may assail it. .Bridgepn-t, Conn. S. N. Forthe Scientific American. History of the Rotary Engine. In commencing a history of the Rotary Engine, we must first state, that it is not ow- ing to rotary motion, in the adaptation and arrangement of machinery, that the moderns excel the ancients, as has been asserted by an eminent author. The first steam engine of which we have any record was a rotary one therefore in point of primogeniture the rotary steam engine is the father of the family. The early history of steam is involved in much obscurity, but the first individual on record who applied it to produce any effect was He- ro, the elder, who lived in Alexandria, in Egypt, 130 years before the Christian era. Heros engine was propelled by steam from a kettle, and motion was produced in the same manner as water propels the well known Barkers Mill. During the dark ages which succeeded the overthrow of Greece and Rome by the Goths and Vandals, all was indeed dark in practical mechanics. Six hundred and se- venty years elapsed, after Hero made his ro- tary engine, before any other attempt was made to apply steam to useful purposes. In 1560 an engine similar to Heros was propo- sed by MathesiusofLeipsic, to propel a turn- spit. It was not, however, until 1616, that particular attention was directed to the steam engine. In that year a famous French engi- neer named De Caus, published a work with a drawing exhibiting the application of steam to propel machinery. De Caus also knew that a vacuum could be produced by conden- sing steam, but he never applied it to any use- ful purpose. In 1629 Giovanni Branca, a mathematician at Rome, published an account and the follow- ing drawing of his steam engine. FIG. 1. BRANCAS E 1vGINE. A, is the boiler platform. B, is the fire grate. C, is a frame to secure the boiler D. E, is the steam pipe provided with a stop cock F. G, is a wheel furnished with vanes, and H, is a crank secured to a connecting rod. The steam that was generated in the boiler was ejected against the vanes of the wheel, and thus operated the crank and connecting rod to propel other machinery. It is need- less to notice the defects of this engineit was not equal to that of Heros, but it shews the modern state of the steam engine in 162~ only two hundred and nineteen years ago. In 1663 appeared the famous century of inventions by the ingenious Marquis of Wor- cester, and he describes his steam engine, which however was not a rotary, but simply to fill a cistern with water by steam. The first patent that was secured for a ro- tary engine, was that of James Watt, the fa- mous engineer. This was in 1769. There is no drawing accompanying the first specifica- tion, which is very complex. The invention was a poor one, and the great inventor laid it entirely aside. There can be no doubt but it was very ingenious as described by Mr. Farey, in Rees Encyclopedia, but taking it altogether it was a failure. In 1782 he secured another patent for a ro- tary engine, of which the following is an en- graving, and which has been brought forward within a few years as a new invention. fi& . 2. JAMES WATTs ENGINE. C C, is a cylinder about 3 feet in diameter and 1 foot deep. A, is an axle passing through stuffing boxes in each lid or end of the cylin- der. B, is a piston which is nicely ground to fit in the cylinder, and fixed to the axle. E, is a curved flap valve, which turns upon a pivot F. The concave side of it, is a segment of a circle of the same radius with the cylinder and extending through its whole length, and when shut back into the cavity D, becomes as it were a part of the cylinder. G, is the steam pipe, and H the exhaust pipe. Steam being admitted from the boiler through G, presses equally upon E and B, (let inventors of the rotary engine look at this) but E being stopt against the axle, the piston B recedes or moves by the pressure and turns the axle A. The piston then continues the motion until it comes in contact with the concave side of the valve, which is kept to the axle by a lever or spring L, working through a email stuffing box. At this point then the momentum of the axle, on the other end of which was a fly wheel, wa~ required to drive back the flap valve, at least a great part of the momentum. The valve was then dri~en into its recess D, and wh~n the piston had passed G, it receiv- ed again the action of the steamthe valve springing back to the axle, This plan was never carried into effectual operation, nor could it. The violent working of the valve was enough to condemn it, and as he used packing in his piston, it was torn away in passing over the steam pipe. He used no cut oft, and therefore there was a great loss of steam, but we must say, that this is the only point of difference between it and a new one that we have examined not long ago, and which would have saved the inventor much time and money had be been acquainted with the many different kinds of rotary engines that had previously been brought before the world. All living inventors and patentees of rotary engines, who are desirous of having their in. ventions included in this history, should em- brace this opportunity, Neat drawings will be required. We have collected a niass of drawings on this subject, and this will be the only single and best history of the rotary en- gine ever published. Test for the purity of Magnesia. The common magnesia of the shops (which is a carbonate) is freqnently adulterated with chalk ; this may be detected by adding a little diluted sulphuric acid, which, with magnesia forms a very soluble salt, but with lime, a very insoluble one. Fore magnesia (called calcined magnesia, in the shops) dissolves in diluted sulphuric acid entirely, and without effervescence. By the last news a case of cholera had ap- peared in London. ~he free use of spices and a generous diet was recommended. Analyses of Milk. The chief component parts of milk are those, which, when separated, are known as forming butter and cheese ; the residue of which is called whey. These are distinguish- ed by scientific persons as the butyraceous, or oily substance producing cream, of which butter is composed ; the caseous matter, of which cheese is formed, and scrumor whey Cream forming : 4.5 parts of 100. Chease : : : 35 do Whey : : 92.0 do This can only convey a general idea of the component parts, for they must necessarily va- ry according to the quality of milk. The analysis of skimmed cows milk is sta- ted by chemists to be Water : : : : 91875 of 1000 Cheese, with a trace of butter 38.00 Sugar of Milk : : : 35.00 Muriate of potash : : 1.70 Phosphate of potash : : 0.25 Lactic acid with acetate of potash 6.00 Earthy phosphates : : 0.30 Instruments have been invented, called lac- tometers, for ascertaining the richness of milk in nearly the same manner as that employed for trying the strength of spirits. The differ- ence in the quality of milk between particular cows may thus be determined, but it does not show whether the caseous or butyraceous matter predominates. Zinc. Zinc forms the link between the brittle and the malleable metals. It is a modern discovery that ata temperature of from 2100 to 400w of Fahrenheit, it yields to the hammer and may be drawh into wire, or extend into sheets. At a very elevated temperature it may be pulverized, and, when in fusion, be minutely divided, by pouring it into water. In filings or small particles, it is used to produce those brilliant stars and spangles which are seen in the best artificial fire works. Mechanical Paper IN THE WORLD! / FOURTH YEAR OF THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 416 Pages of most valuable information, illustrated with upwards of 500 MECHANiCAL ENGRAVliYIQSI fjIyThe Scientific American differs entirely from the magazines aisfi papers which flood toe country, as it is a Weekly Journal of Art, Science and Me. chanics, having for its object the advancement of the INTERESTS OF MECHANICS, MANUFAC. TURERS and INVENTORS Each number is il- lustrated with from five to TEN original ENGRA- VINGS OF NEW MECHANICAL iNVENTIONS, nearly all of the best inventions which are patented at Washington being illustrated in the Scientific American. it also contains a Weekly List of Amer. ican Patents; notices of the progress of all Mechan. ical and Scientific Improvements; practical direc- tions on the construction, management and use of all kinds of MACHINERY, TOOLS, & C.; Essays upon Mechanics, Chemistry and Architecture - ac- counts of Foreign inventions; advice to Inventors- Rail Road Intelligence,together with a vast amount of other interesting, valuable and useful information. The SCIENTIFIC AMERiCAN is the most popular journal of the kind ever published, and of more im- portance to the interests of MECHANICs and IN. VENTORS than any thing they could possibly ob- tain To Farmers it is also particularly useful, as it will apprise them of all Agricultural Improve. ments, instruct them in various mechanical trades, & c. & c. It is printed with clear type on beautiful paper, and being adapted to binding, the subscriber is possessed, at the end of the year, of a large vol- ume of 416 pages, illustrated with upwards of 600 mechanical engravings. TERMS: Single subscription, $2 a year in ad- vance ; $1 for six months. Those who wish to sub- scribe have only to enclose the amount so a letter, directed to. MUNN & CO. Publishers of the Scientific American, 1-25 Fulton street, New York. All Lettters must be Post Paid. INDUCEMENTS FOR CLUBBING. s copies for 6 months $4 00 S 12 $800 10 6 $750 10 12 $1500 20 6 $1500 20 is $aooo Southern and Western Money taken at par for sub- scriptinas. Post Office Stamps taken at their full value. A SPLENDID PRESENT! To any person who will send us Three Subscri. hers, we will present a copy of the PATENT LAWS OF THE UNITEO STATEs, together with all the informa- tion relative to PATENT OFF5CE BUSiNESs, including full directions for taking out Patents, method of ma- king the Specifications, Claims, Drawings, Models, boyleg, selling and transfering Patent Rights, & c. This is a present of GREAT VALUE, yet may be obtain- ed for nothing, by the reader of this prospectus, if he will take the trouble to get Three Subscribers to the Scientific American. It will be an easy matter to obtain two names besides his owe. MUNN & CO., Scientific American Office, N. Y. 8

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Scientific American. / Volume 4, Issue 2 Scientific American, inc. etc. New York September 30, 1848 0004 002
Scientific American. / Volume 4, Issue 2 9-16

Zcieutifi THE ADVOCATE OF INDUSTRY, AND JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC, MECHANICAL AND OTHER IMPROVEMENTS. bot. ~i. ~cw pork, ~tptcrnb~r 30, ~ ~o. ~. RAIL ROAD NEWS. THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN: CiRCULATION 11,000. PUBLISHED WEEKLY. At 128 Fulton Street, New York (Sun Building,) and 13 Court Street, Boston, Mass. By Munn & Company. The Principal Office being at New York. Tif~IU[SS~ a yearSi in advance, and the remainder in 6 moaths. f~-See advertisement on last page. THII SNOW DROP IN TRIG POOR MAlES WINDOW. It was a darksome alley, Where light but seldom shone, Save where at nooa a sun-ray touched Its little sill of stone. Beneath the poor mans window, Whose weary life was bound, To waste in one dull, ceaseless task The passing seasons round. Springs dewy breath of perfume, And summers wealth of flowers, Or the changing hue of Autumns leaves. Neer blest his lonely hours; He knew too well when Winter Came bowing forth again He knew it by his fireless grate, The snow, and pla~hing rain. Pierced by the frost-winds beating, His cheerless task he plied; Want chained him ever to the loom, By the little window side But when the days grew longer, He stole an happy hour To tend, within a broken vase, A pale and slender flower. How tenderly he moved it To catch the passing ray, And smiled to see its folded leaves Grow greener every day. His faded eyes were lifted oft, To see the snow-drop bloom To him it seemed a star of light Within a darksome room. And as he gently moved it Near to the sun-touched pane, Oh who can tell what memories Were busy in his brain Perchance his home in childhood In a sylvan valley lay, And he heard the voice of the running streams, And the green leaves rustling play. Perchance a long-departed But cherished dream of yore, Rose up through the mist of want and toil, To bless his heart once more. A voice of music whispered Sweet words into his ear, And he lived again that moonlight oer, Gone by for many a year. Or but the love of Nature Within his bosom stirred The same sweet call thats answered by The blossom and the bird; The free, unfettered worship Paid by the yearning soul, When it seems to feel its wings expand To reach a brighter goal, NEW PROPELLER..-- Figure 1. This is a new propeller invented and paten- to admit of but little resistance to the return ted by M. P. Classen, ot London, and first no- stroke. These propellers, which move in a ticed in Barlow and Le Capelains Patent Jour- vertical line with the rudder of the boat, nal. The invention relates to propellin., boats causes the swing floats when opposed to the from the stern, and he employs horizontal water to shut and thus propel the vessel. The propeller shafts respectively attached to the rr.ode of reversing being the alteration in the pistons of two steam cylinders. At the ends direction of the float hoards to the required of these shafts, which pass through stuflin~ direction. In constructing float wheels accor- boxes into a water tight casing are atlixed i dieglothisinvention, instead of applying float two frames subdivided into 12 or more coin- I boards to hollow frame wheels they are attach. partments, for the reception of an equal ed to cylindric drums having suitable iecesses number of swing floats, which open one way formed in their peripheries for their reception. Figure 2. Fig 1. represents an end view ui me Impro- ved wheel, and fig. 2 a sectional side elevation taken through the doted lines, A B. a a, is is the cylindrical drum which may be ot me- tal or any other light substance, such as cork, An aspiration, showing wood, or otherwise. b b, are float motion Earth binds us not her slave, rods, attached at right angles by the hinge or But we claim a brighter being, joint d, to the float boards c c. e e, are small A life beyond the grave, friction rollers which turn on centres at the ends of the motion rods, b b, for the purpose The Rockville (Md.) Journal says that a tier- of directing the position of the float boards; g chant of that town sold last year $1,500 g, are slotted bridles or guides, in which the worth of sumac. The Journal advises the friction rollers e a, travel: these rollers, when farmers of theCouiaty to gather it. -. moving concentric with the drum a e, re main stationary, nut wnen tney aiverge into the eccentric channel, A li, they cause the free use of the float boards to move outwards, N IT. and Erie Railroad. This great work, from the Delaware River to Binghamton, is now being pushed forward with vigorous resolution. The Binghamp- ton Courier says it is still the expectation .f the Directors to complete it to that place by the 1st of January next. Reduetioa of Fares. The associated Railroads in this State have reduced their throu h fare from Buffalo to Albany to $9,75; hitherto $12. When the Erie Railroad shall be in operation through- out, the central route will reduce their fares, and wish they had not deferred it so long. Accidents by Railroad. The boiler of a Locomotive exploded in Philadelphia on Thursday week, on Willow street railroad, near Schuylkill Eighth street. The Locomotive (the Simon Snider) was at- tached to a train of portable boats surrounded by several persons, who escaped almost by a miracle, The cause of this explosion was the same that has produced many similar dis- astersa want of water in the boiler. Ninety persons were killed and nnety- niiie injured, by railroad accidents in Great Biitain and Ireland during the six months en- ding June 30th. The total number of per- sons travelling by railroad in the same period was 26,330,49-2. The proportion of persons killed was one in 292,561 passengers, and of the wounded one in 265,964. Reprehensible Conduct. Several instances have occurred of late, in Massachusetts, in which passengers in rail- road cars have been severely injured by stones or other missiles being thrown at them by boys as the train was passing. On Menday after. noon last an iron spike, weighing about three quarters of a pound, was thrown at the 4 oclock up train from Boston, near West New- ton, by a boy about twelve years of age. The spike entered the window while the train was under all headway, and grazed the head of a lady who sat next to it. but without doing her serious injury. A man travelling eastward on the Utica Railroad, last week, who refused to pay his fare, was ejected from the cars by the collec- tor at Oriskany. lie gave way to his wrath by throwing a volley of stones through the window near which Hon. John C. Spencer sat, striking (hat gentleman on the head, in- flicting a severe wound. Such acts should meet with prompt punish. ment. The Telegraph. We learn that the New York and Philadel- phia Telegraphic Company have abandoned the project of communicating with this City by means of wires sunk in the river. They have extended their line to the Highlands, where the wires can be suspended across the river at an elevation of 500 feet. The Fate of a Canal. New Haven papers are making merry over the destruction of the old canal, once the boast of Connecticut, but now, like a faded beauty devoid of intellectual or moral worth, it is thrown aside and neglected for the more useful railway. There is hardly a vestige of the old canal remaining. The fragnser.t of a mammoth tooth was re till, on arriving at a poiiit coincident with a cently found near Sulphur Springs, Alaba- vertical line drawn through the centre of the ma, weighing 801 pounds. It is of a bluish drum, they present the whole of their surfa- cast, and in a petrified state, and when found ces to the water, as seen atf; ii, is a crank was embedded in the earth with the grinding shaft, passing through stuffing boxes, k A; j surface exposed. The teeth of the monster of j, is a water-tight casing, enclosing the paddle which this is a part, must have weighed over wheels. Wheels so constructel are to be pla- two hundred poundsits head several thou- ced in the hold of a vessel or boat, on each sand. The animal, we suppuse, was one of side of the keel. transversely, and oalcula- j earliest inhabitants of Mississippi Valley, ned ted to be driven by steam or other motive was well calculated for traversing its majestie power engines, rivers, prairies and forests. ~cicntiIic 2~mcviurn. Foreign correspondence. NEW KENT ROAD, SURREY, LONDON, September 8th, 184S. MR. EDiTOR. am in the regular receipt of your valuable paper (through my father, in Cambridge, Mass.) and with ~onr permission will add to the reply that you made your corres- pondent U. E. of Philadelphia, in your pa- per of Aug. 19. Although I am an interested party I will endeavour to give it an impar- tial consideration. The French Sewing ma- chine has the same defect as the Cambridgema- chine, only to a greater extent. For whilst the Cambridge stitch is pulled out with some difficulty the French, or Tambour stitch, is pulled out with the greatest ease, as those that understand the peculiarities of each stitch will readily perceive. The stitch, which is the tambour or chain stitch, is made with a hook instead of a needle, and is used only for pur- poses of ornament. The machine is very com- pact and simple, but in my opinion incom- plete inasmuch as the cloth has to be pre- sented to it by hand, thereby requiring both hands and one foot to operate it. I dont know how your correspondent can get one for there is not any for sale. At least there was not a few weeks ago. I wish to say to your correspondent and others who feel themselves interested, that I expect soon to be able to submit to their in- spection a Sewing Machine that will both stitch and sew in the same manner as is done by hand, thereby silencing those objections brought against the Cambridge and French machines. The machine will be extremely simple, not possessing one-half the complica- tion of the others, the patent for which is seal- ed here. I dont think it will he of any use for you to ridicule John Bull about his patent seal, for the fdct is John is thick upon some matters, and upon that seal he is decidedly f/sic.. EbsAs IloavE. JR. A Nobie Act handsomely Acknoiviedged. The Common Council of this city have vo- ted the freedom of the city and a gold box, with suitable inscriptions, to Frederick Jer- ome, tue gallant sailor who saved so many passengers of the Ocean Monarch, at the evi- dent peril of his own life. Jerome belongs to the port of New York, where his wife and family reside. He had, on a Previous occa- sion saved a number of lives and when the catastrophe happened to the Ocean Monarch, he swam to the wreck and with his own hands lowered some fifteen or twenty helpless fe- males into the boat. lie was rewarded by a present of 50 from the Prince de Joinville and 1)uc dAumale; the Qneen of England also presented him with another 50, and the Humane Society of Liverpool with a gold medal. This intrepid sailor reached this city a few days since in the ship New World, and the Common Council have appointed a special committee to wait on him with their handsome acknowledgment of his intrepidity and humanity. The star-spangled banner rejoices to wave, Oer one so intrepid, so noble, so brave. Ala Interesting ItejIc. The venerable John Binns has proposed to the Philadelphia Councils to purchase an ori- ginal portrait of George Washington, painted by Charles XV. Peale, just after the battle of Trenton, when the great man was in his 46th year. This picture is the only one taken of him in contenental uniform and the hack ground embraces likenesses of Knox and Mer- cer. The frame is of the oak of the frigate Macedonian, captured during the war with Great Britain by the United States. In the course of the next month the Cen- tral (Michigan) Rail Road, will be completed to Niles, leaving 25 miles by stages to St. Joseph. Passengers then will make the dis- tance between Chicago and Detroit, in 24 hours. nearly superseded every other kind of artifi- cial light for both public and domestic pur- poses, its proper management becomes a mat- ter of great importance. In the first place, the greatest care should be taken to prevent its escape into the apartments in which it is used ; for as it forms, when mixed with com- mon air, a highly explosive compound, re sembling the fire-damp in coal-pits, both in constitution and properties, very dangerous accidents frequently happen from a neglect of this precaution. To this end the taps of the various burners, arid especially of the main-feed pipe, should be turned so as to quite cut off all supply of gas. Should, however, the gas be found to have escaped, a light should never be introduced into the apart. ment until the upper sashes of the windows have been open some time, and every avail- able ~vay of exit provided for the dangerous mixture of gas and air then in the room. By neglecting this precaution a fearful accident lately occurred in London, whereby some lives were lost. The next point claiming attention is the meter. To make our remarks on this sub- ject the more intelligible, it may be proper to give a brief account of its construction. It consists of an external gas chamber, in which there is a rotating chambered cylinder properly connected with the register wheels Into the chambers of this cylinder the gas is delivered by the outer feed.pipe to be meas- ured by the burners. Projecting from the front of the main chamber is a smaller one, provided with two screwtaps, one for the admission of water, the other for its emission. Water is poured through the former into the external chamber, and finds its way into the cylinder chambers, and, of course, rises to a height proportioned to the quantity poured into the apparatus. The second of the screw- taps above mentioned is used to regulate the height, and must, therefore, be withdrawn whilst pouring in the water. The form of the chambers in the rotating cylinder is such that the pressure of the enteiing gas on the water causes the cylinder to go round. This rotation communicates motion to the wheels which register the number of rotations. and, of course, the volumes of gas delivered at each rotation into the chamber from which the burners are supplied. Now, as the rotating cylinder is partially filled with water, it is obvious that its capacity for gas must depend on the height to which the water has risen in it. This capacity is estimated for each meter from a given heieht of water, and this is regulated by the emission screw tap as just stated. If this is not withdrawn whilst f)ouriog in the water, the capacity of the chambers will be diminished by the rise of the water ; and more gas registered than has been consumed. On the other hand, should there be too little water consumed, the light will be unsteady, and may suddenly go out altogether. We have thought it right to give these hints at the present time, as ac- cidents are more likely to happen now than at most other seasons. Potatee Cheese. In some parts of Saxony. potatoes of the best quality are dressed in steam, peeled, and reduced to a pulp. Five pounds of this are mixed with about ten pounds of sweet curd kneaded together, with the addition of some salt ; after lying for a few days, the mixture is again kneaded, pressed into little baskets, where f lie superfluous moisture drains off and the cheese is then formed into balls, and dried in the shade. These cheeses are said to keep well, when dry, and their taste and quality improve with age, with the advantage that they generate no vermin. Bogat-dus Flour Mill. A singular building is about being put up at the corner of Duane and Centre streets, by Mr. James Bogardus, the inventor of the Fceentric Mills for vrin.ding grain, dro~s, & c The foundation has been built, and it is now proposed to make the whole basement and four stories with the exception of the floors, of American Iron. The building, which is to be 25 feet wide and 89 feet 9 inches deep, is to be a manufactory amid Flour Mill, Hints to Gas ConSUmer5. Morses Air Distributor, for burning Saw- As gas obtained from coal or oil has now dust, Tan, Fine Coal Dt~st, and Refuse FueL We copy the followingarticle from the Ni- agara Courier, which shows the merits of Morses Air Distributor from actual test. This isdeservedly one of the most impor- tant patents, relative to generating heat, ever obtained, It brings into use substances that hitherto were deemed worthlessand saves the consumption of valuable wood and other fuel. In this Village Mr. G. Reynale has in- troduced it in his large Gang Saw mill for cutting ship plank and sawing stone. He has two gangs of twenty saws for plank, and five gangs for stoneand says that since he remov- ed his old grates and substituted Morses, he has better steam and an abundance, from the sawdust, bark, chips and refuse litter, without a stick of wood, than he had beforethough previously he burned a portion of the sawdust but withlittle effect, as it had to be dried. He now shovels it into his fireplace as made from the logs drawn directly from the Canal. It certainly is a great and valuable affair, and as such we heartily recommend it to the countryevery dollar saved io this way adds to the substantial wealth of our people. The inventoi-s and patentees, Messrs. L. Morse & Brothers, live in Athol, Mass. L. A. Spaulding, of Lockport, has the right of the State of New York. We notice in the report that a Silver medal was awarded at the late fair at Buffalo, by the State Agricultural Soci- ety, for this invention. Hoidens Doilar Magazine. Praising Holdens Magazine now-a-days is as counmon as reading the newspapers, and each month we feel more and more im- pressed with the idea that it supplies a va- cancy in our national literature never betore filled. The October No. is fully equal to any that has preceded it and contains among other choice articles Naumentenes an Indian Vale a Duel in Georgia, Lawyer vs. Hunter, and a fine Sketch of Doctom Cox the eccentric Clergyman of Brooklyn. The engravings are as usual excellent specimens of art. We see announced for the next No. of the Magazine the moat extraordinars, work of the age. It is a novel or romance containing letters from all the distinguished Authors, Poets and Politicians of the present day in the fac simi- les of their autographs. This feature must be invaluable to subscribers. Holdens Maga- zine is published at 109 Nassau st. New York, at only . I per year. See advertisement. The Census of France. The census of France taken in 1846 shows that since the previous census, in 1841, the population had increased 1,170,000, or at the rate of 234,000 per annum. The avera~ e population of the period bemn~ 34,865,000, annual average increase appears to be 1 on 149, which would cause the population to be doubled in 103 years ; but, in poimit of fact, the increase was not so great, some errors hav- ing been made in the census of 1841. The returns, drawn up with the greatest care, show that the excess of births over deaths is annually only 182,000, or 1 in 190, which would only cause the population to be doub led in 132 years. From 1791 to 1840, it is calculated that the population increased from 24,000,000 to 31,000,000. In 1721, the total production of wheat in France was about 47,- 000,000 hectolitres, or, aftar deducting for sowings, 1 hecto. 65 cent. per inhabitant ; and in 1840, it amounted to 70,000,000, or 2 hecto. per imidividual. The quantity of ground cul- tivated in wheat is about the same as it was hefore the revolution, from which it results that the increase of production is owing to improvement in cultivation. Other agricul- tural products have also greatly increased; potatoes, for instance, were scarcely in use before the revolution, and the cultivation of vegetables was not so extensive; so that it appears that the increase in food has been much greater than in population. The number of deaths in this city last week was 282, Their places of nativity were as follows: United States, 211 ; Ireland, 44 England, 5 ; Germany, 16; France, 2; Switz- erland, 1; British Possessions in North Ammue- rica, 2 unknown, 1. Pencils. The pencils mcnufactured by A. U. Fay of Concord, Mass. we are glad to see are findin, their way fast into the market, and will iao doubt yet supercede time foreign, which has long carried the sway. Home industry should certainly he encouraged when its produce is as cheap and good as the foreign, and the Yankee ma(le pencils of Mr. Fay, are cer- tainly inferior to rio others, and really supe- rior to many. Those who want good pencils, mechanics, artists and accountants, should mind Fays improved Graphite Pencils. They are hard without brittleness and can be pared with a knife like the strongest material in nat ore. A New Suspension Bridge. The Niagara Chronicle, of the 14th, says it understands that the project of construct- ing a suspension bridge across the Niagara, at Queenstown, is again revived, and this time with every prospect of being carried out. Mr. Ellet, the engineer of the bridge at the Falls undertakes to construct it for $10,000, and will himself take one fourth of the stock. This leaves $7,500 to be sub- scribed forhalf of which has been already taken upon the American side, and a large portion of the other half on the Canada side of the miver. If no uniforseen difficulties arise, the bridge will be ready for use by Sep- tember of next year. Maryland Institute for the Promotion of the Mechanic Arts. We learn that the committee of arrange- ments have secured the services of J. B. H. Latrobe, Esq. for the purpose of delivering an oration before this important institution, du- ring the fair which is to take place at Wash- ington Hall on the 31st of October. We also learn that the prospects thus far, for a grand demonstration of the advancement being made in the Mechanic Arts are highly flattering, and afford great encouragement to the board of managers, under whose auspices the fair will be conducted. Iheft of an Ancient Msiuscript. An ancient illustrated manuscript volume was stolen froma~ the library of Georgetown, (D. C.) College, about the 11th or 12th Sept. Itis about 600 years old, is of fine parchment, 4 by 3 inches, and some of its pages decora- ted with rubrics and figured letters, and con- taima prayers and portions of Scripture in the form of the Roman Breviary. The reverend faculty are very anxious for its return. Drunkenness among the Ihindoos. It is a lamentable fact that many of the Hindoos, (who were formerly a temperate people,) of all ranks, are learning to drink, and are fast becoming drunkards. This fact is a sutflciemat ground to lead every Christian to examine, with anxious solicitude, the con- nection between the drinking usages of Chris- tendom, and the prospective ruin of this in- teresting people. Christendom is like a ruler that seeks after the prosperity of his poeple, but neglects to govern his own family. A Metropolis of Monkies. Bungalore in the East Indies is on one side completely hidden by a dense grove which stretches around it and is penetrated at diffe- rent points by roads leading to the gates. This grove is a perfect metropolis of monkies. They swarisi in thousands, chasing each other on the boughs, and grinning hungrily at every one who passes with any eatable. They are a constant pest to every housewife in the town, discovering unsuspected passages to their stores, forestalling the meal, and making a hasty retreat. In England in the early part of last month, ten men, (eight of whom have left widows, with twenty nine children,) and four boys, were killed by an explosion of fire damp, at Murten Colliery. The men were working with naked candles. A lar,,e hale rope and bagging manufactorv in St. Louis, Mo., has stopped operatioss. The cause is unprofitable businessthe price too low for the manufactured article. A cotton factory in Georgetown, D. C. has stopped from the same cause as the St. Louis bagging factory. 10 ~cienti~c 2~tnctitan4 For the gcientifin~AmOriCafl. its introduction underwaythe proper time Incrustatloflhlifl Steam BoilerS, and quantity of water to be blown from the SIRIn No. 5O~of your valuable journal, boiler should be understood, else the dust may I find an article upon Incrustations on Steam Boilers, by R. Bartholomew. The labor of the article seems to bedirected against Maho- gany dust which was patented some time since as a preventive of deposits and incrustations on steam boilers by Samuel D. Anthony and Daniel Barnum. Of Mr. Bartholomew I know nothing. But on reading the article with its italics and cents at mahogany dust and ex- hausted dye stuffs as a patentthe idea is presented to the mind, that he imagines him- self to be witty in attempting to ridicule the profession that mahogany dust was a use- ful as a preventive of incrustationsand also that he belongs to that class of men (which are far too numerous) who are incapable of ap- preciating an honest effort at improvement even where it is successful, and who delight in the want of successacting upon the prin- ciple that it is easier to pull down than to build up. If these traits do not belong to Mr Bartholomew he has done himself injustice in giving the article the sanction of his name, for whatever may be his standing as a man or engineer it is no disparagement to him to say that Mr. Anthony at least is his equal in res- pectability and unpretending merit, in both respects. An honorable and manly criticism is commendable and does no injustice but of- ten stimulates to greater exertion, where suc- cess is wantingbut an attempt at wit at the expense of truth, is most contemptible, and should consign the author of it to his proper level. I would fain believe that a penchant for notoriety tinctured with a little vanity prompted Mr. Bartholomew to make the exhi- bition of himself rather than to believe him guilty of a wilful perversion of the truth, when he says Mahogany dust, which was ONCE to be the panacea for all incrustations whatever, has utterly failed to confer a single anticipated benefit. So far from the truth is it that it has utterly failed to confer a single benefit, that in no isetance (known to me at least,) has it been properly used without con- ferring decided benefits in preventing incrus- tations (not stopping leaks.) That mahogany dust may have been occasionally used with- out any apparent benefit, by engineers pus- sossiog similar feelings with him, without the requisite information for its successful use is not doubted, but that it has be~n properly applied without benefit is confidently denied, upon the positive practical knowledge of more than one. I instance the last case which has come to my knowledge. The Crescent Ci- ty. Capt. Stoddard was requested by Mr. Anthony to make trial of it on his last voy- age, and the result was, according to Captain Stoddards voluntary statement and from his own examination of the boilers, that the scale was all loosened from the surface of the iron under its usethat he was highly pleased with it. I refer to this as.a recent case in a sea steamer running to Havana and New Or- leans, as the water used could not be worse. That Indian meal and potatoes are useful for stopping leaks is not doubted, and the reasons for it are correctly given by Mr. Bartholo be thrown from the boiler before it has pro- duced its effect, & c. And I venture the as- sertion and without fear of successful contra- diction, that any, and all eagineers, (who have used mahogany dust and who are ready to give evidence that it has failed utterly to con fer a single anticipated benefit,) have not ob- served the necessary requisites for a proper application and test of its merits, and all such are respectfully requested to make a thorough and fair trial, and if a sin,4e anticipated benefit cannot be obtained, they will most certainly confer a benefit, or at least a favor, by informing me of it. DANIEL BARNUIVI. New York, Sept. 3, 1848. American Association for tate advance- ment of Science. This association of distinguished men as- sembled last week, on the 20th, in Philadel- phia, and we here present some condensed extracts of their transactions. MINERALOGY. Dr. P. A. Brown in his paper stated that a mineral (mullicite) found in Gloucester Co. N. J., was described in an imperfect manner ~by Dr. Thomson in his first volume on Mine- ralogy, owing, no doubt, to his not possessing sufficient specimens. Dr. Browne observed that, having in his cabinet a number of them which exhibit the mineral in all its phases he was induced to point out some of its pecu- ~marities, and to endeavor to show its origin. Upon examination, the mineral was found to be phosphate of iron. From a comparison of these specimens it is apparent that the congeries of small needles described by Dr. Thomson, as radiating from the centre of the fossilized Belemnite, are not true crys- tal of the mineral substance (Di-phosphate of iron) as he supposed ; but are due to the for- mer structure of a portion of the Cephalope- des, an animal fossil found at Mullica Hill. The iron was disseminated in the ferigenous sand and the animals after dissolution surren- dered their phosphoiic acid, It combined with the iron and water, forming the di-phos- phate of iron, and as the operations of de- compositions and transmission were gradual, it is natural tnat th~ ae~r min~erg.t ehould t~ko the structure and form of the former animal substance. Phillips, in his Mineralogy, speaking of blue iron, (phosphate of iron,) says that in Liberia it is found in fossil shells, but he does not describe its crystalliztion. TIDAL CURRENTS. A curious paper was presented by Professor Pierce from Lient. Davis, U. S. N. on the Ge- ological Action of the Tides. The commu- nication was prefaced by a few remarks on the general principal of his theory, the ob- ject of the paper being to exhibit the action of the Moon, as tending to alter the figure of the Earth. By a study of the tidal currents on the North-eastern Coast of the United States, Lieut. Davis has beeii led to the discovery of a connection between the ocean tides and currents, and the alluvial deposits on its bor- ders and in its depths. The connection is thus traced the direction and velocity of the tides at any place where these deposits existthat is where the ocean is freighted with matter held in suspensiondecides the form, amount and locality of the deposits. The direction of the tides is different at dif- ferent places, but the result of their action is to produce certain uniform or similar forma- tions, and it was the abservation of this which led Lieut Davis to the introduction of a Tidal Theory into Geology. The tidal current in Nantucket comes mew, to wit, they settle and hardenbut unfortunately for him this proves too much for the fact of this settling and hardening proves their tendency to precipitate and in- crease the difficulties arising from deposits and incrustations, hence from the practical evidence of more than one, their use for the prevention of incrustations have utterly failed to confer a single anticipated benefit. That mahogany dust is inferior to potatoes and meal for stopping leaks is readily conce- ded, for its tendencies are to prevent the de- posits of carbonates and salts, keeping them in suspension until they are blown off by blow- ing water from the boiler, which is of course freighted with sand, and as it strikes the is- necessary to be done occasionally, although land it is deposited. Yet the current whic h much less frequently with than without the is acting there all the time is not only depos dust. iting, but it is also taking awayso that, all To realize the anticipated benefits from the time flowing in every direction, and uni- mahogany dust several things are necessary versally distributed, not very much is accum- to be observed, and the first is, care should be ulated in any one place. The deposits are taken to obtain pure mahogany, as other kinds nearly equally made at various points. of foreign wood do not produce the same be- The extremity of the Island has been sup. neficial result and in the second place, the posed to be formed by deposits coming from boiler should be seasonably replenished, for the Island itself (i. e. by the shifting influence which purpose conveniences are necessary for of the changing current)but this is shown not to be the case; that portion of the Island I being formed solely by the tidal currents. As an instance of the force of these currents, Prof. Pierce cited an instance. A short time ago, a ship was wrecked at one end of the Island, and the Keeper of the Lighthouse at the other end actually supplied himself with fuel from the coal which was originally de- posited with tha wrecked vessel. The coal was brought clear round the Island and de- posited at its farthest extremity, by the mere force of these currents. Bricks have in the same manner been carried, and at Siaconset there is now standing a chimney actually built from bricks which were carried all round the Island in the same way. Regarding the theory of the Tides advanced by Lieut. Davis, some discussion was excited. Mr. Redfleld opposed the views entertained by Lieut. D. He reasoned long and well that the deposits of sand are not so much ow- ing to tidal action as to the direct agency of the waves. Other gentlemen thought, some one thing, others another, and nothing was agreed upon definitely. Dr. Dickenson related a remarkble incident, where at the Island of Galveston in 1S39, a vessel from NewOleans was wrecked (at the South end) with a considerable amount of specie. The officers of the Custom-House took measures to recover the valuable cargo and in a very little time the workmen reported the vessel nearly covered with sand. A few weeks after, and at the other end of the Islandsome 28 miles or thereaboutssome fishermen brought up some of the doubloons. They were arrested and imprisoned on a charge ofrobbing the wreck, their protesta- tions of having really found the gold at so great a distance not being credited for a moment, till sciemitific research convinced the authorities that the metal was really carried to that distance, of course by the force of the current. An instance of the way heavy bodies are transported. AMERICAN FI55iE5. Professor Agassix presented quite a num- ber of papers, and remarked that it had been his good forturme,during the past Summer, to have opportunities, in company with several friendsto explore the Northern Lakes, and rimore especially Lake Superior. His atten- tion had been called particularly to the Fishes, a subject always of very great interest to him, and of which he had acquired at the Lakes some new and valuable knowledge. His object was to ascertain their geographical distrib ution and to satisfy himself whether they were in- discriminately distributed through all these Lakes, or whether there were differences in the localities where found. On carefully comparing, he found that the distribution is entirely differentthat parti- cular families are in some, and other families in another part, and that they never leave their peculiar locality. He finds that there are families in Lake Huron which are not in Lake Superior, and some in Lake Superior which do not move down into the lower lakes, although the communication between them is always open and easy. The Fishes, then, of the several Lakes, are very different another illustration of the great law of dis- tribution and localization. Prof. A. considers that these Fishes originate where they are found ; and it is a singular fact that they are generally located in very similar positions with the fishes of Europeyet, although they so agree generally with the European varie- ties, they are greatly different in zoological characteristics. In Lake Huron there are ratny of the Perch familynone in Lake Su- perior and so on. It is well known, from geological data, that North America is the oldest continental land upon earth. The general ancient character of this country is deeply impressed upon the mind of the active geologist, and he [Prof. A 3 could not help feeling it when exploriig the Northern shore of Lake Superior. This is interesting information. It is not remark- able that animals now exist which are old fashioned in their external zoological charac- terand that they should be of the same type with animals long since considered extinct. It is North America where the Garpikes live, and is the garpike the only representative of the periods when that fish only lived? He had found in Lake Superior a new Fish with spiues upon the aperaular bones, and all the scales hard and serrated, and, what has never been before observed in hard scaled fishes, it has, like the Salmon, an adipose or fatty fin. Here, then, upon Lake Superior, we have these old-fashioned fishes upon this old soil. He considered it important to trace our living animals in their relation to the Fossils, as also their geographical distribution. This country was undoubtedly first dry land, and the animals preserved seem to remind us of the olden ages. Mr. Redfield asked if the White Fish of the Lakes was not common? Prof. Agassix replied, it is, He mentioned that he had collected 33 Fishes on lake Supe- rior, and exhibited drawings of several. About a dozen of them are entirely new varie- ties. British. At the late meeting of the British Associa- tion for the advancement of Science, Mr. J. Palmer Budd read a communication on the advantageous use of the gases in some of the blast furnaces in Germany. It appears that the gases which are evolved from these furna- ces escape at a temperature which is about the melting point of brass. In the iron works at Ystalyfera, where the iron is melted by the use of anthracite coal, advantage has been taken of this in a roost ingenious manner, by an arrangement, which is in its character ex- ceedingly simple, but somewhat difficult to describe. The hot gas is led off into another channel by means of a strong current genera- ted through a chamber and air-way from a point just below the iron furnace. It is con- ducted, very little heat being lost in the passage, under the boiler of a steam engine; and it is found to be at a sufficient high tem- perature to heat the boiler without the con- sumption of any fuel whatever. Hence an immense saving is effected. Although only one furnace and one boiler has hitherto been adapted to this purpose, it is found to effect a saving of $1,150 a year. We may conse- quently expect that when the experiment is further extended and more of the furnaces so arranged that this heat may be economized and employed for numerous useful purposes to which it is applicable in a large establish- ment, the saving will amount to many thou- sands annually. This is a subject worthy of the attention of our iron manufacturers and some of them may dispense with their water wheels and make a saving by the operation. Microscopic Discoveries. Dr. Carpenter noticed particularly the for- mation of the great beds of chalk, several hun- dred feet thick, which substance is composed entirely of minute shells, that are invisible to the naked eye. The different cellular struc- ture of shells, and the peculiar organization of the teeth of animals, Dr. Carpenter could trace, even in the invisible fragment of a shell or of a tooth, the class, and sometimes even the species, to which the fragments be- longed. Refering to the general cellular structure of alt organizations, he says that this structure could be seen alike in the leaf, in the bones, in the muscles, and in the blood. That all life seemed to originate in single cel- lular developements, but, notwithstanding this apparent similarity in the original cells, there is an inherent, though as yet undistin- guishable difference, which determines the structure of the plant and of the animal. The bodies of the animalcules which inhabited the shells composing the chalk are still enclosed within them, being the mummies of a former world. Cholera Liquid. When persons experience the first symptom of Cholera they should resort at once to the following remedy, which every one can pre- pare and use with safety. Take gum cam- phor, gum opium, African cayenne, and oil of cloves, each one ounce, Hoffmans anodyne liquor, one pint. Shake up the ingredients frequently, in a bottle, and in ten to twenty days, filter through paper. Dose for adults, 30 to 60 drops every second, third, or fourth hour, until the stomach and bowels are reliev- ed. It should be taken in a wine glass full of water. 11 S 12 ~cicntifh 2rncricrn. Ncn~ ~nucntion~. Novel Mode of Propelling Steamboats. One of our exchanges says that the in- ventor of a new mode of propelling steam- boats, difle rent from the paddle wheel, which in sea vessels is so liable to accident, and in government vessels may be readily disabled, has left us a notice that he intends to apply for a patent for what is considered by him an important application of steam and water power The method is this. A cylinder is placed either vertical or inclined in the inte- rior of the vessel protected from shot and storms, to which force is given by an end- less screw also within tbe cylinder to act up- on the water in which the vessel is afloat, so as. to give her a forward motion equal to the force with which the water is driven through the cylinder, the portion of the cylinder from w hich the water escapes being always sub- s~erged. All we have got to say regarding this in- vention is, that the inventor would save both time and money, in becoming better acquain- ted with the principles of propulsion. Chloroform a substitute for Steam. On the twenty second of last month a com- mittee, appointed by the Academie des Sci- ences Paris, went to the establishment of M. C. Beslay, to witness a trial of a discovery made in the applicaiion of chloroform as a motive power in machinery. It will be re- collected that the Minister of the Marine bad an engine constructed for trying ether as a motive power. This engine was found to act well, and afford a considerable saving in fuel, but it was rejected on account of the inflama billity of ether, which rendered it too dange- rous for use in steam-vessels. Lieut. Lafond, of the navy, however, studied the nature of chloroform, ascertained that it was capable of producing a great motive power at a saving of 50 per cent., and that no danger is incur- red. The experiment is said by our ex- changes to have been completely successful. It is our opinion that it never can be suc- cessful to compete with steam. The ether engine was boasted of as being a rew dis- covery that would revolutionise the whole science of mechanical propulsion. It has been laid on the upper shelf, and so will chloroform. Improvements in Wrought Iron. Take scraps of wrought iron and melt them in a cupola furnace with a soft fan blast, or use a reverberatory furnace, as for melting pig iron. After being melted, it is poured into moulds, and is very hard and brittle. After this it is put into an iron box, if a small quan- tity is wanted, surrounded with bricks, iron ore and charcoal dust being placed between the box and the bricks, and the whole submit- ted to a degree of heat to restore the mallea- bility of the iron. A trial bar is used to be withdrawn from time to time to ascertain the degree of malleability to which the mass has obtained. For making articles which do not require to possess the density and texture of wrought iron alone, mix therewith cast iron in various proportions, according to the nature and requirements of the article, taking care that the proportion of cast iron, in no instance exceeds the weight of the wrought iron. In making articles which require to take the na- ture and temper of steel, mix with the wrought iron, steel in various proportions, ac- cording to circumstancesthe proportion of Coke versus Dismond.An Important Discovery. Mr. James Nasmyth, the inventor of the steam pile driver, of Bridgewater Foundry, Patricroft, England,has tested as it were, and proved the fact, of the identity of diamond and coke, by the discovery that the minute laminated crystals or crystlets of coke are ca- pable of cutting glass with the true diamond clearness of cut, or without merely scratching. No other setting too is necessary to prove this fact, than the crumbling consistency of the coke itself in mass ; so that a fragment of coke, switched at rardom across a pane of glass in the sunshine, is sufficient to exhibit not only the depth of the clear cut, but the prismatic colors in all their purity and beauty Ground to impalpable powder, Mr. Nasmyth, as intimated in the Mining Journal has found that coke constitutes what we may call the true diamond paste for sharpening razors probably, indeed, if we may venture to say so, the only secret of the diamond pastes so largely advertised, if they merit even so worthy a supposition. The adamantine properties of black oxide of manganese, and its peculiar affinities, induced an ingenious chemist to suggest its strong analogy to carbon, is it pos- sible that it too, when in fragments, much more firmly crystalline as it is an mass than coke, may cut glass with practical facility. liodges Balance Pump. The pump is one of the oldest engines known and used among both Jews and Gentiles, and no (loubt that old handy mechanic Tubal Cain had a hand in its in - vention. Be that true or not, we will not stop at pre- se to argue, only assum- ing it to be a fact, state that this is the reason why the pump assumes a great. er variety of forms than any other kind of engine. Rotary, semi-rotary, vibra- ting and ieniprn~tng ,no- tion pumps of every con- ceivable form are to be found in the excellent work of Ewbank. No room for novelty or improvement would seem to be left open, hut we are not yet at the end of invention. This pump is something novel and ingenious. The principle of it, is employ- ing Its cylinder as a piston and lifter to answer all the purposes of a force pump without a connecting rod or plunger, in a very sim I ~l;fl t~I Pt E D ple manner. A, is the foundation (a stone,) on which the pipe B, rests in the cistern C, is the basket of the pipe. D, is a valve on its upper part. F, is another pipe, and if we suppose the lower one 30 feet and the upper one 70 feet, it will make the cistern 100 feet deep. The upper pipe laps over the lower the length of a stroke or a little more. The junction is surrounded with a stuffing box or collar, and the two pipes are therefore just the length of a single one, with only the length of stroke of difference. E, is a valve in F, the upper pipe, and fixed in the said pipe at such a distance above D, that the butt of one will not strike the top of the other when working. G, shows a break of the pipe as displaying a section view. I, is a collar surrounding F, and H is the reservoir in the inside of which the pipe F, moves up and down, as seen by the dotted lines connected with a small rod J. L, is the lever or pump handle and K, the fulcrum. When the air is steel never exceeding the weight of wrought exhausted from the lower tube, the water iron then pour the molten metal into moulds will rise to its top, 30 feet, by the common and subsequently submit it to the annealing pressure of the atmosphere, and throwing process iii the manner before described, open the valve D, will enter the intel mediate The annealing may also be performed with- chamber between the two valves in the pipe out the iren box by simply covering t~e me- F. When therefore F is depressed, D closes tal with the ore and hcreoal dust in a pro- and E opens, letting th~ water into the upper per kiln. ~ipe,an~whenitisIift~upbythelever (when accumulated) will be discharged through the spout, thus combining both the pressure and lifting pump, without the use of a pis- ton and connecting rod, excepting the short one at the top instead of one 70 feet long. When treating of pumps, (an article on which might profitably be greatly extended,) we would correct a very common and wide spread error regarding the common pump as constructed to lift water over 30 feet high It is generally supposed that water cannot by any, except by a force pump, be lifted over 30 feet hi h. This is wrong. We have seen a common pump lift water 100 feet high. I-low was this done ? Simply by adding 170 feet of pipe to the common pump. Every stroke of the plunger brings the water above the centre valve, which closing prevents the water getting back and thus accumulating ev- ery stroke above the piston at last fills the 200 feet of pipe aiid discharges every stroke through the audit. There are mines in En~ gland 150 fathoms deep which are kept free from water by the pump described. Others are drained by a combination of a common pressure, and a tier of force pumps, all work- ed by one huge rod, very clumsy and expen- sive. For most purposes to which a lifting pump or forcing pump is used to raise water as high as 160 feet, we think that this pump of Mr. Dodge is the best that we have seen. It is so simple and cheap. No piston nor connec- ting rod, and all the diflarence of expense from a common pump is just the lap of the pipe and an extra valve. It must commend itself universally. It could well be applied to the pumping of the Dry Dock in Brook- lyn. Some may object to the great weight of the pipe to be lifted at every stroke, as well as the water, but this is no objection at all, as a balance weight on the end of the handle will act as a counterpoise, and then the de- pressing of the pipe is altogether a different thing, as the pipe F tends to the centre of gravity and assists to overcome the resistance of the water in the pipe by the water coming through the valve E, from the chamber. Nehemiab Dodge, Esq. No. 634 Broadway, this city, is the inventor, and has taken mea- sures to secure his unique and beautiful Xan- ks~ invention. Double Headed and pointed Finishing Brad. This cut represents a new kind of Brad manfactured by a very ingenious machine by H. S. Sill, at the coriier of Reed and Elm street, this City. Its form enables it to be driven without turning in the wood and it goes through a board without splitting the under side. It aiso drives into hard wood without boring and is stiffer than the common Brad. It is but recently that this machine was put in operation although invented some years ago, but got into the hands of specula- tors. A machine ~vill likely be exhibited at the Fair next month, when tbose who are interested in improvements willsee it in ope- ration. An old Revolver. At the Cadets Fair lately held in Cinci- nnati an old German musket was exhibited amongst other things; it was said to be 175 years old, and was provided with 4 revolving chambers, exactly similar to Colts revolvers. The bayonet is about 8 inches long and shaped like a cutting knife. There are many other modern inventions older than this musket. New War Engine. An exchange says that the French Govern- ment has adopted a new invention in the ar- Toy, called a moveable barricade, made of so- lid oak, lined with sheet iron, with holes for muskets. It is moved upon wheels, and is an effectual shield to the soldier in a street fight, where the usual barricade is used. No one will fail to perceive that this is an old inven- tion newly vamped up. The same moveable barricade was employed ia Asia a thousand years before the Christian era. ISSUED FROM THE UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE, For the wee? ending Sept. 19, 184$. To James K. Howe, of New York City, for improved theory of constructing Vessels Patented Sept. 19, 1848. To Thomas B. Smith, of Philadelphia, Pa., for improvement in Refrigerators. Patented Sept. 19, 1848. To Henry A. Stearns, of Cincinnati, Ohio, for improvement in sizing and drying Cotton Batting. Patented Sept. 19, 1848. To Lewis Kirk, of Reading, Pa., for impro- ved Steam Hammer. Patented Sept. 19, 1848. To Anthony H. Austin, of Baltimore, Md., for improvement in Cream Freezers. Paten- ted Sept. 19, 1848. To Charles H. Van Dorn, of St. Louis, Mo. for improved apparatus for rotting Hemp. Pa- tented Sept. 19, 1848. To Samuel Bentz, of Boonsboro, Md., for improvement in hulling wheat preparatory to grinding. Patented March 4, 1848. (Ante- dated.) To James M. Evarts, of New Haven, Coon. for improved Window Sash Fastener. Pa- tented Sept. 19, 1848. To E. H. Penfleld, of Middletown, Coon., for improved Metallic Grummet. Patented Sept. 19, 1848. To Charles Gifford, of Braintree, Mass., for improvement in preparing Shoe Pegs. Pa- tented Sept. 19, 1848. To Henry G. Hall, of Kirkersville, Ohio, for improvement in Posts for Telegraph, & c. Patented Sept. 19, 1848. To Christian V. Queen, of Peeksville, N. Y. for improvement on Queens portable Forge. Patented Sept. 19, 1848. To John W. Phelps, of Boston, Mass., for improrcmcut in Cpinn.~bdo~ii,a1 Supporters. Patented Sept. 19, 1848. To John Maxson, of DeRuyter, N. Y. for improved Door Spring. Patented Sept. 19, 1848. To Henry Van Dewater, of Reading, Pa., for improvement in Shutes and Water Wheels. Patented Sept. 19, 1848. To John G. Hull, of New York City, for improved method ofattachingTillers. Paten- ted Sept. 19, 1848. To Gustavus A. Nicolls, of Reading, Pa., for improvement in Locomotives. Patented Sept. 19, 1848. To John Young, of West Galway, N.Y. for improvement in Washing Machines. Paten- ted Sept. 19, 1818. To A. Lyman and M. W. Baldwin, of Phi- ladelphia, Pa. for improvement in Fountain Pen-Holders and Nibs. Patented Sept. 19, 1848. To Reuben A. Holmes, of New York City, for improvement in Harness Buckles. Paten- ted Sept. 19, 1848. To Rhodolphus Kinsley, of Springfield, Mass. for improvement in Locks and Escut- cheons. Patented Sept. 19, 1848. To Harvey Law, of Wilmington, N. C. for improvement in machinery for planing Rived Staves. Patented Sept. 19, 1848. To Nathaniel Waterman, of Boston, Mass., for improvement in Refrigerators. Patented Sept. 19, 1848. To Henry L. Pierson, assignee of John Crum, of New York City, for improvement in the Screw Threading Machine. Patented Sept. 19, 1848. To Thomas Glasco, of Wilmington, Del., for improvement in Saddle Trees for Carts. Patented Sept. 19, 1848. DESIGNS. To A. Cox & Co assignees of G. W. Ring and J. Crandall, of Tiny, N. Y., for Design for Stoves. Patented Sept. 19, 1848. To William Jackson, assiguee of S. W. Gibbs, of Albany~ N. Y., for Design for Cook- ing Stoves. Patented sept. 19, 1848. LIST OF PATENTS ~icntifa 2~antnu~n. NEW YORK, SEPTEMBER 30, 1S48. Scientific Associations. The American Association for the advance- raent of Science has been sitting in Philadel- phia during this and part of last week. Some ot their proceedings will be found on another page, and will be of interest to many of our readers. We are proud and happy to see such associations among usthey do much for the advancement of civilization. In Britain there is an association of the same kind which has done wonders not only in advancing science, but in elevating manby bringing together eminent men from all nations, and spreading among them a generous feeling to one ano- thermaking them feel that men of science are the property of the whole human family. Our American Association has the same broad and noble views and objects. We see that Professor Agassiz, an eminent foreigner was among the most conspicuous of the members. That is right. We would like to see Ameri- ca ~he centre of the scientific world aiid we will live to see this, we hope. Our people have just one course to pursue to bring about this desirable object, and that course is, the encouragement of men of genius and worth, men of solid, and not superficial attainments. In a few instances, we have honored men of literary and men of scientific attainments, but the cases are few and far between. France above all countriesmuch as has been said against herhas always honored literary and intellectual worth. Her philosophers, her literati, and ir~en of science, have always been honored and encouraged. No other nation can say this much, and perhaps no other na- tion is more blameable than our own free and happy land, which above all others should be distinguished for the encouragement of science, and honoring the worthy. Instead of doing thi3, w~ have generatly pandered to the anti-liberal spirit of partisan warfare This should not be. A~oong all the many good associations for which our country is distinguished, our eye has looked in vain for one that might refresh many of its weary wanderingsthat Associ- ation is one of practical mechanics, engineers and artists, for the promotion of the useful arts. A society of this kind would do more for the cause of practical science than twen- ty associations composed of men, however distinguished, who are devoted only to the abstractseeking out the causes of phenome- non and arranging them into harmonious svs- tems. This practical association would, as has been done in England by the Engineers~ Association, bring out more new discoveries titan aiiy other. The greatest and most im- portant discoveries that have effected the greatest reforms in the social condition of our race, have been made by practical men. While Professor Black of Glasgow was disco- vering and arranging in system the theory of steam, an humble mechanic, James Watt, em- ployed to repair the philosophical apparatus of the College, made those improvements in the steam engine which have led to such gi- gantic reforms in commerce and the arts. When the paper of the printer Franklin, des- cribing his discoveries in electricity, was read before the Royal Society, the wise savans of that body heard it with shouts of laughter When George Stevenson was perfecting the locomotive, the sages of Oxford were adding some new theorem to Euler. We do not speak thus to glorify the mechanic, or artist, at the expense of those men or institutions, that have (too reverently we must say) been held as the fathers and cycloids, of knowledge. We only claim the due share of honor for men whose occupations, somehow or other, are held to be collateral evidence of igno- sance, because their hands are blackened with oil and oxide, instead of ink. While saying so much in savor of the me- chanical classes, we mast tell them that we always will expect more from them for the promotion of the useful arts than from any other class. They have to learn by iron ex- perience, and they are compelled in the very struggle for an existence to manufacture and improve in competition for the market. There- fore we would desire to see a strong, solid and powerful American association of mechanics, engineers and artists, for the encouragement and promotion of the useful arts, and orna- mental design and decoration. Voluntary as- sociations of great men think much of the ti- tle F R. Slet us in this country rear up an Institution of the people and have an order of merit for those who peculiarly distinguish themselves for discoverynothing elseand let the honor be as impartial as the sun that shines for all. A sincere desire for the honor of our country and the glory of her people has prompted us at this time to give utterance to the foregoing remarks. - We hope they will not fall like water on the arid sands, but on good soil to fertilize and bring forth an abun- dant harvest at some day not far distant, and our hearts be made to rejoice in beholding the establishment of such an association which ~vill become famous in story beloved at home, revered abroad. The Best Form for Strength. From experiments it has been deduced, that the strength of any material depends chiefly on its depth, or on that dimension which is in the direction of its strain. A bar of timber of one inch in breadth, and two inches in depth, is four times as strong as a bar of only one inch deep ; arid it is twice as strong as a bar two inches broad and one deep, that is, a joint or lever is always strongest when laid on its edge. Hence it follows, that the strong- est joist that can be cut out of a round tree is not the one which has the greatest quantity of timber in it, but such that the product of its breadth by the square of its depth shall be the greatest possible. Again, from the same experiments it is found, that a hollow tube is stronger than a solid rod containing the same amount of matter. This property of hollnw tubes is also accompanied with greater stiffness. Hence we find the bones of men arid animals are formed hollow, which ~ender~ thoxa iniompxi-abty stroneer and stif- fer, gives more room for the insertion of mus- des, and makes them lighter and more agile, than if they were constructed of solid matter. In like manner the benes of birds, which are thinner than those of other animals, and the quills in their wings, acquire by their thin- ness the strength which is necessary, while they are so light as to givesufficient buoyancy to the animal in its flight to the ~rial regions. Our engineers and carpenters have, of late, begun to imitate nature in this respect and now make axles and many other parts of ma- chinery hollow. Nature is the best rule to guide the mecha- nic and engineer in selecting the best forms to combine strength with lightness of material. Important Patent Cases.-Morse vs. 0- Reilly. On a motion for an injunction on the Elec- tric Telegraph used by Henry OReilly, as an infringement of Morses patent, a most inte- resting examination into the merits and prior- ity of Morses invention was had and a deci- sion made on the 9th inst , awarding an abs.- lute injunction. The trial was had in Frankfort, Kentucky, and eminent counsel were engaged on both sides. The utmost range of objection was ta- ken by OReillys counsel, some of which dis- played not a little meanness, such as the ob- jection that part of the improvement claim- ed had been in use prior to a patent being secured, with the consent of the patentee. There is nothing that fills us with more in- dignation than an attempt to nullify the ex- clusive right of an inventor to his own inven- tion, by the objection of using it before it was patented. Evidence was adduced which proved Mr. Morse to have invented the telegraph as early as 1832, and perfected and exhibited it in 1836. The principal objection of the defen- dant was this, that the instrument which th~ used was not an infringement; that it was a d~fkrent machine invented by Messrs. Barnes & Zooks, and named the Columobian Tele graph. The judge (Monroe,) decided that What our Contemporaries think of us. it was the same in principle as that of Pro- SciENTiFic AMERiCANNo taper in the fessor Morse. A number of objections were Union has accomplished so much for the made to re-issues of Morses patents, interpo- cause of useful Science, and particularly, in lations, & c., but the judge decided upon the the department of Mechanical Philosophy, as principle of priority of invention, and suffer- this most valuable jout-nal has achieved. It ed not small technicalities to nulhfy the rights of the inventor, so all objections were over- ruled. infringement of a Patent for a Machine to Saw irregular Shapes. On the 23d of last month there was decided by trial of a special jury before the Lord Chief Baron, in London, a case on the com- plaint of Hamilton versus Cochran, for in- fringement of his patent. The case was a singular one, both plaintiff and defendant are natives of the United States, and the defen- dant is somewhat known to the public as the young American who had met with some spe- cial notice by the British Board of Admiralty. and not long ago secured a patent for the Uni- ted States for sawing irregular shapes. It seems, now, however, that Mr. Hamilton is the older inventor, having a patent for Ame- rica, England and Francethis patent was se- cured in England in 1843. The Chief Baron summed up the evidence with great carethe principal witness on the side of the plaintiff being Mr. Carpmael, the famous Reporter of law cases to the Reposito- ry of Arts, and the partner of Moses Poole, so well known. There were four points sub- mitted to the jury for decision. 1. Whether the English Agent of Mr. Hamilton was suf- ficiently possessed of the invention at the time he took out the patent. 2. Whether the machine of Hamilton was different from ano- ther for which a patent was granted in En- gland in 1834. 3. Whether the invention was new and useful; and 4thly, whether the de- fendant (Cochran) had borrowed any part of the plaintifis invention. The jury retired and in fifteen minutes brought in a verdict for the plaintiff on all of the four points. The four points submitted are worthy of the readers attention. Oat Meaf. The Journal de Quebec, speaking of the great abundance of the oat crops this year in Lower Canada, says that the present very low price of this article is not likely to be of long continuance, it having been proposed to export considerable quantities in the shape of meal to Ireland, as a subtitute for the failing potato crop. It contains much more nutritious matter than the potato, and was, before the introduction of wheat into many parts of Scotland, the principal food of a large number of the inhabitants. There was a time when oat meal, milk, but- ter, cheese, venison and fish, constituted the whole food of the Irish and Scotts. They were then both a healthier and hardier race than they are now, but the times were different, the people were the defenders of the soil, now, the landlords consider them incum- brances. As there is considerable of the phospate of lime in oats, it is an excellent food to harden and form the timbers of the human frame. The Miners of Pennsylvania. The Miners of Pennsylvania are preparing to solicit from the legislature, a law which shall give them a lien upon the coal mines until their labor is paid for. They are at pre- sent exposed to severe losses by the dishon- esty of delinquent master lumpers, and justice to honest industry, certainly demands the protection of such a law as they propose. Our New York mechanics have a lien upon all buildiags which they aid in constructing. The principle is of universal application in all departments of industry, and should be a part of the common law in every state. La- bor being the first great source of wealth, should rank next to life, in our laws aiid legis- lation. There is no act so mean, contemptible and avaricious, and shows less of the man, than fo rob the laborer of his hire, yet it is not a very uncommon vice amoiig many of our people. The patent case of Nevins vs McCollum, about a Cracker Machine, was neglected at this term of the Com~rt by plaintiffs attorney- is to this department, perhaps, more than to any other, that America owes her glory and her prosperity. And it is for this reasom that we take delight in pointing out, in our humble sphere, to such of our readers as are ambitious of mechanics! knowledge and im- provement, an inexhaustible source of in- struction. That source is to be found in the Scientific AInenican. Whether we consider the beauty and accuracy of its diagrams, or the logical and mathematical cl.amness with which they are explained, we shall have fresh cause for continual admiration of the triumphs of skill and ingenuity. We are confident, that if our farmers, mechanics and machinists were once in the habit of taking this stand- ard periodical, (which is remarkably cheap,) they would learn to thiiik, that they could no more do without it, than they could dis- ponse with the implements of their industry. For paiticulars of its characteristic features, see the advertisement of Munn & Co., in this paper.Litchfield, Conn., Republican. Scuipture and Monuments. There is no display of works of taste and art that exhibit a kindly and grateful nature so well, as the erection of tablets and monu- ments to the well beloved departed. How many associations crowd upon the memory as we wander or sit by the tomb where sleeps some one enshrined in the affections of the heart. We like to see neat and beautiful/er- get me nots erected to the niemory of depart- ed friends. Last week we stopped at the Mar- ble Yard on the corner of Bowery and Astor Place, to admire some beautiful and chaste sculpture (a favorite pastime with us,) and we v~ere not a little gratified at the discovery of an old friend, Mr. Swezy, who has lately comnienced aiid is now doing a thriving bu- siness there. For beautiful, chaste and ap- propriate work, those who employ him will not be disappointed in the faithfulness of exe- cution and honesty in the performance of en- gagements. Reduction in the Price of Gas. The Commissioners of the Northern Liber- ties, Philadelphia, passed a resolution lately, inviting the directors of the gas company of that quarter to lower the price of gas. In con- sequence of this, the price for private consu- mers was reduced 50 cents per 1000 ft. That for public consumption, is for the present ra- ted at$1,75 pr 1000 ft. If the Gas Companies in this City had any fear of the future or love for the present race, they would go and do so likewise. Please send me the first half of Vol. 3. Many of our subscribers who commenced taking the Scientific American at the middle of Vol. 3. have sent to us requesting the first half, or Nos. from 1 to 26. To save answer- ing all those requests by mail we hereby in- form them and all others who may hereafter order that we cannot furnish the first half of Vol. 3, unless they order the last half also. We have extra sets of the last half from No. 27 to 52 vol., 3 and can furnish all who may wish at the subscription price one dollar, or the whole volume complete for two dollars. Bound Vols. 3 also for sale at the office, price ~2,75. All money received to pay for the first half of Vol. 3, will be credited to the continuation of Vol. 4. THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. Persons wishing to subscribe for this paper have only to enclose tlae amount in a letter di rected (post paid) to MUNN & COMPANY, Publishers of the Scientific American, Ne~ York City TERM5.~2 a year; ONE DOLLAR IN ADVANCEthe remainder in 6 months Postmasters are respectfully requested to receive subscriptions for this Paper, to who~a a discot~nt of 25 per cent will be allowed. Any person sending us 4 subscribers for months, shall receive a copy of the paper fbr ~he samelength of time 13 ~cientif~c ~anerican. Oai Patent Laws.SeHlng before the 15.. of the Franklin Institute for 1S4~3d series, ter application and before issue of the patent. sue of a Patent. page 30. The names of the parties were Excuse the length of this communication, We have received another communication James Wilson vs. Austin Packard. It does which seems demanded by the general dissa- oii this subject trom a gentleman in Roches- not appear whether the case was carried up tisfaction of the community at a reported de- k~r, N. Y. It is somewhat long, but it covers by appeal or not. It was decided in the Cir- decision which perhaps, and probably, was the field in respect to a legal examination of cuit Court of the U. S. for the District of New never actually made, as stated. the subject. We will commence the publi- York. Cannot you, or some of your readers 5. Would it not be gratifying to your rea- cation of it next week. On no other legal who reside in that district inform the public ders, to inform them what Congress actually point respecting inventions have there been) whether the case was appealed or not, and did in regard to the Patent Law during their so many inquiries made of us, as on the right to whether it has been sustained or over-ruled, recent session. I recollect that it was alleged sell and use previous to a patent neing secu- It would be easy to ask the counsel of either in one of your papers, that they were about to red. It is perfectly plain to us, that the law party what was the final issue of tke case, and legislate in favor of Professor Morse in such allows an inventor to sell and use his inven- whether the point decided be accurately sta- a manner as to restrict the privileges of the tion (if not given away to the public two (ted in the following report; and finally whe- whole body of inventors, was this thing done? years before a patent is secured,) witheut in- ) ther there be any other and more reliable re- Surely the people interested must be stupid, validating the patent, nevertheless some of port of the case. It is by no means improba. if with all the forewarning they have received) our legal gentlemen, judges among the num- ble that the ensuing statement may errone- they slumber over their rights, and permit her, have a different opinion, but which ously represent the language of the Judges. their public agents to be swayed to and fro by hinges upon what constitutes giving an in- If 50, it is ot public importance that the error certain lobby characters who would disturb vention to the public. We therefore desire be rectified and that a correct abstract of the the order of the planetary system rather than as much light as possible thrown upon this decision be published, that some favourite invention of their own subject in order to excite attention and get The account first states that the inventor should not be protected by special legislation. Congress to make a plain law on this point, sold a stove (the article patenteO) two months Maine. J. M. OB. that will meet the case, so that judges of the prior to his application for a patent. and [On Monday last, the 25th, before Judges Supreme Cuurts may not be sustained in de- that the Judges ruled that if the inventor Betts and Nelson in this city, the case ot the cisions that savor of the unjust and unfair or his agent sells the invented article in the patent stove by James Wilson vs. Austin Pack- English Patent Laws. Usual way, he abandons it to the public. ard, en the great question whether the paten- We have also a number of communications The meaning of this would seem to be that a tee could himself sell, for two years before on hand from legal gentlemen and inventors, 5ale in the usual way is a sale without Me applying for a patent, and still retain his right in reference to reforms in our Patent Laws, declared right of personal reserve, (as you to the patent, was brought up. On it the which will appear in due season. have expressed it) and that such sale is an Judges were opposed in opinion, and so cer abandonment. I do not know that any one tify.it, that the case may go to the Supreme MEssRs. EDIToRs The very great impor- would have much reason to complain of the Court of the United States. This then settles tance to inventors of the topic above indica- decision as thus qualified. But the account this question for the present. The decision ted, induces me to address to you the follow- proceeds to say that the Court held that the of the Supreme Court will be in favor of the ing remarks, idea that the person can sell the the thing in- inventor undoubtedlyED. 1. Importance of the principleMost vented without ar. abandonment to the public A great Mechanic Gone. inventors are under the absolute necessity of is an absurdity. If the Court indeed held On the 12th of last month died Mr. George selling before application for a patent, in or- this language in an unlimited sense, every Stephenson, the author of the railway system, der to raise the necessary funds for the Patent candid person must feel indignant at their as- the first great practical improver of the lo- Office. The expenses which must precede sumption of legislative power. It was the comotive steam engine, the inventor (cotem- every application, in many instances leave the very intention of Congress to give this power poraneously with Davy) of the safety.lamp, intending applicant no other way but the sale without abandonment, and a man who displayed a vigorous and of the articles to enable him to proceed and I have now before me two letters of Judge originalgenius in every thing which he un- mature his right by a patent. When to this Ruggles, then of U. S. Senate, and author of dertook. He was born on the 9th of June, we add the delay in the Office through an in- the existing Patent Law stating that such was 17S1, [was consequently, at the time of his sufficient clerical force, an inventor would their intention The first is dated January death, in his 68th year] at a little village near suffer attrocious wrong, if what is understood 29th, before the passsage of the Act. It says, Newcastle-on-Tyne, of parents in the hum- to be Judge Nelsons decision, were sustained. It cannot be doubted that the inventor may, blest rank of life. Hi~ first occupation as a 2. The action of Congress in Patent legisla- after application, sell as many of the articles boy was attending to the steam engines used tion is enough to stir up the indignation of ev- manufactured as he pleases. If the Bill pas- at the mouth of coal-pits. Eventually, he be- ery honest man. They long refused to provide ses, lie may sell before application, claiming came a coal-viewer, or surveyor and overseer; an adequate force to an zosijiutino which nut nis right of invention, as not abandoning to and distinguished himself in the coal district only sustains itself but furnishes a large in- the public. The second letter is April 28th, by an improved mode of carrying on some come to the government. Nothing but the 1840, after the passage of the Act which ~5 great works at Darlington. ln 1812, a com- plea of ignorance exempts them from the now the existing law. I make the following mittee which had investigated the priority charge of actual fraud, for surely the citizens extract. of the claims of the discoverers of the safety- who have paid their money have a rightful It was intended by me when I drew the lamp gave him a public dinner at Newcastle, claim that it be applied for their benefit. Bill to relieve the inventor from the ef- at which he was presented with a silver tan- In addition to these acts of omission, they fect of a public use by any one prior to the kard and a purse of a thousand guineas. In seem :o have acted with peurile weakness of application for a patent by the inventor, limi- returning thanks he announced his intention indulgence towards a favored few. ted, however, to two years.The above let. of devoting that sum to the education of his 3. Remedy for this evilIn your number ters were addressed to me, and at any time are only son, Robert, at the University of Ed- for July 15th last, you say that the people subject to your order. Every person knows inburgh. The history of his employment have the power to remedy legislative mis- that a similar construction was put upon the to construct the Stockton and Darlington, the chief, and are alone culpable if they send re- act by the Patent Office, and, by every plain first public railroad, and the Liverpool and presentatives who attend to party objects and I reader prior to this astounding decision. I Manchester, the first on which locomotive not to their duty. This is true, but it is ex- cannot however, believe that a respectable engines were introduced for the conveyance pedient to point out to them some practicable court would so far legislate upon a Senate as of passengers,is well known. From the method by which they can bring their power to veto it upon the ground of its absurdity! first journey of the locomotive built by the into action. Let those in every Congression- The account proceeds to state finally that Stephensnns over the railroad constructed by al District who are interested in patents, de- Judge Nelson charged the Jury that the them, dates the actual commencement of vote a portion of their time to inform their patent was equally avoided by the sale of the the greatest mechanical revolution effected representatives of their rightful claims, stove after he had completed his application, since the invention of the steam-engine by The injured inventors should niake a noise ) but prior to the issuing of the patent Watt. Though self-educated ,scarcely ed- and tell their grievances. You justly state It is obvious that if the Judge used this ucated at all beyond reading and writing until that there is great moral force yet in our language, it was a mere extra-j udicial dictum he had attained manhood, Mr. Stephenson took country, and if the truth were made known, not required by the state of facts, for the sale every opportunity of impressing upon the the people would sympathise with the inven- by Plaintiff was before application. youngthe advantages of science and literature. tors and compel their public ageiit to do his I should not have dwelt so long upon 50 He related at a public dinner at the opening duty. Let the agent first be made acquainted loose a statement of a judicial decision, had not of the Birkenhead Docks how. in his early with the true state of things, and let every such gieat excitement, and so much unhappy career, after the lobours of the day, he used inventor refuse to vo~~ for him, if he disre- feeling resulted from it, and were it not of to work in the evening at mending watches gards his duty. Another method of procur- great importance that a true report should be and clocks in order to earn enough to send ang relief, would be to make your paper the had of the actual decision. Permit me there- his child to school. He was the founder organ of well considered amendments of the fore, once more to request of some competent and first president of the Society of Mechani- Patent Laws, previous to the next session ot person in your district to enlighten the public cal Engineers; and was never better pleased Congress. in regard to the precise point decided, and than when assisting by his advice and en- I presume that every inventor takes your whether there was an appeal. For one, I am couragement the ideas ot ingenious artizans. paper. If he can afford it and does not, he free to say that I do not believe that such a In agriculture and horticulture he made many has hut little reason to complain of injustice decision as stated was ever made. curious and successful experiments,and the for he neglects the only public organ which But if it were, and it should be sustained as study of geology was a passion with him. It represents and vindicates his rights. You are good law, which is another point which I to- is feared that the intermittent fever of which strangers to me, Messrs. Editors, but were I tally disbelieve, then patentees would be much he died was occasioned by the damp miasma your personal enemy I would take your jour- worse off than they were under the old law, arising from the fertilizers which he employ- nal for my own advantage. I have now before me a letter from the for- ed with great success in his hot houses. In 4. Judge .J~(elsons decisianThe only re- mer Commissioner, dated Oct. 14, 1837, ex- a briefand hurried notice it is impossible to cord I can find of this case is in the Journal pressly asserting the power to make a sale af- do justice to jso remarkable a man. In the words of a cotemporary writer. His me- chanical genius was of that order that it may without exaggeration be asserted that if Watt had not previously invented the steam-engine he was capable of achieving it. Others be- fore him had prepared the way; others since have contributed valuable improvements in detail; but to George Stephenson unquestiona~ bly belongs the proud title of the Author of the Railway System. He gathered the many threads of ingenuity and enterprise and weav- ed them into the wide-spreading net-work which promises, in its manifold extension, to envelope the whole world in bonds of com- merce, civilization, and peace. The Wild Man. Dick Martin, Esq. being at Greenwich Fair, was led, by a very superfluous curiosity to enter a booth whose proprietor professed to exhibit a wild man. There, assuredly he saw a very wild looking individual, with his head and face covered with a profusion of red, shaggy haira regular glib, nearly naked, and with a chain about his waist But Mr. Martin, upon observing that the savage seemed to display towards him some uncouth and uneasy signs of recognition, was induced to examine him more closely; and the result was, he recognised in the wild man one of his own tenants, and shouted out, with all the indignation becoming a legisla- tor in favor of animals, Why, then, Fla- herty, you blackguard of the world, what is it youre about there, at all, making a beast of yourself entirely, entirely ? Earning the rent for your honour, was Mr. Flahertys propitiatory, and, to an Irish landlord, unan- swerable, reply. Action. So far from complete inaction being perfect enjoyment, few sufferings are greater than that which the total absence of occupations generally induces. Count Calies, the cele- brated French antiquarian, spent much time in engraving the plates which illustrated his valuable work. When his friends asked him why he worked so hard at such an almost mechanical operation, he saidJe grave ne pas me pendre, I engrave lest I should hang myself. When Napoleon was slowly wither- ing away from disease and ennui together, on the rock of St. Helnoc, it. was told him that one of his old friends, an ex-colonel in the Italian army, was dead. What disease killed him ? asked Napoleon. That of having nothing to do, it was answered. Enough, sighed Napoleon, even had he been an emperor. Origin of the Riectric Teiegraph. Upwards of sixty years ago (or in 17878g.) when Arthur Young was travelling in France, he met with a Monsiear Lomond, a very in- genious and inventing mechanic, who had made a remarkable discovery in electricity. You write two or three words on a piece of paper, says Young ; he takes it with him into a room, and turns a machine enclosed in a cylindrical case at the top of which is art electrometer, a small fine pith ball. A wire connects with a similar cylinder and electro- meter, in a distant apartment and his wife, by remarking the corresponding motions of the ball writes down the words they indicate, from which it appears he has formed an alphabet of motions. As the length of the wire makes no difference in the effect, a correspondence might be carried on at any distance. What- ever the use may be, the invention is beauti- ful. Cause ofDark Coior of the Skin. Darkness of complexion has been attributed to the suns power, from the age of Solomon to this day, Look not upon me, because I am black, because the sun bath looked upon me : and no doubt, that, to a certain degree, the opinion is well founded. The invisible rays in the solar beams, which change vege- table color, and have been employed with such i-emarkable effects in the Daguerreotype, act upon every substance upon which they fall, producing mysterious and wonderful changes in their molecular state, man not excepted. Strike the iron while it is hot, is a strik ing hot truism. 14 scientific 2tincri~in. TO CORRESPONDENTS. A. B. of Mass.The machinery you speak of with a transverse motion, could not be patented; other patents cover all the ground tor transverse, dip and lift, & c. C. R. of Ohio.There is a very good book on dyeing Wool and Cotton, especially cotton. It is called the Art of Dyeing. Its cost is $3,30, yet we would advise you to hire a good dyer for some time as we have seen no work on dyeing that describes correctly both the woolen and cotton processes, which are distinctly different. S. N. of Conn.We will attend to your directions. J. E. of OhioWe received yours all correct. Mr. Stewarts engine will require to be longer in operation to prove and establish its superiority. H. P. of Pa.The issues of Hotchkiss or any other wheel cannot discharge more wa- ter under the same head, than a throat of the same number of square inches. G. S. D. E. of Mass.Your design for an ornamental stove, is certainly new and must be beautiful. We have never seen or heard of the same design being either used or patented. D. B. of Vt.We have received your verses and will give them due consideration. There is no field so difficult of success as an poesy. You have tbe spirit-soaring imagina~ tion but it requires polishing, and no persosi can do this but the bard himself. J. A. H. of Me.The best work for you to procure is Scotts Engineers and Machi- nists Assistant, price $26 ; may be had at this office. S. C. T. of Geo.We will furnish them ga-otis if you will inform us the numbers. E. R. B. of Wis.Your funds are re- ceived. Goodwin & . Co. ofla., and XV. H. Harris of Va Your engines and boilers were both shipped last Thursday week. The foamer was sent aboard the Mayflower, and directed to the care of B. and 0. line of canal boats, and the latter was put aboard the schr. Ver- million, which sailed the next Monday mor- ning for your Isort. The engine and boiler was sent in S parcels, all insured and freight paid to Richmond wharf, as per contract. C. K. of N. J.You must have peIsned your letter too hastily. It is nor possible to ive an opinion upon any question unless it is plainly and clearly described. Your first dia- gram was much like Winders and different from your present one. If you will reflect for a moment, you will perceive, that if you ap- ply directly the powe. ycu employ to force up the water to the reservoirs, you will get all you want and save all the expecce of pipes, reservoirs and friction. L. XV. D. of N. Y.It would rio doubt bring your spring balance into notice to send it to the Fair, but we would not be able to do you justice in accepting the agency at present as we could not attend to the business. H. N. B. of N. J.A slide rest for any lathe cannot be had ready made here, though one could be made to order. S. J. of N. H Your plan for a water wheel developes no new principles and you could not obtain a patent. $2, 0. K. J. D. of Mass.Your engine appears new, but whether it is of value we cannot say until it has been tested. It will be well for you to have an engraving of it published. We are now publishing in our paper a his- tory of the Rotisry Steam engine, with engra- vings, some of which you will find in every number, and if you like yours can he includ- ed among the rest. T. J. K. of Va.The Locomotive, or the horizontal boiler, would be the best for your purpose. The 12 horse engine we had, is sold. We shall have some more before long. Gutta Percha bands are very good where there is no heat. B. P. of Conn.The hard woolen waste is first torn by machinery like that used for cotton or for hair mattresses. H. R. of S. C.Tsvo machines for ma- king Spokes, oae for turning the rough and the other called the finisher, cost three hun- dred dollars each, sold at Newark, ~N. J There are others souaewhat less. One at ~3OO would perhaps answer your purpose. We cannot tell what is the price of Munsells Morticing machine, but it would just answer you. He resides in Saratoga Co., this State. S. N. R. of H.The Gutta Percha may remove your difficul~.ies. It is very hard and yet has elasticity, but is very easily affected with heat. It can be made quite soft in boil. ing water, and when cold it is hard as horn. Armstrong & Co., Gutta Percha Warehouse, William sI New York, is the direction. A. B. of Ct.There can be no doubt of a patent in your case. A. Mc. K of N. Y. and A. S M. ofVt. Your specifications were sent to your res- pective addresses for your signatures last week. Hope you received them duly and will re- turn them as soon as possible. f.~k- Many of our Correspondents to whom a reply is due must excuse us for non atten- tion to their requests till some future number. We have been unusually hurried for a few weeks past, and the communications and letters of enquiry have poured in upon us in such torrents that we cannot answer you all for several days. We have not forgotten any of you however, and your respective requests shall receive at- tention as soon as possible, probably in the next number, and some of you previous to the next issue, by mail 2~u cttL~cmcnts. GENERAL AGENTS FOR THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. New Fork City, . GEo. DEXTER. Boston, - - . Messrs. HOTCHK;IS & Co. Philadelphia, - - STORES & BitOTHER. LOCAL AGENTS. Albany, - . - Andover, Mass. Baltimore, Md., - - Bermuda Islands - Cabotville, Mass., Concord, N. H. Dover. N. H. - - Fall River, Mass. - Hartford, Ct., - - Houston, Texas, - Jamestown, N. Y. - Lynn, iSlass, - - Middletown, Ct, - Norwich Ct New Haven Ct New Bedford Mass Newburg N Y Newar Newar New Orleans, La. Providen,.e R I Rochester N Y Springfield Mass Salem, .la~s Saco, Me Savannah Gen Syracuse, N. Y. - Taunton \5as5 Williamsburgh, - Webster, Mass. - PETER COoK. H. A. RUSSELL. - S. SANDS. WASHINOTOS & Co. H. F. BROWN. RUFUS MERRELL. D. L. NORRIS. POPE & CHACE - H. H. BOWERS. J. W. COPES & Co. H. BIsHoP. J. E. F. MARSH. - Was. WoonwAan SAFFORD & PARKS. H. DOWNES. S. F. HoyT. S. A. WHITE. J.L AGENS. Robert Kashaw. H. & J. S. ROWE. D. M. DEWEY. XVM. B. BROCKET. L. CHANDLER. ISAAC CROORER. JOHN CARUTHERS. - W. L. PALMER. W. P. SEAVER. J. C. GANDER. J. M. SHUMWAY. CITY CARRIERS. CLARK SELLECK, SQUIRE SELI.EcE. Persons residing in the city or Brooklyn, can have the paper left at their residences regularly by send ing theiraddressto the office, 125 Fulton st.. Od floor Morses Air Distributor, For Burning Saw Dust or Tan instead of Wood for running Steam Engines. ~TE AM SAW MILLS are now running and have k~ail the heat they require, from the saw dust and hark, saving tlse slabs and cord wood heretofore used. Tanneriss also by this air distributor, have all the fuel they want by burning the tan. The sa- ving is a great one, and the expence of the arrange. ment trilling, compared to the advantages. The undersigned has the exehisive right to vend, use, and manufacture Morses Air Distributor, in Use state of New York, to whom application may be made. I3r.~-lnfringements on this patent will be prosecut- ed, and the rights secured by the letters patent rig. idly enforced. Lockport, Sth inn. 25, 1845. L. A. SPALDING. CERTIFICATES. LocEposur, N. Y. Sept. 18, 1848 I hereby cersify that I have one of Morse & Bro- thers Air Distributors, in my Steam Saw Mill at this place. My fire place is 11 feet by four feet 9 inches, under 3 due Boilers, 12 feet long by 40 inches dia- meter. I have 2 engines, the cylinders are, one of 12 and one of 10 inch diameter, and 2 feet stroke. The sawdust, bark and clips from the oak plank I am sawing (wIthout any cord wood or slabs) is all sufficient for driving my two Gang saws for plank, and five gang of Saws for sawing stone. I have a superior chimney. The draft is perfect. My engineer and Firemen say, they get up steam in about half the time they formerly took. To me the savisig is greatany one can calculate for him- self. GEO. REYNALE. To L. A. SPALDING. We have been running a Steam Engine for some years, to propel machinery for driving a tannery with a large bark Mill, two sets heavy Hide Mills, four Pumps, one Roller, two Last Machines for Turning Lasts, two Machines for finishing Lasts, and one Cir- colar Saw for sawing timberthe Engine supposed to be fourteen horse powerin which we used two cords of wood (hard) per day. Thirty.three days ago to-day we were induced to try Morses Patent Grates, or Air Distributor, and to our entire satiofac- tion. We find a saving of at least 4 dollars per day in using Tan. We find no trouble in raising all the Steam we want, with Tan. Since we have put in your Patent Burner, We have not used a stick of wood, and we cheerfully recommend them to any, and to all who wish to save wood, where Saw.duot, Tan or coal may be used. N. CASE & CO. Bufialo, June 19, 1840 .23 4t The Best Patent Agency in the United States. ~T HE subscribers would respectfully give notice .3. thatthey still continueto attend to Patent Office business as usual. The long experience they have had in securing patents. together with their unri- valled facilities, enables them ho say that THE BEST PATENT AGEN(;Y, in the United States, IS AT THE OFFICE OF THE SCIENTIFIC AMERI- CAN, New York. it is not necessary, as commonly supposed, for an inventor to make ajourneyto Wash- ington in person, in order to secure a Patent, as he cannot in any manner hasten the Patent or make his invention more secure. Any business connected with the Patent Office may be done by lettor, through the ScIENTIFic AMERICAN OFFICE, with the same lacibty and certairty as though the inventor came in person. From a wani of knowledge on this point, applicants for patents are often obliged to submit to great vexation, with loss of muds money and time. They also frequently fall into the hands of designing persons, and lose their inventions as well as money. Those who wish to take out Pat. onto or enter Caveats, should by all means have the business transacted through the SCIENTIFIC AMERI- CAN OFFICE, RI they may then RELY upon its being done in a straight forward and prompt manner, on the very lowest terms. All letters must be PosT PAID and directed to MUNN & CO., Publishers of the Scientific American, 59 125 Fulton street, New York. IIOLDENS DOLLAR MAGAZiNE. Cheapest and Best. HE October No. is now ready for subscribers. It contains the usual amount of reading niatter, (64 large sized pages double column.) nearly twice as much as any three dollar Magazine and is month- ly illustrated with from S to ~O Wood Engravings of superior quality. Holdens is decidedly the peo- ples Magazise, being the largest, cheapest and best 5ublished in the world. P0 mechanics and working people especially it is a desideratum long needed nd should be extensively patlonised by them. Ihe contents embrace every variety of reading, from grave to gay, from lively to severe, and are especi- ally designed for the Family Circle. The volume commences with the July No. and the back Nos. from thattime can be supplied to subscribers. TERMS (IN ADVANCE.) One copy one year, $1. Five copies $4. Twenty $15. Address, postpaid, HARLES W HOLDEN, s23 109 Nassau. it eet, New York. The largest, best and cheapest Dictionary In the English language, is confessedly WEBSTERS, the entire work, unabridged, in 1 vol. Crown Quar- ts, 1452 pp. with portrait of the author, revised by Professor Goodrich, of Yale College. Price, $6. The most COMPLETE, ACCURATE, and ECLIASLE Dictionary of the Language, is the recent testimo- ny given to this work by many Presidents of Col- leges, and other distinguished literary men through- out the country. Containing three times the amount of matter of any other English Dictionary compiled in this coun- try, or any Abridgment of this work, yet Its efinitiono are models of condensation and pu- rity. The most complete work of the kind that any nation can boast oflioN. Was. B. CALHOUN. We rejoice that it bids fair to become the stan- dard Oictionary to be used by the numerous mil- lions of people who are to inhabit the United States. Signed by 104 members of Congress. Published by G. tz C MERRIAM, Sprin0fiehd, Mass., and for aale by all booksellers. aJI 2m1 THE WEST STREET FOUNDRY, corner of Beach and West streets, will furnish at the shortest notice, Steam Engines and Boilers in all their varieties, and on the usost reasonable terms, together with castings of brass or iron, and machi- nery in general. Orders attended to wills dispatch, ano particular attention given to repairing. JOSEPH E. COFFEE, AGENT. Steam Boats, Engines, Machinery, & c. bought and sold on commission-apply as above. 513 Imo POWER TO LET-- RARE CHANCE. I HREE rooms, 40 feet square, one room tiOby 40 1 feet, 2nd floor, power from engine, ii in. cylin. der, 4 1-2 feet stroke. Let together or in parts. Ap- ply at West street Foundry, corner 01 Beach and West streets. s23 3m TALBOTS PATENT BLIND HINGE. TJ~ HE undersigned having become interested in the manufacture and sale of the above article, worild state that their facilities are such, that they can supply any demand at short notice. This hinge, haviiig stood the test of two years trial, has fully established itself as a useful and important in- vention, being all that can be desired for blind trimmings, as the blind is managed entirely from the lisside of the house without raising tbe sash, COMPLETELV locks it, and prevents all unpleasant noise of the blind by wind. American Window Trimming Company, Taunton, Mass. Address GEO. GODFREY, AgentA. W. T. Co. sQl 3m GENERAL PATENT AGENCY. REMOVED. THE SUBSCRIBER has removed his Patent Agent c yfrom 189 Water to 43 Fulton street. The object of this Agency is to enable Inventors to realize something for their inventions, either by the sale of Patent Goods or Patent Rights. Charges moderate, and no charge willbe made un tilthe inventor realizes something frem his invention. Letters Patent will be secured upon moderate terms. Applications can be made to the undersign ed, perionallyor by letter postpaid. auS SAMUEL C. HILLS, Patent Agent. Johnson & Robbins, Consbslting Engineers and Counsellors for patentees. Office on F street, opposite PaLnt Office, Washing ton,D.C. jl7tf Saws. 3 EAVITT & MDANIEL, Concord, N. H., make of the best cast steel the following Saws Circular, Mill, Tennon, Cross-cut, Fellow and Ve- neering Saws. Also, Turning and Billet Webs, and Butchers Bow Saws. No saws ever made equalto their cast steel Mill Saws. The trade supplie4 on liberal terms. illS 2m5 Judsons Stave Dressing Ma chine. bins, on which Letters Patent were T ~ May 1st, 1547, has been in successful operation for the past year, and hundreds of thou- sands of staves have been dressed by it. It is war ranted to dress the same quantity of staves with so little power as any that can be started, also leave the full thickness on thin edges and thin ends, Rod conform as near to the crooks and twists of the tim- ber as can be deoired. The jointing of the machine which accompanies it, has been subjected to the se- verest test, and pronounced superior to that perfor- med by hand. Application for a patent on the Joint- er has been made. Large quantities of Hoguheads and Shooks made with staves dressed and jointed with sour machines have been sold and used to the entire satisfaction of the purchasers. For rights and machines address the proprietors at their Manufactory, Artizan street, New Haven, Connecticut, where machines in full operation may be seen. JUBSON & PARDEE. New Haven, July 17, 1748. jy-J9 3m UNIVERSAL CHUCKS FOR TURNING LATHES For sale by the Manu- facturers Agents, QUINCY & DEALA PIERRE, 81 John street New York. s2 3m0 Coal. 71~HE Subscriber has constantly for sale by the car- go or ton all sizes of Coal for MANUFACTURERS and FAMILIES, from the best Schuylkihl ansi Lehigh mines. Hazieton and Spring Mountain, lump and steamboat Coal. Tamaqas Chosnut for engines. Peach Orchard and other red ash Coal. Midlothian, Virginia, a superior article for smiths use. Cum- borland, Sidney and Liverpool Coal. For sale at the LOWEST market prices. J. P. OSTROM, aui 3m5 corner 10th Avenue and 26th st. PREMIUM SLIDE LATHE. I HE subscriber is constantly building his improv- ed lathes of all sizes, from 7 to 30 leet long, and. caa execoste orders at short notice. JAMY~S T. PERKINS, Hudson Machine Shop and Iron Works mil Hudson, N. Y. Agricultural Implements. .Cg~Inventora and Msnnfacturers of superior Ag ricuitural Implements may find customers for their goods by applying at the Agricultural Warehouse of 5- C. HILLS & CO. 43 Fulton ot. au8 Machinery. D ERSONS residing in any part of the United States -~ who are in want of Machines Engines, Lathes, OR ANY DESCRIPTI5N OF SIACHINERY, can have their orders promptly executed by addressing the Pub- lishers of this paper. From at extensive acquain- tance among the hirincipal machinists and a long so perience in mechanical matters they have uncom- mon facilities for the selection of the best machinery and will fairhfully attend to any business entrusted to their care MCNN & CO. alO fkp-The above so prepared to execute all ordersat the shortest notice and on the most reasonable terms. Lap welded Wrought Iron Tubes FOR TUBULAIk BOILERS, From 1 1-4 to 6 inches diameter, and any length, not exceeding 17 feet. Tf~ IIESE Tubes are of the same quality and manrC Ifactusre as those extensively used in nglan Scotland, France and Germany, for Locomotive, Ma rine and other Ste m Engine Boilers. THOMAS PROSSER, Patentee, d26 28 Plats street. New York Johnsons Improved Shingle Machine. TJ~ HE Subscriber having received Lettees Patent I. for an improvement in the Shingle Machine, is now readyto furnish them at short notic o, and he would request all those who want a goo I machine for sawing shingles, to call on him and xamine the improvements he has made, as one eight n ms-re shin- gles can be sawed in the eame given time than by any. other machine now in use. Augusta, Maine, Oct. 1. 1547. 1- G. JOHNSON. To Mill Owners. 1.1 AVILAND & TUTTLES Patent Centre Vent ---Pressure Water WheelThese wheels are now in successful operation in many towns in Maine, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island, and are found to suirpass in power and facility of adaptation any wa- ter wheel now in use. This wheel was awarded the silver medal at the Fair of the American Institute recently held in New York and a diploma at the. Mechanics Fair in Boston, The wheels are manufactured and for sale by the FULTON IRON FOUNDRY CO., South Boston, Masswhere the wheels can be soon and any infor mation concerning them had. Patent Rights for different States, Counties, & c. for sale - as above - m25 Sm5 TO IRON FOUNDERS. D ulverized bituminous, or sea-coal Facing, an ap- -- proved article for mixing with moulding sand to make the sand leave the castings easily. Also fine bolted charcoal and anthracite coal dust, soap. stone, and black lead on hand in barrels, and for sale by G. 0. ROBERTSON s23 4t Importer, 283 West 17th street. N. Y. STEAM BOILER. B F~NTLEYS Patent Tubular and other Boilers of any size, shape or power, made to order, by SAMUEL C, HILLS & CO. aul 411 Fultox it. 15 16 ______ ~cicutific ~incrican. For the Scientific American. New Chemical Law. No. 2. The following are the outlines of this che- mical law given in as brief a manner as pos- sible. Conceive the existence of a gas, constituted of a vast number of particles either simple or compound, and each particle situated equi- distant from each other. Now by this law these particles either simple or conipound, constituting the gas, may under peculiar con- dit~on unite with each other, to form com- pound particles. Thus if the original atoms uBite by pairs, then the gas or solid which these double particles constitute, will differ from the original gas. If three original atoms unite, the substance formed will differ from the two former, and in this manner, four, five, six and upward, may unite, forming different sub- stances at each union. Perhaps this may be still better understood, by supposing the existence of a gas, or portion of a gas, consisting for instance of 120 simple particles, like shot Now by this law, these prrticles may unite with each other by pairs for instance, forming clusters or compound atoms consisting of two original atoms combined, the gas perhaps still retaining its physical pro- perties, although with but one half the number of the original atoms. Ifthree particles unite or aggregate, then it is evide.nt that the substance or gas will consist of but 40 aggregated atoms, as each aggregated atom is made up by the union of three original atoms with each other. In this manner any tiumber of atoms may unite and at each union a different substance will be the result. It makes no difference whether the original atom be either sienple or com- pound, the result is the same. All substances formed by particles thus aggregated must pos- sess the following propeties. 1st. The specific gravities of the vapour or gases, of all substances, comprised in the same aggregated series, when taken at the same tens- perature, are directly proportional to their atomic weights. 2nd. The specific gravity of all substances aggiegated from the same radial increase with the series. 3rd. The boiling points of all substances, aggregated from the same radial, also increase with the series. 4th. The equivalent combining volume of all substances aggregated from the same radial are equal. 11th. The power of thesubstancesto condoct heat also increases with the series. 6th. The power of the substances to conduct electricity increase with the series. 7th. The number of atoms ol Oxygen, re- quired to acidify any substance, belonging to the same aggregate series are equal. 8th. All those substances belonging to the same aggregate science, are possessed of simi- lar chemical properties. They are the more similar, the nearer the substances are situated to each other in the serie~, but grow more dissimilar as the distance between them in- creases. Thus the substance represented by in aggregation of two atoms, is similar to a combination of three atoms, but not as similar to a combination of four. It is in this man- ner, that the first substance of an aggregated series may be totally different in its chemical properties from the last. 9th. If the first of an aggregated series be a gas, then as the series increase, it will grow denser, and may become a fluid, and farther still, a solid. 10th. All substances comprised in an ag- gregated series, are electro-negativ~ to all those above them. 11th. In an aggregated series, all thosesub- stances situated the highest in the list, gene- rally have the least affinity for any particular 12th. In fact whatever property a substance substance. rican. SEMI-ROTATION ENGINE. FIG 3. This regularity of increase and decrease, is History of the Rotary Engine. not confined merely to an aggregated series, but extends to their compound with other Prepared expressly for the Scientific Ame- substances according to the following condi- tions. 1st. The specific gravity of the compounds formed by any aggregated series with any particular substance, will either increase or decrease, in a regular manner, depending upon the specific gravity of the substance uni- ting with the series. If the uniting substance possesses a great specific gravity, then the specific gravity of the compound, will de- crease as the series increase, otherwise it will increase with the series. ~nd. The boiling points of the compounds of an aggregated series, with any particular substance, increase with the series. The above two properties of the compound of an aggregated series, with a particular sub- stance, are sufficient for all purposes of ap- plication, since if more were introduced it might render it apparently complex. The same decrease or increase of all other proper- ties, will be found to exist upon the examina- tion. They must also possess similar chemi- cal properties, like an aggregated series. The above conditions are sufficient to test the truth of this law. The application of course fol- lows, and if all the results as required by the above conditions, do actually exist, then must its truth be admitted. Bridgeport, Conn. S. N. An excellent plan for Preparing Glue, MR. EDiTORI hereby send you a plan of preparing and keeping Glue in solution, which I have found to be truly good. To any quantity of glue use common whis- key instead of water. Put both together in a bottle, cork it tight and set it past for three or four days, when it will be fit for use with- out the application of heat. Glue thus pre- pared, will keep for years and is at all times fit for use, except in very cold weather, when it should be set in warm water oefore using. To obviate the difficulty of the stopper get- ting tight by the glue drying in the mouth of the vessel, I use a tin vessel with the cover fitting tight on the outside to prevent the es- cape of the spirit by e.apurization. Greenville, S. C. J. L. P. Priming ror Percussion Guns. A mixture of 100 grains of oxymuriate of potasse, with 12 of sulphur is much prefera- ble to either fulminating silver, or fulminating quicksilver, for priming. It is not so liable to accidental explosion, it leaves behind it less acid matter, and does not corrode the iron so rapidly; and, contrary to what takes place with fulminating quicksilver, its explosion is not followed by a deposition of moisture. The facility and certainty of the explosion is the same in both. A mixture of 100 grains of chlorate of pot- ash, with 24 of salteptre, 36 of sulphur, and 14 of lycopodium, is not nearly so efficacious as the first; although this is chiefly a comise- quence of the ordinary construction of the touch-hole. The best method of filling the copper caps is, to mix up the explosive com- pound into a thick liquid, with any adhesive solution or tincture, and, by means of a hair pencil, to introduce a large drop of this mix- ture into the bottom of each cap. Another preparation for the priming pow- der for percursion guns, m~ three drains of re- gulus of antimony, and one dram of oxymu- nate of potasse. On account of the corrosive properties of the oxymuriate of potash, it is advisable to use the smallest possible quan- tity that will be certain of ignition; the above ingredient, if well compounded from a per- cussion powder, will fire with the greatest certainty. One great objection to the stranger prepara- tions for primin~ is the great and sudden cor rosion produced after firing; so violent is this, that should the interval between firing much exceed an hour, the touch-hole is not unfre- quently completely closed by a strong rust. Artificial iflycs for Horses, Dr. Bristol, of Lockport, Niagara Co. N. Y. advertises to make artificial eyes for horses. He says, although not in his line, he will may possess, it is either increased or dimin- take orders from persons having valuable ished by this law. horses deformed by loss of an eye. We give two views of a semi rotation en- gine invented by Watt, and included in his patents of 1782, and although it was never car- ried into execution yet it will be found by the description to be very ingenious, and must have conveyed some hints to the first builder of the vil~rating kind. The same let- ters indicate like parts on all the figures. FIG 4. D, is the interior of the cylinder. It is fitted with a piston B. C is a projection of metal extending from the circumference to the axle A. Packing is introduced between this projection and the axle, so as to prevent the steam from escaping between them. E F are two valves which admit steam from the steam pipe G into the cylinder on each side of C alternately. I J are two valves acting in conjunction with E F, so as to open or shut off a communicaton with the condensers L K through the pipe H at.a proper time. Levers are attached to the rods by which these valves are worked, from tappets on the pump rods R Q. Steam is admitted from the boiler through the pipe G into tho steam chest, and finding the valve F open, rushes up the pipe, and so into the cylinder between the piston amid stop C. The piston, receding from the pressure, drives the air in the cylinder through the other pipe, and down through the valve J, into the condenser, whence it escapes by the pump L. It continues revolving until it comes in contact with the other side of C, when it is stopped ; but previous to this the valves F and J have been shut by their re- spective levers, whilst E and I, have been opened. The steam has now access through E to the other side of the piston, and turns in the contrary direction; the steam which last performed its office escaping down through I to the condenser. The first opera- tion is then repeated, reversing the motion of the piston as soon as, or before it comes in contact with the other side of E. N M are two toothed wheels attached to the axle A, which work (as shewn) by racks, the pump rods 0 P, and the smaller pump rods Q R. The former 0 P, are supposed to draw water from a mine, but the smaller ones only work the condensing pumps K L. It would hardly be an objection that the piston would strike against the stop C and thereby shake itself to pieces for here, as an equable motion is not required like a rotary engine, the speed might (as in all pumping engines which were liable to the same ob- jection) be gradually retarded, so that the im- petus would be destroyed before it came in contact with the stop. Perhaps the most so- lid objection would be that of the packing re- quiring more care than a common workman, such as generally attends to steam engines, would be able or willlng to bestow: It would have been extremely portable and cheap, would have occupied very little room and the friction would have been compari- tively trifling To Weld iron, Steet and Sheet iron. In an earthen vessel melt borax, and add to It 1-10th of sal-ammoniac. When these in- gredients are properly fused and mixed, pour them out upon an iron plate and let them cool. There is tHus obtained a glassy matter, to which is to be added an equal quantity of quick lime. The iron or steel which are to be soldered are first heated to redness; then this compound, first reduced to powder, is laid upon themthe composition melts and runs like sealing wax; the pieces are then replac- ed in the fire, taking care to heat them at a temperature far below that usually employed in welding; they are. then withdrawn and hammered, and the surfaces will be found to be thus perfectly united. The author who is a Frenchman, asserts that this process, which may be applied to welding sheet iron tubes, never fails. A valuable series of petrifactions, purely silicious, gathered near Cairo in Egypt, have been presented by Prof Charles E. Anthon to St. Johns College, Annapolis, (Md.) The original structure of the trees is remarka- bly defined in these curiosities. BEST Mechanical Paper IN THE WORLD! FOURTH YEAR OF THE 416 Pages of most valuable information, illustrated with upwards of 500 MECHANiCAL ENQRAVll~TGS: l,~3The Scientific American differs entirely from the magazines and papers which flood Ins country, as it is a Weekly Journal of Art, Science and Me- chanics, having for its object the advancement of the INTERESTS OF MECHANICS, MANUFAC- TURERS and INVENTORS Each number is il- lustrated with from five to TEN original ENGRA- VINGS OF NEW MECHANICAL iNVENTIONS, nearly all ofthe best inventions which are patented at Washington being illustrated in the Scientific American. It also contains a Weekly List of Amer- ican Patents; notices of the progress of all Mechan- ical and Scientific Improvements; practical direc- tions on the construction, management and use of all kinds of MACHINERY, TOOLS, & C.; Essays upon Mechanics, Chemistry and Architecture ; ac- counts of Foreign Inventions ; advice to Inventors - Rail Road Intelligence,together with a vast amount of other interesting, valuable and useful infosmatiosa. The SCIENTIFIC AMERiCAN is the most popular journal of the kind ever published, and of more im- portance to the interests of MECHANICS and IN- VENTORS thin any thing they could possibly ob- tain! To Farmers it is also particularly useful, as it will apprise them of all Agricultural Improve- ments, instruct them in various mechanical trades, & c. & c. It is printed with clear type on beautiful paper, and being adapted to binding, the subscriber is possessed, at the end of the year, of a large vol- ume of 416 pages. illustrated with upwards of 500 mechanical engravings. TERMS: Single subscription, $2 a year in ad- vance; $1 for six months. Those who vish to sub- scribe have only to enclose the amount sn a letter, directed to MUNN & CO. Publishers of the Scientific American, 125 Fulton street, New York. All Lettters must be Post Paid. INDUCEMENTS FOR CLUBBING. a copies for 6 months $4 01? S 12 $800 10 6 $750 10 12 $1600 20 6 $1600 20 12 $3000 Soothe-n and Western Money taken at par for sub- sciiptioas. Post Office Stamps taken at their full value. A SPLENDID PRESENT! To any person who will send us Three Subscri- bers, we will presesit a copy of the PATENT LAWS 01- THE UNITED STATES, together with all the informa- tion relative to PAT NT OFFiCP. BUSINESS, incliidisig full directions for taking out Patents, method of ma- king the Specifications, Claims, Drawings, Models, buying, selling, and transfering Patent Rights, & c. This is a present 01 GREAT VALUE, yet may be obtain- ed for nothing, by the reader of this prospectus, if he will take the trouble to get Three Subscribers to the Scientifie American. It will lie an easy matter to obtain two names besides his own. MUN N & CO., Scientific American Office, N.Y. IENTIFIC AMERICAN!

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Scientific American. / Volume 4, Issue 3 17-24

Zciientific THE ADVOCATE OF INDUSTRY, AND JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC, MECHANICAL AND OTHER IMPROVEMENTS. bot. ~i. Neu3 pork, ctobev 7. 1~$. No. ~. THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN: CIRCULATION 11,000. PUBLISHED WF.EKLY. At 123 Futton Street, New York (Sun Bui1ding.~ and 13 Court Street, Boston, Mass. By Munn & Company. The Principal Office being at New York. WERXS$2 a year$l in advance, and the remainder in 6 months. fJ,~See advertisement on last page. 113 oetr~. NEW ENGLAND. The Hills of New England, How proudly they rise, In the wildness of grandeur, To blend with the skies. With their fair azure outline, And tall ancient trees New England, my country, I love thee for these. The Vales of New England. That cradle her streams, That smile in her gladness, Like land in our dreams. All sunny with pleasure, Embosomed in ease New EngLand, my country, I lo#e thee for these. Th~ J~oods of New England. Still verdant and high, Though rocked by the tempests Of ages gone by; Romance dims their arches And speaks in the breeze New England, my country, I love thee for these. The Streams of New England That roar as they go, Or seem in their stillness But dreaming to flow, o bright glides the sunbeam They march to the seas New England, my country, I love thee for these. The Home of New England, Free, Fortuned and Fair, Full many hearts treasure A sisters love there, Een more than thy mountains Or streamiets they please New England, my country, 1 love thee for these. God shield thee, New England Dear land of my birth, And thy children that wander, Afar oer the earth, My country thou art, Whereer my lots cast, Take thou to thy bosom My ashes at last. There is atear most sweet and soft Than beautys smiling lip of love, By angels eyes first wept, and oft On earth like those above. It liows for virtue in distress It sooths, like hope, our suflerings Twas given, and tis shed to bless Tis sympathys celestial tear. MACHINE FOR PRESSING HORN, 5 Horn, tortoise shell and many other animal sobstances and no doubt the leather manufac. ed by the process patented last year, are capa- ble of being softened by heat and moulded by pressure into any shape and with any design in the sharpest and most delicate relief. A screw press has usually been employed for this purpose, but the one represented by this cut which is a section through its centre, is far superior. A A, is a box of cast iron. B, is a copper to contain tile hut water, essit M, ie ~ grete for the fire to heat the same. C, is the smoke pipe. F F G, is the press made of strong cast iron, and capable of being drawn up and let down in the water at pleasure by means of racks D D, at each side, actuated by pinions J J. The axle of these pinions cress the machine and have each a wheel at the end, moved by two arms, or screws cut upon the axis and turned by the handle H. The press is guided in the ascent or descentby grooves in the side of the boiler. When raised up out of the water, the H moulds, with the horn or tortoise-shell~be- ttveen them, are put beneath the presser, and a severe pressure is produced by turning the wheel K. This wheel has an endless screw R upon its axis, which works the teeth of a lar~, e wheel L, fixed on the top of the screw P. The screw is received into an in- terior screw formed within the box or presser I, which is guided and prevented turning round by the cross bar E, through which the presser is fitted by this means, when the Screw P is turned round by the wheel L ~t1d endless screw, the horn or tortoise shell is pressed betweeis the moulds ; the Press is then lowered again into the water of the boil- er, in order to be still further softened by the boiling; but when the Press is down in the boiler, the screw can be screwed tighter by turning the wheel K until the desired impres- sion is obtained. By turning the handle H, the Press is then raised up out of the boiler, and b; turning back the wheel K the pressure is released and the moulds can be removed. purpose of giving them the required degree of flexibility. These springs are connected by joints to other serpentine springs which are secured to the underside of the carriage in any suitable manner. It will be observed that these springs are arranged different from those in common use, and are so combined with the perch and diagonal bars, that they possess far greater strength and elasticity (in- deed it is said confidently that they possess just double) in a given quantity of steel, thai those arranged in the usual way, while at the same time they possess more flexibility, and prevent those uncomfortable shocks produced in carriages driving over uneven groundthe seat of the carriage having rather a gentle undulating motion, so agreeable and desirable in a pleasure carriage, and they will no doubt meet with universal application. RAIL ROAD NEWS. Interesting to Railroad Companies. On Monday week on a case of appeal by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company, from a decision of a magistrate, who had a- warded damages for a cow killed upon the road, to the Howard District Court, Md., the question was brought up of the constitution- alty of a late law passed by the State of Mary- land, making the agent or employee of a railroad company incapable of giving testi- mony in a case to which the Company is an interested party. After a full discussioa of this subject, Judge Dorsey gave his opinion that the law was alike unconstitutional and opposed to the principles of justice and equity. Hudson River Railroad. The work on the section of the Hudson Ri~fi~& iltoid running through Poughkeep- sic has been suspended for the present, the contractors on that section having found themselves unable to complete the work for the priee they took it at. The Directors are preparing to re let the work. An attempt to obtain an injunction against the Road to pre- vent it passing in front of the land of Isaac Reynolds, at Peekskill, has failed. A New Line to Philadelphia. Tine travel between New York and Phila- delphia has become so great that though there now four lines running each way every day, yet the Camden and Amboy Railroad Company have felt the necessity of placing, in connection with the new Jersey Railroad Company, a new line upon the route front Jersey City. It will leave the foot of Cort- land street New York, every morning at six oclock, and pass through Newark, Eliza- bethtown, New Brunswick, Trenton and Bris- tol, to Tacony, where the Companys steam- er will be in readiness to proceed to Phi- ladelphia. The hour of leaving both cities is the same. Throwing Stones at Uars. The Springfield, Mass., Republican says that three Irishmen were arrested at Ireland Depot, on Saturday afternoon last, for throw- Sympathy. ing stones at the afternoon train of cars as they were in motion. They were put out of the carsone for refusing to pay his fare except with a counterfeit bill, and the others for en- This engraving is a side elevation of a new f E. The diagonal bars are attached by hinges deavoring to prevent the third from being and useful improvement in Carriage Spiings, J to tine fore and hind axles in form of an X. ejected from the cars; they afterwards com- here; invented by Erastus T. Sprout of Springville, This will convey the idea, as they cannot be menced throwing stones. One was fined $10 in the county of Susquehanna, Pa., and secu- seen in this view. The springs F F, are made and costs, the two others $5 and costs. All red to him by letters patent on the 18th of of rolled steel in the usual way, and are com- three were committed. last July. posed of several leaves bent in the form of pa- I A A, are the wheels. C, is the body of the rabolic curves and are diagonally connected by Good Speed. A school house was struck by lightning a carriage, but placed rather too high in this hinges to the axle behind and the bolster be- The cars between Albany and Schenectady short time ago at Reading, Pa. A stove fun- drawing. B B, are loops which connect the fore, then united by the loops B B, at their made the trip between the two places last nel was turned wrong side out by the fluid springs F F, to diagonal bars which cross each vertex to the diagonal bars (reaches) already week at the rate of 42~ miles per hour. Our just as one would turn a stocking. This is one other below the body of the carriage and are mentioned. These springs F F, have their raslroans mi.sst average 40 miles per hour yet of the most singular freaks of lightning that attached together by a bolt passing through interior leaves made shortest and gradually ,or they should be sued for sleeping on the we ever remember to have heard of. the said bars and the elastic steel spring perch increasing in length to the outermost, for the track. SPROUTS IMPROVED CARRIAGE SPRING, ( Freak of Llghtnimg. The Fair of the American Institute. This Great Fair opened last Tuesday in this city, at Castle Garden, and truly the display has never been surprs~ed. People from all quarters ot our great country, hare filled our city this weekand hundreds from distant places brought their articles for exhibilion. This is rightNew York is the place to bring new inventions and manufactures into public noticeit is the great heartthat throws out into a thousand channels the life sustaining fluid of our commerce. Saying this much for the exhibition and the wisdom of people com- ing to New York to exhibit their articles, we wish we could say as much for the Institute that conducts the Fair. We have never laud- ed nor declaimed against the American Insti- tute, but we certainly have strong doubts re- garding the way in which it has been mana- gednot for the benefit of those who have paid into its treasury. The Dispatch says that by a knavish and impudent system of puffing, large sums of money have been ab- stracted from the pockets of innocent people money which has not been, and probably cannot be accounted for, and persons connec- ted with the Institute, one of whom is an old bankrupt, have no ostensible means of a live- lihood, other than means derived from the In- stitute ; and that those persons live in an ex- pensive manner, paying five, six and seven hundred dollars a year, each for house rent alone. We have thus expressed ourselves respec- ting the Institute lest we might be consid- ered inimical to all its actions, when noti- cing, (as we shill do next week) many of the articles exhibited at the Fair. We have found the Clerk always to be very civil and gentle- manly, but the Institution needs to be tho- roughly reformed. The Doubie-headed and Pointed Finish- ing Brad. MR. EDITORIn a notice of this Brad in your last number, it was stated that the ma- chine for making it had been invented a num- ber of years ago, hut had only recently been put in operation. There is a slight error in this statement which I wish to correct. In 1842 the machine was in successful operation at No. 60 Gold street, where the Brads were put up in a merchantable form and introdu- ced into the market, bringing the highest pri- ces. Machines have also been exhibited in full operation. It is true that the invention passed from the hands ot the inventor, Mr. Walter Hunt, of this city, and that he never realized any compensation for the labor and ingenuity bestowed upon it but he is likely to reap some benefit from his invaluable in- valuable invention through a renewal of his patent, for which he has peculiar claims, and for obtaining which measures are now being taken. M. .JVew Yarlc, Oct. 2, 18Th. Those Knox Hats. It gives us pleasure at all times to recom- mend American productions and give the cre- dit to those who merit it. In the article of Hats we know of no manufacturer on the con- tinent that sells a better material, a more unique style or at a cheaper price than neigh- bor Knox, of l2S Fulton st. We recommend our friends who attend the Fair this week to give him a call. See advertisement in another column. Substitute for Stays. A patent was taken out a short time ago in England, for an apparatus named a Ceinture which is designed to supersede tight lacing, that ugly and dangerous folly, whereby beau- ty and the female form are destroyed. To Cure the Hiccup. Hold up, high above your head, two fingers of your hand ; lean back in your seat, opening your mouth and throat, so as to give a free passage to your lungs ; breathe very long and s(ftly, and look very steadily at your finger. Earthquakes. It is supposed by some, and those very em- inent men too, that the centre of the earth is a liquid mass, completely filling the globe, whose crust varies in thickness at the Poles and at the equator, being much thinner at the latter. It is obvious, they say that any exciting cause, the sudden manufacture o~ an immense quantity of gas, the fall of unmoelted masses into the fiery liquid or similar circum- stances, may rise a wave in this internal lava- ocean, or possibly two or three waves, which proceed as waves in our upper seas. A wave moves, but the water composing the wave only rises and falls. It is a common error to suppose that the waler itself flows along The progress of a wave consists in the rise and fall of successive bodies of water, one mass falling, displacing and forcing up the next, and soon across a sea. Supposing this same process to take place in the lava which al- ready fills, almost to bursting, the globe, it can readily 1e immagined that the crust will be lifted and strained as the wave pases along. Hence the frequent fissures in the earths sur- face, which gape and close again. The fact that a crnst of the earth is thinner at the Equator, explains the more disastrous effects of such waves in torrid regions. The same which there stretches the thin crust of the earth, lifts it in hills, overturns cities, and empties seas, finds here a granite shell which hardly yields to the heaviest waves. This theory appears beautiful and simple, but there is more poetry than truth about it for it involves the following objection, the heavy crust of the earth must be resting on a mass lighter than itself, and which fluid mass must be governed by a law different from that which governs fluids. The igneous theory is, that the centre of the earth is a sea of fire. The old scriptural theory is, that, the foun- dations of the earth rest upon the waters ; and Keplers notion was perhaps as correct as others viz., that, the earth was a huge an- imal. The theory which attributes the com- motions in the bowels of the earth to the agency of galvanism is the most plausible. Those who would desire to know its proposi- tions and conditions will find them fully set forth in No. 323ri vol. 3 Scientific American. The Senate and the Heads of the Senate. The editor of the Cincinnati Commercial on a visit to the U. S. Senate Chamber at the late session made the following notes Number of Senators gray headed, 12 ; with bald heads, 15; readin0 newspapers, (at a time,) 17 ; who spoke on the bill, in all, 20; who scratched their heads when they rose to speak, 10; who wore gold spectacles, 17; who wore silver spectacles, 3 ; who had on black coats, 39; who wore light vests, 6; who wore light neckerchiefs, 12 ; with curly hair, S ; of light complexion, 20 ; are corpulent, (includ- ing Lewis,) 6; paying attention at a time, generally, 12 ; who chewed tobacco, 20 ; with hair roughed back, 23. An Ingenious Defendant. It is mentioned that in Boston Police Court last week, much time was spent in trying a member of the press for smoking a cigar in the street. The defendant, who was evi- dently one of em. brought into court an imi- tation cigar, with a burnished end, looking like alighted cigar, and the officer could not swear that it was not the article which he saw in the defendants face but he was quite positive that he saw clouds of smoke issuing from his mouth. Finally, however, it turned on an unexpected point, and the court dis- charged the defendant. Taking it for granted that he would be convicted, the defendant brought five dollars, all in cents, to court, to pay the fine and costs with, but had to carry that heavy joke home again. Degrees of Books. The sizes of books are expressed by terms that indicate the number of pages printed on one side of a sheet of paper. When two pages are printed on one side, the book is termed a folio ; four pages, a quarto ; eight pages, an octavo ; twelve pages, a doodecimo ; eighteen pages, an octadecimo. These terms, except the first, are abridged by prefixing a fig-ire or figures to the last syllable, thus 4 for quarto, 8 vo. for octavo, 12 mo. for duodecimo, & c. Yankee Improvements in the British Co- lonies. The Belleville (N. B.) Intelligencer, says We have been informed that a great im- provement has been made in the Water Wheel of a Flouring Mill. The experiment has been tried in Rawdon, in this District, in a mill belonging to Edward Fidlar, Esq., and at pre- sent leased by Mr. W. Baker, through whosq enterprise this new wheel was introduced into the District. The mill has been built about two yearsi during which time it has been running with what is called Smiths Wheel, and which would grind at most ten bushels of wheat per hour, with about ten feet head of water. This appeared to be too slow work for the sprited lessee, and accord- ingly he went to the States, and engaged the services of a Mr. Boyce, of Fulton, Oswego Co. New York, who has constructed and put in operation two new Centre Discharge Wheels which have performed wonders such as were never, we are informed by those whose judgment in such matters is worthy of credit, before known in this country. Our informant says, that he saw twenty bush- els of wheat weighed out into the hopper, ground and bolted in thirty-five minutes with one run of stones, and that there is not the slightest doubt but that the mill will grind from thirty-five to forty bushels per hour, on an average, with each run of stone. By the means of this new centre discharge wheel the mill will be able to grind and bolt four hundred and eighty bushels of wheat in twelve hours, making 96 barrels of flour with each run of stone ; while with the old wheel it could not have ground more than one hun- dred and twenty bushels, making twenty four barrels of flour ; or in other words doing with the new wheel, in one day, that which itwould require four to do with the old one. If this is correct, and we have it from unim- peachable authority, Rawdon can now boast of possessing the fastest mill in the pray- ince. Natural flusical Teiegraph. The natives on some parts of the African Coast hold dialogues at great distances by means of little reed flutes. They are said to be able to communicate to the distance of se- veral miles where the locality is favorable to the resonance of sound. The Ashantees and the Camemoons convey intelligence to a great distance by beating certain understood taps upon the drum. The war drum is used in all the villages to give warning of danger to distant places. The savage ear is more in- stinctive to sound than that of the civilized European, yet civilized in this respect far outshines barbaric instinct, for while certain understood sounds may be communicated to a great distance on the Banns of the Nigerthe whole movements of an army may he regula- ed by a bugle on the banks of the Thames. Copper in 1~Inssachueetts. The Copper Mine recently discovery in the Bay State is within the limits of carlisle. The ore is said to be rich and abundant, though of course little is yet know-n of it, as the discovery was made only three months since. Three companies are now sinking, upon the vein or veins. Remedy for Toothache. A mixture of two parts of the liquid amo- nia of commerce with one of some simple tincture is recommended as a remedy for toothache, so often uncontrollable. A piece of lint is dipped into this mixture, and then introduced into the carious tooth, when the nerve is immediately cauterized, and the pain stopped. It is stated to be eminently successful, and in some cases is supposed to act by neutralizing an acid product in the de- cayed tooth. Action. I have often had occasion to observe that a warm blundering man does more for the world than a frigid wise man. A man who gets into the habit of inquiring about expediencies and occasions, spends his life without doing anything to the purpose. The state of the world is such, and so much depends on action that everything seems to say loudly to every man, Do somethingDo it Do it. Cecil. A Geologist Robbed. Dr. Randall, who was detached last Jet e from Dr Owens Geological corps f . purpose of exploring the Des Moines river to its source, was lately robbed by the Sio~ Indians of his purse, blankets, provmsions~, clothes, & c., and he had to travel a hun in- I miles or more cn foot, from the source of th Des Moines to Prairie do Chien, in a r. in wretched condition. Dr. R. was also robbed of valuable geological specimens. He says 4 the country bordering upon the Des Multi Its agricultural beauty and capacity are mu- surpassed, after leaving the settlements, and its geological resources are unequalled in tiTle power to support a dense population. An Iron Mountain. The Pilot Knob, an iron mountain near St. Louis, is about to be brought into profitable use. A company has erected iron works at the base of the Knob, and on the 2d instant they commenced the smelting of the or The knob itself is one of the greatest of known wonders, and contains iron ore yielding fr 60 to 70 per cent., sufficient to supply ti.. world. Sillimans Journal says the Royal Geog - phical Society of London, has awarded th - gold medal to Capt. Charles Wilkes, D. S. N., Commander of the late Exploring E - dition. The President of the Society in p t- ting the medal in charge for our Mi i - e Mr. Bancroft, for Mr. W., took occasi a to make an address, highly complimentary to the latter gentleman. Deaf mutes are now taught in France not only to speak correctly, but understand t e words of others by watching the motions o the lips. We believe that this plan has ce adopted in some instances in this conutmy, and that it has met with good success. Sulphuretted hydrogen is extensively gett-c- rated in the drains and ditches about 4Jhicage., according to the Journal of that city, it eata be procured in any quantity without any ez- pense of manufacture, save the trifling one of health and life. Plank Roads, by a late decision at the S preme Court, are considered in law the same turnpike ronde~ and private indirid air cannot recover damages for injury done pro- perty by the proper and reasonable repairs C such highways. A spirit lamp, in which alcohol was bo 0(1, exploded and caused the destruction - fire of nearly eight thousand dollars wo th f medicines, in the store of Appleton & . Philadelphia. Laws have been enact. i Montreal against the use ofsuch lamps. The diamond may very easily be reco n~ - sed by putting it in water, where it retain.. all its brilliancy, having the appearance o~ a bubble of air, while all other precious -o ~er loose this singular appearance. Thi m:~ answer for diamonds of the first wife aol The Moniteur of Paris publishes a c~rs~ by the chief of the executive goveromo t, gulating the height of all new houses in tK streets, and the forms of the roofs, in ord~r t,~ preserve an entire uniformity. Professor Bond, of Cambridge, Mass., ma,. discovered a new moon of Saturn. Its rt is exterior to that of Titan. It is less brig than either of the two inner Satellites dieco~ ered by Sir William Herschel. To protect bees place the hives eight ten inches apart, and fill the spaces et a and about them with straw, leaving the mouths of the h:ves unobstructed. Leav ~h. straw about the hives late in the spring, till the old bees and the young brood will cure from injury from late frosts. The officers of the American Scientific. - sociation are W. G. Redfield N. Y. Presl matr Prof. W. R. Johnson of Washington S ~r v and Prof. Silliman Treasurer. A new flour mill is about to be c ~.. - ced at Niagara Falls to run two run of Sweet potatoes are grown out So f ~eet as white as pink eyesvery different front e yellow kind known here. inerustatlons on Steam Boilers. Mr. EnaToR.I perceive by last number of l~ tacientific American that I have been per. so~a1ly attacked for an article which appear- ed in No. 50 of your last vclume, endorsed ~ith ysignature. I have made it a rule of my lite to bear with silent indifference any aaajeast act done to me if it does not appear pub. ii but this is a different case and I shall treat it coiding to its deserts. Mr. Barnum says that the labor of my former article seems Zn b directed against mahogony saw dust hi h was patented sometime since to pre- va.. t de osits and ancrustations on steam boi. lers by Samuel D. Anthony and Daniel Bar. This is not true, mahogany saw dust im-as oW mentioned once in the article re- ferred to, and that almost carelessly and I had no iinowledge of it being secured by patent until I saw Mr. Bareums ill-tempered letter -so that is a new fact to me and I will dis- g~ose fit in a summary manner. Mr. Barnum again says of me: But on reading the arti. le ith its italics and cants at maliogony dusf and exhausted dye stuffs as a patent the idea is presented to the mind, that he im. agois himself to be witty in attempting to iciale the profession that mahogany dust ivas nsefral as a preventive of incrustations and also that he belongs to that class of men (which are far too numorous) who are inca- hle of appreciating an honest efiort at im ~ os-ement----- even where it is successful, and -. in elight in the want of successacting ~poo the principle that it is easier to pull n than to build up Again he says I iv Add fain believe that a penchant for noto- riety tinctured with a little vanity prompted Mr. Bartholomew to make the exhibition of ,Lself. Now all that I will say to this is, that the p ochant of Mr Barnum for writing, was strong indeed when he subscribed his name to s oh nonsense He confers upon Bartho- Ilornew a wonderful fancy in imagining him- self to be witty and also imagining himself to belong to that numerous class of men who are ncapable of appreciating a honest effort. After all, it seems I just imagine myself to be. I rig to this class of men. I might here retort with vengeance but I feel not the joy the warrior feels to meet a foemara worthy of hia eel, I honestly confess that I cannot appreciate lie osaest effort to secure a monopoly of all the riahogany saw dust that may be used in te in boilers in these United States for 14 ars. I know that a patent was secured in Franc more than 10 years ago, claiming all v .g t ble substances to prevent incrustations a specially woods having coloring matter th rnthe patentee preferred these. Is mahogany saw dust not embraced in that claim No judge or jury would contravene and it is public property in our country, for m hogany saw dust gives out a brownish en , and with tannin and iron, it will dye a 1 ck. There is not a scientific idea advanc- in Ir. Barnums letter except the follow. hat mahogany dust is inferior to potatoes and meal for stopping leaks as readily conce- fo: its tendencies are to prevent the de- ~sits of caibonates and salts, keeping them in ~uspsnsion until they are blown off by blow- ing water from the boiler, which is of course . e-esaary to be done occasionally, although nrh less frequently with than without the oat This is a new fact for chemists. It will dispense no doubt with all the brine pumps I Field & c., but what new combination has snited from the saw dust and carbonates, an Ii w some of the salts are evaporated, (this is t e inference of not blowing off so often) we vs ot informedperhaps Kakodyle. n so. e future articles I will treat incrus. tat on. and the remedies proposedas I per. ceive t . at much information is needed on this saahj of and it is one that has long practically aaad as I shall show, scientifically engaged my ~ttsoti ~. I shall refer no more to Mr. Bar. ~ mmms letter, and I trust that Mr. Anthony will he displeased at the comparison that was aria with myselfalthough the compliment a ertain back.handed appearance. R. BARTHOLOMEW. S~mo York. American Scientific Association. No.2. This respectable Association adjourned on the 25th, and in connexion with the extract in our last number we present the following, which will be found of equal, if not more interest. THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. Professor M. E. Dickeson presented the following report prepared by himself and A. Browne, A. M. on the Sediment of the Mis- sissippi River. These two gentlemen were appointed a Committee, at the last meeting of the Association, to examine and report up- on the appearances and character of the Mis- sissippi deposit. They now reported the re- sult of their investigations in detail. The facts embodied have, however, in fact, been col- lected by daily observations for the last eigh- teen years, and continued without iratermis- sion, with a view of this Report, for the last two years of that time, beginning the 1st of July 1846, and ending the first of July 1345, comprising a series of notations and calcula- tions at the several stages of elevation and de- pression of the River, while oscillating be- tween high and low water tide. The ab. stract given below embraces the more imfipor. tant features of this very complete arid valua- ble paper. The whole of it is too long for insertion : the room that is occupied by it, however, will be found to be usefully filled. The aggre~ate quantity of water dischar- ged by the Mississippi is 14,883,360,636,830 cubic feetequal to 551,235,759,143 cubic yards; or, 101.1 cubic miles. The vebcity assumed for the water at the the several stages of elevation, which con- stitutes an essential in the calculations, is not that of the central current, but the mean of the lateral quantity, obtained by many and re- peated experiments and computations, which give a mean amount very sensibly less than the central, and which is variable under vary. ing conditions. But it must be observed, that while these sensible variations of current ex- ist in the lateral expansion of the waters in the River, it has proved impossible to detect any appreciable difference of velocity, in their vertical quantity. It is no usual thing for very tall trees to float down the deepest part of this River in a perfectly perpendicular attitudecaused by their butt-ends being of greater specific gravity than the water, while their tops or upper ends are so buoyant as of- ten to project as much as fifteen or twenty feet above the surface of the water. They are found to be at all times transpor- ted with the same velocity as the surface cur remit, and while they are thus floating in a vertical position, their lower ends approxi- mate the bottom so closely that they often strike the protuberances proj ec ting therefrom by which they are thrown down at such an- gles as often to make their tops disappear be- low the surface until they have surmounted the obstruction; and when such is the case, they at once erect themselves as before. The observations made by these gentlemen lead them to the conclusion that in a descen- ding aqueous fluid there is no appreciable dif- ference of velocity in the vertical quantity, but that it is equally the same at top or bot- tomfor the reason that the superincumbent pressure urges forward the under-stratum to the point of least resistance, with the sanie acceleration of speed which the incumbent water itself may have acquired. The Mississippi Valley is found to contain a superficial area of very little short of four- teen hundred thousand square miles. The in- quiry, therefore, here suggests itself: What may be the relative difference between the annual quantity of water falling into this Val- ley, and the annual quantity discharged out of it by the River Mississippi? It is found, by an examination of the Met erological Register of the late Dr. H. Tooly of Natchexthat the mean annual quantity of water whmch falls at Natchex, is between fifty-five and fifty-six in- chesbut as such has been taken at the Sm- them extremity of the Valley it may be regar- ded as an over estimate for the w hole area The main quantity is, therefore, assumed to be fifty-two inches, and then by calculation we will have 169,128,960,000,000 cubic feet, as the quantity which falls annually in the whole valley, which is within a fraction of 19 being twelve times the quantity of that which is discharged by the River. There are but two ways by which all this mmmense quantity of water can make its escape from the valley; one of which is by the course of the river into the Gulf of Mexico, and the other by evaporation. Hence, we perceive that there is but one relative part of this quan- tity passing off by the River, for every eleven l)arfs which are exhaled by the atmosphere or in other words, 1-12 by the river and 11-12 by evaporation. Thus we arrive at the developement of a fact of the most momentous importance to the Planting Interests of Louisiana and Mis- sissippi, for it will be readily perceived that the moore exhalations are promoted the less liable will the lands of these two States be to the periodical inundations of the River. It may be asked by what process can we expect to promote evaporation so as to cause such an increase of quantity as to sensibly benefit the Planting Interests, and that, too, over such a vast extent of surface as is contained in the ex- pansive area that comprehends the Mississippi Valley? 1he answer is, that the process has beema, and is now, in a rapid state of prosecu- tion, and of that kind which is the best cal- culated to produce such an effectnamely, the clearing of the lands of their prixaitive forests, and their consequer.t exposure to sun and atmraosp here, the very best promoters of the evaporating process on so extensive a scale. It will not be difficult to perceive the vast difference there must necessarily be in the quantity of evaporation from a surface of country exposed to the action of the sun and wilids, and one covered with a dense forest, where neither can penetrate but with diffi- culty. (To be continued.) Death miot a Painfuf Process. BY 0. KNOWLTON, M. D. We think that most persons have been led to regard dying as a much more painful change than it generally is ; first, because they have found, by what they experienced in them- selves and observed in others, that sentient be- ings often struggle when in distress ; hence struggling to them is a sign, an invariable sign, of diatreas. Muscular mactiun and con- sciousness are two distinct things, often exis- ting separately ; and we have abundant rea- son to believe that in a great portion of cases those struggles of a dying man which are so distressing to behold, are as entirely indepen- dent of consciousness as the struggles of a recently decapitated fowl. A second reason why meis are led to regard dying as a very painful change, is because men often endure great pain without dying, and forgetting that like cause prove like effects only under sim- lar circumstances, they infer that life can- not be destroyed without still greater pain. But the pains of death are less than we have been led to believe, and we doubt not that many persons who live to the age of puberty undergo tenfold more misery than they would, did they understand correct views concerning the change In all cases of dying the in- dividual suffers no pain after the sensibility of his nervous system is destroyed, which is often without any previous pain. Those who are struck dead by a stroke of lightning, those who are decapitated by one blow of the axe, and those who are instantly destroyed by a crush of the brain, experience no pain at all in passing from a state of life to a dead state. One moments expectation of being thus des- troyed far exceeds in misery the pain during the act. Those who faint in having a little blood taken from the arm, or, on any other occasion, have already endured all the misery they ever would, did they not again revive. Those who die of fevers and most other diseases suffer their greatest pain, generally, hours or even days, before they expire. The sensibility of the nervous system be- comes gradually diminished ; their pain be- comes less and less acute under the same ex- isting cause ; at the moment when their friends think them in the greatest distress, they are more at ease than they have been for many days previous ; their disease, as far as respects their feelings, begins, to act upon them like an opiate. Indeed many ame already dead as it respects themselves, when ignorant bystand ers are much time most to be pitied, not for the loss of their friends, but for their sympathi- sing anguish. Those diseases which destroy life without immediately affecting the ner- vous system, give rise to more pain than those that do affect the system so as to impair its sensibility. The most painful deaths which human beings inflict upon each other are those produced by the rack and the faggot. The halter~is not soTcruel as either of those, but more sava,,e than the axe. Horror and pain considered, it seems to us that we should choose a narcotic to either. Feet ot the ChineseWomen. From whatever tradition, or vile act, the Chinese adopted the custom of choking the female foot, it is certainly one of the most refined pieces of barbaric nonsense and exhibits a people (in this respect) devoid of all natural idea of female beauty. The appearance of a Chinese ladys foot is repul- sive in the extreme and no wonder. Every at- tempt to distort nature, is repulsive to the mind that can appreciate the beautiful. To render the Chinese foot small, they are ban- daged firmly from childhood. The bandages employed are made of silk, which are rarely moved, and these are covered with fresh ones from time to time, and over all the dwarf-shoe is secured, the pointed toe of which is stuff- ed with cotton. Owing to their maimed feet, the women cannot walk any distance even with the assistance of sticks or crutches) which they always use in the house. The hobbling motion of one who attempts to do so is considered must graceful by the Chinese arid ladies who essay the exploit are poeti- cally called Tottering willows. Women of the higher orders, when they go abroad, are carried in sedan chairs or boats but those who cannot afford to command such equipages are carried on the backs of men, or of women who are blessed with undeformed feet. In the families of the wealthy inhabitants, all the daughters are thus maimed for life ; but among the poorer classes, if there are two or more daughters, one is always deprived of pe- destrian power, and she is hence invariably considered superior to her sisters, and may be- come a wife. The others can never become more than handmaids exce?t they intermarry with the very lowest. This horrid and bar- barous taste is most unaccountable in a nation where the undistorted natural foot of women io the very model of beauty; the high instep is equal to the Andalusian, and the arch of the sole rivals that of the Arab; the ancle (which in the distorted foot becomes revolt- ingly thick) is symmetry itself. Such a foot of course, can only be seen among the lower classes. The whole female character seems to be completely changed by the barbarous practice in question; for the countenance of a Chinese beaut~- is always void of animation and somewhat expressive of the suffering which her ligatured feet may produce, while the countenances of uncrippled females are full of vivacity. The Clock Dlakers. Many years ago Mr. Williard paid a visit to Thomas Jefferson, with whom he was inti- mately acquainted. Mr. J. talked freely with him about the effect of Jays treaty; Williard could give no opinion onany of its provisions, and Mr. Jefferson insinuated that he knew but little of public affairs. In the course of the conversation he begged Mr. W. to ex- amine a beautiful French clock, and see what was the matter with it. Mr. Willard, took out his plysra and took it to pieces, laying the wheels, main springs, and all the works on the table; after some further conversation he rose to depart; Dont go, Willard, said Mr. J., until you put the works of the clock together. You can do it. I! not I, said Mr. Jeffersor. Why, you expected that I should be familiar with treaties, said Mr. Willard, when you cant put the wheels of a clock together. This very well illustrates the (lifference between what is called a learned man and an unlearned man. Every man should be esti- mated for the qualifications he possesses, whatever be his profession. We believe that it is just as difficult tobe a good mechanic as a good statesman. scientific 2~mcticcrn. Ncu~ ~nucntions. Improved Taper Chuck. Mr. Arunah S. Macomber of Bennington, Vermont, has invented a useful improvement on a lathe for turning out the interior of car- riage boxes and cylinders, of any required taper, or turn them out straight equally well. The improvement is simple and consists in set- ting the box to be rimmed or turned out in the chuck in the usual way, but the chuck can be set at any angle to the cutter which is fixed on the stationary spindle which passes through the box, Therefore when the box is revolved along with the chuck in the usual way any required taper may be cut according to the angle at which the box is set with the cutter, and this is done by the stock heads and saddle being moveable traversely on the slide plate, either by swivels or set screws in proper grooves. Application has been made for a patent. Cotton Sail Cioth. To America belongs the credit of having first made and used cotton sail cloth. James Maule, Esq. of Philadelphia, the inventor of the horizontal sail, was the first who made the cotton sail cloth. This honor has been attributed to a Paterson Company, and so far as weaving it by the power loom is concerned, they deserve it, but the cloth was wove on the hand loom and used in sails before it was wove in Paterson, N. J. We make this state- ment to correct an impression derived from a respectable contemporary and circulated some- what widely. Inventors are jealous of their hosor as well as their rights. Mr. Maule has also taken out a patent recently by which sail cloth can be woven to obviate much of the usual seam sewing, while at the same time greater strength is given to the cloth, and all danger of ripping and tearing is prevented It is done by having at respectable distances a thicker warp than the rest of the web. This will bring into tise a larger plane surface of sail and add to the speed of the vessel mate- rially, while it will be cheaper and last lon- gerimportant considerations. Improved Piano. A pianoforte has been exhibited in London by M. Scherr, of Philadelphia; in which the attempt to conciliate the form of the square with the power of the grand pianoforte has been once again made with tolerable success. The Athenreum says the instrument is easy in its touch, and its tone is brilliant, though thinner in quality than we English altogether like. The register, too, is fairly evena de- sideratum not attained in many of the new in- ventions. M. Scberr, who belongs to Den- mark, must hardly look to putting our own trusty and well-beloved makers out of court ; but his work seems to be conscientious- ly and solidly executedand creditably to il- lustrate Use musical requisitions of the coun- try of his adoption. No pianofortes sent out from Europe abide the climate of the New World. A New Barometer. A new barometer has lately been exhibited in London without the use of alcohol or mer- cury and which is said tQ be simple, beautiful, and acctarate indicator of atmospheric changes on an entirely novel principle. It is term- ed by the inventor, a French gentleman, the Aneriod Barome~er. A new Compound for Explosions. The long mooted question, will saltpetre explode? would appear to be settled in the affirmative by experiments of Dr. Hare, rela- bed in the September number of Sillimans Jsurn~. i~y briaging itelted saltpetre arid su- gar ~ contact, as they probably were at the great New York fire, an exploaiin equal to that of a cannon was produced. The Atmospheric Churn. The Albany Cultivator says : We have witnessed the operation of a churn by fhis name, said to have been invented and pa- tented by Johnson & Lewis, of Sangamon county, Illinois. Its chief peculiarity con- sists in forcing atmospheric air through the cream or milk, by means of a hollow upright shaft, having holes in the upper end, to the bottom of which is attached a transverse tube, open at each endthe latter being made to revolve horizontally through the cream by means of gearing attached to the shaft. The turning of the shaft causes the descent of the surrounding air, which passes through the cream, and escapes from its surface in the form of bubbles, It is claimed that butter can be produced by this churn, from cream, in less than five minutes, and from new milk in. fifteen. In the trial which we witnessed, butter was produced from cream in seven minutes, and from milk in nine. Mr. Emery was present with one of Kendalls churns, and produced butter from cream in ten min- utes. An equal quantity of cream was used by both churnsthe atmospheric produced one pound of butter, and Kendalls one pound seven and a half ounces. Such was the result on this trialhow it would be on other trials we cannot say ; neither can we say positively, what was the occasion of so great a difference in the amount of butter produced by the two churns. The atmospheric churn appears to operate on a correct principlethat of ming- ling the air with the cream ; but we are not in favor of such rapid churning. Having formerly had some experience in making butter, we should prefer that the churning, for a quantity of ten to twenty pounds of but- ter or more, should be prolonged to thirty minutes, at least. The Oil Saver. rhis is an ai~guiar side semi vertical view of the apparatus invented by Mr. Devlan, of Reading, Pa., to use water as a substitute for oil, and noticed by us some time ago. F F, are the arms for suspending the box and bear- ings by bolts or screws. A, is the bearing for the journal to play in, it is a moveable plate and covers or hides the interior of the box, only it has a small opening in the middle through which the periphery of a small wheel B comes, and the journal rests on it, as on an under anti-friction wheel. This small wheel has a greove in its periphery lined with felt and the axle of the said wheel B, rests on two spiral springs, one on each side of the box D, and one now seen in sec- tion C. The top of these springs is a plain iron surface. The box D, is filled with water be- low the bearing plate A, so that the wheel B, will always revolve in the same. Now sup- pose the journal of the shaft laid in this box the outer end resting on E, and bearing on the top of B, whenever the shaft is made to revolve, the wheel B, is revolved with it, and by it continually passing throu~,h the water in the box, the cold water is carried up both to lubricate, cool the journal and carry otT any electricity geneiabed ~y the jsur~al while inn- viug in its bearings. One of these boxes way be seen at Mr. Hills, who is ~ent f~r this city, and whose adver- ~sement is on the proper page, Cooking and Eating in Water. One of our foreign exchanges gives the fol- lowing account of a nev invention, as curi- ous as it is useful. A young man named Coombs, having pro- vided himself with seine patent apparatus, un- dertook to light a fire and cook and a dinner in the water, the possibility of which seemed a matter of doubt to many spectators. Having moored a kind of floating tea-tray out in deep water near the China-pier, Chelsea, England, he plunged into the stream, proceeded to light his fire and cook his dinner, which he not only accomplished with great ease, but also eat with great gusto, to the astonishment of upwards of 3000 persons. More than an hour had elapsed ere he had prepared and taken his coffee, after which he floated away amidst the plaudits of those assembled. Brahinas Hydraulic Press. This is a valuable instrument, and one by which a prodigious power is obtained with the greatest ease, and in a very small com- pass. The size of the model represented is usually about twelve to fourteen inches square with a cylinder about four inches diameter. Its action depends upon the principle that fluids transmit pressure equally in all direc- tions. A solid piston, E, is constructed so as to move water tight in a cylinder. The space beneath the piston is filled with water, and communicates by a small pipe with a forcing pump, worked by the piston B, by means of the lever A, and by which the water, which is contained in the cistern G, is forced through the valve D, into the large cylinder. The large piston being thereby driven up, carries with it the bed H, and presses closely toge- ther whatever may be above it. Whatever pressure is exerted upon B, is transferred to E, and is increased according to the relative size of the tv~ o pistons. Suppose, for exam- ple, the piston at B to have a superficial area of one inch, and the large cylinder of ten in- ches, and then every ten pounds pressure put upon B, will be increased by E tenfold, and become one hundred pounds ; and as a per. son may exert a force of fifty pounds on the lever, this weight alone will give a pressure of 100 XSO pounds or more than 2 tons, and that with a pump, the large cylinder of which is not more than 4 inches diameter; and by decreasing the smaller tube from one inch di- ameter to half an inch the power will be in- creased fourfold, or to nearly 9 tons. This improved hydraulic press is manufac- tured and sold by Mr. Pike and at a very mo- derate price. Gold Mine Machinery. An Engine for the Gold Mines in Virginia, has been constructed at Philadelphia. Two engines of about 45 horse power each, are placed on either side of a frame, to work an inclined plane and act upon shafting sup- ported by another frame work. This shafting puts in motion forty-eight pieces of timber, armed with heavy iron shoes at the lower end, the weight of which falling upon the ore, grad- ually pulverizes it. A stream of water is to flow along beneath the frame work, and this carrying along the powdered ore, it will car- ry it to a table covered with skins, with the hairy side up and the particles of gold being heavier~ han the other portions of the ore, it will settle among the hair, while the refuse is carried away by the action of the water. The gold can, of course, be easily removed from the skins by another process. ISSUED FROM THE UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE, For tine week ending Sept. 26, 184g. To Josiah M. Colburn, of Derby, Conn. for improvement in Pickers for Looms. Patented Sept. 26, 1848. To Benjamin Peck, of Rehoboth, Mass, for improvement in Jaw Temples foi Looms. Patented Sept. 26, 1848. To Peter Kephart, Baltimore, Md., for in- provementin upper floors of Ice Houses. Pa- tented Sept. 26, 1848. To Hosea Benson, of Jackson Township, Pa., for improvement in machinery for Dres- sing Staves. Patented Sept. 26, 1848. To George Gross, of Germantown, Ohio, for improvement in Cultivators. Patented Sept. 26, 1848. To Lewis Colver, of Glasgow, Mo., for im- provement in machinery for breaking and dressing Hemp. Patented Sept. 26, 1848. To Charles Learned, of Indianopolis, La., for improvement in Washing Machines. Pa- tented Sept. 26, 18f8. To H L. Pierson, assignee of John Crum, of Ramapo, N. Y. for impi-oved machine for turning the heads of Wood Screws. Patented Sept. 26, 1848. To Henry Seitz, of Marietta, Pa., for im- provement in Bridles. Patented Sept. 26, 1848. To Elijah H. Holt of Fowlers Mills, Ohio, for improved method of raising water. Pateti- ted Sept. 26, 1848. To Henry Evans, Jr. of Newark, N. J. for improvement in Lanterns. Patented Sept. 26, 1848. To John Ellenwood, of Hillsborough, N. H., for improvement in Brakes for Cars. Pa- tented Sept. 26, 1848. To Elcazar Orcutt, of Bennington, Vt , for improvement in Lime Kilns. Patented Sept. 26, 1848. To Joseph Jones, of Camden, N. J., for improvement in Boring machines. Patented Sept. 26, 1848. To Abel Stillman, of Poland, N. Y., for improvement in Saw Setts. Patented Sept. 2 1848. To Henry Guild, of Cincinnati, Ohio, for improvement in Hemp Brakes. Patented Sept. 26, 1848. To Spencer Lewis, of Tiffin, Ohio, for im- provement in cutting screws on rails of Bed- steads. Patented Sept. 26, 1848. To Stephen F. Stephens, joint inventor with, and assignee of J. Underwood, of Mont- pelier, Vt. for improvement in Platform Scales. P~tented Sept. 26, 1848. To Milo M. Cass, of Utica, N. Y., for im- proved self loading and self capping Fire Arm. Patented Sept. 26, 1848. To John F. Rodgers, of Troy, N. Y.. for improvement in Railroad Cars. Patented Sept. 26, 1848. To Hiram H. Scoville, of Chicago, Ill., for improvement in Grain Driers. Patented Sept. 25, 1848. INVENTORS CLAIMS. Straightening Railroad iron. To John Anderson, of Phzenixville, Pa., for improvement in machinery for straightening railroad iron. Patented August 29, 1848. ClaimWhat he claims is, 1st, the manner of directing the weight in its descent so as to stnike the her of iron in the point desired by the employment of hanging arms in combi- nation with the rock shaft into which they are inserted and the lever for acting the same. He also claims the combination of conducting ansI guide rollers in combination with the le- ver and concave anvil. Ia one of the rooms of the Smithsonian In- stitution is to be erected the phiilosphical ma- chinery presented the Institute by Dr. Hare, of Philadelphia, aiid worth $25,000. 20 LIST OF PATENTS ~cicuti1Ic ~2~rncrican. Steam Navigation of the Atlantic. For a number of years the old world has been linked to the new by a regular line of steam packets. This cOmP. fly has been signally successfulin fact, well might Mr Cunard say 01 fortune thy breath bath filled our sails. It is seldom, however, that fortune attends either the reckless, idle or unwise, and in the case of the Cunard line every qua- lity to render success doubly sure, has been infused into the company. The principal partner is a Halifax merchanta self made manof humble but respectable parents and of American (Pennsylvanian,) descent. By great industry, energy and sagacity he has ari- sen to be one of the first shipping merchants in the world, and his line of steamers has as yet distanced all competition. It is now about a twelveraonth since a new American line of steariiships commenced ply- ing between this city, Southampton and Bre- men. This was an enterprise worthy of our New York merchants and we deeply regret that they have not been more successful. The great cause of unsuccess in our Atlan- tic steamers, is owing to our short acquain- tance with the building of marine ships. Hitherto our steamboats have been built for short and comparatively unstormy voyages. The navigation of the Atlantic is quite a dif- ferent affair from that of the Hudson or the Erie. When the engines are set in motion at New York they must not cease to work until the old world rises to view. Now, in England they have had the practical experience of thirty six years in building sea goiLg steam- ersyea, they have had the practical experi- ence of building steamboats in the very yard and by the same man who built the Europa, which has performed the quickest trip ever made across the Atlantic. The very first steamboat that was built in Britain was the Comet, a vessel of 23 tons burden, built for Henry Bell by John Wood, of Port Glasgow, in 1812. Tkis is the gentleman who built the Europathe first and last of European steamers, and then he was taken away in a good old age. This is a fact well worthy of atten- tion. Look then at the great practical expe- rience called here into requisition by Cunard & Co. Mr. Napier too, the engineer, has had the practical experience of more than thirty years, and those who think that steam engine and steam boat building, is all theory and no practice, have never experience(l the many trials and mortifications of a joint too stiff here and a bolt too weak there in destroying the workings of a beautiful machine, the per- fection of which is attained only by stern, iron experience. The Cunard steamers have their important parts built of the very best Welsh malleable ironalthough built in Scot- land, where very good iron is now made, yet Mr. Napier does not trust the iron of his own country. Now there is much in having good material in our vessels and the late unfortu- nate accident to the United States, is abun- dant evidenceand not dear bought experi- ence, for it will be a benefit to us at last. It is best for us to look our difficulties direct in the facelook to what we have done and what we have yet to do, and our plain and candid opinions, we hope, will be appreciated, for they are sincerely designed for good. No first rate voyage has yet been made across the Atlantic to this port. The Europa, which has made the quickest passage, which we will call 11 days, allowing for her detour to Halifax, performed only at the rate of ele- ven and one third miles per hour, certainly no speed at all in ~mparison with our river b.a~s, and no speed at all in comparison with what the same vessel c~i do Judging from ~ ~rrn of her hull, the way in which ~er paddle wheels are set, like the limbs of an Asab, and the construction of her engines, we have no doubt but she could make the passage to this port from Liverpool in eight and a half days. And this would be doing no great things, for the competition lines between Glasgow and Liverpool have regularly been making for six years past, storm or shine, the passage in 15 hours, or at the rate of 15 miles per hour. Now this our ~merican steamships must, can and shall yet perform. To perform the passage between this port and Liverpool in 10 days, allowiiig the distance to be 3000 miles would only be at the rate of 12~ miles per hour. We have heard that E. K. Collins, Esq. has expressed himself as being deter. mined to have a vessel that will yet make the passage to England in eight days,those who know his spirit have no doubt of his hopes being realized before many years pass away but great results cannot be obtained without great efforts made and means used to accom- plish the same. There is science and genius enough among our engineers and nautical ar- chitects to build the very finest steamships, but they must be paid for their labor, and they want some experience. To rival the British line, they have got a giant work before them, but for the honor of the Great Repub- lic will they not accomplish it. It is our opinion that those engineers and builders who have built the ships we now have, are best qualified to build other and better ships. Let no vascillating spirit despise this advice, for they have learned much with their present experience and those who have had no expe- rience, have always to unlearn much. Culture of Tea iii the United States. An interesting article in Skinners new pe- riodical, entitled The Loom and the Anvil, upon the culture of the Tea Plant, corrects the opinion long entertained, that it cannot be cultivated with success out of the Celestial Empire, and shows thatitis cultivated there in the northern and mountain region, where snow lies on the ground three or four months of the year ; it is found wild in Assam, and is cultivated in quantities at the foot of the Himmelah mountains. From those facts, with other information derived from traders, & c. returned residents of tea countries, the wri- ter is fully convinced that this country, from Texas to New York, will grow tea equal in quality to two-thirds of that imported, and that some of the states will grow it equal to or better than the best that comes from China. The article also states that a gentleman recently returned from Calcutta, who for five or six rears managed one of the Companys tea plantations in Assam, has written a book on the subject, not yet published, and has expressed an opimon that this country can grow as good tea as any portion 01 the world. The writer thinks the child as now born that will live to see the United States export, instead of import, tea. The way we talk to them at the West. MR. EDiToRIf the following rough scrap is worth anything, you can make use of it. In Western phrase we talk it to non-sub- scribers to the Scientific American after this fashion. After showing them our paper and offering to lend itto them (provided they will carefully return it) we tell them we have the satisfaction of knowing the progress made in the mechanic arts, not only in our own coun- try but throughout the civilized world,the certainty of obtaining some valuable and to us new and useful ideas every week,and as we some of us happen to be inventors, it prevents us stembling on an old invention for new and last, though not least for us Western chaps, we are very well aware that when the Eastern mechanics come among us, they are mighty wise and strong in scientific know- ledge of the mechanic arts, and look down ~vith contempt upon us Hoosier and Sucker mechanics. Now if we are armed with the Scientific .qnserican it is Greek meeting Greek; we can not only compete with them in mechanical knowledge but much to their sur- prise when we are intormed from what parts they hailed, we can tell them even the ex- p~a~e they incurred in getting here. A WESTERN SUBSCRIBER. A Report on the winds and currents of tte northern Atlantic, by Lieut. Maury of the U. States Navy, accompanied by charts, has beaa read before the British Association in London and highly complimented for its merit. Forthe Scientific American, Sleep. Man is so constituted, that after engaging either an physical or mental labor for a certain number of hours every day, a feeling of fa- tigue is iiaduced and he sinks into a state of unconsciousness for a nuinber of hours, and then awakes with nature refreshed, and ready to toil on again for profit or pleasure. It is a necesary part of our existence to en- joy sleep, and the more uninterrupted the sleep, the more refreshing it is. It is during the hours of sleep that the electric battery of the nervous system is replenished with invi- gorated powers. It is therefore a matter of no little consequence to examine into means which will tend to refreshing repose. The state of the body before going to bed, the kind of bed, clothes and ventillation must all be taken into account. A full meal before going to bed generally gives rise to nopleasing night visions and broken sleep; therefore such things shoold be avoided. It is not so refreshing for a person to lie en the back as on the side and the right side is the best, although many from habit feel no uneasiness from lying on their the back, or on the left side. In regard to the kind of beds most suitable for refreshing slumber, there are differences of opinionsome are advocates for soft, and oth- ers for hard beds. The difference between the two is this, the weight of the body on a soft bed presses on a larger surface than on a hard bed, and consequently more comfort is enjoyed. Children should never be allowed to sleep on hard beds, and parents err who suppose that such beds contribute to health, hardening and developing the constitution of their children. We have read accounts ot a few quilts being good beds for children in summer, others a corn husk mattress, or a pine board with a piece of woolen laid upon it. The latter kind of bed is a gross violation of the laws for the preservation of health. Eminent physicians, Dr. Darwin among the number, state that hard beds have frequently proven injurious to the shape of infants. Birds cover their nests for their tender offspring, with the softest down or the most velvetty moss. The softness of a bed, is no evidence of it being uhealthy, and they have but a poor understanding of the laws of nature wh9 think otherwise. To render sleep refreshing in warsn weather, the body should be bathed every night and the bed room should be of large dimensions, not the life destroy- ing box named bed rooms, for which our cities are famous, owing to the value of city property. From correct statistics, it has been observed that the deaths of children of the poorer classes under ten years of age are in proportion to the children of the higher clas- ses as ten to five. Poor beds is one cause of this mortality. Above all things, however, it should never be overlooked, that cleanliness tends more to healthful sleep than any thing else. In warm weather night clothes should be light, and a thin blanket is perhaps the~ best covering that can be used, but many as- sert that a cotton sheet is preferable, and if the clothing products of warm climates are any data whereby we may form a sound opi- nion, the latter covering must be the best, it is all nonsense to suppose that the barbarian has a sounder constitution, a stronger frame, and can bear more fatigue than the civilized man, owing to his squalid bed and what is called the hardy manner in which he is reared. The civilized man has a better con stitution, if he is a man of temperate habits, and he has also a stronger frame and can en- dure more fatigue. The officers of Napoleons army at the retreat from Moscow, endured the fatigues far better than the common sol- diers, and there are abundant evidences to prove, that a generous rearing tends to pro- duce a nobler physical and mental constitu- tion, than to be reared amid poverty and stun- ted with hardship. Those who point to the~ advantages of barbaric life can use no good ar gumeiit for bettering the condition of t~e poorer classes. It is an old exploded doc- trine, that t~he children of the poor are heal. thier and stronger than the children of the rich. If this were true, poverty surely were a blessing. We conclude by saying that good, soft aiid cleanly beds for children and adult, will teiad greatly to promote health by 21 producing aefreshing slumber, especially to the weary workman. G. R. Sturgeon and isinglass. In volume 2, of the Scientific American we called attention to the manufacture of isinglass and stated how much might be made in the United States from the sturgeon in our rivers, We perceive that Professor Jarger has in a recent lecture called attention to this subject and we hope that the following extracts will not fail in doing something to arouse yan. kee enterprise to the manufacture of this val- uable article. A very profitable part 01 the Sturgeon is the swimming bladder of which Isinglass is made. For this purpose it is cut open, washed and the silver glutinous skin exposed to the air for some hours, by which process it can easily be separated from the external skin, which is of no use. This glutinous skin is placed between wet cloths, and shortly after each piece is rolled up and fastened in a serpentine form on a board; after they are partly dry they are hung up on strings in a shady place. This valuable and extensive article of com- merce is the Isinglass of our shops, and it is sold for about $30 a hundred weight There is made Isiraglass also from the swim- mning bladder of the catfish, and some others, but as this is very inferior to that from the sturgeon, it brings scarcely $10 a hundred weight. The sturgeon is found in immense quantities in the United States and North America, from Virginia up to the highest habitable northern. latitudes, where they ascend the rivers frours 300 to 300 miles up. The Potomac, Delaware, Hudson and principally the Kennebec, as well as many other rivers, contain such a quantity of sturgeons, that from those rivers alone~ without counting those farther north of Maine, according to my calculation, the annual export 01 pickled sturgeon, caviar and isinglass alone, would be worth nearly halt a million of dollars. Pickled Sturgeon and Caviar is a favorite food of the descendants of Spain and Portugal in South America, as well as of the inhabitants of the West India Islands, prin- cipally during Lent; and isinglass would be an article of home consumption, as well as for the European market. But the Sturgeon is not, a very favorite dish in our country; it brings scarcely 5 cents a pound in the market, and the roe and swim- ming bladder are always thrown away. Our fishermen are therefore not much encouraged in catching those fishes, though, according to careful observation, from 30,000 to 40,000 Sturgeons could be annually caught in the waters of the United States. There are found two species of Sturgeon in our rivers, viz 1st. The round-nosed stur- geon, which is generally S feet or more long, and weighs over 200 lbs , and 2d. The sharp- nosed Sturgeon, which is seldom more than 3 feet long, and weighs about 130 lbs. or more. The Sturgeon was highly appreciated by the anciesit Romans and Greeks. It was the principal dish at all great dinner parties, and Cicero reproached the epicures on ac- count of their spending so much money, for this fish was served at the most sumptuous tables, and always carried by servants crown- ed with garlands of flowers, and accompanied by a band of musicians. And, even at this time, one pound of fresh Sturgeon costs $4 in Rome, where this fish is very rare. We leave this subject to the judgment of our intelligent merchants, to profit by an oppor- tunity to increase their own wealth and that of the community, by introducing this new article of commerce. THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. Persons wishing to subscribe for this paper have only to enclose the amount in a letter di rected (post paid) to MUNN & COMPANY, Publishers of the Scientific American, Ne~ York City. TERMS.$2 a year; ONE DOLLAR IN ADVANCEthe remainder in 6 IBon~s Postmasters are respectfully reque~ed to receive subscriptions for this Papei~, to whon~ a discoIiEt of 25 per ceiit will be allowed.. Any person sending us 4 subscribers for ~ months, siiall receive a copy of the paper for the saMelength of t~ime NEW YORK. OCTOBER 1, 1848. ~citntiftc 2tmcric~n. P~itent Laws.SeiIi;~g before the issue right to use and vend to others to be used, of a Patent. without liability to any person whatever ; and Taking the advice of an able correspondent, requires the Courts to hold or decide, if W. M. OB. of Maine, whose letter was pub. he is sued for an infringement, that he pos- lished in our last number, we are determined sesses and may exercise such a right in regard to throw as much light as possible on the ex- to the identical articles he has purchased or isting Patent Lawsto expose their defects constructed. All persons to whom B. has and agitate a revisionfull and complete sold before the application for a patent, pos- so that the, true inventor may be secured in sess the same right and may exercise the same the whole of his invention, without exposing privileges, for they are embraced also in the him to be plundered of his rights, as he is general expression every person or corpo- most effectually at present, if he is poor, or ration who has, or shall have, purchased or without being deprived of them from inability constructed. This right too is personal, to appeal in cases of wrong decisions, for that is B. and all others who have made or want of means to prosecute his claims. Du- ring last session of Congress no amendments purchased the invented article before the pa- tent was applied for, can use and sell the were made to the existing Patent Laws, ex- cept the passing of a bill to increase the Ex- identical articles so made or purchased wher- amining force of the Patent Office, and the ever they themselves are; though undoubt- edly they could not tell rights, for that payment of $3 now for all recorded assign- would be a monopoly excluding the public, inents (an old law revived.) which can only be exercised under a patent, A bill was introduced into last Congress and A. only has a patent ; neither could they to revise the Patent Laws. Some of its provi- aions were goodothers decidedly bad. ~ manufacture, use or sell any more articles than were in their possession at the time of slept, perhaps all for the best, but we are de- the application for a patent, for, unless the termined to let no proposed good law sleep statute gives them permission to use and sell for want of agitation, and this we have com- after the patent issues, they will be exerci- menced we think in the right time to stir up sing privileges and rights of which a monopo our people to this important subject, in order 1 solely to A, and besides the sta that we may have a law so plain that Judges tute expressly limits their right to use and themselves may not mistake its true meaning. vend only the specific articles constructed .ED. or purchased prior to the application for a inventors frequently sell their contrivances patent. to others before applying for patents, in order to test their usefulness, to ascertain by expe- riment if they can be easily introduced, or to obtain sufficient means to procure the l)a- tents. Enquiries are daily made as to the legality of this practice, and whether, after tiling a caveat or taking measures to secure a patent, or even without these preliminary steps, an inventor can sell his machines with- out invalidating his right to a patent, or dis- posing of territorial rights. I will endeavor to satisfy these enquiries and clearly exhibit all the provisions of the statute upon the subject. By 1 of the Act of March 3, 1S39, it is enacted that Every person or corporation who shall have purchased or constructed any newly invented machine, manufacture or composition of matter, prior to the ap- plication by the inventor or discoverer for a patent, shall be held to possess the right to use, and vend to others to be used, the specific machine, manufacture, or composi- tion of matter so made or purchased, with- out liability therefor to the inventor or any other person interested in such machine and no patent shall be held. to be invalid by reason of such purchase, sale or use, prior to the application for a patent as aforesaid, except on proof of abandonment of such invention to the public, or that such purchase, sale os prior use, has been for more than two years prior to such applica- tion for a patent. The words specific machine above used, mean the identical or individual article or specimen sold, whatever it be, and not the whole invention itself or any part of the pa. tent, or any right under it. Accordingly if A. for example, has invented anything for which a patent may issue, and sells to B. a model or specimen ot his invention ; or permits B. to construct one or more articles or models, ei- ther for his own (Bs) use, or to sell to others or gives a drawing or description of it to B, who thereupon constructs or manufactures one or more specimens, machines or articles, whether for his own use, or to sell or give away for others ; or even if B. obtain a know- ledge of the invention surreptitiously and constructs or manufactures others after the same manner ; although A. afterwards obtain a patent, still B. and all others to whom he has sold, and every other person who has con- structed or purchased an article, from whate- rer source obtained, if done prior to the ap. ~lic~stion for a patent, can sell the identical specimen, article, or specific machine, ma- nufacture or composition of matter, as freely as though the invention had not been paten- ted. This will be more plainly understood when it is recollected that no patented article can be constructed or sold by~any person, even a purchaser, without the consent of the pa- tentee, which is usually given in the territo- rial assignment. The section gives B. the Rochester, N. Y. W. F. LIDvELL. (To be continued.) A Soutlaern Manufacturing Village. Graniteville is the name of a pretty vil- lage in South Carolina which has sprung into existence as if by magic. It is near the line of the Charleston and Hamburgh Railroad, about five miles from Aiken. In October 1846, the foundation stone of the factory was laid afid the first work of improvements commenc- ed. It is located in a lovely valley and is laid out on the side of a gently sloping hill in pa- rallel streets, with a bold, clear stream run- ning through the centre. A correspondent of the Tuscaloosa Monitor lately visited it, and the following extract of his communication will be found interesting to many of our rea- ders. This company was formed some three or four years ago by a gentleman of South Caro- lina, desirous of demonstrating the perfect practicability of the South manufacturing her own cottons, and diverting a portion of her labor from agricultural to manufacturing pur- suits ; and in order to make this labor (which is comparatively new to South Carolina) as at- tractive as possible, and to guaranteearespec. table manufacturing population, it was deter- mined that no pains or labor or capital, should be spared to make this queen valley to blos- som like the rose, and to construct the dwel- hugs of the operatives so that they should have all the comforts, conveniences and enjoyments of life at their command. Under the auspices of Mr Gregg, this beautiful aiid philanthropic design is being carried out with extraordinary skill. When Graniteville burst upon our view from the summit of the hill, its main building of white granite, 330 feet long, with two mas- sive towers ornamented at the top, looking like some magnificent palace just rising out of the green vale below, with an extensive lawn in front, and clean trimmed gravel walks around, and fountains spouting their crystal waters in the air in fantastic shapes; the neat boarding houses and cottages for single families, and the handsome little church, all constructed and or- namented in the ancient Gothic style, and each house having its own garden for vegeta- bles and flowers ; and the ever green woods sloping from their garden doors gradually to the summit of the hill where we stoodthe whole scene is as though the wand of the en- chantress had called it into existence to chal- lenge our admiration. The extent of the val- ley below us looked as though it might he 12 or 15 miles in length though it may be more. On the right at the head of the vale we caught a glimpse of the large pond or small lake from which a canal is cut and conducts the water on the hill slope to the establishment, a mile or so below. Turning to the lett we descended the hill, crossed a nice bridge over the canal and entered the enclosure of the principal works. We crossed over on the opposite side, leaving the noble granite building on our right and the lovely green sward on our left, i~ fountain was throwing up ajet of clear water 15 feet into the air, which was quite refreshing to look up on. We entered the office and presented to Mr. Gregg our letter of introduction. Mr. Gregg was exceedingly polite in showing us every thing about the establishment, every part of which was quite interesting to me. The shafting of the whole building was just completed, atid Mr. Gregg had it put in mo- tion for our benefit. It ran truly and steadily as possible, not a wabble was to be seen in the whole length. 300 looms were just being put into their places, and the spinning frames, carding machines, & c. & c. were being arrang- ed to cover the whole building. I remarked to Mr Gregg that I was glad they had not committed tle error of only filling a portion of the mill at the commencement. He replied that that was an error he had been determin- ed from the beginning not to commit, as he knew that to fill the mill at the start was the only way to insure success, and that the only condition on which he would have undertaken its control was that capital sufficient for that purpose, should,.befirssubscribed. This had been done. The capital of the company is three hundred thousand dollars, and when all is completed and the full mill set in motion about next October, he says he will have mo- ney sufficient left to purchase cotton for a be- ginnin~,. The mill will contain 300 looms and 9000 spindles, making No. 14 yarns, and sheetings, shirtings ard drillings from these yarns; goods similar in quality to the Apple. ton goods ; a market for which is expected to be found principally in New York. The ma- chinery cost, exclusive of shafting & c. about $90,000. The mill and its contents will cost about $150,000, and the making of the canal, the erection ofboarding houses, cottages, ware- houses, shops, & c & c. including $10,000 paid for the valley itself, will swallow up most of the other investments. The factory will be propelled by a turbine wheel of one hundred and sixteen horse power, of four feet diameter, with a tube of three feet, and apparently about 20 feet fall. The machinery is all of the most perfect and beautiful kind, and is principally from Taunton, Massachussetts. The whole valley at this point was altogether in the woods four years ago; and to look at it now with all its improvements tending towards completion, shows with what energy and cor- rect design every part has been prosecuteit by the worthy manager. All along the bank of the canal and facing the factory building, are very handsome houses built with strict uniformity, each having its garden and all other conveni- ences around it, intended for boarding houses and can accommodate besides thefamily,some 90 boarders with comfortable rooms, & c., and further on, and on the hill slope nestling a- mong the trees, are numerous cottages with their peaked roofs, gothic windows and orna- mented eaves, each part finished in the old go- thic style. These houses are intended for fam- ilies where the members are sufficiently nume- rous to fill one house and live alone. Mr. Gregg told us that these cottages, thus ornamented, only cost the company $200 each, and that the ornamented work was only a small portion of that cost; while it was intended to give to the inhabitants a taste for the beautiful, and to en- courage among the operatives a pleasant rival- ry in making their homes agreeable. For this design the company are certainly deserving of all jraise. It is not expected that this estab- lishment will pay a dividend for the first two or three years, so large a portion of the capi- tal is laid out in these improvements for the benefit of the people to be employed, and in constructing the canal, & c. I could not but think how different, and with what different, motives such establish- ments had been started in England, where no care, no thought of the employed (in most in- stances) had ever crossed the mind of the em- ployer except to get their labour at the lowest prices, and let them live and engender moral and physical disease in such wretched and filthy hovels as their scanty wages would com- mand. How happy for the manufacturing class in the United States that when Lowell began her career she took a more enlarged and comprehensive course and proved that even the capi~alist himself is benefited by secu- ring to his operatives a healthy, clean, tidy and comfortable home. Mr. Gregg has taken Lowell as his model in this respect and im- proved on it where he could, and the manner in which he has performed his trust, reflects equal credit to his heart and head. There are but few who are aware of the en- erprise and energy that is now manifested in the South in advancing and developing the manufacturing capacities of her wonderful and rich regions. The Alabama Planter, an ex- cellent exchange has done much by able arti- cles to direct the attention of southern capi- talists to the great amount of water power and manufacturing abilities that are now dormant but which might profitably be applied to good purpose. Canadian Method of Hunting Wild Bees, The Canadians adopt an ingenious plan for discovering the trees that are stored with honey. They collect a number of bees off the flowers in the forest and confine them in a small box, at the bottom of which is a piece of honeycomb, and on the lid a square of glass large enough to admit the light into every part. When the bees seem satiated with honey, two or three are allowed to escape, and the direc- tion in which they fly is attentively observed until they become lost in the diatance. The bee hunter then proceeds towards the spot where they disappeared, and liberates one or two more of the little captives, he also marks their course, This process is repeated, until the other bees, instead of following the same direction as their predecessors, take the direct opposite course, by which the hunter is con- vinced that he has overshot the object of his pursuit ; for it is a well-known fact, that if you take a bee from a flower situated at any given distance south of the tree to which the bee belongs, and carry it in the ciosest con- finement to an equal distance on the north side of the tree, he will, when liberated, fly in a & rcle for a moment, and then make his course direct to his sweet home, without deviating in the least to the right hand or to the left. The hunter is now very soon able to detect the tree which contains the honey, by placing on a heated brick a piece of honeycomb, the odor of which, when melt- ing, it so strong and alluring, as to entice the whole colony to come down from their cita- del, When the tree is cut down, the quan- tity of honey found in its excavated trunk seldom fails to compensate the hunter very amply for his perseverance. TO CORRIOSPONDE~TS, To our many Friends. In sending us desci-iptions of youi- inven- tions please make your drafts or drawings on slips of paper separate from the letter sheet. M. J. of Ohio A long thin piece of steel is hardened, without warping or spring- ing, by placing it between two pieces of iron and heating the three together. The proba- ble reason your communication was not ans- wered before, was because we published a se- ries of articles on Steel some time ago, in which the above information was included. $2, 0. K. J. McA. of Ct.$150 is the price of the machine you speak of. There is no particu- lar principle involved in its operation. W. B.Four parts of copper and one of zinc form an excellent Brass. Melt in crud- bles. The proportions vary according to the color required. The price of a Lathe of the size you mention will be 250, complete in every respect. A. D. of Alabama,We do not know where such a machine as you describe can be had. Do not think there is aoy. R. A. A. of Tenn.There is no such book published. There is a work on Decora- tive Painting, price $6. R. H. C of Ky.We have delayed an- swering until we could obtain reliable infor- mation. Such a mill as you speak of would cost about $13,000, besides the buildings. It would require a steady stream of 2~ inches, and an engine of 25 horses power. A & D. of Ky.Among the many hun- dred Rotary engines which have been inven- ted, none as yet are equal to the common Cy- linder engine. We would not advise you to use a Rotary of any description whatever. $2, 0. K. The Scientific American never was doing so well, thanks to our many friends, yourselves among the number. H. T. M. of Missouri.Please send a drawing of your invention and we will have the engraving done. R. A. L. Mc. of Alabama.The engine is sold. We shall have others soon, notice of which will be given in ou~ paper. A single upright saw requires 4 horses power. $5, 0. K. J. J. B. ot Va.There is no paper pub- lished in the U. S. devoted exclusively to Flour manufacturing interests, & c. The li- quid gas, or burning fluid, is composed of al- cohol and turpentine. Its effects upon the huuian system used in the manner you des- cribe, are not injurious. $3, 0. K. L. B. F. of Illinois.-Please have the model left at Messrs. Adams & Co.s Express Office, Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington. Direct it plainly to us and it will come safe We are very much obliged for your exertions to obtain subscribers. The scrap you sent is very good and will be published. $3, 0. K. J. X. C. of N. Y.We cannot tell the cost of the iron work of a planing machine for boards. The cost of a complete machine is about $1200. B. & B. of Illinois.J. C. Nixon & Son of this city, make the best Shears. They make eight sizes, from 4 up to 12. The price of No. 4 is $4, and 1 additional for each size lar- ger. You may enclose the amount for the size you desire to us, and we will have them forwarded. R. M. of Vt.The engine you speak of is sold. We shall h~sve others however soon, which you will see noticed in our paper. For the purpose you name 3 horses is suffi. cient. H. L. B. of Mo.We have forwarded your letter to Mr. Wilson, of Philadelphia, who owns Woodworths patent. W. S of R. l.We have endeavored to get the exact information for you, but the number of yaids per day we cannot tell. G. C. of OhioWe can send you a good work on Civil Engineering for $3, but it does Hot contain instructions for drafting. It has however numerous illustrations from which you may copy and thus instruct yourself. R. J. Mc. C..We should advise you to rig a small smelting furnace and run your bits of steel into bars. You can thtii get more for them, and they will be more portable. Cast into small bars you can probably get from 5 to8 cts per lb. in this part of the country. Mr. John Simpson did obtain a patent in 1847 for reducing friction on band machinery by covering the pulley with a preparation of pre- pared gum elastic. F. G.We have long noticed that French illustrations on wood were generally finer and better executed than any other. We have not, however heard of the composition to which you refer. We can hardly believe it practicable, in the first place, and in the next it such was the case a full description would have been published long aeo in the Scientific American. It may, however, have escaped us. We shall make due enquiry and if true you will soon see an account of the process. J. B. L. of Phil.Your communication will appear next week. C. L. Y. of Ohio.We will call atten~ tion to your case. R L. of N. Y.If you can make your loom perform 200 revolutions per minute, you have made a great improvement. Allimprove- ments on one machine can be secured in one patent. It is not possible to give you correct advice without seeing a modelno machine has a greater variety of forms than the loom. N. C. of Ohio.Your 1st, the motion to communicate with the cut off, is by an eccen- tric connected with the shaft, 2nd. The slide valve. The 3rd, 4th and 5th, we shall endeavour to answer Correctly at another timemany of the same kind of engines are used in the and South West, but we are not yet sure, if there is the least particle of difference in them from some others, well known. B. T. ot Mass.Metals have five degrees of lustres, viz splendent, shining, glisten- ug, glimmering and dull. W. B. L. of Tenn.We have endeavour- to find out the mill in Brooklyn that performed so well, but have not been able, nor do we think it possible that there can be an increase The Best Patent Agency in the United of productive work, without an increase of States. power commensurate. It is true that 4 feet THE subicribers would respectfully give notice thatthey still continue to attend to Patent Office runners are used here driven at great speed, business as usual. The long experience they have bad in securing patents, together with their nun- but then they require more power, this is well valled facilities, enables them to say that THE known. BEST PATENT AGENCY, in the United States, IS AT THE OFFICE OF THE SCIENTIFIC AMERI- T. C. of Ga.We consider your im- CAN, New York. It is not necessary, as commonly supposed, for an i.nventorto make ajourneyto Wash. provement a very important one, and from ington in person, in order to socure a Patent, as he which by proper management, you will rea- cannot in any manner hasten the Patent or make his invention more secure. Any business connected lize a large sum, Send on the model and we with the Patent Office may be done by letter, will secure the patent without delay. through the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN OFFICE, with the ____________ same facility and certaloty as though the inventor Ranietts Architect, came in person. From a want of knowledge on this point, applicants for patents are often obliged to No. 4 Vol. 2, of this splendid work is just submit to great vexation, with loss ot much money this oppor- and time. They also frequently fall into the hands laid upon our table, and we take of designing persons, and lose their inventions as tunity of informing a number of our friends in well as money. Those who wish to take out Pat. ents on enter Caveats, should by all means have the the country, who have written to us about it, business transacted through the SCIENTIFIC AMERI- that they can now get their numbers regular CAN OFFICE, R5 they may then RELy upon its being done in a straight forward and prompt manner, on from all the different agents throughout the the very lowest terms. All letters must be POST PAID and directed to MUNN & CO., U. S. This number is a beautiful one, with Publishers of the Scientific American, designs of an Italian Villa, and full specifica- i9 128 Fulton street, New York. tions of the section plans. The price of this HOLDENS DOLLAR MAGAZINE. work is 50 cents per number, and it is well Cheapest and Best. worth the money. THE October No. is now ready for subscribers. contains the usual amount of reading matter, (64 large sized pages double column,) nearly twice as much as any three dollar Magazine and is month- 2ouctt1~cmcnt0 ly illustrated with from S to 20 Wood Engravings GENERAL AGENTS of superior quality. iloldens is decidedly the pen. plea Magazine, being the largest, cheapest and best F5R THE ICIENTIFIC AMERICAN. published in the world. To mechanics and working New York City, - GEe. DEXTER. people especially it is a desideratum long needed and should be extensively patronised by them. The Boston, - - - Messrs. HoTcHiriss & Co. contents embrace every variety of reading, from Philadelphia, - - SToKEs & BROTHER. grave to gay, from lively to severe, and are especi- LOCAL AGENTS. ally designed for the Family Circle. The volume commences with the July No. and the back Nos. Albany, - - - - PETER COoK. from that time can be supplied to subscribers. Andover, Mass. - - E. A. ECSOELL. TERMS (IN ADVANCE.) Baltimore, Md., - - - S. SANDS. One copy one year, $1. Bermuda Islands - WAsHINOTOis & Cs. Five copies $4. Bridgeport, Ct. - - SANFORD & CORNWALL Twenty $15. Cabotville, Mass., E. F. BROWN. Address, postpaid, CHARLES W HOLDEN, Coiicord, N.H. RUFUs MERRELL. 523 109 Nassau at- eet, New York. Cincinnati, 0. - - STRATTCN & BARNARD. ________________________________________ Dover, N. H. - - D. L. NoRRIs. Fall River, Mass. - POPE & CHACE The largest, best and cheapest Dictionary Hartford, Ct., - - - E. H. BowERs. In the English language, is confessedly Houston, Texas, - J. W. Cs~as & Co. WEBSTERS, Halifax, Nova Scotia, H. G. FULLER. Jamestown, N. Y. - H. BIsHOP. the entire work, unabridged, in 1 vol. Crown Quar. Lynn, Mass, - - J. E. F. MARSH. Middletown, Ct., - - WM. WOOOWARO to, 1452 pp. with portrait of the author, revised by Norwich, Ct., - - - SAFFORD & PARKS. Professor Goodrich, of Yale College. Price, $6. New Haven, Ct., - - H. DowNEs. The most COMPLETE, ACCURATE, and RELIABLE Newbung, N. Y. - S. A. WHITE. Dictionary of the Language, is the recent testimo- Newark, N. J., - - J. L AoENI. Newark, N. J - - Robert Eashaw. ny given to this work by many Presidents of Col- New Orleans, La. - J. C. MoanAN. leges, and other distinguished literary men through. Providence, R. I., - - H. & J. S. ROWE. out the country. Rochester, N. Y. - D. M. DEWEY. Springfield, Mass., - - - - WM. B. BROCRET. Containing three times the amount of matter of M. BEssEy, Salem, Mass., - - - L. CHANDLER. any other English Dictionary compiled in this coun. Saco, Me., - - - - ISAAC CROOKER. try, or any Abridgment of this work, yet Savannah, Geo - JOHN CARUTHERI. Its definitions are models of condensationand pu. Syracuse, N. Y. - - W. L. PALMER. nity. The most complete work of the kind that any Taunton, Mass., W. P. SEATER, nation can boast ofHON. WM. B. CALHOUN. Vicksburg, Miss. - J. B. MAYES. W rejoice is hiSs C So beeo~no li sOan- waiisamseuree, - - ~. 0. G~D~I. e that a~ Webster, Mass. - - J. M. SHUEWAY. dard Dictionary to be used by the numerous mu- CITY CARRIERS, lions of people who are to inhabit the United States. CLARK SELLECK, SQUIRE SELLECK. Signed by 104 members of Congress. Persons residing in the city or Brooklyn, can have Published by G. & C MERRIAM, Springfield, the paper left at their residences regulanlybysend Mass., and for sale by all booksellers. s23 2m0 lug their address to the office, 128 Fulton st., 2d Iloor Morses Air Distributor, Those Hats. For Burning Saw Dust or Tan instead of K NON of 128 Fulton street, is on hand with Isis Wood for running Steam Engines. utumn style of Hats, and as usual furnishes a Cl TEAM SAW MiLLS are now running and have little prettier shape, made of a little better material all the heat they nesluire, from the saw dust and and for a much less price than many of his Broad- way friends who boast of tise superiority of their bark, saving the slabs and cord wood heretofore productions, used. Tanneries also by this air distributor, have The public wont swallow that gammon, gentle- all the fuel they want by burning the tan. The sa- men, and you had better put yosir prices down to ving is a great one, and the expence of the arrange. Knoxs atandard price, before Iso detracts ALL those mont trifling, compared to the advantages. regular customers from Broadway into Fulton at. o7 The undersigned has thie exclusive right to vend, - ___________________ _____________ use, and manssfacture Morses Air Distributor, in the state of New ork,to whom application may PECKS PATENT VISE WITH FOOT be made. LEVEi~. fJf~-.Infringemeuts ontlass patent will be prosecut- I HIS Vise is worked entirely by the foot and is ed, and the rights secured by the letters patent rig. .L admitted by all who have used them to be the idly enforced. best and, strength, saving of time and convenience Lockport, 8th mo. 25, 1848. L. A. SPALDING. considered, the cheapest Vise in use. For sale by CERTIFICATES. QUINCY & DELAPIERE, 71 John at. New York - LocEreisT, N. Y. Sept. 18, 1848 Ceo. H. Gray & Co. Boston - Curtis & Hand, Phila~ I hereby cerilfy that 1 have one of Morse & Bro- delphia Way & Brothers, Hartford and by the thors Air Distributors, in my Steam Saw Mill at this proprietor, J, S. GRIFFING, place. My fire place is li feet by four feet 9 inches, 07 2m New Haven, Ct. under 3 flue Boilers, 12 feet long by 40 inches dia- meter, I have 2 engines, the cylinders are, one of 12 HOW TO OBTAIN THE PREMIUM. ama one of 10 inch diameter, and 2 feet stroke. THE Subscriber would respectfully inform all per- The sawdust, bark and clips from the oak plank I eons having articles exhibitsng at the FAIR, that am sawing (wIthout any cord wood or slabs) is all he is prepared to execute engravings on wood fer sufficient for driving my two Gang saws for plank, circulars, & c. at the ohorteat isotice, and on the most and five gang of Saws for sawing atone. reasonable terms I have a superior chimney. The draft is perfect. Particular attention given to engravings of Machi- My engineer and Firemen say, they get up steam nery, Stoves, Buildings, & c. in about half the time they formerly took. To me WARREN G. BUTLER, the saving is greatany one can calculate for him- o7 93 Fulton street, con. Cliff self. GEO. REYNALE. For Sale. To L. A. SPALDIND. We have been running a Steam Engine for some years, to propel machinery for driving a tannery with ~ Frst rate well finished 1 ho.se Engine and Boil, a large bark Mill, two sets heavy Hide Mills, four r. May be seen in operation at 24 Thames st, Pumps, one Roller, two Last Machines for Turning o7 lt B. PRETLOVE. Lasts, two Machines for finishing Lasts, and one Cir- cular Saw for sawing timberthe Engine supposed TALBOTS PATENT BLINI.) HINGE. to be fourteen horse powerin which we used two HE undersigned having become interested in cords of wood (hard) per day. Thirty-three days the manufacture and sale of the above article, ago to-day we were induced to try Morses Patent would state that their facilities are such, that they Grates, or Air Distributor, and to our entire satisfac. can supply any demand at short notice. This hinge, tion. We find a saving of at least 4 dollars per day having stood the test of two years trial, has fully in using Tan, We find no trouble in raising all the established itself as a useful and important in- Steam we want, with Tan. Since we have put in vention, being all that can be desired for blind your Patent Busruer, we have not used a stick of trimmings, as the blind is managed entirely from wood, and we cheerfully recommend them to any, the inside of the house without raising the sash, and to all who wish to save wood, where Saw-dust, COMPLETELY locks it, and prevents all unpleasant Tan orcoal maybe used. N. CASE & CO. noise of the blind by wind. Buffalo, June 19, 1848 s23 4t American Window Trimming Company, Address CEO. GO Taunton, Mass. TH~ WEST STREET FOUNDRY, corner of s23 3m DFREY, Agent A. W. T. Co. each and West streets, will furnish at the _________________________________________________ shortest notice, Steam Engines and Boilers in all POWER TO LET. RARE CHANCE, their varieties, and on the most reasonable terms, together with castings of brass or iron, and machi. 7IHREE rooms, 40 feet square, one room OOby 40 nery in general. Orders attended to with dispatch, Lfeet, 2nd floor, power from engine, 29 in. cylin. ann particular attention given to repairing. den, 4 1-2 feet Stroke. Let together or in parts. Ap. JOSEPH H. COFFEE, AGENT. ply at West street Foundry, corner of Beach and Steam Boats, Engines, Machinery, & c. bought and West streets. s23 3m sold on commissionapply as above. ~~23 lmo Judsons Stave Dressing Ma chine. THIS Machine, on which Letters Patent ~were granted May 1st, 1847, has been in successful operation for the past year, and hundreds of thou- sands of staves have been dressed hy it. It is war ranted to dress the same quantity of staves with as little power as any that can he started, also leave the full thickness on thin edges and thin ends and conform as near to the crooks and twists of the tim- ber as can be desired. The jointing of the machine which accompanies it, has been subjected to the se- verest test, and pronounced superior to that perfor- med by hand. Application for a patent on the Joint- er has been made. Large quantities of Hogaheads and Shooks made with stavos dressed and jointed with u..ssir machines have been sold and used to the entire satisfaction of the purchasers. For rights and machines address the proprietors at their Manufactory, Artizan street, New Haven, Connecticut, where maclimes in full operation may be seen. JUBSON & PARDEE. New Haven, July 17, 1748. jy29 3m0 G.ENEItAL PATENT AGENCY. REMOVED. THE SUBSCRIBER has removed his Patent Agent Water to 41 Fulton street. The object of this Agency is to enable Inventors to realire something for their inventions, either by the sale of Patent Goods or Patent Rights. Charges moderate, and no charge willbe made no tilthe inventor realizes something from his invention. Letters Patent will be secured upon moderate terms. Applications can be made to the undersign ed, personally or by letter post paid. auS SAMUEL C. HILLS. Patent Agent. Johnson & Robbins, Cosss~ltissg Engineers and Cousisellora for Patentees. Oflice on F street, opposite Patent Office, Washing. ton,D.C. jl7tf Saws. EAVITT & MDANIEL, Concord, N H., make of ---1the best cast steel the following Saws Circular, Mill, Tennon, Cross-cut, Fellow and Ve- neering Saws. Also, Turning and Billet Webs, and Butchers Bow Saws. No saws ever made equalto their cast steel Mill Saws. The trade supplied on liberal terms. s23 2mE UNIVERSAL CHUCKS FOR TURNiNG LATHES For sale by the Mann- facturers Agents, QUINCY & DEALA PIERRE, Si John street New York. s2 3m0 Coal. Subscriber has constant7 for sale by the oar- go or ton all sizes of Coal or MANUFACTURERS and FASSILIEI, from the best Schuylkill and Lehigh mines. Hazieton and Spring Mountain, lump and, steamboat Coal. Tamaqisa Chesusit for engines. Peach Orchard and other red ash Coal. Midlothian, Virginia, a superior article for smiths use. Cum- benland, Sidney and Liverpool Coal. For sale at the LOWEST market prices. J. P. OSTROM, auS 3m corner 10th Avenue and 20th st. PREMIUM SLIDE LATHE. 7~ HE subscriber is constantly bushdiug his iunprev- ed Lathes of all sizes, from 7 to 30 leet long, and caia execute orders at short notice. JAMzS T. PERKINS, Hudson Machine Shop and iron Works, mll Hudsoii, N. Y. Agricultural Implements. i3I~- Inventors and Msnufacturere of superior Ag ricuitural Implemeists may find customers for theii goods by applying at the Agricultural Warehouse of - 5- C. HILLS & CO. 43 Fulton at. auS Machinery. p ERSONSnesiding in any part of thse United States who are in want of .siachines Engines, Lathes, OR ANY DESCRIPTIoN OF MACHINERY, can have their orders promptly executed by addressing the Pab- lishers of this paper. From ar. extensive acquain- tance among this principal machinists aiid a bug ac perience in mechanical matters they have uncom- mon facilities for the selection of the best machinery and will faithfully attend to any business entrusted totheircare MUNN & CO. RhO - OODENGf~AV~ ftfjThe above is prepared to execute all ordersat the shortest notice and on the most reasonable terms. Lap welded Wrought Iron Tubes FOR TUBULAA~. BOILERS, From 1 1-4 to 6 inches diameter, and any length, not exceeding 17 feet. 7f HESE Tubes are of the same quality and mane: -Lfacture as those extensively used in England, Scotland, France and Germany, for Locomotive, Ma nine and other Steam Esigine Boilers. THOMAS PROSSER, Patentee, d26 28 Platt street. New York TO IRON FOUNDEl~S. pulverized bituminous, or sea-coal Facing, an ap- proved article for mixing with moulding sand to make the saud leave the castings easily. Also fine bolted charcoal and anthracite coal dust, soap- stone, and black lead on hand in barrels, and for sale by C. O.ROOERTSON, s23 4t0 Importer, 283 West 17th street, N. Y. STEAM BOILER. BENTLEYS Patent Tubulsr and other Boilers of any size, shape or power, made to order, by SAMUEL C. HILLS & CO. RuS 43 Fulton it. ~cicntific ~2Uncrican. not form many combinations with other sub. stances, and it is probably for this reason, that the above was given for its composition, for it is well known, that when a substance does not unite with other substances of known composition, the analysis cannot be control- led. _______________________________________ Ferrocyanoger. Cy3 Fe. Ferridcyanogen Cy6 Fe2, For the Scientific American. This example would be more conclusive if New Chemicai Law, carried to its similar compounds. No. 3. Mesitylen e C6 114, liquid. In the applIcation of this law, it i~ neces- Retinyl CiS H2. liquid. sary to find examples ol aggregated substances, The specific gravities of these two sub. and to ascertain if their specific gravities, stances, have riot been ascertained. It how. boiling points, & c. agree with the conditions ever shows the difference ot their composition, required. The boiling points and specific and that an atom of Retinyl is composed of gravities of many substances, have never been three atoms ot Mesityline. S. N. experimentally ascertained, and therefore in Bridgeport, Conn. many cases, we shall have to be content, ____ without the proof required. In some instances To ascertain the Weight of Copper. however we can obtain a general idea of the Find by calculation the number of cubic specific gravity, boiling point & c., by the inches in the piece, multiply them by .32118 remarks made, as for instance whether a and the product will be the weight in pounds. body is heavier than water, or whether EXAMPLE What is the weight ot a cop. the boiling point of a substance, is great- j per plate ~ an inch thick by 16 inches square? er or less than the boiling point of water. It The number of cubic inches is 128 which must be plainly understood, in the cases of~ multiplied by .32118 leaves 41.111 lbs. the aggregated series about to he given, that when answer. the specific gravities, boiling points, & c., of To ascertain thc Weight or Lead. substances are not mentioned, it is because Find the number of cubic inches, multiply they have riot been announced in the present the sum by .41015 and the product is the works upon Chemistry. The followin0 are a weight in pounds. few of the examples. To ascertain the Weight of ordinary Sp. Gr. B. Point Brass Castings. Aidehyde C4H4 02, ,790 7O~ fluid. Find the number of cubic inches in the Elaldehyde C12 H12 06 fluid piece, multiply by .3112 and the product will Metaldehyde (not known,) 24S~ solid, be the weight in pounds. In the above case it maybe seen that Alde- hyde is the radical of the series. By the union of three atoms of Aldeliyde, forming a com- pound atom, Eleldyhide is formed. Metalde- hyde is a still higher aggregated compound, and its composition should therefore be grea- ter than either of the two former substances. The specific grrvity of Aldehyde it alone cal- culated, but by this law and its conditions the specific gravities of the other two, should be greater and in a regular increase. The boil- ing point of Elaldehyde has not been calcula- ted, but should be intermediate to Aldehyde and Mdaldehyde. Another condition requi- red, namely, that its density should increase with the series, is also fulfilled. Aldehyde changes into Elaldehyde and Metaldehyde by allowing it to stand for some time. Cyanogen C2 N., a gas. Paracyanogen (unkiiown,) solid The composition of Paracyanogen, slould be greater than that of Cyanogen. No speci- fic gravities nor boiling poiiits are given; but it is evident that the boiling point of cyano- gen is less than that of paracyanogen as it is a gas at common temperature. Cyanogen changes into Paracyanogen, and shows an in- stance of a gas becoming a solid, according to the requirements of the law. Chloride of Cyanogen Cy-4-CI. a gas. Chloride of Cyanogen Cy34-C13. solid. This is nearly a similar case to the one last mentioned, and for the same reason as given in that example, the boiling point of the first chloride is less, than that of the second, The first chloride when compressed into a liquid, and kept for some time in sealed glass tubes, gradually passes into the solid chloride, with- out any increase or loss of elements. Their specific gravities are notgiven. Cyanic Acid Cy 04 HO, a highly volatile fluid. Cyanuric Acid Cy3 03+3H0, solid in crystal. Cyanielyde Cy2 O2-~..2IlO, solid like porce- lain. Perhaps a e might include in this examp~e, Fulminic Acid, hut as it never has been isolated, I have concluded to leave it out. These substances like the examples previous. ly given, charge into each other,under pecu- liar circumstances. By inspection it may be seen, that as the aggregation proceeds, the substances increase in density, thus Cyanic Acid, the first of the series is a highly vola- tile fluid, the next is a solid and the third is a denser solid resembling porcelain in appedr- ance. The composition of Cyanielide is here laid down as Cy2 022H0; there is no doubt but that this is an error, and that its real com- position should certainly be as much as dou- ble its present composition, Cyamelyde does Measuring Distance by Sound. A bell rung under the water returns a tone as distinct as if rung in the air. Stop one ear with the finger, and press the other to the end of a long stick or piece of deal wood, and if a watch be held at the other end of the wood, ticking will be heard be the wood or stick ever so long. Tie a poker on the middle of a strip of flan- nel two or three feet long, and press your ~humbs or fingers into your ears, while your, swing the poker against an iron fender, and you will hear a sound like that of a heavy church bell. These experiments prove that water, wood and flannel are good conductors of sound, for the sound of the bell, the watch and the fen- der, pass through the water, and along the deal and flannel to the ear. It must be observed, that a body in the act of sounding is in a state of vibration, which it communicates to the surrounding airthe undulations of the sound affect the ear, and excite in us the sense of sound. Sound of. all kinds, it is ascertained, travels at the rate of 15 miles in a minute ; the sottest whisper travels as fast as the most tremendous thunder The knowledge of this fact has been appiie~ to the measurement of distances. Suppose a ship in distress fires a gun, the light of which is seen on shore, or by another vessel, 20 seconds before a report is heard, it is known to be at a distance of twenty times 1142 feet,or little more than four and a half miles. Again, if we see a vivid flash of lightning and in two seconds hear a tremendous clap of thunder, we know that the thuiider cloud is not more than 760 yards from the place where we are, and we should instantly retire from an exposed situation. For the Scientific Ames ican. Cure for the Dysentery and Summer Complaint. Take fresh raw garden carrots, grate them fine, put them in a linen or cdtton cloth, im- m erse them in water just enough to wet them through, and then press them within the cloth until all the liquor is squeezed out. Swecten with loaf sugar and take about one gill of the liquor at a time, for a dose ; if this should fail take another, it can do no harm. Where it has been tried it has been seldom or never known to fail, its efiects in performing a cure is almost instantaneous. It is an inno- cent and simple remedy and can be productive of no bad consequences, but may save much sufferiag and many valuable lives. Xew York. E. S. Ristory of the Rotary Engine. Prepared expressly for t/le Scien fife line- rican. WATTS 5 LAST ROTARY ENGINE. Fin 5. These three engravings conclude the num- ber of rotaries invented by Watt and included in his patent of 1784. After this it seems he never troubled himself with the subject, but it is very evident that the idea of a rotary was a great favorite with him for a long time, and when we consider that such a great man was thus favorably impressed with the rotary principle, we need not wonder at the number of his followers, and the question will be apt to force itself upon the mind,is not a true and unsurpassable rotary yet to be invented Fm 6. Fig 5 is a ground plan, and fig ti a section. A A, is an external cylinder or reservoir, fil- led with heated water, quicksilver, or an am- algam (which would become fluid at the boil- ing point.) B B, is an interior cylinder in the middle of A A, and turning upon a pivot 0. A partition C reaches from the top to the bottom, dividing ilie vessel in two equal parts. D E are two valves, allowing the liquid to ascend and fill the interior of B B, but preventing its egress in that direction. F G, are two tubes, or apertures, for guiding the escape of the liquid in the direction of the arrow. J is the pipe for the admission, and K for the exit of the st eam. The steam being introduced from the boiler through J enters the cavity L, and passes on the sur- face of the water, driving open the valve I, (fig. ~) and issuing through G, in the direction of the arrow, thus passing upon the body of of the liquid in the reservoir, and producing a re-action, which drives the internal vessel round. When it has performed nearly half a a revolution the cavity N comes under the steam passage. This will be understood bet- FIG. 7. H ter by fig. 7 P, is a hoop encircling the upper part, or neck, of the vessel B B; L is a hole in the side of the vessel communicating with one side of the vessel, and N a similar hole communicating with the other. It will be seen, that at present, the hole L communi- cates with J, and the hole N with K, but, by turning the vessel half way round, their situa- tions will be reversed ; L communicating with K, and J with N, so that each side is succes- sively exposed to the action of the steam, and to the condenser. By this means, therefore, the hole N is next in communication with the steam pipe J, and the valve D being thus by the steam pressing on the surface of the liquid; the valve I is opened by the same means, so that the liquid is forced with violence through I F, in the same manner as it was previously forced through G. Whilst this operation is going on, a vacuum is formed in the first ves- sel (by L communicating with the condenser) so that it becomes changed and ready in its ~turn to receive the action of the steam. When it does, the first operation is repeated, and a rotatory motion is kept up by the alternate ac- tion of the liquid driving through the cavities F G, in nearly the same manner as the motion is produced in the well-known machine Bar- kers Mill, differing only thus :that the wa- ter from the latter acts against the air, whilst this acts upon the fluid in which this is im- mersed. The motion is carried through the top of the reservoir A to a stuffing box Q (not shown), and attached to the machinery. It appears this machine was tried, and found to have little or no power; which, of course was the reason of its abandonment. The ac- ting upon a medium, which affords no solid ressistance, and is, therefore incapable of pro. ducing ~ny powerful re-action in the ma. chine. Having no - completed our account of Watts rotary engines, we will say that his fame does not rest upon any one of them they were some of his most worthless inven- tions, but we reckon them to be as good and valuable as others of the same nature inven- ted by men, Brahma among the number, who pointed only to the weak points, not the strong points of this great mechanic. James Watt was a wonderiul manhis ideas were great, and his discoveries have done more to advance civilization and the useful arts than those of any other man. We make the assertion with- out any reserve and we do it, because we be- lieve his o n countrymen in England have never done him full justice. Whether we consider the improved steam engines by Watt as first applied successfully in our city by Fulton to navigation or to propelling with lightning speed, the iron horse, we cannot but candidly, and with the generous French- man who first wrote his true biography, say of James Watt, the plebeian Scotch mecha- nic, that his inventions have been to com- merce and the manufacturing arts, what the art of printing and the printing press were to literature. Meehanjcral Paper IN THE WORLD! FOURTH YEAR OF THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN! 416 Pages ef most valuable information, illustrate with upwards of 500 MECHANiCAL ENGItLkVIMj5 fj~yThe Scientific American differs entirely from the magazines and papers which flood toe country, as it is a Weekly Journal of Art, Science and Me- chanics, havir.g for its object the advancement o the INTERESTS OF MECHANICS MANUFA TURERS and INVENTORS Each number is lustrated with from five to TEN original ENGR VINGS OF NEW M CHANICAL INVENTION nearty all ofthe best inventions which are patented at Washington being illustrated in the Scientific American. it also contains a Weekly List of Amer. ican Patents ; notices of the progress of all Mechan- icat and Scientific Improvements; practicat direc tions on the construction, management and use ot all kinds of MACHINERY, TOOLS, & C.; Essays upon Mechanics, Chemistry and Architecture ; ac- counts of Foreign Inventions ; advice to inventors Rail Road Intelligence,together with a vast amount of other interesting, valuable and useful information. The SCIENTIFIC AMERiCAN is the most popular journal of the kind ever published, and of more im- portance to the interests of MECHANICS and IN- VENTORS than any thing they could possibly ob- tain To Farmers it is also particularly useful, as it will apprise them of all Agricultural Improve- ments, instruct them in various mechanical trades, & c. & c. It is printed with clear type on beautiful paper, and being adapted to binding, the subscriber is possessed, at the end of the year, of a large vol- ume of 416 pages, illustrated with upwards of ~O0 mechanical engravings. TERMS Single subscription, $2 a year in ad. vance ; $1 for six month,. Those who wish to sub. scribe have only to enclose the amount in a letter, directed to MUNN & CO. Publishers of the Scientific American, 128 Fulton street, New York. All Lettters must be Post Paid. INDUCEMENTS FOR CLUBBING. S copies for 6 months $4 00 6 12 $800 10 6 $750 10 12 $1500 20 . 6 $1100 20 12 $3000 Southe~n and Western Money taken at par for sub- scriptions. Post Office Stamps taken at their full value. A SPLENDID PRESENT! To any person who will send us Three Subscri- bers, we will present a copy of the PATENT LAWS os- THE UNITED STATEs, together with all the informa- tion relative to PATENT OFFICE BUsINESS, inclinding full directions for taking out Patents, method of nra- king the Specifications, Claims, Drawings, Modeis, buying, selling, and transfering Patent R~ghts, & c. This is a present ofoREAT VALUE, yet maybe obtain- ed for nothing, by the reader of this prospectus, ~he will take the trouble to get Three Subscribers to the Scientific American. It will be an easy matter to obtain two nsanss besides his own. MUNN & CO., Scientific American Offii~e, N. 1. 24

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0citntific 2tmttic#a, THE ADVOCATE OF INDUSTRY, AND JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC, MECHANICAL AND OTHER IMPROVEMFI~flS. )~Jo1, ~i. Nw~ I~otk, 0i~dobev 1~i, ~ ~o. lii. THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN: CiRCULATION 11,000. PUBLISHED WEEKLY. At 128 Fulton Street, New York (Sun Building,) and 13 Court Street, Boston, Mass. By lYIunn & Company. The rrincipal Office being at New York. WMRMS4~ a yearil in advance, and the remainder in 6 months. wy-See advertisement on last page. Potttu. LiGhTS OF GENiUS. EY MISS ALICE CAREY. Upheaving pillars, on whose tops The white stars rest like capitals, Whence every living spark that drops Kindles and blazes as it falls And if the arch.fiend rise to pluck, Or stoop to crush their beauty down, A thousand other sparks are struck, That Glory settles in her crown! The huge ship, with its brassy share, Ploughs the blue sea to speed their course, And veins of iron cleave the air, To waft them from their burning source All, from the insects tiny wings, And the small drop of morning dew, To the wide universe of things, The light is shining, burning through. Too deep for our poor thoughts to gauge Lie their clear sources bright as truth, Whence flows upon the locks of age The beauty of eternal youth. Think, 0 my flattering brother, think, If thou wilt try, if thou hast tried, By all the lights thou hast, to sink The shaft of an immortal tide I GIRL OF THE BLUE EIE BRiGHT AND BEAMING. Oh, for the time of the Summers dawn, To hear the lark his carol singing; Oh, for a walk on the dew-clad lawn, When health from every breeze is springing. Oh, for the shade of the hawthorn tree, With the mid-day sun above it gleaming; Oh, for such hours to spend with thee, Girl of the blue eye bright and beaming! Oh, for the time of the evenings close, With not a breath its peace destroying; Oh, for a share of its sweet repose, But not alone the bliss enjoying; Oh, for the hearth and the winter drear, When joyous hearts with love are teeming; Oh for such hours with thee to share, Girl of the blue eye bright and beaming! Oh, for a life mid scenes like this, Unclogged by worldly wealth or splendor Oh, tsivere a life of radiant bliss, Shared with a feeling of heart so tender; Oh, what a fairy scene might be, In a land where freedoms flag is streaming; Twere heaven on earth to be there with thee Girl of the blue eye bright and beaming! The Future. The proud throne shall crumble, The diadem shall wane The tribes of earth shall humble The pride of those who reign. And war shall lay His pomp away The fame that heroes cherish, The glory earned in deadly tray, Like flowers that fade and perish. Honor wafts, oer all the earth, Through endless generations, The art that calls the harvest forth, And feeds expectant nations. The invention of Locomotives for common roads is not new to a few, but we presume that it is to many. Of this we were convinc- ed a short time since, by a very respectable gentleman, who called upon us, with such a carriage, a new invention to him, but not so to us. We have also had many enquiries lately respecting such kinds of carriages, espe- cially since we recommended the use of steam carriages for our plank roads. To throw some light on the subject we present this week a aide and ~round plan of the Loonmo- tive described by Barlow, and invented by Mr. Gurny, an Englishman, and which on a common road went at the rate of 8j miles per hour. We hope that these engravings will draw the attention of our mechanics to the subject, as we think some of our engineers could so improve on this, as to make it run at the rate of 12 miles an hour on our plank roads. A, is the position of the boiler without show ing the smoke pipe. B, is a steam pipe which leads from the boiler down by N, to the valve boxes of the cylinder D, (there is a cylinder on each side, inside of the travelling wheels.) There is a small wheel attached to the piston rod which runs between two parallel bars G. Attached to this wheel by a spindle is a dou- ble connecting rod and during every revolu- tion ot the crank the parallel bars are inside of h e rod. The fuel and water are kept in R and T C. is a handle on ths~ steam pipe to regu- late the supply. M, is the frame. L, is a lever which the conductor by pulling up, reverses the motion of the carriages or propels them backwards, if necessary. P, is a driving arm. 5, is the seat. I, is a lever connected with a pinion K, for turning the carriage, but these will be be better understood by fig 2. Figure 2. F F, is the framing I, is the pinion, work, and for that purpose it might be useful on our ing into the rack Q, for turning the carriage plank roads. When the carriage is to be star- by the handle, seen in fig. I. P P, are dii- ted, the steam having been up, the conductor ving arms, by means of which power is con- opens the steam cock by the handre at his veyed from the crank shaft to the circumfer- side. The steam then passes through B B, to ence of the hind wheels, so that one or both the cylinders and the action of the engine wheels may be used. One or both wheels commences urging forward the carriage on its may be used thus it required, as it is obvious, journey. that if the bolt of the driving arm be with- drawn the driving arm will revolve without propelling the wheel. S S, represent the car- riage springs between which and the wheels are the driving arms. K K, are the crank shafts. C C, are the valve boxes of the cyl- inders. G G, are the parallel l~ars, seen bet- ter in fig. 1. The valve rods will be easily distinguished at the extreme ends of the crank shafts, one of them represented by I. This form of locomotive for common roads was used only for dragging other carriages, It must be known to many ot our readers that the ingenious Oliver Evans proposed to drive steam wagons over the roads in Pensyl- vania. As yet however, no practical test of this kind of Locomotion has been made in our country ; in England it has, and weuld have been successful only it met with such op- position from the Turnpike trustees and from one unluckly accident that occurred on the road between Paisley and Glasgow in 1834, whereby a number of lives were lost. The experiments made on the Paisley road in Scotland, were mechanically successfulthe carriages went through the streets as if drawn by horses and up and down the hills likewise On the road between Cheltenham and Glou- cester, England, they were also successful, me- chanically speaking. Now as we have no road-trust aristocracy here, we hope to see them permanently successful. RAIL ROAD NEWS. The Peansyivanla Raiiroad. This company has published a report of the chief engineer, upon the progress of the work, and contains an estimate of the cost. It states that to secure the objects of the company, the trade of the west, the subscriptions must now be filled up. In May 1850, it will be opened to Holidaysburg, and in connection with the Portage, there will be a continuous line of railway, extending from Philadelphia two hundred and eighty-seven miles, out of three hundfed and fifty. The western side will he finished the same year as the eastern. The report says: The absolute necessity of this road to the trade of Philadelphia, is universally acknowl- edged. The completion of the Cincinnati and Sandusky road, brings that city within three days ride of New York for eight months in the year. The trade of the Ohio river, which once belonged exclusively to Philadelphia, is now diverted to New York by this new channel of the Lakes. Hundreds of passengers daily pass over that road to New York; where the travel goes, there goes the trade. The Harrisburg and Lancaster Railroad Company, Pa. From the annual report of this company, its affairs are in a most prosperous condition. The whole unfunded debt, amounting to up- wards of $47,000, has been paid off out of the net surplus receipts of the road ; and after paying the interest of the funded debt, and the current expenses of the year,~there will be a balance in the hands of the Treasurer of $12,413 11, which, added to the amount paid off, shows that the profits derived from the business of the road are more than nine pei~ cent, on the capital stock of the company. The Board of directors flatter themselves that the Company us now in such a condition that the nett profits of the road will be amply adequate (after payment of interest on the loans) to pay regular dividends to the Stock- holders, besides making ajipropriations to- wards a contingent fund, to liquidate the fun- ded debt of the Company. The Injunction applied for by the stock- holders of the Niagara Bridge against Mr. El- let, the engineer and contractor, has been re- fused. This is just as we predicted. The Arctic Expedition. The log-book of the cutter Bee, Captain Weldon, has the following intelligence July 16. Spoke the schr. Mayflower, Smith master, who had seen the American whaler MLellan, of New London, Jacksos, master, with forty tons of oil. The American reports her Majestys ships, under Sir J. C. Ross, as having reached Lievely, Disco Island, on the 2d inst., all well; and Captain Ross had left despatches for the Admiralty, to be forward- ed by the first Danish vessel for Europe, and that Captain Ross immediately proceeded in search of his friend Sir Jehn Franklin. The crews were all well. Disco Island lies on I the west coast of Greenland, at the entrance to Baffins Bay, near 70 degrees of latitude. A voyage five or six degrees farther north will lead to Barrows Straits, and those regions where intelligence of Sir John Franklin is most likely to be procured. STEAM CARRIAGES FOR COMMON ROADS, Figure 1. ~cicntific american. The Fair of the American Institute. No. 1. The 21st Annual Fair of the Institute open ed up last week, after storms and rains, into clear aiid sunny weather inviting a~l who pleased to visit the Castle. We promised last week tc say something about the articles ex- posed for show and observation, and will therefore say nothing about the appearance of the Hall, & c., as a description of it one year might suit, like an almanac, for a first edition of twenty in succession. GUYO~ 5 COTTON PRESS. This press of Mr. H. Guyon, No. 95 Thomp- son st., this city, appears at the Fair this year with an entire new and useful improvement. The long horizontal levers are superseded by the curved progressive kind and it is thereby rendered far more compact and portable. Not a single cog wheel is used,the great objec- tion to all such kinds of presses. The power is now applied in a most direct manner, and we have no doubt but it is now the most per- fect press of the kind as its works are of the the most simple and effective order. FULTON S STEAM PUMP. Among the novelties in the machine line is G. W. Fultons Steam Pumpa Baltimure invention and worthy of no small share of at. tention. It cannot be better explained than to say, that the power of the steam is as directly applied to the pumping of water as in Nas. myths steam hammer, which was in operation close beside it, and which is now generally known and understood. WATER WHEELS. The most conspicuous water wheel at the Fair is the centre vent pressure of Havilend and Tuttle, manufactured at the Fulton Iron Foundry, South Boston. It runs in a glass vase along side of Fultons steam pump and attracts great attention. It has many strong certificates of very respectable gentlemen as to its practical qualities. One of five feet in diameter, with one pair of Burr stones, 5 feet diameter, ground 40 bushels of corn into mer- chantable meal in one hour under a head of 7 feet. One experiment gave 2,500 pounds of merchantable meal in 57 minutes under a head of 6 feet 2 inches of water (no back water.) The stones made 144 revolutions per minute. Under a head ot 4 feet the stones terned out 25 bushels ot good meal per hour. STEAM ENGINES. There ai~e a number of these at the Fair, the most novel of which is Trempers Ro- tary already described in our columns. Mr. Burdon, of 100 Front st, Brooklyn, has two beauties, which were generally and justly ad- mired. Mr. Burdon is a very extensive and excellent builder of portable engines. The Mattewan Company, N. Y. exhibited a very fine double cylinder engine, which proves that Company to excel in Machinery of ev- ery description, s-ach as shaftingplaning machines, and machinery for the cotton man- .facture. LATHES. The Lathes are more numerous this year than last, and in the forenRst was Mr. Hart- sons of Gold at., N. Y. There are so many little odds and ends about the difleretit lathes, that it is impossible to particularize. We al- ways look to the correctness and solidity of the work and material, being convinced that these characteristics are of the most practical importance. METALIC PACKING. A very neat and simple elastic metalic packing was that of Dolliver Johnson, engi- neer, of Charlestown, Mass. In fact it is the most simple packing that we have ever seen and will no doubt come in general use. Messrs. Allen and Noyes, of Greenbush, N. Y., also exhibited their metalic packing, but kind has been made known to our readers be- fore through our columns. hisi PADDLE WHEEL. A great variety of paddle wheels are to be seen, and some of them sad retrogade move- ments in the history and theory of propulsion. The paddle wheel has been a kind of perpe- tual indion enigma to hundreds, and curious solutions have been given of the problem. We will not advert to the absurdities of the ques- tion, but simply state that all have planetarily struck for a vertical dip and lift of the paddle arid many funny plans have been tried to effect this object. One model at the Fair to accom- plish this is a good one it is named the Eccen- tric Paddle, made by a mechanic in this city. It is the same as Morgans celebrated one and is new here we believe, although the inven- tion is somewhat old. We should like to see some of our river boats try it, as it is the most simple one of the kind ever brought be- fore the public. COTTON GIN CyLINDER. This invention ~f S. R. Parkhurst is inten- ded to supersede the present Gin Saws. It is simply an iron cylinder with angular cut teeth which appear something like a card, but the teeth are so many sharp blades, whereby in the operation the cotton fibres are drawn be- low the outer surface of the teeth a~d the seeds are left to fall from the cylinder when it is cleaned of cotton which is done by the or- dinary brush. SAWS. We have neverseen so many beautiful Saws, as those exhibited by Messrs. Hoe of this city. Each is ground by a new patent process; and bright as mirrors. A decided improvement is observable in these American manufactu- red Saws of Messrs Hoe from the saws that used to be exhibited a few years ago. SCAGLIOLA. A number of columns, table tops, & c. of Scagliola is exhibited by Mr. Farelly, of Ca- nal st., this city. We have seen many Speci- mens of this substitute for granite and mar- ble, but never to our recollection have we seen any that could compare to the specimens of Mr. Farelly. They imitate every kind of fancy marble while the surface is smooth and brilliant as glass. For ornamental work, in the interior of dwellings, Scagliola is certain- ly superior to marble, at least this much can be said about it, that it can be made of every variety of color, to carry out the deeorative design ot any apartment. ARTIFICIAL SLATE - Mr. Blake, of Akron, Ohio, exhibits his ar- tificial slate. This is made from a substance found in a natural state at Sharon, Ohio. It is found of the consistence of tallow but by a few days exposure it becomes perfectly hard. By grinding the substance and mixing it with oil, it is said to be an excellent and fire proof paint. A patent was granted to Mr. Blake for the application (a singular circumstance, we think,) and it has been successfully used both for paint and covering roofs. It really is an excellent slate. It is lighter and not so brittle as the Welsh kind. In appearance it resembles gutta percha. Mr Derby, of 56 Ann it., this city, also exhibits fire and water proof paint. All paint should be water proof, but the fireproof is an additional quality. This paint is cheap and should be used extensively for outhouses. We would heartily recommend it for this pur- pose. FURNITURE. In the Furniture department there are many improvements, among which we noticed the Portable Divan Bedstead of G. Clayton, No. 221 Pearl it., this city. Its principal feature is economy in room, answering both for sofa and ciuch and so portable that it can be car- ried about like a trunk. This is an ingenious and useful invention. There are a number of other improved pieces of furniture, and useful machines, which we shall notice next week. There are about 2000 articles entered, and we must say that we can only notice but a limited share of what is new, most of the articles be- ing exposed more for advertising show than any thing else. We therefore have and will confine ourselves to notice only the new and useful, and for that purpose, we will devote next week more space to the subject than we have done this, as articles require a careful examination from us before we speak of them confidently, and it is our purpose to speak only of what is interesting to the mechanical and scientific world. fee one night last week while at muster in Littleton. The coffee was made in a vessel with a copper bottom, and had stood in it for several hours. It was partaken af by most of the company through the evening, and du- ring the night every one who had partaken of it was more or less sicksome of them vio- lently. The surgeon and assistant surgeon were fortunately there, and attended to their relief with much success. The number poi- soried was over forty. Three of the company who did not drink ot the coffee were not affec- ted with any of the symptons under which the others suffered. The poison, however, could not have been the effect of the coffee upon the pure metal, but there must have been an oxide in the kettle before the coffee was put into it. Preserves are made in clean copper vessels and no evil results therefrom. Quadrature of the Circle. It is reported that Mr. Seba Smith deliver- ed a lecture lately at Portland, Maine, on the Quadrature of the Circle, in the course of which he claimed that this problem, the solu- tion of which has from time immemorial set at defiance ~the ablest m.uuthematicians, and been demonstrated to be impossible, has at length been accurately solved by John A. Parker, formerly of Portland, and now of New York. Mr. Smith farther stated that several important astronomical calculations have al- ready resulted in consequence. The pro. cesses which led to this solution are in pre- paration for the press, and will soon be pub. lished. Whoiesaie Poisoning. An Ancient Press. Nearly the entire company of the Lowell The Leonardtown, Beacon (Md.) says that City Guards were poisoned by drinking cof- but few of our readers are aware, we expect, that the press upon which our little sheet is printed, is the oldestnow in use in the United States, and probably in the world. Yet such is the fact. The press n owin use by us has been in almost constant service for moi-e than a hundred years! Upon it was first printed the Maryland Gazette, the earliest paper published in the Province of Maryland, and one among the very first in America. Upon it, also, was printed the first volume of the Laws of Maryland that ever appeared. It is constructed somewhat on the Rammage prin- ciple, and requires three pulls, though two were originally sufficient to produce a good impression. It is truly a venerable object, and has afforded us matter fQr many an hours pleasant reflection, and we shall be sorry, indeed, when the time arrives for it to be re- moved from the place it has so long occupied ______________________ in our office. Singuiar Phenomenon. The Matagorda (Texas) Tribune, contains an account of an oily, yellowish green scorn which has recently appeared upon the pe- ninsula and bay shore in that vicinity. It has an offensive smell, like putrid flesh. The account says, In Uncle Moses Bayou, which is some twenty yards wide, and about four hundred yards long, the matter, whatever it is, appeared toissue from a particular spot. It emitted a strong phosphorescent light when agitated. Great numbers of fish. have died in the waters by this scum. Hours of Labor. The French Assembly having passed the law fixing the days labor at 12 hours, the Sturgeon Flesh in Europe. master masons at Paris have attempted to The flesh is fat, very palatable, and much compel their workmen to labor for that length better in the Summer, after the fish have been of time, although the days work for that trade some time in fresh water. That which is has been only 10 hours from time immemo- not eaten fresh is cut into large slices, salted, rial, and the decree of the Provisional Govern- peppered, broiled, and put in barrels, where ment, superseded by the law, introduced no it is preserved in vinegar, and fit for transport. change in it. In consequence of the attempt A considerable quantity of their flesh is smo- of the employers, the workman have struck. ked. The wholesale price of pickled Stur- They prefer to suffer the serious inconveni- geon is from $6 to $12 a hundred weight. The ence of being out of employment to the im- Caviar is prepared in three different manners Dosition which the masters have sought to 1. 2 lbs of salt are added to 40 lbs of roe and put upon them. In this case the Republie dried upon mats in the sun. The price of 40 is worse than the monarchy. lbs. is $1. 2. 8-10 lb. salt is mixed with 4Olbs - of roe, then dried upon nets or sieves, and Religious Manufacturing Association. The tendency of large manufacturing estab- pressed into barrels. This is sold for a little lishments to irreligion, has led to to the more. 3. The best Caviar is that when the starting of one in West Springfield, Massa- roe is put into sacks made of tow cloth, and chusetts, on a new plan. The directors and left for some time in strong pickle. These agents are to be religious men, and no person sacks are then suspended in order to let the will be employed who uses profane language, salt, watery sub-stance run off, and finally violates the Sabbath, drinks intoxicating squeezed, after which the roe is dried during liquors, or is in any way known to be immo- 12 hours and pressed into barrels. This roe, ral. The board~g-houses will be kept by pi~ of which 40 lbs. are sold for $1 50 at the place, ous persons, and a church opened when the is that which is sent all over Asia and Europe factory commences, for the use of those em- as a considerable article of commerce, and ployed. It is intended as an establishment known by the name of Caviar, and is eaten where christian parents may safely place their with bread like cheese. sons and daughters. Importance of Punctuaiity. We hope that with the profession of piety Method is the very Hinge of Business ; and they will also mingle the practicewhich that there is no method without punctuality does not consist in working 14 hours per day is evident, because it subserves the peace and for. potatoes and salt. good temper of a family; the want of it not In the city of Boston the increas& of crime only infringes on necessary duty, but some- times excludes this duty. The calmness of since 1832, as shown by police cases, has been over one hundred and fitty per centof this it mind which it produces fs another advantage said that the increase the past year alone is of punctuality ; a disorderly man is always one hundred per cent ! The city of Pilgrims in a hurry ; he has no time to speak to you and the city of Quakers, are outfleeting New because he is going elsewhere ; and when he York in criminality. What is the remedy gets there he is too late for his business ; or he must hurry away before he can finish it. There is now in bloom, in the garden of Punctuality gives weight to character. Such Drummond Castle, Perthshire, Scotland, a a man has made an appointment ; then I splendid American aloe, with a stem thirty know he will keep it. And this generates feet high, supporting 2800 flowers. punctuality in you ; for like other virtues it propagates itself. Servants and children must Four thousand paupers boys and girls, will be punctual where their leader is so. Ap. this year be sent to Australia from Ireland pointments, indeed, become debts. I owe and 10,000 from England. you~ punctuality, if I have made an appoint- In his Letters from the United States in ment with you and I have no right to throw the Manchester Times, Mr. Prentice says: away your time if I do my Own. I saw more cheerful faces in Connecticut, than in all the other States put together, A fish came through the hydrant of a hotel in Cincinnati lately alive aiid in good condi- The Watertown and Rome Railroad has tion, and delivered himself up to the autho- been let to a New England company of rail. rities in the kitchen. It was no doubt a very road builders, who begin operations forthwith. accommodating fish but scarcely polite enough The cost of grading will amount to nearly to jump into the Aldermans pot. half a million of dollars. 26 American Scieinti~c Association. No. 3. THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. The lands in the Miasissippi Valley are so subject to the increase of exposure, that we may hazard the assertion with safety, that there is not by twenty or twenty-five per cent as much water now passes down the Missis- sippi annually as there was twenty-five years ago. This conclusion is not arrived at hasti- ly, but by patient observation of the circum- stances in connection therewith during all that lengthy period, at whose beginning there were annual inundations of almost all the low- er bottom lands and for very lengthy periods of submergence of almost all the bottom lands, from the Bluffs or Highlands on one side of the river botLom to those on the other side, and in such a degree that but little or no hopes were entertained of the practicability of their redemption by any artificial means, that is, on any scale. But such has been the diminu- tion in the annual quantity of water discharg- ed from the Valley, that those lands have been progressively and rapidly redeemed from over- 110w, until very great portions of them are iow in the highest state of cultivation, and with but comparatively slight assistance from art, in the way of embankments, and these such as would not have been at all available against the overwhelming effects of former floods, and the length of time of their conti- nuance; then there were lengthy and annual inundations; both deep and expansive, of the Waters over almost all the bottom-lands; but now the River seldom rises in the same eleva- tion as formerly, and when it does it is of much shorter duration, and the waters are almost exclusively confined to the channel of the River, in place of being spread over almost all the bottom-lands the whole Spring and early part of Summer. All the advantages are progressively but as rapidly extending themselves, while the causes remain unsus- pected or overlooked, but none the lees secure. As a farther evidence of the altered condition of this River, we may mention the circum- stance, that in former times the steamboats ascending or descending the River were de- tained about half their time by dense fogs, now hardly any such obstructions prevail so that packets succeed in making their trips to an hour with no fears of such retardatiois. Assuming that the diminution of the water will continue in somewhat the same ratio they have recently done, the time cannot be very far distant when all apprehension from inundation will have in a great measure pas- sed away. We will farther remark, as an evident change, that the quantity of floating timber or drift wood passing annually down the river has diminished in a far greater ratio than that of the water, so that the aggregate quantity casinot now be over 50 per cent. of that which formerly passed down. We will now give you the quantity of soily matter with which the waters of the Missis- sippi are annually charged, together with its effects in the formation of lands or filling up of depressions. In order to arrive at these requiied facts, the following methods were adopted: first, a series of glass vessels of cyl- indrical form were procured, to one end of which was attached a tin tube of the same cylindrical diameter as that of the glass yes- sels to which it was attached in the tin tube immediately above its junction with the glass cylinder there was inserted a small brass cock, by which the tin tube could be conve- niently discharged of its contents at pleasure without causing disturbance to the contents of the glass vessels belowthis tin tube was in length 48 inches. This tube was charged with water from the Mississippi River, and this water allowed time to deposit its contents into the glass vessel below; that being ac- complished, the water was drawn off, and the tube recharged by water from the river, each particular charge being noted This wds suc- cessively repeated from the ditlerent condi- tions and stages of the rivers heightand velo- city, which very materially affects the quan tity of suspension, this by a succession of such changings and disckiargings of the tin tube, amounting in all to 484 times, or, in the aggregate, to a column of water of 1,936 feet from which column of water there was deposi ted a column of sediment inclosed in three tubes of 44 inches. Assuming that, therefore, to be the true quantity and the true product of a column of river water of 23,232 inches, it necessarily follows that as 44 is to 23,232, sois the quantity of sedimentary matter con- tained in the water to the volume of the river or, in other figures and words, the mean pro- - portional quantity of sediment to the river is as 1 to 528. We have already ascertained the quantity of water annually discharged by the Missis- sippi River to be, 14,883,360,636,880 cubic feet, there must then be deposited from that quantity of water, 28,188,083,892,1-6 cubic feet of solid matter. - Being in possession of the data by which may be computed with some approximation to certainty, the efiects of the Mississippi deposits in the formation of land, or in filling up the Gulf into which it is emptied, we will avail ourselves of such data, and endeavor to present the quantites deducible therefi-om. In estimating the Delta of the Mississippi, we have adopted for it the superfices assumed by Dr. Lyell, in his investigation of this subject, and will say with that gentleman that the Delta of the Mississippi River comprehends all that great alluvial plain which lies below or to the south of what until recently, was the first branching off or highest arm of the river called the Achafalaya. This Delta is computed to contain a superficial area of 13,- 600 square miles. In deciding on the depth of this quantity we will adopt that which was assumed by Prof. Riddell on this subject, and say that it is of the average depth of one fifth of a mile or 1,055 feet, inferred from that being the average depth of the Gulf ot Mexico, from the Balize to the point of Florida. We find by computation, agreeable to the above data that it would require a quantity not less than 400,318,429,440,000 cubic feet, or 2,720 cubic miles solid matter to constitute this Delta, having ascertained the quantity of solid matter annually brought down by the Mississippi river to be 28,188,083,892 cu- bic feet, which would be equal to one square mile of the depth of 1,056 leet in 381 1-5 days or one cubic mile in 5 years and 81 daysit therefore- follows that it would require a series of 14,2uci 4-~ years for the river to effect the final formation of the preeent delta. We are not disposed to consider that great alluviar plain, stretching with the river from the above designated Delta, as far up as - Cape Gerardian in Missouri, as any other part of the delta proper, nor can it ever have been any continuation of the Gulf of Mexico. The evidences are vastly against any such eon- clusion, inasmuch as the deltavial which -con- stitutes the highlands bordering on each side of this alluvial plain, by its general distribution would have been equally deposited in such gulfs or arms of the sea, which in reality could not have been the case, for the river has excavated through this diluvial and exposed it in many places, resting on what is evidently of another formation; and such is not only found to be the case at the base of the diluvi. at hilts, but the same formation is found also to constitute the bed of the river at many other points detached for very considerable distances from any highlands. This bed of the river is a substance of en- tirely different character from the corfiposi- tion of any part of the diluvial bluffs, and possesses all the characteristics of a well formed rock, which requires a pick to effect its reduction. - The superficial area of the valley has been found to be about 16,000 square miles, bounded by highlands on either side, ranging from 50 to 250 feet high above the level of the plain. Should this space therefore have been reduced or excavated by the i-iver as we assumed, it must have transported the diluvial matter, and caused it to form part of its delta. Now assuming the average height of th~. highlands above the plains to be 150 feet, we would ther& fore ob- tain 454k cubic miles, or 66,908,160,000,000 cubic feet of matter, as its proportionable contribution in the formation of the Delta the balance required being 332,470,269,440, 000 cubic feet to be derived from the reduc- tion of other lands; the two sources being to each other as I to ~.98, or by giving an- 27 other expression to the same quantities, there is in the Delta 2,720 cubic mites of matter; 454k of which would be derived from the diluviaia iii the excavation of this valley, the other portion would consist of 2,265k cubic miles to be derived from other sources or the reduction of other lands. also by the heat of boiling water, applied along with skillful pressure. But in whatever way this process is attempted, the surfaces to be united should be made very smooth, level, and clean: the least foulness even the touch of the finger, or breathing upon them, would prevent their coalescence. We have now traced this great river through Gypsum Mounds in Western New York. a period of 14,204 years, but how it was cc Throughout the Onondago Salt Group it is cupied before that time or what was the con- known that in the limestone beds of this forma- dition of the country over which its waters tion, dome-shaped masses of gypsum occur, passed, is mote than we can safely venture to saybut on particular examination of the which have raised up the superior strata, bluiTh. which bound its present plain, it 11 fracturing them, while a large portion of the rock has disappeared. These masses vary be very difficult to resist the conviction that from small lumps one or two feet in diameter, the river has great agency in depositing the to hillocks of 200 feet base and 50 height; the upper and loamy stratum which varies from - testimony of the residents in this portion of a few feet to upwards of fifty in thickness, 10 the country unites in proving that these are all of which stratum there is abundance of yet in progress of formation, several isistances land and pluriatile shells, such as those now having occurred where a gradual elevation found in thc present deposit from the river, of the earth has fractured walls and raised We have found the age of that deposit to the foundations of houses, where an ezamina- be not less than 14,204 years, through all of tion has disclosed one of these gypsum which time the waters have been actively mounds, a few feet below the surface. engaged in changing the face of the country The Acid Springs, which belong to these and transporting 2,720 cubic miles of its mat- rocks are peculiar as containing a large amount ter to a far distant location. The above may be said to comprehend all the required par- ticulars with respect to the waters of the Mississippi River or its deposits. Gunpowder and Greek Pare. M. R~naud has lately discovered an Ara- bian MS. of the thirteenth century, which proves that compositions identically with gunpowder in all but the granulations, were and had been for a long time pr~viously, in the possessinis of the Arabs; and that there is every probability they had obtained them from the Chinese, in. the ninth century. Many of these were called Greek fire ; and comparing the account of Joinville, of the wars on the Nile in the time of St. Louis, with the Arabic recip~s, there can be little doubt that we are now in possession of what was ther. termed Greek fire. Mr. Groves F.R S., who has investigated the subject ex- perimentally as well as historically, concludes that the main element of Greek fire, as cot- tradistinguished from other inflammable sub- stances, was nitre, or a salt containing much oxygen ; that Greek fire and gunpowder were substantially the same thing; and that the development of the invention had been very slow and gradual, and had taken place long antecedent to the date of Schwartz, the monk of Cologne, A. D. 1320, to whom the inven- tion of gunpowder is generally attributed; thus adding to the innumerable it not un- exceptionable cases, in which discoveries commonly attributed to accident, and to a single mind, are found upon investigation to have been progressive, and the result of the continually improving knowledge of succes- sive generations. Tortoise Shell. Tortoise-shell, or rather scales, a horny substance, that covers the hard strong cover- ing of a bony cobtexture, which encloses the Testudo imbricata, Linn. The lamelltri or plates of this tortoise are 13 in number, and may be readily separated from the bony parts by placing fire beneath ~he shell, thereby they start asunder. They vary in thickness from one eight to one quarter of an inch, accordin, to the age and size of the animal, and weight from S to 2.i pounds. The larger the animal, the better is the shell. This substance may be softened by the heat of boiling water; and if compressed in this state by screws in iron or brass moulds, it may be bent into any shape The moulds being then plunged in cold water, the shell becomes fixed in the form imparted by the mould. If the tornings or filings of tortoise-shell be subjected skilfully to gradu- ally increased compression between moul~fs immersed in boiling water, compact objects of any desired ornameiital figure or device may be produced The soldering of two pieces of scale is easily effected, by placing their edges toaelher, after they are nicely fil- ed to one bevel, and then squeezing them bet weet, the long flat jiws of hot iron pinchers, iiiade somewhat like a hair dressers curling- tongs. The pinchers should be srroiig, thick, and just hut enough to brown paper slightly without burning it. They may be soldered of free sulphric acid, besides portions of sul- phates of lime, magnesia, iron and alumina. They have been observed in the townships of Byron, Elba, and Warren, N. Y. and also near Brantford, in Western Canada. That near Brantford contains, by analysis, about S parts in 1,000 of sulphuric acid. The amount of baser materials is very small,while an examination of the same spring, three years since, shows that although the water was less acid it contained as large an amount ofsulphates as at present, and vas a saturated solution of gypsum. It evolved large quantities of car- bonic acid gas. The spring was situated on a small hillock, near the roots of a large pine tree now in decaywhile the earth around was barren for several rods. These fiucts show that the spring has burst out, within a very recent period, and that from some cause or other it is rapidly changing. The decrease in the amount of lime, while the amount of free acid is increased, plainly indicates that it no longer acts on the limestone rocks which here underlie; and lead to the conclu- sion, which must be regarded as at least very probable, that by this action on the calcareous rock it has formed a mass of gypsum, which by its crystalization and expansion has raised the mound and at length formed such a mass as to protect the limestone from ifs farther ac- tion. On Some Properties of Alumina. It has been observed by Wittstein that the precipitate which is obtained from the per. sulphate or per-chloride of iron, if kept for a great length of time in water, loses almost entirely the property of being soluble in ace- tic acid. Mr Phillips noticed a similar phe- nomenon with alumina, arising without doubt from the action of the cohesive forces. Where- as the sesquioxide of iron requires one, or probably two years for the production of the effect; alumina undergoes the change partially ma very short time :the precipitated alum- ma does not, however, assume a crystalline appearance, stated to be the case with coher- ing sesquioxide of iron, If the precipitated alumina is kept for two days moist, and in the solution from which it was precipitated, even sulphuric acid does net immediately dissolve it. Antimony. It is to a monk that we are indebted for the discovery of Antimony as a metal. Antimo- ny, although known for a long time, had ex- ercised the untiring patience and researches of the most zealous and ardent alchemists, who deceived by its lustre, had entertained the hope of converting it into a niore perfect metal, the ideal of ail their operations, that is to say, silver or gold. Antimony was long used in a most queer manner for certain dis- eases in which this metal was thought benefi- cial, by being administered only in small doses. To obtain this result, small halls of this metal were made and were known under the name of perpetual pills, because of their being transmitted from generation to gene- ration, without having lost any of their pur~ gative p roperties. scientific 2~anctican. New Boring Machine. Mr. D. Mathews, superintendant of Messrs. Murray & Co.s machine shop Baltimore, Md. has invented a new Boring Machine which our valuable exchange the Baltimore Sun, says will doubtless be of great advantage to ma- chinists, since its susceptibility of application to boring generally is guarantied by the pe- culiar principles contained in its construction. Some idea of its advantages may be inferred from the fact that it Wili accomplish the ex- ecution of a work in one-sixth of the time ordinarily required by the common process, and will bore out more than fifteen hundred pounds of heavy metal in twenty hours. An- other great advantage derivable from its con- struction is proven by the mode of operation, creating the eyes by the extraction of the me- tal in one piece, whereas the plan generally used, chisels the substance in such a manner as to produce shavings, thereby occasioning further loss. New Piano Attachment. Messrs. Boardman and Gray, Piano Forte manufacturers, Albany, N. Y, have lately in- vented a new attachment which is styled the Dolce Compana, and produces, when attached to the Piano, a sound not unlike the rich music of the bells of the Swiss ringers, lately among us. Those who have heard it pronounce it to be more beautiful and soft than what was called Colemans Lolian Attachment, (but which turned out to be Coopers of Savannah, Georgia. improvement in Pumps. ThornasE. Shull, of Lewistown,has inven- ted an improved Double acting force and lift Pump. New process to Color Stone and to make it hard and impermeable. This is a recent French invention to make porus stone impermeable to moisture and also to color itany color. Whether this is the stone used in Paris for printing on the com- mon press, or not, we cannot tell, although it is somewhat reasonable to suppose that if a figure is drawn upon porous stone with a tal- low crayon, and then the rest of the stone bit down with sulphuric acid to leave the lines clear, then hardened as follows, it would print well on the common press. When the stone is wanted a dark color, a solution is made of 83 parts tar, 10 parts bitu- men and 3 parts tallow with a small portion of linseed oil. These ingredients are put in a suitable vessel, and boiled; the patentee prefers using a boiler with a cover, in which a pipe is inserted, by which the spirit and gases liberated in the boiling can be carried off and condensed. When the solution boils, the stone is placed on a suitable frame, and lowered by a small crane into the boiling so- lution. The stone is placed in a frame for the greater convenience of removing it from the solution. When the stone has~to be soaked through, it will require to be left in the boiling solu- tion for from 8 to 48 hours, according to the size of the stone; but if it is required that the solution should penetrate one inch, two hours immersion will be sufficient; or for two in- ches, four hours; or for four inches, eight hours ; but the time required will vary with different kinds of stonesome stone is of that porous nature, that the pores at the surface will not become filled up even after long con- tinued boiling; in this case mix with a por- tion of the above-mentioned solution, a mix- ture of carbonate of lime, rust of iron, gra- nite, and potters clay, in fine powder. The stone is allowed to cool, and then this com- pound is applied to the surface with a hot iron or other convenient means. When it is required that the stone should be of a light color, instead of employing tar as the base of the solution, employ resin of the slightest color that can be obtained, together with turpentine and other oils, and all kinds of gum, in the proportion of 80 parts turpen- tine, 1~ per cent. resin, and the proportions of gums according to the nature; this solution is applied to the stone in the same manner as the above. When the stone is required to have a clear white color, add to the above last mentioned solution, white lead, and zinc, and carbonate of lime. In all cases when the stone is tq be colored, this last-mentioned compound is always to be used as a ground, to which may be added for a redred lead, oxide of iron, Chinese red,-Chinese vermillion, dra- gons blood; for greenacetate of copper, We here present two views of a machine in- vented by Messrs. Dowdy & Sweet, No. 33 Cross st. this city. Fig 1 is a side elevation and fig, 2 a view of the cutter stock and cut- ters. A, is a stout table. H, is a strong up- right post in the middle of the table. To this post the cutter shaft C, is secured by proper bearings D D, to allow it to revolve. F, is a screw which passes through a bearing G, into an opening in the head of N. J, is an eleva- ting bed or rest for the plank that is to be cut into bungs. It is fixed on a treadle J, which is by a foot spring K, which when pressed upon towards L, the bong bed is elevated through an opening in the middle of the table, and as the foot presses K, so is the plank fed up to the cutter till the hung is cut, when the foot being released the hung is driven out by a spiral spring which will be better understood by fig, 2. FIG. 2. A, is the cutter stock. It is of a cylindri- Iron Ore. Prof. Ehrenberg has discovered that bog iron ore, from which the beautiful Berlin castings are made, originates from an animal- cule that once had life, the whole mass being composed of the bodies of myriads of these animals; and that the Tripoli or polishing powder, so extensively used in the arts and in Berlin to form the castings of moulds in the iron-foundries, is entirely con-iposed of the shells of similar animalcule, capable o~ Brunswick green; for bluecobalt, Prussian blue; for yellowochre. This is the subject of a foreign pttent to Francois Teychene, now of LondonED. Yankee Music in London. The London Atheneum for August announ- ces the arrival at 142 Strand, of one of the best specimens of pianofortes, manufactur- ed by Chickering, of Boston ; price seventy five guineas. Aye, Mrs. Atheneum, Brother Jonathan is not only bound to cool all the wine in Eng- land with his icemake all the babies dance with his jumper, but is bound to make all the Dutchesses, Countesses and all the other ss trip the light fantastic toe to Chickerings Piano. cal form with an opening through the centre and a thread a short distance at the upper end to screv in the shaft C. In the centre of the cutter stock is a spindle with a spiral spring on it represented by D. The spring does not reech to the ends of die spindle, The spin- dle by an opening in C, the shaft, is allowed to pass into it when the plank is fed into the cutters, but when this bung is cut this spiral spring in the centre of the cutter stock re- coils as the feed table is lowered and throws out the cut bong. This is the object and use of the interior spiral spring and spindle. G F H, are the cutters. Each is a distinct piece and each performs a different office. They are all set on to the cutter stock which is turned on the outside, leaving them to sit around it like a ring, where they are covered with a snug collar B, and a screw E E, for each cutter secures them to the cutter stock. The inside of the cutters is like a cup and they are arranged almost like screws of diffe- rent pitch. F, has two little spurs on it one on the inner side and the other on the outer. These cut the cresses of the groove in the plank for the bong, when H follows after and scoops it out, cutting on the outside of the hungboth of these cut straight without any taperG, is the taper cutter. It is gradu- ated in the edge to the bottom of the cutter stock, therefore it gradually planes the taper of the hung, after the other two cutters have done the rough work. This makes the work easy on the machine, which cuts out about 20 bungs per minute, hand fed, with great ease On fhe bottc~n of the stock in the inside of the cutters, there is a small knife that rims off the edge of the hung. This machine has been in operation successfully for some time, and measures have been taken to secure a patent. bearing a red heat without destroying their outer casting or shells. Our inoulders are practically acquainted with this fact already. Gunshot Wounds. At a recent meeting of the Academy of Medicine, Paris, M. Blandin argued that, contrary to general opinion, in gunshot wounds the ball caused a larger wound at its point of entrance than it did at the point of its exit. ISSUED FROM THE UNITED STATEs PATENT OFFICE, For the week ending Oct. 3, 1848. To James E. Ellen, of Granville Co. N. C. for improvement in machines for cleaning To- bacco leaves. Patented Oct. 3, 1848. To Cornelius L Goodrich, of Ann Harbor, Michigan, for improved machine for planish- ing and hammering metal. Patented Oct. 3, 1848. To Jos. M. Marsh, of New York City, for improvement in Printing Presses. Patented Oct. 3, 1848. To John Robertson, of Brooklyn, N. Y., for improved method of manufacturing Sheet Lead. Patented Oct. 3, 1848. To E. C. Sherman, of Philadelphia, Pa., for improvement in Cream Freezers. Paten- ted Oct. 3, 1848. - To A. D. Brown, of New York City. for im- provement in Harness Saddles. Patented Oct. 3, 1848. To E. J. Mallet, of New York City, for im- proved Bell Telegraph. Patented Oct. 3,1846. To Edwin Butterfield, joint inventor with and assignee of G. W. Clark, of Lowell, Mass. for improvement in Mills for Grinding. Pa- tented Oct. 3, 1848. To E. Sampson and C. S. Collier, of Wen- thersfield, Vt., for improvement in Scales for Weighing. Patented Oct. 3, 1848. To Lewis Norton, of Madison, Conn., for improvement in Mills for Grinding. Patented Oct. 3, 1848. To Marvin Smith, of Meriden, Conn, for improved Table Cutlery. Patented Oct. 3,. 1848. To J. W. Wilson, of Syracuse, N. Y., for improvement in machines for Hoisting. Pa- tented Oct. 3, 1848. To Zachariah Griffin, of Montgomery, Ala. for improvement in Mills for Grinding. Pa- tented Oct. 3, 1848. To Levi Hall, of Adrian, Michigan, for im- proved Saddle Frame. Patented Oct. 3, 1848. To William B. North, of Jersey City, N. J. for improvement in Mills for Grinding. Pa- tented Oct. 3, 1848. To Edward Rouse, of Augusta, Maine, for improved method of Steering Vessels. Paten- ted Oct. 3, 1848. To R. B. and A. C. Jennings, of Livermore, Maine, for improvement in Horse Rakes. Pa- tented Oct. 3, 1848. To J. Yoder, J. Gillford, and E. Grover, of Juniata, Pa., for improvement in Corn Plan- ters. Patented Oct. 3, 1848. INVi~NTOuS CLAIMS. Horse Power. To James Bogardus, of New York City, for Sun and Planet Horse Power. Patented Au- gust 29, 1848. ClaimWhat he claims is making the central standard in which the central shafts turns and on- which the main sleeve of the travelling wing turns a part of, and projecting upwards from the base frame of which the master wheel makes part, when this is combined with the wing, to which the horse level or beam is attached, and made with two sleeves, one fitting to and turning on the central standard, and the other forming the box for the arbor or shaft of the planet wheel. Miii Stones. To Frances Kelsey, of New York City, for improvement in mill stones. Patented Aug. 29th, 1848. What he claims is the mode of constructing mill stones by means of the face plate, groove strips, and partition boards, and the mode of arranging and securing the grind- ing fragments. Coal. To Win. Eashy, of Washington, D. C., for method of converting fine coal into solid lumps. Patented Aug. 29th, 1848. What he claims is the formation of small particles of any variety of coal into solid lumps by pressure. 28 New Jnutntion0. BUNG CUTTING MACHINE.---Flgure 1. H The Telegraphic System. Tne subject of Telegraphs at the present moment, is engaging deeply the hearts ami minds of our people. From the east and the west letters have poured in upon us respect- ing the legitimate and true claims of telegra- phic inventors. The late decision of Judge Monroe of Kentucky, granting an absolute injunction, against a system of telegraphing use4 by H. OReilly, Esq. because it conflict- ed with the claims of Professor Morse, has been the subject of many bulky communica- tionsto a great number of our newspapers. We have already expressed our opinions up- on that decision, so far as it touched one point of the conflict, viz, the Electro Magnetic Te- legraph. There is another point of that de- cision on which we have not yet expressed our opinion, viz. Electro Magnetism. From the decision of Judge Monroe, unjust as it is ridiculousthe exclusive monopoly of Elec- tro Magnetism is held to be secured to Profes- sor Morse, for telegraphic purposes. Now Professor Morse has no right or title or claim to any other mode but that of the Electro Magneta mechanical use of the magnet in combination with a galvanic current. This we are prepared to show, awl will say no more at present upon the subject, but will com- mnence next week and publish a series of ar- ticles on this subject, so as to set clearly be- fore the minds of our readersthe distinctive features of the different telegraphs, and the claims of telegraphic inventors. We consi- der it is our duty to do this, as there are ma- ny conflicting opinions on the subject, and there is too much partisan feeling exhibited by the interested friends of opposing parties to judge calmly of the matter. As the Scientific American is happily al- ways clear of party interest in conflicting claims, we are thereby, not from superior at- tainments but circumstantial and business du- ty, enabled, perhaps, to give the subject a more calm examination than any other paper. The 1~1echaniC Arts. The true value of the mechanic arts, is be- coming more extensively known, and the rights of the toilers more firmly and honestly advocated. We are glad to see thisit is ev- idence of a more divine spirit infused into onr popular literature, than when priest and poet held the working classes to be nothing but appendages of the rich mans estate or the titled nobles pompous train. The arti- cle which follows this is selected from the New York Sun of last week, and we justly deem it tobe a clear and energetic exposition of the value of the Industrial Artsand the benefit of those arts to every country that en- courages them. We poblish it for its real worth and with the hope that more attention and encouragement would be given to our in- ventors and mechanics, for it is a stubborn fact, that while huge tomes are printed for the benefit of our agricultural interests, and the information contained therein collected by our Patent Office,a few pages only are devoted to the mechanical interests of our country, and the most important information in refer- ence to last yee~s inventions, has not yet been printed. The interests of our mechanical classes are sacrificed in a great measure to those of another class. Our inventors have justly complained of this, and we hope that this will call attention to the subject in the right quarter. We seek no more than even-handed justice Value of lanufactures to a Country. Whoever enchances the v alue of a mate- rial for use or trade, is as much a producer as he who produces the material itself. Though the soil is the basis of production, inasmuch as its mines, forests and farm-fields yield the raw material to labor, there are after-trans- mutations and transformations which in car- rying the raw material to its inal uses add to, double, and often give a thousand fold value to that material. The flax, hemp, cotton and wool of the farmer owe more than fifty per cent, of their glory to other hands, before they arrive at their highest uses and value. Thus communities may flourish in wealth and production, without turning a furrow, delving in a mine or hewing down a tree in a forest. Manufacture is equally noble, useful and productive as its basis, agriculture ; and no nation can be rich and powerful in com- merce that does not foster it. Few consider how much manufacture adds to the wealth of nations, by enhancing the value of its raw materials. How much more the ship is worth complete from the hands of art than the timber, iron and hemp of which it is composedor the broadcloth, than the wool and dye-woods used in its fabricor the boots, than the leather in the tanners vats. A pound of cotton wool worth as raw mate- rial ten cents, has been made worth twenty five dollars by trie process of spinningwoven into muslin and ornamented iii a tambour, its value has been raised to seventy-five dollars. An ounce of Flanders thread h~ss been sold for twenty dollars, while, made into lace, the same ounce has been sold for two hundred dollars. Steel may by manufacture, be made three hundred times dearer than standard gold, weight for weight. Lead manufactured into small printing type, is increased twenty eight times in value. Iron made into needles is increased in value seventy-five times into the finest scissors, nearly five hundred times ; as blades of pen knives, seven hun- dred times; as sword handles, polished steel, one thousand times. Thus, manufacture is the best friend of that labor which brings forth the raw material, and the manufacturer from ten to a thousand times a greater producer than the cotton grower and the miner. The raw material is the basis, but manufacture is the crown of national wealth, and the chapter of political economy which man should most study, is that which relates to arts by which the value of his raw material is increased ad-infinitum. Those are the arts of manufacture New Telegraphic Line. A new line of Telegraph is about to be put in operation between this city and Boston by Mr. OReilly. We have been informed that Bains electro chemical telegraph (a cut of which appear- ed in No. 35 vol. 3 of the Scientific American,) is to be used on this line, and, for the trans- mission of foreign news at least, it will dis- tance all competition, as by it 1000 letters can be transmitted from Boston to this city in one minute. It will do all the business with one wire. We last week visited the rooms of Mr. Bain in Broadway, this city, and we must confess that we believe him to be the first electric engineer in the world. Perpetual motion may be said to be achieved by his electric clock, for it will go for 100 years without winding up. His autograph telegraph is exceedingly ingenious as by it the fac simile of any per- son s handwriting may be sent from this city to any other in the Union, and this too with- out an operator touching the machine after it is once set in motion. This is a wonderful invention, and is as yet in its infancy. We have no doubt but electric clocks will yet supersede all other kinds. They are very simple and require no attention whatever. A battery composed of a few inches of zinc and charcoal, will propel one for years, and one battery will keep fifty clocks in motion as ea- sily as one. One clock in this city will keep fifty clocks in motion at all the different tele- graph stations connected with the central one here. Progress In Useful Art. Mr. G. H. Backus, 44 Fulton-st. is now manufacturing Paper Mache goods, such as Japanned Tables, Chairs, & c. & c., heretofore exclusively imported from Europe or from China, and is determined to surpass the best foreign articles in his line, at once in beau- ty, durabillity and cheapness. His specimens of inlaid ornamental Japanned work are now ready for the pribhic, but they can scarcely fail to win admiration and patronage; and if he were but knavish enough to pass off his fabrics as freshly impoited from Paris, he might rapidly acquire a fortune. The Camera Lucida, This is the name given to a beautiful lit- tle instrument designed as an assistant in the art of drawing, by means of which any person, without previous practice or instruction is enabled to produce upon paper, with pen or pencil a correct drawing of any desired object, whether of landscape, portrait, building or machine. The principle of the Camera Lu- cida has long being known, being similar to the Camera Obscura ; its present portable form however, so as to be applicable to landscape and other drawings, is a recent invention and evi~leritly of great utility. By the simple ar- rangementof a mirror and lenses in this in- strument, a most perfect representation in mi- niature of the object desired to be drawn, is thrown down upon the paper in front of the operator, and to trace with a pencil the out- line and shading of this representation is the only labor to produce a correct and elegant drawing. The instrument is 14 inches long by 10 inches wide at its base, about 12 inches high, shaped as seen in the above cut. A is a slide in the top of the instrument, within which the mirror and lenses are placed. B is a small knob or handle by which the slide is raised or depressed in order to change the focus to suit different eyesights. C is a shal- low drawer at the bottom wherein the paper is placed upon which the drawing is to be made. The reflection of the objecr enters the aperture in the slide, seen near A, and strik- ing on a mirror inside, placed at an angle of 45 degrees, the rays are thus thrown down- wards through the lenses within, and fall up- on the white paper in the drawer below, form- ing upon it a most brilliant and correct repre- sentation of the object in front of the Camera. D is an aperture through which the operator looks down upon the image on the paper to guide the hand while tracing. On each side of the instrument is an arm hole or sleeve, E, through which the hands are introduced while drawing, sufficiently large to allow them an easy and free movement. Those who have used the Camera Lucida are at first surprised at the elegance and correctness which the in- strument enables them to execute drawings. As a medium for useful amusement in families it is unequalled; the portraits of all its mem- eers can be taken by one of their own number as well as pictures of the homestead and sur- rounding scenery. Of-its great convenience and utility to almost every person, it is unne- cessary to speak, as it speaks for itself. For the convenience of our subscribers and others, we have lately had a large number of the most approved kind constructed, and have them now ready for sale at the very low sum of $6 each. We can send them in boxes with perfect safety to any part of the United States and those who wish them have only to en- close to us by mail the amount above named and they shall be promptly supplied. The Weather Strip. This is a very useful and simple invention, and no door that opens to the street especially, should be without it. It costs but little, while it saves much, both by keeping out rain in wet weather and cold in the winter season The Agent for it in this State, is Mr. Thomas Judd, of Geneva, an upright dealer, who vis- ited us last week and exhibited the Weather Strip. He is now in Pennsylvania selling rights and will be found for a few weeks in Philadelphia. The Cholera. This disease will perhaps reach us next year, if not, so much the better, but it is al- ways prudent to prepare for the worst. The cholera appears to be carried by a poison in- fused in the atmosphere, which acts with pe- culiar intensity on the mucous membrane ef the alimentary canal. The irritation set up in the membrane, in most cases, is not vio- lent at first, but if it be allowed to continue many hours unchecked, it produces such a change in the membrane, that the thin and colorless portion of the blood is poured out from it with the same rapidity as if a large opening were made in the great vein of the arm. Our care must therefore be directed against the presence of an atmosphere which is rendered impure by neglected drainage and the want of proper ventillation and means of promoting salubrity. Documents published by the British Government show that chole- raic poison has been freely propagated in all those districts where drainage was neglected, and filth allowed to accumulate, and also show as clearly that places kept free from damp and impurity, and where personal cleanliness and the general health were attended to, were scarcely ever visited with the malady. The Dutch, the cleanest people in the world, es- caped. Florida Reef and Everglades, At last the Senate of the United States has been aroused from its lethargy on the subject of the wrecks on the Florida Reefs and Keys, by the mass of evidence submitted to that bo- dy by the Hon. Mr. Westcott. His Report shows that the average of a million of dollars value is annually wrecked on the Florida Reef and Keys, for the want of an accurate chart of that coast. Not less than fifty three vessels were wrecked in 1846, valued, with their car- goes, at sixteen hundred and twenty four thou- sand dollars. To prevent a renewal of such disasters, he proposes that our merchants me- morialize Congress, that the coast surveyors be instructed to explore that part of Florida without further delay. He also remarks, that although Florida has been held by the United States for twenty seven years yet no original American Chart has ever been made of its dangerous coast; that navigators have to de- pend upon old Spanish charts, and those made by the British from 1763 to 1784, and imita- tions of them by Blunt and others. It is also proposed to drain the Everglades, a work which we hope will be executed. Central Florida is perhaps the finest country in the world, not even excepting the valley of Da- mascus. Borrowing. Will our worthy exchange, the Albion, St. John, N. B. examine page 176 of the Glas- gow Practical Mechanic for 1847, and stand somewhat corrected. The volume, we be- lieve, is in the St. Johns Mechanics Library. It is not original even with the excellent Ma- gazine to which we refer, as the process was in our possession before the date of its pub- lication. Pianlag Machines. In the course of one or two weeks we will a- gaincommence the publication of the specifica- tions of Planing Machine PatentsBenthams of 1793, Emmons, Muirs, & c. in succession. Disease from Intemperance. Dr. Darwin speaking of disease in London says it is remarked that all the diseases aris- ing from drinking spirituous or fomented liquors are liable to become hereditary, even to the third generation ; and gradually to in- crease, if the cause be continued, till the fa- mily becomes extinct. THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. Persons wishing to subscribe for this paper have only to enclose the amount in a letter di rected (post paid) to MUNN & COMPANY, Publishers of the Scientific American, Ne~ York City TERMs.$2 a year; ONE DOLLAR IN ADVANCEthe remainder in 13 months Postmasters are respectfully requested to receive subscriptions for this Paper, to whom a discount of 25 per cent will be allowed. Any person sending us 4 subscribers for 6 months, shall receive a copy of the paper for the samelength of time NEW YORK, Oi.~aOBER 14, 1848. 30 ~citntit~t american. For the Scientific American. Pateiit Laws.SelIIrg before the issue privilege of notice of conflicting applica. Foreign Correspondence. man; and I have no doubt if there is any per- of a Patent. tions, (not conflicting Caveats.) Dear Scient~/lc.Trade in our city is still son living who can Construct a good rotary en- No 2. As the statute says nothing concerning sales enshrouded in gloomthe foreign market UP. gine, Mr. McDowall is the person. It is said By ~I5 Act of 1S36, it is enacted that if a under Caveats, they must be governed by the on which our hive of working bees depend, that he greatly assisted Malcom Muir in the paterdee, or other person interested, sue for same rules as sales before applications. is at present, and has been for a long time invention of his famous planing machine and an infringement, the defendant shall obtain a These I have before set forth, and are all con- much depressed, consequently there is much he has long been famous among us for many judgment in his own favor with costs, if tamed in 7 of the Act 01 1S39 first recited, suffering among our working people, for where useful inventions. it will take time however, he prove the thing patented was in public It appears then, that sales of new inven- there is no work, there is no pay. All por- to prove the superiority of his Parallelopiped use or on sale with the consent and allowance tions may be made before a regular applica- tions of our community are suffering on this You will perceive that in this city of me- of the patentee, before his application for a tion for a patent is filed in the office, (for it is account, for there is less consumed than when chanics, we are still doing something for the patent. 6 of the same Act provides that a the filing of petition, specification, drawings trade was good, hence circulation is curtail- benefit of Science and Art. Our engineers patent may be issued to any inventor, for any and model, that constitutes the applica. ed and our farmers and merchants are alike feel somewhat proud of the success of the machine, & c. which, besides being new, is tion.) But every specific machine, s~ie- involved in the common distress. I trust this new steamers built here for the Royal Mail not at the time of his application for a pa- cimen or identical article sold, prejor to the may he a warning to them, and that their line, but in no instance have I heard any vain tent, in public use or on sale, with his con- application may at any time be resold hy the hearts and eyes will he opened (for their own boasting or exulting at their success. As a sent or allowance as the inventor or discove- purchaser, as well after as before the patent sakes) to the importance ofgood wages and general thing, our engineers are well educa- rer ; and 7 directs the Commissioner to is- issues : though any person who buys of him plenty of work, being a benefit to all. ted and have perhaps the best opportunities sue a patent for any thing which, among other after the patent is applied for, is entitled on- The cholera is expected to visit our pent in the world to acquire a good education in things, has not been in public use or on ly to use the purchase, which he may do up cit~, and there are some miserable lanes drawing and mathematics. This is owing to sale, with the applicants consent or allow without liability therefor to the patentee or and streets, such as the Vennels and one cal an excellent Mechanics Institute being foun ance. All these provisions, however, are any person interested. led Goose Dubbs, that will be swept of their ded for the very purpose of instructing work amended by 7 of the Act of 1839 before re One important fact must always be borne in I inhabitants as if a blast of the desert swept ingmen and especially apprentices, by good cited, although no words of . are mind. If the inventor does not apply for a I through them. , I would desire to warn used, for that section covers the whole ground patent within two years after the first sale York against the coming pestilen~ as - evening classes. T. M~C. invention to in Glasgow, Sept. 20, 1848. ofsales, and being in effect and operation con- of his any individual, he cannot j all likelihood it will reach you the coming trary to the anterior provisions just mention- obtain a patent, provided that fact be made summer Let the poor in your city, be ex For the Scientific Amemicaa. ed, it must take their place. The term, pub- known at the office, or if he do obtain a pa- :horted, and if need be, compelled to cleanli- TurnIng or Irregumar Forms. tent it will fdr lic use, as above used, is judicially interpre- hat reason be held void, ness and proper ventillation, and no undue During the lasteighty years Lathes for turn- ted to meannot a universal or extensive when ever the subject is brought before the fears need be entertained for the Seourge of ing irregular forms from a model, have been use, but a use by one or more persons than Courts upon a suit for infringement Asia, brought to great perfection. The machines the inventor, in such an open manner that Rochester, .N F. w. F. LIDDELL. A new Tidal and Meteorological Clock has for turning ships blocks and dead-eyes, as de- the public or any person who desires may oh- ( To be continued.) been erected in the passenger waiting room scrihed in th,e different Encyclopedias, and tam a knowledge of the invention : and the at our Steamboat Quay, Broomielaw. It is an the Rose Lathe, are well known in Europe F 05551 Footprints. instrument of a very ingenious and intricate and this country. In 1815, or earlier, Azari- same interpretation is given to the expres. Dexter Marsh, sions on sale, vending, & c. by which is Ma9e many years a mechanic of Greenfield, description, and one which will prove of im- ab Woolworth, an ingenious mechanic of Con- meant the exposing of any article or articles, ago, discovered on the flag. mense value to science. It may be described necticut, invented a lathe for turning lasts, ging stones with which he was laying a side as a self-acting and self.registering tide, wind, with the use of the revolving cutters, a guide in any shop, store, or other place, in any man- walk what appeared ner, for 9ale to any person who is willing to foot-prints of and weather guage. The instrument consists and a model ; these parts1 viz, the cutters, buy. Whether the article be actually 501(1 r ced th of eight parts viz. some strange bird. The geologists pronoun- - . guide and model, ~he did not claim as his, as used is of no consequence : it is enough if the em to be such, and to belong to a period The Clock, which shows the hours and they had been in use many years before, but owner was willing or desirous to sell it, and ~ before the creation of man. This discovery minutes. his lathe enabled the mechanic to turn right this fact were or might become known toany of Mr so excited the curiosity and scientific ardor The Barometer, indicating at each hour the and left lasts from the same model, and by a others besides himself, who could purchase Marsh, that he has since made it his pressure of the atmosphere. happy adaptation of its parts Irerformed the if they would. amusement to look for such impressions, and The Tide Guage, exhibiting the time of work admirably. Woolworth after various In regard to sales made afterfiling a cave- he has traversed the valley from the northern high and low water also the depth in feet. experiments applied for a patent and obtain- husette line at, the law is not fully settled, and, until the Massac o Wethersfield, Cono. , The Spate (freshet) Guage, showing the ed it in April 1820, and sold his right Tho- subject comes before the Supreme Court, de- Sometimes spending weeks in quarrying rocks height to which spates in the river rise above mas Blanchard also got up a lathe, after Wool- with the sole view of discovering these ancient cisions at the Circuits will, as heretofore, be the tide at high water. worths, but obtained a patent prior in date as far as possible, it may be proper to . tracks. ~ In the last number of Sillimans The Anemometer, indicating the force of the two lathes were necrly alike, the varia- conflicting. But, to correct misapprehension Journal of Science, he gives a brief account the wind, expressed in lbs. tions were more formal than aubstantial and em- brace the subject of sales in a brief general of his labors and successes, from which we The Thermometer,showingthetemperature Blanchard, as did lVoolworth, disclaimed the . may understand that the Connecticut valley, of the air. cutter wheel, guide and model as his inven. exposition of the whole doctrine concerning in by gone ages, was a favorite resort ofbirds. The Anoznoe~opo, ehowin~ the drrcotio~ of tion, os thcy trial treeu in use for many years, Caveats. By 12 Act of 1836, any person who has that would have made no more of ~eutting a the wind. and as such a. claim would have made his pa- not matured his invention, and yet has the man in their crops, than turkies do of swal- The Rain Guage, which indicates when the tent void. These two conflicting rights led same so far completed that it can be clearly lowing grasshoppers ~ rain commences, the time of its duration, and to litigation, but it was settled by Blanchards perceived to he a new invention though not a Mr Marsh has in his Possession more than the amount of rain fallen, expressed in tenths buying his opponents patent. Woolworths undred foot-pr perfect one, may, by filing a description and eight h ints of birds and quad- ofan inch. patent has expired, but Blanchards patent drawing (where one can be made) and a peti- . rupede besides having furnished many spec. All the changes in tides and weather are has been continued by Acts obtained from tiora setting forth his desire for protection, (at others, in this and other countries. indicated by curved or sectional lines on a Congress upon the mistaken assumption that the same time paying $20,) have the same de- In sam ecasesthese specimens are so distinct large sheet of ruled paper, wrapped round a his invention was prior to Woolworths. posited in the confidential archives of the as not only to show the joints of the toes, but vertical cylinder, which revolves once in a The lathes of Woolworth and Blanchard Office. If within one ~,ear after thefil- fecf imnpressio the per n of the skin. He has week. The fidelity of the pencils tracing could only turn a resemblance to the model, perfect tracks of quadrupeds so small that a their reports is most wonderful. There they and also could add to the length without ad- ing, application for a patent is made by any half dim other person for an invention which is similar . e will cover the whole foot and silent work day and night. ding to the breadth, and vice versa. . A set of are at their most or in any way conflicts with the former, the again others of birds where the foot measures Every change of tide, the measurement of its lasts, 14 in number, of differentsizes, requir- person filingthe caveatis notified of that fact haifa yardtrom the toeto the heel, so that if height ; thechanges in the wind, its force ; ed that number of models, and this was an by the Commissioner, and must then within the birds which made them were proportion. the state of the atmosphere, with the hours at expense of both time and material. three months, file his specifleation, model and ed like those we now have, they must have which all these phenomena take place, are About 1842, a new lathe for turning lasts drawings, or, in other words, must mature his stood twenty feet high. 4 observed and noted with unerring accuracy. was invented by Sylvester S. Chase, an inge- invention and apply regularly for a patent, or He has sometimes followed the track of a This must elaborate and comprehensive in- nious mechanic of PhiladNphia, which, by the other inventor will receive a patent. If bird thirty or forty fdet in the rock, the track strument is the construction of the Messrs. the ingenious combination ofits parts, enables he apply in due form, then his right to a pa- being at first faint as if on hard soil ; then Bryson at Edinburgh, and has been erected the mechanic to produce from a single model tent will be decided in the same manner as more distinct, as if imprinted on the sand at by the Clyde Trustees at a cost of about 250. all sizes of lasts. Chase uses the cutter-wheel, twoconflicting applications for a patent, that the waters edge, and finally sinking in the We do not know of any other such instru- guide and model, with a combination of le- is to say, proof as to which was the first ~ mud and disappearIng in the water. He has in existence. The only other attempt at such vers working on the principle of the Pento- ventor, which is by first ascertaining who first one slab four or five inches thick, upon which registrations was toade by the Royal Society graph, and produces the work with rapidity made a model or specimen of the invent ion, the track 5 appear as mere straight lines upon of Edinburgh. But, alas for the interests of and the best degree of accuracy. Chase did and communicated a knowledge of it to the tIre surface ; hut on Spliting it into five layers, science, after a year of unobserved observa- not patent his invention, and it is therefore public (viz. any other person beside himaclt,) they grow more and more distinct, till the tions the whole thing was given up, because common property. and if the Caveator prevail he obtains a pa- lower slab shows where the foot rested, j ust the Royal Society could not afford to keep a The lathe of Chase has now superseded the tent on the payment of $10. as if when the stone was in a state of mud, person to superintend the machine, and regis- ethers which were constructed on the prin- If however, no conflicting claims be made the bird trod down to the bottom of it, and or. ter its observations ! It is to be hoped, how- ciple of Woolworths and Blanchards The atthe office within one year, the Caveator is withdrawing the foot themud closed up. ever that no short not entitled to any notice of anothers appli- Among these tracks are many very unlike will . .sighted policy of this kind lathes now made by Blanchard are made upon prevent our lruatees from maintain- Chases plan. Mr. Chase constructs lathes cation subsequently ; and though he may at to those made by any known animals, but ing and registering all the results furnished upon the principle he invented, and they any time thereafter, obtain a patent on the still so marked as to leave nodoubt that ani by this heautifulinstrument have been found so superior as to exclude payment of $10, ($20 having been paid for mals made them. A sort of Kangaroo, for A new kind of steam engine called the Pa- competition. Yours, & c. the Caveat,) yet if a patent has in the mean- example, Thows very small fore feet, and very rallelopiped, has lately been invented by Mr. Philadelphia. J. B. ELDRIDGE. time been granted to another, which embra- large hind ones. Of this the Journal of John McDowall, of Johostone, a place about ces the same invention or any part of it, he Science gives a striking cut. 12 miles from this city, and a short distance The animalcules possess the most consid. must take steps to set that aside, which are, ignorance and Crime, from the birth place of the immortal Wallace. erable generative power in organic nature, a by presenting facts and evidence before a spe- By the official return it appears that of the Tne engine of Mr. McDowall Las been high- single individual being able in a few hours to cial Board of Examiners to show that he was ~ prisoners in the Durham counv Goal, En ly praised by some, but in spite of its pom produce several millions of beings like it the first and true inventor. f gland who took their trials at the summer as t~~5 name, it is no more than a kind of semi selt. _____________________________________________________________________ The filing of a Caveat, then, it is evident, j sizes, 25 could neither read nor write, whilst rotary, but certainly a most excellent one. The principal Railway companies in Eng is n-t equivalent to an application for a pa J the remaining 21 could only read and write The inventor of it is a man of great ingenu land have all declared reduced dividends for tent, and the only protection it gives is the imperfectly. ity, and a thoroughly scientific and practical the first six months of this year. TO CORRESPONDENTS. 0. P. B. of Ill.Of the many machines for making Brick now in use, Adams is the best we know of. Nathanial Adams, Canter- bury, Orange Co. N. Y. is the inventor, from whom, by addressing him a kiter, you can obtain e~ery particular you may desire. His machines have been thoroughly tested. Much obliged for your exertions in our behalf. Hope to receive your drawing soon. $5, 0. K. W. R. G. of N. Y.A locomotive boiler combining all the requisites you desire will cost, for a 4 horse engine $400 ; for a 6 horse engine $600. Ordinary boilers can be had i~uch less, but for the purpose you have in view uncommon care will be required in the construction. V. P. K. of N. Y.At the lAace you speak of, they keep their machinery as secret as possible allowing no one to see it, No pre- paration is required..that we are aware of be- forehand, except the thorough drying of the article. Keep trying and you will hit the mark. You can get your Nos. bound and the missing ones supplied, by sending to us. E. J. C. of Miss.Of all the metals Cop- per is the best conductor of Electricity and a lightning rod formed of small copper wires twisted together, forms the best protection for buildings. A conductor of this kind is almost as flexible as a rod ; some contrivance is therefore necessary in order to make it stand erect above the building. For this purpose a common iron tube of a size sufficient to with- stand the force of the wind is employed, through which the conductor is drawn and then soldered to a pointed cap of copper, the base of its cap being a little longer than the tube. The tube may be fastened up in any convenient manner. The conductor should be about three eights of an inch in diameter, its lower end extending into the ground at least 4 feet. Conductors should project as high as possible fiom the chimnies. If a tree taller than the building stands near, a conduc- tor should be placed thereon. N. S. of Boston.We have delayed wri- ting to you because we were expecting daily to ieceive the sample which you mention as sending to us by Adams & Co. The money was received and we have given you credit for the amount. T. H. L. of Mass.It is very difficult to give the desired information as iron is a very sensitive metal. For wheels and such things, we know not how the real purified malleable iron can be dispensed with, yet we have been told that a little manganese and chalk does wonderstbk we could not positively recom- mend, although on a small experiment it was successful. C. L. Y. of Ohio.Ear trumpets can be made in this city. They are of great benefit. We will endeavor to tell you more about them. A. B. of Va.We expect to hear from you soon. T. J. C. of Md.The letter is now out of our possession and the name we cannot re- member. It is a pity you did not write two months ago. The place of residence, however, is Niagara Falls. A. B. of Ohio,The plan you describe has been several times tried, hut as yet un- successfully. For ourselves, we think it can- not be made to operate. i~. S. Mail Steamship.. The U. S. Mail Steamships of the New York and Liverpool line, are in rapid progress of construction. They are to be five in num- ber, and the proprietors and agents of the line, Messrs. Collins & Co., have selected Occeanic names for their Ocean Steamers. They are to be called the Atlantic the Pacific, the Arctic, the Adriatic and the Baltic. The first two will be launched about the 1st of De- cember, and two otheis in time to keep up the line. They are to be of about 2,900 tons each, and built in the best manner and with all the improvements which experience both at home and abroad have suggested. We ex- pect from these to compete successfully with the Royal Mail Line. Plctorlai National Society. This cheap and popular Magazine conti- nues to thrive and is one of the best Monthlies with ~which we are acquainted. It is full of splendid wood Engravings representing Ame- rican views, and is composed of 48 pages of interesting reading matter printed on fine pa- per. Simonds and Co. Publishers, 12 School st. Boston; price $2 per annum. Paimers Business Mens Aissiassac. This is the best Almanac for 1849, that we have seen. Every working man and mer- chant should have one. Price 12~ cents, at the TribuneBuildings. There is a fund of information in it, not amusing, but what is better, instructive. The Union for October. A splendid iiumber indeed is the October of the Union Magazine, and we take pleasure in calling the attention of our friends to it. The better Morning by Sadd, is a fine pic- ture and worth a dollar of itself, besides it has five other plates that are but little inferior. Published at 142 Nassau st. Agency Revoked. In consequenceofthe non fulfilment of ma- ny promises made by one W. H. Canifr, of Utica, N. Y., Agent for the Scientific Ameri- can, we hereby withdraw our Agency from, him and request that no person will pay him any monies on our account. Wanteda local agent to fill the above sta- tion who will act honorably both to his sub- scribers and the publishers. 2~ucttL~cmcntz. GENERAL AGENTS FOR THE SCIENTIFIC AIOKaZCAN. New turk City, - GRO. DEXTER. Boston, - - - Messrs. HoTossEiss Philadelphia, - - STOKEs & BROTHER. LOCAL AGENTS. Albany, - - - Andovet, Mass. - Baltimore, Md., - - Bermuda islands - Bridgeport, Ct. - Cabotville, Mass., Concord, N. H. Cincinnati, 0. - Dover, N. H. - - Fall River, Mass. - Hartford, Ct., - - Houston, Texas, - Halifax, Nova Scotia, Jamestown, N. Y. - Lynn, Mass, - - Middletown, Ct., - Norwich, Ct., - - - New Haven, Ct., - Newburg, N. Y. - Newark, N. J., - - Nowerk, N.J - - New Orleans. La. - Paterson, N. J. - Providence, R. I., - Rochester, N. Y. - Springfield, Mass., -. - Salem Mass., - - - Saco, Me., - - - - Savannah, Geo - Syracuse, N. Y. - - Taunton, Mass., Vicksburg, Miss. Williamsburgh, - - Webster, Mass. - & Co. PETER COOK. - BA. RUSSELL. - S. SANDS. WASHINGTON & (0. SANFORD & CORNWALL B. F. BROwN. Rusus MERRELL. STRATTON & BARNARD. D. L. NoRRIs. POPE & CHACK. B. H. BowEal. J. W. COPES & Co B. G. FULLER. B.. Bisasep. J. E. F. MARsH. Was. WoonwARo SAFFOED & PARES. B. DSwNEs. S. A: WHITE. J.L AGENS. it.obvrLKesiiRW. J. C. MORGAN. A. H. DOuGLAJs. H. & J. S. RowE. D. M. DEWEY. Was B. BROCKET. M. BEsIEY, L. CHANDLER. iSAAC CROORER. JOHN CARUTHERS. W. L. PALMER. W. P. SEAVER. J. B. MATEs. J. C. GANDER. J. M. SHUMWAT. CITY CARRIERS. CLARK SELLECE, SquIRE SELLECK. Persons residing in the city or Brooklyn, can have the paper left at their residences reguilarlybysend ing their address to the office, 128 Fulton at, 2d door To Mill Owners. liT AVILAND & TUTTLES Patent Centre Vent i--- Pressure Water WheelThese wheels are now in successful operation in many towns in Maine, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island, and are found to surpass in power and facility of adaptation any wa ter wheei now io use. This wheel was awarded the silver medal at the Fair of the American institute recently held in New York and a diploma at the Mechanics Fair in Boston. The wheels are manufactured and for sale by the FULTON IRON FOUNDRY CO., South Boston, Masswhere the wheels can be seun and any infor mation concerning them had. Patent Rights for different States, Counties, & c. for sale.as above. o14 3m~ Those Hats KNOX of 125 Fulton street, is on hand with his Autumn style of Hats, and as usual furnishes a little prettier shape, made of a little better material and for a much less price than many of his Broad- way friends who boast of the superiority of their productions. The public wont swallow that gammon, gentle- men, and you had better put your prices down to Knoxs standard price, before he detracts ALL those regular customers from Broadway into Fulton at. o7 PECKS PATENT VISE WITh FOOT LEVEII. HIS Vise is worked entirely by the foot and is admitted by all who have used them to be the best and, strength, saving of time and convenience considered, the cheapest Vise in use. For sale by QUINCY & DELAPIERE, 71 John st. New York Geo. H. Gray & Co. Boston Curtis & Hand, Phila- delphia Way & Brothers, Hartford and by the proprietor, J. S. GRIFFING, o7 2m New Haven, Ct. The Best Pateat Agency in the United States. !f H B subscribers would respectfully give notice -- thatthey still continue to attend to Patent Office business as usual. The long experience they have had in securing patents. together with their unri- valled facilities, enabies them lo say that THE B ~ST PATENT AGENCY, in the United States, IS AT TH OFFICE OF TIlE SCIENTIFIC AMERI- CAN, New York. Itis not necessary, as commonly supposed, for an inventorto make ajoorney to Wash- ington in person, in order to secure a Patent, as he cannot in any manner hasten the Patent or. ake his invention more secure. Any bnsineos coonected with she Patent Office may be done by letter, through the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN OFFICE, with the same facility and certaiLty as though the inventor came in person. From a want of knowledge on this point, applicants for patents are often ohliged to submit to great vexation, with loss of much money and time. They also fseqrsently fall into the hands of designing persons, and lose their Inventions as well as money. Those who wish to take out Pat. outs or enter Caveats, should by all means have the business transacted through the SCIENTIFIC ASIERI- CAN OFFICE, as they may thels RELY upon its being done in a straight forward and prompt manner, on the very lowest terms. All letters must be POsT PAID and directed to MUNN & CO., Publishers of the Scientific American, s9 128 Fulton street, New York. Tue largest, best and cheapest Dictionary in the Englssh language, is confessedly WEBSTERS, the entire work, unabridged, in 1 vol. Crown Quar- to, 1452 pp. with portrait of the author, revised by Professor Goodrich, of Yale College. Price, $6. The most COMPLETE, ACCURATE, and RELIABLE Dictionary of the Language, is the recent testimo- ny given to this work by many Presidents of Col- leges, and oilier distinguished literary men through- out the country. Containing three times the amount of matter of any other English Dictionary compiled in this coun- try, or any Abridgment of this work, yet ~Its definitions are models of condensation and pu- rity. The most complete work of the kind that any nation can boast of.Horo. Was. B. CALHOUN. We rejoice that it bids fair to become the stan- dard Dictionary to be used by the numerous mil- lions of people who are to inhabit the United States. Signed by 104 members of Congress. Published by G. & C MERRIAM, Springfield, Mass. and for sale by all booksellers. s23 2m Morses Air Distributor, For Burning Saw Dust or Tan instead of Wood for running Steam Engines. STEAM SAW M1LLS are now running and have all the heat they require, from the saw dust and bark, saving the slabs and cord wood heretofore used. Tanneries also by this air distributor, have all the fuel they want by burning the tan. The sa- ving is a great one, and the expence of the arrange- ment trifling, compared to the advantages. The undersigned has the exclusive right to vend, use, and manufacture Morses Air Distributor, in the state of New York, to whom application may CII 1110110. i~syInfringements on this patent will be prosecut- ed, and the rights secured by the letters patent rig- idly enforced. Lockport, 8th inn. 28, 1848. L. A. SPALDING. CERTIFICATES. LOCEPORT, N. Y. Sept. 15, 1845 I hereby cersify that 1 have one of Morse & Bro- thers Air Distributors, in my Steam Saw Mill at this place. My fire place is 11 feet by four feet 9 inches1 under 3 duo Boilers, 12 feet long by 40 inches dia- meter. Ihave2engines, the cylinders are, one of id and one of 10 inch diameter, and 2 feet stroke. The sawdust, bark and clips from the oak plank I am sawiug (without any cord wood or slabs) is all sufficient for driving my two Gang saws for plank, and five gang of Saws for sawing stone. I have a superior chimney. The draft is perfect. My engineer and Firemen say, they get up steam in about half the time they formerly took. To me the saving is greatany one can calculate for him- self. GEO. REYNALE. To L. A. SPALDINO. We have been running a Steam Engine for some years, to propel machinery for driving a tannery with a large bark Mill, two sets heavy Hide Mills, four Pumps, one Roller, two Last Machines for Turning Lasts, two Machines for finishing Lasts, and one Cir- cular Saw for sawing timberthe Engine supposed to be fourteen horse powerin which we used two cords of wood (hard) per day. Thirty-three days ago to-day we were induced to try Morses Patent Grates, or Air Distributor, and to our entire satisfac- tion. We find a saving of at least 4 dollars per day in using Tan. We find no trouble in raising all the Steam we want, with Tan. Since we have put in your Patent Burner, we have not used a stick of wood, and we cheerfully recommend them to any, and to all who wish to save wood, where Saw-dust, Tan or coal maybe used. N. CASE & CO. Buffalo, June 19, 1848 s21 4t THE WEST STREET FOUNDRY, corner of Beach and West streets, will furnish at the ahortest notice, Steam Engines and Boilers in all their varieties, and on the moat reasonable terms, together with castings of brass or iron, and machi- nery in general. Orders attended to with dispatch, ace particular attention given to repairing. JOSEPH B. COFFEE, AGENT. Steam Boats, Engines, Machinery, Ec. bought and sold on commissionapply as above. s23 Imo TALI3OTS PATENT BLIND HINGE. THE simlersigned having become interested in ture and sale of the above article, would state that their facilities are such, that they can supply any demand at short notice. This hinge, having stood the test of two years trial, has folly established itself as a useful and important in- vention, being all that can be desired for blind trimmings, as the blind is managed entirely from the inside of the house without raising the sash, COMPLETELY locks it, and prevents all unpleassnt noise of the blind by wind. American Window Trimming Company, Taunton, Mass. Address GRO - GODFREY, AgentA. W. T. Co. s23 3m HOW TO OBTAIN THE PREMIUM. THE Subscriber would respectsully inform all per- sons having articles exhibiting at the FAIR, that __________________________________________ he is prepared to execute engravings on wood for circulars, & c. sit the shortest notice, and on the most POWER TO LET RARE CHANCE. reasonable terms 7~HREE rooms, 40 feet square, one room 60 by 40 Particular attention given to engravings of Machi- .5- feet 2ad don r, power from engine, 25 in. cylin. nery, Stoves, Buildings, & c. der, 4 1-2 feet stroke. Let together or in arts. Ap. WARREN G. BUTLER, ply at West street Foundry, corner of each and 07 113 Fulton street, cor. Cliff. West streetS. a23 3m Judsons Stave Dressing~ Ma chine. THIS Machine, on which Letters PaWat were granted May 1st, 1847, has been in suoceesful operation for the past year, and hundreds of thou- sands of staves have been dressed by it. It is war ranted to dress the same quantity of staves with as little power as any that can be started, also leave the fuilthickness on thin edges and thin ends, and conform as near to the crooks and twists of the tim- ber as can be desired. The jointing of the machine which accompanies it, has been subjected to the se- verest test, and pronounced superior to that perfor- med by hand. Application for a patent on the Joint- er has been made. Large quantities of Hogiheads and Shooks made with staves dressed and jousted with t.isir machines have been sold and used to the entire satisfaction of the purchasers. For rights and machines address the proprietors at their Manufactory, Artizan street, New Haven, Connecticut, where machines in full operation may be seen. JUDSON & PARDEB. New Haven, July 17, 1748. jy29 in5 GENERAL PATENT AGENCY. REMOVED. HE SUBSCRIBER has removed his Patent Agent -U- cy from 189 Water to 43 Fulton street. The object of this Agency is to enable Inventors to realize something for their inventions, either by tke sale of Patent Goods or Patent Rights. Charges moderate, and no charge wilibe made un ilithe inventor realizes something frembis invention. Letters Patent will he secured upon moderate terms. Applications can be made to the undersign ed, personsily or by letter post paid. aDS SAMUEL C. HILLS, Patent Agent. Johnson & Robbins, Consalting Engineers and Cnunseiior. for Patentees. Office on F street, opposite Patent Office, Washing- ton,D.C. jl7tf Saws. I EAVITT & MDANIEL, Concorll, N. H., make of --.J the best cast steel the following Saws Circular, Mill, Tennon, Cross-cut, Fellow and Ve- neering Saws. Also, Turning and Billet Webs, and Butchers Bow Saws. No saws ever made equalto their cast steel Mill Saws. The trade supplied on liberal terms. s21 2m0 UNIVERSAL CHUCKS FOR TURNING LATHES For sale by the Manu- facturers Agents, QUINCY & DEALA PIERRE, 81 John street New York. s2 3m0 Coal. r~j~ HE Subscriber has constantly for sale by the ear- ~gnorton all sizes of Coal for MANUFACTURERS and FAress.sEs, from the best Schuylkill asid Lehigh mines. Hazleton and Spring Mountain, lump and steamboat Coal. Tamaqisa Chemnut for engines. Peach Orchard and other red ash Coal. Mid lothian, Virginia, a superior article for smiths use. Cum- borland, Sidney and Liverpool Coal. For sale at the LOWEST market prices. J. P. OSTROM, au5 3m0 corner 10th Avenue and 26th at. PREMIUM SLIDE LATHE. criber is constantly building his improv- ~ of all sizes, from 7 to 30 feet long, and caa execute orders at short notice. JAME~S T. PERKINS, Hudson Machisse Shop and iron Works, mil Hudson, N. Y. Agricultural Implements. lJrJinventors and Manufacturers of superior Aj. ricultural implements may find customers for their goods by applying at the Agricultural Warehouse of 5- C. HILLS & CO. 43 Fulton at. auS Machinery. p ERSONSresiding in any part of the United Statee -who are in want of Machines Engines, Laffles5 OR ANY DESCRIPTION OF MACHINERY, can have their orders promptly executed by addressing the Pub- lishers of this paper. From at -extensive acqusia- tRace among the principal machinists assd a long ac perience in mechanical matters they have uncom- mon facillties for the selection of the best mitchinery and will faithfully attend to any business entrusted totheircare MUNN & CO. all %~N~AV~ ~ eqThe above is prepared to execute all ordersat the shortest notice and on the most reasonable terms. Lap welded Wrought Iron Tubes FOR TUBULAJ.\ BOiLERS, From 1 1-4 to 6 inches diameter, and any length, not exceeding 17 feet. TJIHESE Tubes are of the same quality and mamul J..facture as those extensively used in England, Scotland, France and Germany, for Locomotive, Ma rine and other Steam Engine Boilers. THOI\IAS PROSSER, Patentee, d25 25 Platt street, New York TO IRON FOUNI)ERS. P ulvarize d bituminous, or sea-coal Facing, an ap- proved article for mixing with moulding sand to make the sand leave the castings easi1y. Also fine bolted 0charcoal and anthracite enal dust, soap- stone, and black lead on hand in barrels, and for sale by G. 0. ROBERTSON, s21 4t~ Importer, 283 West 17th street, N. Y. STEAM BOILER. BENTL~YS Patent Tubular and other Boilers of any siRe, shape or power, made to order, by SAMUEL C. HILLS & CO. sinS 45 Fulton st. ~cicntitic 2~4mcri~im partly partakes, both of the nature of a gas and a fluid, it being a gas at common tempe- rature, but changes into the fluid state by the abstraction of its heat. Tha rest are all fluids and increase in their specific gravities as the aggregation proceeds. The boiling points al- so agree with the conditions required, for it is well understood that if a substance exists I as a gas at common temperatures, then must For the Scientific American. its boiling point be far below common tempe- New Chemical Law. ratures, consequently the first two substances, No. 4 which exist at common temperatures in the All the conditions required by this law can- state of a gas, possess boiling points far be- not at present be given, because there are ma- low common temperatures. The third sub- ny substances with which we are but little stance, Amilene, is fluid at common tempera- acquainted. The result of future experiments tures, consequently its boiling point ~nust be greater than that of Etheiene, and so we pass on until we arrive at Cetene, which possesses a boiling point as high as 5270. Upon exam- ination, the specific gravities of their vapors will be found nearly proportional to their ato- mic weight. S. N. .I3ridgeport, Oonn. I To a great number ot our readers, the es- says we are now publishing on Chemistry, will appear like lectures on Greek. This is owing to a want of general knowledge res- pecting the terms and symbols that are used to designate this and that substance. We must, however, coincide with the require- inents of the law. All those essential oils, which are consid- ered as having the compositiorot CS, H4, I consider as aggregated compounds produced from one radial. By classifying them accord- ing to the requirements of the law, that is, by their specific gravities, boiling points, & c. we should obtain their true composition. The specific gravities of their vapors would be of the utmost importance in the calculation. would advise our readers to get an elementa- ry work on Chemistry and master the terms the first thing that should be done in the ac- quirement of any science. We urge this up- on our readers for we desire to see a more general diffusion of chemical knowledge a- mong our people. Kanes Chemistry is a good work and will be found very instructive, and it can be purchased at almost all the Book StoresED. The Solublilty of the Oxides of Iron, Cop- per, and Cobalt, in Uaustlc Potash. In making use of the apparatus invented by M. Liebig, for the determination of carbonic acid, M. Volkir of Berlin, Prussia, found that the solution of caustic potash employed, was at first quite clear, contained, after the pas- sage through it of carbonic acid, a brown fib- culent precipitate of oxide of iron. Some di- rect experiments, made with a concentrated solution of caustic potash and oxide of iron, recently precipitated, confirmed the nature of this substance consequently, M. Volkir re- commends, for the separation of alumina and oxide of iron, a solution of caustic potash, and moderately concentrated (if the solution be too diluted the alumina will be but parti- ally dissolved.) The oxides of copper and cobalt dissolve in large quantities in caustic potash, so much so that we can even employ the solution of this first named oxide to de- termine small quantities of grape sugar. mix- ed with cane sugar, which reduces the detox- ide of copper to the state of protoxide. In order to assure himself of the correctness of the statement of M. Berzelius, that the solu- bility of oxide of copper in caustic potash waidue only to the presence of organic matters M. Volkir acted with the greatest possible precaution; lie states, however, he found his experiments fully confirmed. The solution This law shows the probable reason of the so- lidity of caoutchouc, a substance possessing the same empirical composition, as the above named essential oils, but is probably a sub- stance of the highest state of aggregation. Chysene C12, H4, solid, Idrialine, C21,H7, solid. The radial of this series is probably C3, H. Sp.Gr. B.Pt S.G.Vap Napthaline ClO, H4, 1,048 4130 4,488. Paranapthaline C20, H8, Chemists have not yet decided on the true formula of the above substance. The specific gravities of their vapors would decide this point precisely. The specific gravity and boiling point of paranapthaline are not given but they are greater than those of Napthaline There is no doubt but many other substances belong to this family which have have not yet been examined. Chlorine is capable of being substituted for the hydrogen in the above substances, accord- ing to the Theory of Types and Substitation by Dumas, which does not in the least inter- fere with the operation of this law, but is ra ther a help, as the conditions required by the law remain the same. The following gives an instance of the com- pounds of an aggregiited series with hydrogen, forming hydracids, although the substances cou~posing the series have not been discover- ed in their uncombined state. The conditions required cf compounds by this law, should therefore be existent here. Unfortunately the specific gravities and boiling points of these substances have not been given. Future ex- periments are wanting to show the applica- tion of the law to this example. Mellitic Acid C4, 04-1-H. Croconic Acid CS, 05+H. Rhodizonic Acid C7, 07-4-H. While the boiling points of the above class of substances must iiicrease, their specific gra- vities may decrease ; Whether they increase or decrease however, it must be accompanied of the oxide of copper in caustic potash, may be diluted with water, without a separation by a constant regularity. The carbonic oxides are the substances composing the aggregated series, and are probably derived by the ag- gregation of the radical C 0. Many other instances can be given illustra- ting the truth of the law, but I shall conclude the example by the introduction of a class highly important, as it is a class v~ith which chemists are more particularly acquainted, and of which the specific gravities, boiling points, & c. have generally been previously calculated. I have reference to the radical C H, and the substances produced by its aggre- gation. Sp. Gr. B. Point. Olefiant Gas 2C, H gas. Etherene 4 C, H. ,627 fluid. Amilene 10 C,H. fluid. Cetene 32 C, H. 527~ fluid. (No name) 33 C, H. fluid. 34 C, H. fluid. All equicarb hydrogens may be included in the above series. It may be observed that as the radical aggregates, the general density of the substances produced increase, thus the first ot the list is a gas the next, however, of t he oxide of copper. When a current of chlorine is passed through a solution of the oxide of copper, in caustic potash, the liquid assumes a deep green; but the moment that the alkali is completely saturated with chlor- me, the combination which was formed is decomposed, the oxide of copper is precipi- tated, and chlorine disengaged. Cure for Toothache. Dr. Arnott, of Brighton, says in the London Lancet. A degree of cold below the freezing point ~sf water is, I believe, a new agent in therapeutics, which would, probably, be use~ fully employed for various other important purposes A solution of salt, of a very low temperature, by acting on the exposed nerve, might at once, and permanently, remove tooth- achie. Iron pipe compared with Wood. A pipe of cast iron 14 inches diameter and three quarters of an inch thick will sustain a head of water of 600 feet. One of oak, 2 inches thick and of the same diameter will sustain a head of 180 feet. Ristory of the Rotary Engine. Prepared ezpressly for the Scientrfic ./Ime- rican. cooR 5 ROTARY ENGINE, This drawing and description is taken from the transactions of the Royal Irish Academy for 1787, and was the invention of a Mr. Cooke of Dublin, we believe. FIG 8. On the circumference of a wheel eight vanes or flaps are attached by joints, which are formed to open somewhat more than half ef their circumference. During the revolution of the wheel the valves, which are on the lower half of the circumference, hang in a vertical direction by their ov~n gravity. C C C, are the valves or flaps; B, is the tube which admits steam from the boiler; A a tube leading to the condenser. K K, is the case in which the wheel H H, is enclosedthis case is to be steam tight. The wheel being supposed in the situation in the figure, the valves prevent any communication between the boiler and condenser. Steam is now ad- mitted at B and, passing on C C, forces them forward in its passage to the condenser and produces movement. The condenser is work- ed by a crank in its axis, and a rod D is ex- tended from it which keeps a constant vacu- um in that half of the steam case : by this means a power is added to the steam equal to the weight of the atmosphere; so that, when the force of the steam is only equal to the pressure of the atmosphere, and the valves are six inches square, the wheel will be forc- ed round by a power equal to 531 1-4 lbs. placed on its circumference. The construction of this machine is very poor and its operation impracticable. The South of Ireland has been singularly deficient in mecha- nical invention and discovery, although she has produced some splendid artists. The North of Ireland which claims a different paternity from the South, has on the other hand been very greatly distinguished from mechanical invention, but on the whole Ireland has done nothing in inventions to the number of the people and to their well known quickness of learning when an opportunity of a proper edu- cation is offered. Attraction of Cohesion. Particles of matter, when brought close to- gether, or within insensible distances, have a tendency to cohere or stick together. This is termed the attraction of cohesion. Under the influence .of this attraction particles of floid matter, arrange themselves around a centre and take a globular form. The dew drop, suspended from the point of a thorn is a familiar example of matter thus acting. If two such drops are brought together they will instantly unite, a new and conimon centre will be established for both and they will re- solve themselves into a new mass equally glo- bular as before. Attraction ,of Gravitation. Particles of matter have a tendency to move or be drawn towards each other, called the at- traction of gravitation. If we take two frag- - ments of-cork, no matter how small and set them afloat in a cup of water, we see the ope- ration of this law. If kept a considerable dis- tance apart, the impediments to their mutual attraction being too strong, they will not come together. But if brought within a short dis- tance of each other we shall observe them be- gin mutually to exercise an influence over each other, and immediately they will rush together and so remain. A Metal that expands most In Cooling. Lead 9 parts, Bismuth 1 part, Antimony 2 parts. To Remove Rust from Poiished Steel. Rub the spots with any kind of soft animal fat, and lay the articles by, wrapped up in thick paper for two or three days; then af- ter cleaning off the grease with a piece of soft flannel, rub the spots well with powdered rotten stone and sweet oil, after which the po- lish may be restored by rubbing with powder- ed emery on soft leather; and the process may be finished with finely powdered chalk or magnesia.E - A better plan is to take soft soap and rub the knives, & c. on a board with rotten-stone, and afterwards polish up with Tripoli. Char- coal ground to powder is one of the best things ever discovered to clean knives. This is a late and valuable discovery. How to PlaflI Chesauts. The plan of raising the chesnut is this: the nuts must not be suffered to become stock dry. Plant them in the spring of the year. The first winter protect them from the frost, or they are apt to be killed by the freezing. The next spring transplant in the following man- ner : Select a dry soil, dig a hole 18 inches deep, 3 feet wide: fill it up with small loose stones and clay to within six inches of the surface; set your tree on that; take care of it and it will grow well, and in four years bear nuts. The chesnut should be more attended to, than it isit is valuable food and very nou- rishing. In Italy the chesnuts grow to the size of small apples and are used as food by the peasantry. Tides. The difference in the the time between high water averages about 49 minutes each day. Baked Apples are greatly improved by be- jng baked in a bright tin or earthen plate, with a little water in, and a small quantity of sugar sprinkled over them. Mechanical Paper IN THE WORLD! / - FOURTH YEAR OF THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN! 416 Pages of most valuable information, illustrate with upwards of 500 MECHANiCAL ENQRAVINGS: Orj.-The Scientific American differs entirely from the magazines and papers which dood tue country, as it is a Weekly Journal of Art, Science and Me. chanics, having for its object the advancement ~: the INTERESTS OF MECHANICS, MAN1JFA TURERS and INVENTORS Each number is -. lustrated with from five to TEN original ENGR ~- VINGS OF NEW MECHANICAL INVENTION -. nearly all of the best inventions which are pateutei at Washington being illustrated in the Scientific American. it also contains a Weekly Liet of Amer. ican Patents; notices of the progress of all Mechan- ical and Scientific Improvements; practical direc tions on the construction, management and use of all kinds of MACHINERY, TOOLS, & C.; Essays upon Mechanics, Chemistry and Architecture; ac- counts of Foreign Inventions; advice to inventors; Rail Road Intelligence,together with a vast amount of other interesting, valuable and useful information. The SCIENTIFIC AMERiCAN is the most popular journal of the kind ever published, and of more im- portance to the interests of MECHANICS and IN- VENTORS than any thing they could possibly ob - tam! To Farmers it is also particularly useful, as it will apprise them of all Agricultural Improve- ments, instruct them in various mechanical trades, & c. & c. It is printed with clear type on beautiful paper, and being adapted to binding, the subscriber is possessed, at the end of the year, of a large vol- ume of 416 pages. illustrated with upwards of 500 mechanical engravings. TERMS: Single subscription, $2 a year in ad. vance; $1 for six months. Those who wish to sub. scribe have only to enclose the amount an a letter, directed to MUNN & CO. Publishers of the Scientific American, 128 Fulton street, New York. All Lettters must be Post Paid. INDUCEMENTS FOR CLUBBING. S copies for 6 month~ $4 00 S 12 $800 10 6 $750 10 12 $1500 20 6 $1500 20 12 $3000 Southern and Western Money taken at par for sub- scriptions. Post Office Stamps taken at their full value. A SPLENDID PRESENT! To any person whe will send us Three Subscri- bers, we will present a copy of the PATENT LAWS OP THE UNITED STATES, together with all the informa- tion relative to PATENT OFFICE 5U51NE55, including full directions for taking out Patents, method of ma- king the Specifications, Claims, Drawings, Models, buying, selling, and transfering Patent Rights, 5cc. This is a present of GREAT vALUE, yet may be obtain- ed for nothing, by the reader of this prospectus, if he will take the trouble to get Three Subscribers to the Scientific American. It will be an easy matter to obtain two names besides his own. MUNN & CO., Scientific American Office, N. I 32

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0 citutific 2trnericftu. THE ADVOCATE OF INDUSTRY, AND JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC, MECHANICAL AND OTHER IMPROVEMENTS. )4~oI. ~i. Ncu ~otk, QYctober 21, 18~iS. No. & THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN: CiRCULATION 11,000. PUBLISHED WEEKLY. At 128 Fulton Street, New York (Sun Building,) and 13 Court Street, Boston, Mass. By Munn & Company. The Principal Office being at New York. WEIUIS---$2 a year$l in advance, and the remainder in 6 months. u-See advertisement on last page. lPoettv. ALONE. Twas midnight and he sat alone The husband of the dead, That day the dark dust had been thrown Upon her buried head. Her orphaned children round him slept, But in their sleep would moan; Then fell the first tear he had wept He felt he was alone. The world was full of life and light, But, ab no more for him! His little world once warm and bright It now was cold and dim, Where was her sv,eet and smiling face? Where was her cordial tone? He gszed around his dwelling place, And felt he was alone. He looked into his cold, wild heart, All sad and unresigned, He asked how he had done his part To one so true, so kind? Each error past he tried to track 0 could tie I~ut.atnne L Would give his life to bring her back In vainhe was alone. He slept at last but when he dreamed (Perchance her spirit woke,) A soft light oer his pillow gleamed, A voice in music spoke Forgotforgiven all neglect Thy love recalled alone; The Babes I leave ; oh, love, protect I still am all thine own. THERE IS GOOD iN THE WORLD. There is good in the world, Though sin may defile it; There is joy mid our tears, Though man may revile it, Though crimes mighty banner Is in darkness unfurled, Yet remember this truth There is good in the world! In the worst of our kind Theres a remnant of good, It we knew but the cord, Or the sensitive mood, By which their kind feelings Might again be unfurled, Then their actions would prove There was good in the world! PATCHS PROPELLER. This is is a mew propeller invented by Mr. John Patch, a very ingenious mechanic of Boston, which he calls the Double Action Propeller, and which was tried on a small boat in Boston, with only one propeller of three fans made of thin metal and a chrono- meter spring for a motive power, and was ve- ry successfulsome good practical men ex- pressing themselves highly pleased with its action and simplicity. Its novelty consists in applying the propeller on a horizontal shaft, one propeller on each side as represented in the engraving. A A, is the shaft connected with the driv- ing power and made to work in a proper sus- pension bearing D. B B and C C, are angu- lar fans made of metal and joined together at the parts where they meet on the shaft, being bolted to the same. Each fan is bent in an elliptical form, and when two fans meet their relative position to the shaft is at an angle of about 30 degrees. Owing to this shape of the fans and their position to the shaft, they act upon the water when the shaft is turned to propel a vessel as has been proven, vith a great propelling tendency. Every person will at once see by the above engraving, that it is different from other pro- pellers that have been used and that it is ex- Hints to Wives. If your husband occasionally looks a little troubled when he comes home, do not say to him, with an alarmed countenance, What ails you, my dear ? Dont bother him ; he will tell you of his own accord, if need be. Dont rattle a hail storm of fun about his ears neitherbe observent, and quiet. Dont suppose whenever he is silent and thought- ful that you are of course the cause. Let him alone until he is inclined to talk ; take up your needlework (pleasantly, cheerfully, not pouting, nor sullenly), and wait until he is inclined to be sociable. Dont let him ever find a shirt button missing. A shirt- buttoii being off a collar or wristband has fre- quently produced the first hurricane in mar- ried life. Mens shirt collars never fit exact- lysee that your husbands are made as well as possible, and then, if he does fret a little about them, never mind it men have a pre- scriptive right to fret about shirt collars. It is Love :Thats the key That shall open the raind; And tis kindness alone Those strong cords can unbind. Let each to his neighbour Those pure feelings herald, Then this truth shall increase That theres good in the world. Riches amid Poverty. Riches and poverty depend on our desires rather than our pocket books. He that gets ________ _____________ ten thousand a year, and spends fifteen, is Flannel. considered rich, and yet he is not half so Flannel is becoming so popular for under much so as the man who works for a dollar dresses in southern as well northern climates, a day and spends six shillings, that the production of it is increasing very ceedingly simple. It is intended to act as a fin is used by some of the monsters of the deep, in propelling a vessel oo the sculling principle, and combining something of the screw at the same time. Each fan has thus an independent propelling action in the wa- ter and it is so formed as to cut the water which resists the motion of the vesselthere- fore its action in the water is very smooth, and it merits the attention of naval men. The two fans as united at the top, keep one another from springing and from its sim- plicity it is not apt to get out of order. The inventor would like if some of our en- terprising ship owners would try one on a large scale and he would be perfectly willing to superinteiid its erection, at a fair mecha- nics wagesa very small consideration in- deed. This is a propeller which we would like to see tried. Those who have seen it operate, consider it very much superior to Erriceons, and while a dolphin can distance. a steamboat, we must not consider ourselves at the ultima of steam boat speed. Measures have been taken to secure a patent. Letters relative to the invention may be di- recte~ to Mr. B. B. Redding, Boston, Mass., from whom any further particulars may be ob- tamed rapidly. Good substantial flannel, yard wide, can be bought now at retail for about 25 cents a yard. It is cheaper at this price, than goods made of cotton or flax, as it will wear twice as long as either. The English physicians have recommended the constant use of flannel for under dresses, as one of the best preserva- tives of uniform good health, and they urge its use particularly at this time, on the approach of the cholera. These are facts which our farmers are deep- ly interested in, as bearing directly upon one of their most delightful occupations, that of sheep raising. Our boundless prairies in the north-west, the rolling lands of Ohio and Ten- nessee, and the secluded districts of New York, Penusylvannia and Virginia, offer boundless facilities for the raising of sheep, and every pound of wool is sure of ready sale at lucrative prices to the farmers. Some are attributing the potatoe rot to gua- no, and we heard little or nothing of the dis- ease before that manure was used; but we likewise seldom heard of it before the railways came into fashion. RAIL ROAD NEWS. New York and Boston Railroad. This Coinp any have determined to place under contract that portion of the line be- tween the cities of New-Haven and Middle- town, as soon as the amount of subscriptions obtained will justify them in so doing. The cost of this portion will not vary much from $550,000, or $22,000 per mile. Of this amount there has already been obtained on the line of Road the sum of $200,000; and $250,000 more (making $450,000 in all) is preferred by gentlemen interested in the portion of the Road from New-York to New. Haven. There remains therefore the sum of $100,000 to be supplien, and for this amount the Company have no resource hut the City of New-Haven. Baltimore and Ohio Railways. The engineers of the Baltimore and Ohio Railway Company have decided, says the Cumberland Civilian, on the Knobby route on the Virginia side of the Potomac) west of thattown Two other routes had been sur- veyedthe lower one, crossing Wills Creek near its mouth, and the upper one leaving the Mount Savage road and crossin; Wills Creek near the tan-yard. The Knobby route is preferred though the most expensive in first cost by $320,000, as the shortest, of least curvature, cheapest to maintain, least expen- sive for transportation, and therefore cheapest in the end. Preventive Railway Collisions. In consequence of the frequent collisions of railway trains on curves, a signal has been invented in England which promises good results. It is worked by a crank, which mnvpe a wire on poles, like the electric telegraph, and operates at a distance of three quarters of a mile. If a train approaches, the lookout turns the crank, and a signal is made at the distance mentioned, and there is time to stop before any danger occurs. Railway Accidents. The number of passengers, says the Lon- don Railway Chronicle, according to the re- turn recently published, who have travelled by railway during the half-year ending on the 30th of June last, amounted to 26,330,492, which is just about the population of England Scotland and Ireland, and some idea may be formed of the tide of human beings who have passed over the country, as Mr. Locke says, by means of two parallel pieces of iron, when we reflect that the official numbers ac- tually represent the transmission of every. man, woman and child in the United Kingdom a certain distance, within the short period of six months, at a speed previously unattaina- ble, and reduction of danger, considering the mass of human beings thus transferred, almost infinitessinial. Archimedes is recorded to have said, if he had standing ground he could move the globe, and though our modern en- gineers have not exactly attempted to work out that problem, they have satisfactorily sol- ved another, which a few short years since would almost have been thought as visionary: The number of accidents figure 189; 90 re- sulted in death, and 99 in injuries more or less severe. Of passengers, 6 unfortunately were killed and 60 hurt from no fault of their own, a wonderfully small proportion when we consider the enormous aggregate who now use this mode of locomotion ; the remainder of the casualties is made up from accidents to railway servants, laborers on the lines in construction, and persons who have taken this novel mode of committing suicide, by precipitating themselves from trains or into their way, but who, in fact, have as much to do with the safety of railway travelling as a man blowing out his brains has to do with the I safety of fire arms. ~ticntitic ~2~4mcricrn. The Fair of the American Institute. No. 2. GOLD PENS. We perceive that gold pens flourish this year in a conspicuous manner, among which Bagleys retains a high position, but we per- ceive a new improvement introduced to the Fair this year by Mr. Barnard A. Warren of York st. Brooklyn. The pen is set in the holder in a peculiar way, and inside is fixed a silver pallet, which, pressing upon the low- er side of the nib, but raising from the body of the ~en itself, serves to hold a supply of ink with one dip to write rapidly a half a page of MSS,while only a given quantity is allowed to flow from the point at each pres- sure of the hand. Thus any danger of blot- ting, with the swiftest writing, is entirely ob- viated, and a great improvement effected, which will be fully and particularly apprecia- ted by all whose occupations force them into a rapid chirography. A cut of this pen is to be found in Vol. 3 Scientific American. TELEGRAPH. Houses electric printing telegraph occupi- ed much attention. It is an ingenious instru- ment and is played like a piano. The mana- gers were communicating by it with Phila- delphia. As we intend to describe this inst- rument more fully in our treatise on the tel- egraph, we will say no more about it at pre- sent. NORTH S SPHERICAL MiLL. This mill of Mr. North, of Jersey City, and but recently patented, is certainly a new and useful improvement in grinding mills. It was ni~hly approved by all those who saw it and understood its principle. The nature of its invention consists in giving a cup with a large ball below rotary motions, the motion of one being contrary to the otherthe very best method of grinding such substances as indigo, & c. Fromone of these mills being in operation at Messrs. Sibree & Co.s, Bergen Hill, its practical results (the only true test of merit) are goodno substance can resist its grinding powers. In the old mills the balls only have motion. ROTARY ENGINE. Gen. Howard exhibited his steam wheel last week, and J. H. Von Schmidt hisrotary pump This pump is very excellent and will tbrow a good stream of water according to the pow- er applied. DOG POWERS. A Dog Power inachine was exhibited by Messrs. Crane, of N. J. It is simply a rotary foot horse power, using the moveable circle as a traction power to drive friction wheels that propel a shaft. This is a much better way to employ dogs than to keep them for yelping. Any farmer might construct a power of this kind, and it is very useful for churning, wash- ing potatoes, shelling corn, & c. HARNESS MACHINE. A machine for making weavers heddles the property of Messrs. Vogel and Thomas of Saccarappa, in Maine, is the most curious and ingenious machine at the Fair or that has been exhibited for many years. It makes beautiful heddlesand one girl can make 18,000 per day. Next week we shall publish a full illus- trated description, of this wonderful machine as we believe that it is of great moment to our manufacturers. More information can be obtained about it at present at this office. AGRICULTURAL IMPROVEMENTS. The Avenue to the Hall is crowded this year as usual4with corn shellers, straw cutters ploughs, & c. We noticed especially the pre- mium Straw Cutter of Mr. Byron Densmore, Brockport, Monroe Co. N. Y. This straw cut- ter was only patented last June, and it uses the best of all ways to cut, namely, the dip and lift motion. It has already taken six pre- iniums and although it is made of the best ma- terials it costs only $15. Farmers should have improvements are of an unusual excellence of his shell dry, ready for parade. It is a most and variety, excellent invention and Mr. Ralston informs A number of very beautiful Omnibuses and us that he has applied for a patent. Hose Carts attract universal attention. A person wearing one of these life preser- WASHING MACHINE. vers can carry from fifty to one hundred lbs., Washing machines are not quite so nume- in addition to their person, and float four per- rous this as last year, and therefore not so sons in the water, without sinking, and can much variety. The Ladies Delight we per- take no other position on the water, except ceive is still favorably exhibited, but Ira with the head and shoulders entirely above the Averys vertical rotary, along with his wrin- water. ger, should be in every familythe wringer The entire person save the face, is enclosed, especially. enabling the wearer to float in an erect, or A very good Clothes Driera series of cir- sleep in a reclining posture, or with paddles cular lines revolving on a vertical shaft is also which are attached, propel himself at the rate exhibited. This is not new, hot very useful. of three miles per hour. His person is kept GAS APPARATUS, entirely dry, and the heat of his body is so Mr. Crutchet exhibits what is called his retained, that he is warm and comfortable, solar gas light, it is a portable retort, and a when floating on water in cold weather. good invention and has been highly recoin- IRON PLANING MACHINES. mended. It is our opinion, that with a small A number of these are exhibited, but that portable gas retort, all our farmers who burn of Mr. Hartson No. 42 Gold st. this city, and hard wood, might save their gas light out of acut of which is to be found page 297 Vol. 3, it, by having a small purifier and receiver. Scientific American is the best that we have They might thus save their tallow which is seen, both as it regards solidity, correctness always a cash article, and beauty of workmanship. Mr. Hartson Mr. A. Maish, exhibits his improved gas me- has a good sale for his machines because his ter, and it has been justly admired. workmanshipthe very essence of good tools PORTABLE FORGE AND BELLOWS. is of the first stamp. Messrs. Taylor and Flaglerof No. 211 Water His Drill at the Fair has been highly prais- st. N. Y., exhibit Mac Queens Portable Forge ed by good practical n.echanics, who are the best judges. Those who desire good Lathes, Iron Planing Machines and Drills, will not be disappointed in purchasing of Mr. Ilartson. ANOTHER FIRE AND WATER PROOF PAINT. Among many substances which have been brought forward for this purpose, we can spe- cially testify that (No. 2015) a paint made from transition argilite, and discovered by James M. Albright of Schenectady, N. Y. is a most excellent and unequalled substance. We have exposed it to heat, air, & c. and it becemes bar- derand better. It can mix with many paints and is not very dark, and it can be employed for all kinds of painting, it being capable of taking a very fine polish. All wood painted with this, is made Fire Proof and we cannot but consider it to be a most important disco- very, for it is cheap and is to be found not confined to one place but scattered throughout our broad land. M. Leverriers Planet. We extract the following from the account given by the National of the last sitting of the Paris Academy of Sciences, on the 29th ult. :That planet,how shall we express and Bellows, which is a good apparatus. A patent was lately secured for a valuable im- provement Oh this forge. E. & S. D. Gould of Newark N. J. exhibit a really good portable Morticing Machine. WINDLASSES. A number of windlasses are exhibited, but we saw none that was superior in our opinion to Mr. C. Leavits of Rockville, Ct. The prin- ciple of this windlass, is the application of the toggle joint in combination with the lever. COOKING STOVES. A great variety of these are exhibited and it is morally impossible to give an opinion regarding their comparative merits. We ob- serve however one defect in every stove, viz. the difficulty in cleaning out the furnace of ashes and cindersthere is not a single stove but might have a sliding perforated bottom in combination with the ribs, whereby it could be cis~i1y clesued uut, hut we suppose that more fingers must suffer before our recommen- dation will be attended tocircular stoves have swinging bottoms, to be sure, but they have the defect of being difficult to kindle. ourselves ?that wonderful planet discovered in the height of the skies, without the use of the telescope by the direct sight of the mind that planet, the discovery of which caused a sensation in the world, dissension between two rival nations, had been an incentive to the imagination of poets, the liberality of chancellors, the passionate curiosity of wom- en and even of children. Well, that planet does not exist. What will you say there is not in the skies a planet called Neptune? That that astra was not seen on the 23d of September 1846, near the star Delta of the Capricorn, by a German named Galle, who was decoratedfor having made the discovery? Since that epoch the new planet has not been again seen by astronomers, who have observed its revolution and measured all its movements? Have astronomers then told a falsehood ? No: Neptune exists, but it is not the planet announced by M. Leverrier. The truth of this assertion was admitted by M. Leverrier himself. Opposition of improvements. On the western coast of England, it has been the custom from time immemorial for a num- ber of old women to act in the capacity of ba- thing the young ladies of the aristocracy. But recently these old bathing women have been greatly scandalized by the intrusion of a new machine which is quite an innovation in its way. It has a moveable screen, behind which damsels can be docked in secret. They regard the whole as a sign of degeneracy and mock modesty. And these ideas are more sensible than some others we have heard advanced against innovations. The Manchester Examiner mentions an argument advanced by a Bolton man to prove that the moon was not inhabitedno Scotch- man had been known to visit it. A PILL MACHINE. A Pill machine is exhibiteda wonderful little catch, roll and snap apparatus. It can grind out pills by the hundred and as a gentle- man observed, it was just the thing for our people. The dough for the pills is fed into a hopper and it is then cut out into pill form by a small revolving wheel with its periphery full of moulds which drops them as it revolves and they are then rubbed and doused over with pill dust and fitted for the bolting Ope- ration. A couple of grooved rollers to feed in the dough, cutting it off at pill distances would form the pill faster, but taking this machine for all in all, it is a unique. MANUFACTURES. We observe some beautiful samples of Cot. ton Cord made at Mr. Noyes factory, in William st. this city. This article, is a splen- did imitation of the imported Linen Cord, and might fairly be mistaken for it. It has all the appearance and nearly the strength certainly no cotton curd ever manufactured before in this country, or any other, can com- pare with it. A NEW LiFE PRESERVER. We witnessed many curious scenes in the city during this week and last, and among the rest we were particularly struck with the properties of a new life preserver invented by Messrs Ralston and Phillips, the former of Washington Co. and the latter of Pittsburg Pa. It consists of an improved dress of india rubber cloth, part of which is inflated and in which the swimmer is encased. We saw Mr. Ralston enjoy a rough and tumble in the East River andhe came out, threw off his preserver and (having all clothes on) not a thread was wet. A young man of the name of Lowell, crossed from Williamsburg to this city in it a distance of about three miles with steam- good tools, and here is a cutter that cannot boats passing him every few minutes, and fail to give satisfaction. The Agricultural when he arrived at Peck Slip, he came out New use for Castor Oil. The Alton Telegraph says: We were pre- sented by Mr. E. Morse of this city, with one of his candles manufactured from castor oil, and were induced to test its qualities with a sperm candle. The experiment resulted in the demonstration that the castor oil lasted longer than the sperm candle, and the light of the former was decidedly more brilliant and extensive than that of the latter. We could not discover the least unpleasant smell from burning the castor oil candle, and believe that they are well calculated to supersede entirely the use of the sperm candle. Mr. M. informs us, they could be afforded by the quantity at twenty-five cents per poundabout one-half the cost of the sperm candles. Will not some of our farmers try olive cul- ture? It grows well in Greece and Spain, and we certainly have the same climate as those countries, in some of our States. No oil combines so well with barilla to form good soap, as the olive. It is good for domestic use as food, and it also burns well. It is a source of great profit to Turkey, as they supply Great Britain for the making of her fine soaps and the dyeing of her Adrianople Red, Vancouvers Island and the Hudsons Bay Company. In the House of Lords, on 20th ult. Lord Mounteagle, in moving for papers relative to the cession of Vancouvers Island to the Hud- sons Bay Company, took the opportunity to urge the impolicy of that transaction. Earl Gray defended the grant, on the ground that it was the most effectual mode of preventing squatting from America, which in a short time would place the practical possession of the Island in the hands of the United States. He asserted that the Hudsons Bay Company were better prepared to colonize the Island than other parties. and that the most ample se- curity had been taken for the proper govern- ment of the colony, and its resumption by the crown at the end of eleven years, on equitable terms if deemed necessary. An aristocratic government gave the Isl- and to the Hudson Bay Company. Well, we hope that the Company will be more gene- rous to emigrants than the government, but wo must say it waa wretched policyas has been proven by every patent grant in the United States and the Canadas The Artesian Well at New Haven. This artesian well it seems is no great shakes of a job after all, as it respects the labor to sink the tubes, for not a single strip of rock had to be drilled for the purpose and only 40 feet of tube was necessary. But one good thing was accomplished viz, the finding of water, not very pure we believe, such a short distance below the surface, to rise to the top of the tube. The pipe was forced down by strong pressure, through about 36 feet of blue mud into a bed of sand, which was pene- trated to the further distance of about four feet, when a bed of gravel was reached, when water rose at the top of the pipe sufficient for all the supply that can be desired. In 1825 there was opened in Cochin China a canal, twenty-three miles long, eighty feet wide, and twelve feet deep. It was begun and finished in six weeks, although carried through large forests and over extensive marshes. 20,000 men worked upon it day and nigbt, and it is stated that 7000 died of fatigue. Soap Stone Griddles for cooking buckwheat cakes have been introduced. They are rep- resented as capital, baking the cake finely and witho~it the use of grease. Mr. J. Orm and a number of artists from this city have gone to the sources of the Hud- son, to take sketches for Townsend & Orrs Panorama of the Hudson River. Volcanic coal is found in abundance in the Sandwich Islands, and burns better than min- eral pitch. The government has hired sixteen of th~ spacious stores on the Atlantic Dock, Brook- lyn, for a period of 15 years, at the rate of $60,000 per annum. Potatoes around this city are fast decaying with the rot. 34 The laleotrle Telegraph. The controversy and litigation going on at present in our country respecting Telegraphs, is misunderstood by many, because those who have endeavored to set the matter in a clear light before the public, have themselves not been sufficiently acquainted with the subject. The dispute does not relate to electricity for conveying messages almost instantaneously to distant places. Electricity was used for tel- egraphing by Lomond in 1787. He used only the electrical machine and this has been used as a set off to Prof. Morse, but the two tele- graphs are very different, as we shall explain in another place. The common electrical machine never could be employed economi- cally for telegraphing, hence until the disco- very of Galvanism, we consider all previous attempts at telegraphing as but so many abor- tive experiments. Galvanism and Electricity, in some res- pects are alike, and in others they are not. Galvanism is continuous in its supplyelec- tricity is not. Galvanism can produce an electro magnetelectricity cannot, and while the former is continuous in its supply, the latter is irregular. The sources of supply, however, may make all this difference, but Prof. Farrady of London, and Professor Dono- van of Dublin, have totally different views re- garding the nature of both, and with these learned men we will leave this controversy, only stating that electricity car~not operate the electro magnetic telegraph. Electro Magnetism is different from Galva- nism. It is the combination of the galvanic current with a magnet, and the claim set up by Professor Morse, is the use of Electro Mag- netism for telegraphic purposes. So says the defenders of Professor Morsea broad ground and a claim denied by Professor Morse him- self. At any ratelet us make the distinc- tion here, that a telegraph operated with - out the magnet, cannot, in the widest sense of the term, be an infringement of a patent for electro magnetism Professor Qersted, of Copenhagen, Den- mark, was the first who developed the power of lightning in destroying and reversing the polarity of the magnet. This was in 1819. The first observation of Qersted was that an electrical current such as is supposed to pass from the positive to the negative pole of a voltaic battery, along a wire which connects them, causes a magnetic needle placed near it to deviate from its natural position. No sooner was this announced to the world than Sir Humphrey Davy discovered that a steel needle, not possessing magnetic proper- ties, became so by placing it in the electric current. This was the first electro magnet, and M Ampere, ot Paris, and Davy made the same discovery at the same time although widely separated from one another, and what is very singular, the needle can be made a per- manent or transitory magnet just by placing it in different positions with the wire of the battery. M. Ampere thus explans electro magnetism and the way to construct an elec- tro magnet. The wire is formed into a hol- low screw, or helix, by rolling it round a so- lid rod wrapping the needle in paper, placing it in the centre of the helix and establishing a communication with the galvanic battery, which conveys the electric current by the spi- ral convolutions round an~ round the needle and communicates to it the electric circula- tion constituting magnetism. The explanation of the magnet and electro magnet, as given pages 14 and 15 of Mr. Vails work, conflicts with the account in the Encyclopedia Americana, page 463, but that does not affect the principle. Electro Mag- netism nor the electro magnet was not the dis- covery ot any telegraphic patentee as we have shown, Qersted, Davy and Ampere alone could have secured patents for the discovery, and last, but not least, our own Professor Henry, who undoubtedly made the same discovery independent, about that period. Davy was a man who always gave his discoveries to the publichence electro magnetism has been common property for 47 years. The princi- ple of conveying intelligence to a distance by an electric current and conducting wires, was known and practised by Reizen in 1794, there- 36 philosophers whose names we have mention- No. 1 ed- Electro Magnetism then, as a philosophi- cal principle, cannot justly be claimed now by any individual, for any purpose whatever. A new and improved way of applying elec- tro magnetism to produce certain results, can be patented by the laws of civilized nations, but the means used is the subjectnot the principle employed. It is right that a clear understanding should be had of this subject. (To be continued.) Ivory. Ivory is the osseous matter of the tusks and teeth of the elephant, the hippopotamus, or morse, & c. The hardest, toughest, whitest, and clearest ivory, has the preference in the market; and the tusks of the sea-horse are considered to afford the best. In these, a rough glassy enamel covers the cortical part, of such hardness, as to strike sparks with steel. The horn of the Narwhal is sometimes ten feet long, and consists of an ivory of the finest description, as hard as that of the ele- phant, and susceptible of a better polish ; but it is not in general so much esteemed as the latter. Ivory is very apt to take a yellow-brown tint by exposure to air. It may be whitened or bleached, by rubbing it first with pounded pumice-stone and water, then placing it moist under a glass shade luted to the sole at the bottom, and exposing it to sunshine. The moist rubbing and exposure may be repeated several times. For etching ivory, a ground made by the following receipt is to be applied to the polish- ed surface :Take of pure white wax, and transparent tears of mastic, each one ounce; asphalt, half an ounce. The mastic and as- phalt having been separately reduced to fine powder, and the wax being melted in an earth- ware vessel over the fire, the mastic is to be first slowly strewed in and dissolved by stir- ring; and then the asphalt in like manner. This compound is to be poured out into luke- warm water, well kneaded, as it cools, by the band, into rolls or balls about one inch in di- ameter. These should be kept wrapped round with taffety. If white rosin be substituted for the mastic, a cheaper composition will be ob- tained, which answers nearly as well; 2 ox. asphalt, 1 ox. rosin, j oz. white wax, being good proportions. Callots etching ground for copper plates, is made by dissolving with heat 4 ox. of mastic in 4 ox. of very fine lin- seed oil; filtering the varnish through a rag, and bottling it for use. Either of the two first grounds being applied to the ivory, the figure is to be traced through it in the usual way, a ledge of wax is to be applied, and the surface is to be then covered with strong sulphuric acid. The effect comes better out with the aid of a little heat ; and by replacing the acid, as it becomes dilute by absorption of moisture, with concentrated oil of vitriol. Simple wax may be employed in- stead of the copperplate engravers ground; and strong muriatic acid instead of sulphuric. If an acid solution of silver or gold be used for etching, the design will become purple or black, on exposure to sunshine. The wax may be washed away with oil of turpentine. Acid nitrate of silver affords the easiest means of tracing permanent black lines upon ivory. Ivory may be dyed by using the following prescriptions I. BLAcK DYEIf the ivory be laid for se- veral hours in a dilute solution of neutral ni- trate of pure silver, with access of light, it will assume a black color, having a slightly green cast. A still finer and deeper black may be obtained by boiling the ivory for some time in a strained decoction of logwood, and then steeping it in a solution of red sulphate or red acetate of iron. 2. BLUE DYEWhen ivory is kept immer- sed for a longer or shorter time in a solution of indigo (partly saturated with potash), it as- sumes a blue tint of greater or less intensity. 3. GREEN DYEThis is given by dipping blue ivory for a little while in solution of ni- tro-muriate of tin, and then in a hot decoction of fustic. 4. TELLOW DYE is given by impregnating the ivory first with the above tin mordant, and then digesting it with heat in a stained decoc- tion of fustic. The color passes into orange, fore that was nothing new to the illustrious if some Brazil wood has been mixed with the fustic. A very fine unchangeable yellow may be communicated to ivory by steeping it 18 or 24 hours in a strong solution of the neutral chromate of potash, and then plunging it for some time in a boiling hot solution of acetate of lead. 5. RED DYE~~~ be given by imbuing the ivory first with the tin mordant, then plung- ing it in a bath of Brazil wood, cochineal or a mixture of the two. Lac-dye may be used with still more advantage, to produce a scar- let tint. If the scarlet ivory be plunged for a little in a solution of potash, it will become cherry red. 5. VIOLET DYEis given in the logwood bath to ivory previously mordanted for a short time with a solution of tin. When the bath becomes exhausted, it imparts a lilac hue. Violet ivory is changed to purple-red by steep- ing it a little while in water containing a few drops of nitro-muriatic acid. With regard to dyeing ivory, it may in ge- neral be observed, that the colors penetrate better before the surface is polished than after- wards. Should any dark spots appear, they may be cleared up by rubbing them with chalk, after which the ivory should be dyed once more to produce a perfect unitormity of shade. On taking it out of the boiling hot dye bath, it ougkmt to be immediately plunged into cold water, to prevent the chance of fissures being caused by the heat. If the borings and chips of the ivory-turner, called ivory dust, be boiled in water, a kind of fine size is obtained. Formatton of Hall. Professor Stevelley, at a meeting of the British Association, read a paper on meteor- ological phenomena, in which he attempted to account for the formation of hail, by sup. posing that it must be formed when after the tall of some rain, a sudden and extensive vacuum being caused, the quantity of caloric abstracted was so large as to cause the rest of the drops to freeze into ice balls as they formed. This principle, he said, had been strangely overlooked, although, since the days of Sir John Leslie, every person was familar with experiments on a small scale illustrative of it. He also said that the in- teresting mine of Chemnitz, in Hungary, afforded an experimental exhibition of the formation of hail on a magnificent scale. In that mine the drainage of water is raised by an engine, in which common air is violently compressed in a large cast iron vessel. While the air is in a state of high compression, a workman desires a visiter to hold his hat be- fore a cock which he turns; the compressed air, as it rushes out over the surface of the water within, brings out some with it which is frozen into ice bolts by the cold generated by the air as it expands; and these shoot through the hat to the no small annoyance of one party, but to the infinite amusement of the other. The Benefit of the Swallow. These mysterious visitants, creatures of in- stinct, are by many persons supposed to per. form their eccentric gyrations from mere ca- price, while, in reality, they are amongst the very best friends of mankind. We would as soon see a man shoot one of our fowls or ducks, or rather he would steal his hatful of eggs from the hen-roost, as shoot one of these beautiful annual visitants, or destroy one of their nests. If it were not for such beautiful and graceful birds, our crops would be totally annihilated by vermin. Take the plant-louse Bonnet, whose researches on it remind us of Huber on the honey bee, isolated an indivi- dual of this species, and found that from the 1st to the 22d of June it produced ninety-five young insects, and that there were, in the summer, no less than nine generations. These are both wingless and winged, and Bonnet calculates a single specimen may pro- duce 550,080,489,000,000,000 in a single year, and Dr. Richardson very far beyond this Now when we see the swallow flying high in the air, he is heard every now and then snap- ping his bill, and swallowing these and simi- lar destroyers. Now if in summer a swallow destroys some 900 mothers per day on an ave- rage, and estimating each of these the parent of one tenth of the above number, it is beyond all appreciable powers of arithmetic to cal- culate. How far the ProvIsIon of Food Is due to the Labor of Man. The number of human beings on the earth is calculated at nearly one thousand millions: all of these are fed from the produce of the ground; for even animal food is itself the produce of the ground. It is true that, for this result, man in general must labor ; but how small an actual portion ot this immense productiveness is due to man His labor ploughs the ground, and drops the seed into the furrows. From that moment, a higher agency supersedes him. The ground is in possession of influences which he can no more guide, summon, or restrain, than he can govern the ocean. The mighty alembric of the atmosphere it at work: the rains are dis- tilled, the gales sweep, the dews cling, the lightning darts its fertilizing fire into the soil, the frost purifies the fermenting vegetation, perhaps a thousand other agents are in move- ment, which the secrets are still hidden from man ; but the vividness of their force pene- trates all things, and the extent of their ac- tion is only to be measured by the globe while man stands by, and has only to see the naked and drenched soil clothing itself with the tender vegetation of spring, or the living gold of the harvest,the whole loveliness and bounty of Nature delighting his eye, so- liciting his hand, and filling his heart with joy. The Lakes. .4 The entire line of lake coast is 5,000 miles of which 2,000 constitute the British coast. The following is the result of the survey of the U. S. Topographical Engineers Lake Champlain 105 miles, greatest width 12, average width 8; Lake Ontario 180, great- est width 62, average width 30 ; Lake Erie 240, greatest wiflth 57, average width 38 Lake St. Clair 18, greatest width 25, average width 12 ; Lak6 Huron 270, greatest width, (not including the extensive bay of Georgian, itself 120 miles long, and averaging 45 miles in width,) 105, average width 70; Lake Mich- igan 340, greatest width 83, average width 58; Lake Superior 420, greatest width 135, aver- age width 100. These lakes may be considered as connected throughout their whole extent. Lake Cham- plain connects with Lake Ontario by means of the river Richelleu, the lock and dam navi- gation of St. Lawrence river, the Ottowa river, the Rideau Canal through Canada, and the Champlain and Erie Canals of New York. Lake Ontario is connected with Lake Erie by means of the Welland Canal through Canada, and by means of the Oswego and Erie Canals through this State. Lake Erie is connected with Lake St. Clair by the deep navigable strait of Detroit, 25 miles long. Lake St. Clair is connected with Lake Huron by the navigable strait of St. Clair, 32 miles long. Lake Huron is connected with Lake Michi- gan by the deep and wide strait of Mackinaw, and with Lake Superior by the strait of St. Marys 46 miles long. Honesty and Restitutloir In a Cod Fish. A sloop was recently lying in Lockbroom, Scotland, the skipper of which when fishing over the side lost the keys of his lockers, & c., from his pocket into ten fathoms of water. Attached to the bunch was a small piece of parchment on which his name and that of the vessel were written. He, of course, gave up all hopes of the keys again, and gazed on their rapid descent into the watery depository with deep regret. Six weeks afterwards, the skipper cast anchor off the Island of Rassay, about one hundred miles from Lockbroom, and again resumed his piscatory employment. Among the results of his labors was a large cod-fish, which was speedily unhooked and thrown upon the deck; and, to the utter a- mazement of the skipper, the poor cod, when in the last agonies of death, vomited up his bunch of keys. The parchment being partly preserved proved his property beyond a doubt. At the same time, as if conscience stricken, it disgorged a penknife belonging to a brother skipper, on which his initials were engraved. It is a remarkable circumstance that this fish in its migratory course should arrive at the same spot where the sloop was, sacrificing his life and with its last breath discharging an act of honesty that would have honoured a higher grade or species ot animal.[ Ver~,i remarkable !] 36 improvement In Railroad Switche5. Mr. Freeborne, of Boston, says, thi Rain- bow, has invented a contrivance for prevent- ing locomotives from running oft the track from any negligence of switching, and also for dispensing with a switchman altogether. The invention is attached to the locomotives and cars, ~nd the switch as thereby opened and closed by the engineer or brakeman, and a train of cars cannot in any event go off the track unless some obstruction is thrown upon it. This will bean invaluable discovery both in point of safety and economy, as it will en- able roads to dispense with a large number of men, and insure greater safety than the old plan of switching. improved Locomotaves. The Pennsylvanian says that an engine is now constructing at Wilmington, for the Phi- ladelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore rail- road which will attain the greatest amount of speed yet reached by any locomotive in this country. The great obstacle to the increase of speed heretofore has been in the oscillatory motion of the motive car, which a given amount of increased steam-power renders so great that not only is the speed impeded greatly, but both the engine and the track become much racked and shattered by it. The experienced and skillful superintendent of the engine factory of the Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore railroad, Win. L. Treeger, has devoted his attention to this sub- ject, and from his success in the application of his improvement on a smaller scale will secure in the mammoth locomotive now buil- ding a very great amount of speed. It is an improvement ot great importance, not only as it increases the speed and safety of railroad travelling, but as it saves any in- creased wear and and tear of the road and the engine. The main principle of the improvement is the aoplication of braces, which resist the os- cillatory motion and impart to the engine such firmness that the application of all the steam power results exclusively in an onward mo- tion, and does not produce the double and anta- gonist motions of sideways and onwards both. The Pensylvanian is surely aware that 60 miles an hour has been run without sensible oscillation to found a theory for the limitation of an engines speed by oscillation. Thermometer and Gravitating CLock. By the True Democrat of Joliet, Ill. we learn that Mr. Jearum Atkins of that place has constructed a clock which has been running for the term of two months, and gives every proof, that it will continue to run by the same power without winding up uptil it is worn out. This machine has been examined by several learned men who have expressed their belief, that it will continue to perform as it has done, all the requisites of perpetual motion, (not allowing for the decay of the material of which it is constructed,) as long as the laws of nature remain unchanged. The power by which this machine is propelled is obtained by the combined agencies of natu- ral heat of the sun, and the attraction of gra- vitation. The power of heat, being absorbed by a rcd of metal, causes said rod to expand, which on cooling contracts, and this expan- sion and contraction of said rod of metal, which takes place alternately, as often as it undergoes these changes of temperature, is by means of levers made to raise a weight, which weight is suspended upon an endless chain passing over pullies, in such a manner as by its gravitating force, to exert a perfectly uniform power upon the machinery of the time piece, whereby perfectly uniform and continued motion is produced. This is a new simple, and anti-pickable lock invented and patented by Mr. Sa~in Colton, of the city of Philadelphia One great fault belonging to most all combination locks is their complexity. No such objection can be raised to this and we are therefore happy to introduce it to public notice. The principle of this lock consists in having three crcular metal discshaving one quarter of the circle Fin. 1. F This is a view of the lock with grooved plate off, and exhbits the apparatus unlock- ed by the buttons showing their planes out of the groove plate. A, is the back plate B, is the pad catch. C C C C, is the small frame or rather four square plates joined together at the ends, with an axis passing through the middle on which are three buttons D D D, which are operated by the key FIG. 2. inserted in the hole F, passing through a tube G. This small tube is fixed firmly to the side of the lock. Therefore the axis of the buttons and to which C are attached, is somewhat hollow and moves out and in the tube G, so when there is nothing to hold the frame C, with its catch in B, the spring E, throws out the catch and it is what it is called unlocked. Munn & Co. ace the Agents for the sale of rights, & c. Ths Scott medal was awarded by the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia, tor this lock, and that is only awarded for rare and ingenious inventions, and there can be no doubt but it will soon come into general use. Hib This engraving shows the principle of this lock applied to any one of the common kind to render it burglar proof. A, is a small lock of this kind screwed on the plate of a com- mon lock just behind the main bolt B. A has a small opening in the side to receive B, therefore when B is thrown out at the oth- er end, if C (as shown in fig. 4,) be thrown behind B, and not retained there by the same principle described already, that it will be impossible to thrust back B, until it is reliev- ed by opening A. Thus a common lock, for a very trifling expense can be made as safe as plane faced, placed in a metal frame with grooves cut in it to allow the discs, or as we will call them buttons, to turn firmly and also independently on the same axis. On this frame is the catch which holds or relieves the bolt or bow of the lock, which by means of a spring throws out the catch or detent when the discs or buttons are in a certain position, managed by the key in the frame. FIG 3. This will explain the operation of this lock still fu~ther. The same letters refer P5 like parts of fig 1. This view shows the circles of the buttons projectin~ above the parts C C C C, theretore it will be plain to every one that if the groom plate fig 4. Fi~4. was on to this ~ ~IU ~., ~ i, the buttons caught into the grooves of this plate, that the spring E could not relieve the catch B fro~n that of, C. This then is the principle of this lock, but let us state some of its advantages. Fig 2. shows all the parts of fib. 1, with H the axis thrust through G. Figure 5. some that cost 60. The several parts here displayed are those of locks quite common and need not be further described than to say that C, is the axle to throw out the main bolt B. E E, is a crcss piece of metal connecting two minor bolts B B. D, is a catch to hold back the minor bolts when required. The advantages of this lock are simplicity and yet intricacy, especially as will baffle any person to take an impression of the key by wax or any such material. This is owing to the buttons being operated by the key either singly or collectively; so that one button in a groove of fig. 4, will hold the door perfectly lockedtherefore when the catches are en- twined the key can he turned backwards and one button only with its circular part left to project into the grooved plate. Tisis key can only be turned one way or else the lock never can he opened. This can be best explained by the model which is at this office. ISSUED FROM THE UNITED STATES PATENT OFFIcE, For the week ending Oct. 10, 1848. To Augustus Hamann, of Washington, D. C., for improvement in Spark Arresters. Pa- tented Oct. 10, 1848. To T. M. Hemphill and P. H. Knox, of Washington, Ohio, for improvement in Mills for Grinding. Patented Oct. 10, 1848. To B. F. Berwick, of New York City, for improved Screw Blank Machine. Patented Oct. 10,1846. To Oscar S. Burgess, of Columbus, Ohio, for improvemetit in Harness B uckles. P~ten- ted Oct. 10, 1848. To John P. Hayes, of Boston, Mass.-;for improvement in Chimney Caps. Patented Oct. 10, 1848. To David Dick, of Meadville, Pa., for im- provement in Presses. Patented Oct. 10, 1848. To Livingston, Roggin & Adams, of Pitts- burg, Pa., for improved Moulders Flask. Pa- tented Oct. 10, 1848. To Frederick Emerson, of Boston, Mass., for improvement in Ventillating Ships. Pa- tented Oct. 10, 1848. To James H. Sweet, of Concord, N. H.,. for machine for making Spikes. Patented Oct. 10, 1848. To Joseph Schofield, of Philadelphia, Pa., for improvement in Uterine Supporters. Pa- tented Oct. 10, 1848. To Samuel J. Seeley, of New York City, for for improved Shot Plug. Patented Oct. 10, 1848. To H. W. Day, of Boston, Mass., for im- provement in Type Moulds. Patented Oct. ift, 1848. To Jacob Shaw, jr. of Hiockley, Ohio, for for improvement in Wheels for Spinning. Pa- tented Oct. 10, 1848. To Charles Sines, of Village Green, Pa., for improvement in Corn Shellers. Patented Oct. 10, 1848. To William Wright, of Philadelphia, Pa., for improvement in Blocking Hats. Patented Oct. 10, 1848. To Lewis Roper, of Philadelphia, Pa., for improvement in apparatus for administering Ether. Patented Oct. 10, 1848. RE- ISSUE. To Tim. D. Jackson, of New York City, for a Bell Telegraph. Re-issued Oct. 10, 1848. I1~VHNTORS CLAIMS. Pianing Rived Staves. To Hervey Law, of Wilmington, N. C. for improvement in ~iachinery for planing rived staves. Patented Sept. 19, 1848. Claims in combination with the cutter, rest, and follow- er, or any well known mechanical equivalent thereof, the separate supporting levers acted on by weights, one lever acting on each edge of the stave to produce separate and inde- pendant pressures near the two edges, hold- ing it firmly against a single fixed piece or rest immediately opposite to the cutters, but permitting all other parts of the stave however crooked, twisted or variable in thickness to pass free from constraint and at full liberty to take whatever movements lateral and vertical its crooks and windings may require, where- by the dressing is allowed to follow the bendings and windings of the stave without cutting against the grain of the timber and in combination with the parts above claimed. Also the segmental hold fasts acting to draw the stave from between the cutter wheel and roller and thereby prevent the irregular thin- ning away of its extremities. ~cicntifif 2Vmctican. COLTONS PATENT LOCK. Nc w ~nucntionz. LIST OF PATENTS ~ fitflhiftf ~2~.merirnn. NEW YORK, OCTOBER 21, 1848. The Great Fair. There is an additional temporary building fitted up this year for the operations of ma- chinery, consequently the machinery is better displayed this than during any previous Fair. The room, however, is too small, it is per- fectly jammed. Were the whole Hall a ma- chine room it could be filled up easily. From what we have seen of this Fair, we are con- vinced that an exhibition Hall for machinery a Museummight profitably, both for ow- ners of machines and the Institute, or some other Association, be kept open throughout the whole year in this great city. Then would come here the inventor with his new ma- chine, and here would resort the manufactur- er to behold the latest improvements. In a great measure, this has almost become a fixed habit at any rate, but what we want is a fo- cusa continual centre ot exhibition. Any Association that would manage an af- fair of this kind well, would do the country some service. The Institute, we have been informed, is going to do the genteel thing this year, in the distribution of prizes and all things connected with the Fair. This is ne- cessary, for there is not quite such a variety of articles exhibited this year as there were in 1847. Eighteen out of the twenty-five of last years managers are also managers this year. The collecting and exhibiting the fruits of American industry by Fairs, is both wise and laudable. Such exhibitions lead to emulation, improvement and advancement in the useful artsupon which depend the prosperity of our country. Associations of Capital and Labor. We are right glad to see practical men uni- ting their capital and labor together in mutu- al associations. No other way appears to be so reasonable as this for the elevation of our me- chanical classes. The general ~vav in which manufacturing operations are conducted is for one, or a few men of great wealth, to unite together (often without the knowledge to con- struct a single article of manufacture) and hire practical men at so much per day or week, the capitalists reaping the greatest share of the benefits. We do not mean to say a word against men of capital doing thisevery man has a right in this country to invest his money when, and how he pleasescapital has its rights. But why should not workmen en- joy both the fruits of their toil and the bene- fits of capital also. We have known a num- ber of such associations that were perfectly successful, and they all might be, it care was taken that kindred spirits alone formed the association. When capital and labor are uni- ted, a direct advantage over mere capital is apparent, and this is right, It is too bad, to behold mechanicsindustrious and sober men who have served a good apprenticeship condemned for the want of a little capital to labor hard as journeymen when their head5 are covered with the frosts of many winters. The only way for mechanics to rise above this evil is to associate their capital and labor to- gether. The amount each may possess may be small, but ten with $300 each make a joint capital of $3000, and every days labor is so much capital added to the stock. To be successful, the company must be composed of sensible, honest and industrious meneach looking to his neighbors rights as well as his own. We believe that no country on the face of the globe offers so many advan- tages to our mechanical and operative classes, as the United States of America. Our politi- cal organization in reference to social ele- vation, is only of a negative natureit is to prevent evils and is the very best for that pur- pose, but the happiness, comfort and advance- ment in civilization of our people, rests on the foundation of moral worth and intelligence. Liberia Coffee. Coffee from the Colony of Liberia has been received in Boston, and proves, en trial, to have a very fine flavor. Some good judges have pronounced it equal, if not superior, to the finest Mocha. It is a very highly flavor- ed, and a smaller quantity is required to make a beverage of good strength than is necessary with coffee of some other kinds. The speci- men imported caine from the farm of the Rev. M. More, in Bassa country. The coffee plantations in that country are beginning to afford a surplus for exportation. The Hon. S. A. Benson, of Bassa Cove, sent over by the Liberia Packet, a few weeks since, about fourteen hundred weight. If it finds favor in our market the cultivation will rapidly in- crease. The taste for good coffee seems now pretty firmly established, and every body, who has not forgotten it, laughs at Madame Sevignes old prophecy that the taste for coffee and the poet Racine would pass away together. Deeply as the French poet is reverenced by his countrymen, even they love coffee per haps as strongly, and in countries Racine never American character, to rejoice in the prospe- thought of, a good cup of Mocha Liberia is a rity of industrious and enterprising men. highly prized luxury. PICKET MACHINE. This is one of those labor saving contrivan- ces which from its simplicity costs but little, though the advantages derived from its use are certainly great. How much is added to the beauty and ebsertul aspect ef a country house, by the erection around the premises of neatly turned picket fences, those of our rea- ders who reside in the country will at once appreciate. But in most villages there are few who thus adorn their dwellings, on account of the expense, as by the old way each particu- lar picket must be turned out in a lathe by hand, an operation which consumes much time and labor. To remedy this and to bring within the reach of every person one of the best means of beautifying their homes is the design of the Picket Machine, of which the above cut is a representation. The machine is chiefly composed of one iron casting of the above form, having a round passage extending through its whole length; cutters are attached at each end. A is a stout frame upon which the whole is placed. B B, are supports upon which in brass Journals the machine revolves. C is the pulley by which motion is communicated. The sticks of which the pickets are formed do not revolve, but are held in one position by means of a square notch near H in the bearer F, but the machine on which the cutters are fastened, revolves with great rapidity. E shows one of the cutteas, Changes produced by Railroads. The full influence which the passenger and traffic railway is to exert on the relations of society is far from being developed, but it is already great. Its agency is already felt in every department of public and private business. Its speed and punctuality are chang- ing the habits of domestic life, the arrange- ments of commerce both in detail and in the gross, and even the civil and military organ- isation of states. Whoever has stood on an eminence that commands an extensive view of any of our main tra.4nk lines, with its subsidiary bran- ches, in the vicinity of some great centre of industry, must have been struck with its power of annihilating distance. At brief stated intervals the graceful white steam cloud, waving on the wind like some chival fastened by a screw upon the projection D. A cufter is fastened in the same manner at each end of the machine, though only one is seen in the engraving, as the other end shows the back of the projection D. The ends it will be perceived are of peculiar formation having apertures just at the edge of the cutters in order to allow them to meet the wood as it passes through. The rough stick being intro- duced at I comes in contact with the cutter E and passing through to the other end meets another cutter which gives it the finishing touch, and the picket comes out at J beautiful- ly and evenly turned. The great utility and cheapness of these machines must be apparent to every one. In country saw mills, grist mills, turning shops or wherever a ltttle power is convenient they can be used to great advantage. Two boys with one of them can turn out two or three hundred pickets per hour. We have now on hand one of these machines fitted to turn two different sizes of pickets, which we will dispose of to the first customer for 35. At one half the common prices for pickets the machine will pay for itself in one day. We can send it with perfect safety to any part of the United States. Any person wishing it will pPase remit the amount by mail and the machine shall be promptly for- warded, rous banner, marks the progiess of the train along the central line, while similar stream- ers, converging to it on every side, mark the approach of its tributary tenders. It is this organised system of intercourse that enables men in every department of commerce and public service to command for themselves and families the healthiness and amenity of a rural life while engaged in those pursuits which ca n only be successfully followed amid the close, dim, and jostling thoroughfares of a city. Even the poor labourer participates in the benefits conferred by this new agent of inter-communication by the extension of the sphere within which he can make his toil available. Whoever has occasion to frequent the re- sorts of business must have noted the insensi- ble change which the railways are producing It is therefore our opinion, that to elevate our mechanical classes, there is not an absolute ne- cessity of exploring a new territory and remo- 1ing to new fields. The materials for eleva- tion are at command and the tools are in our mechanies hands, while the field of operation is at their own doors, and we are glad to know that many of our mechanics have sense en- ~,h to perceive this. We have been led to make these remarks, having been informed, that a number of our practical pianoforte makersmen whom we know to be of sterling stuff, have associat- ed their capital and labor together and formed the North American Piano Forte Manufactur- ing Company. The manufactory is at No. 88 Walker st. near Broadway, and from the qua- lifications of the members of the company the best and most improved piano fortes will be made by them. This is to be expected for every one has an interest in the business and no doubt (it is reasonable to expect it) their work and fame will soon be wide spread. Our wealthy classes, yea all our people wish success to such enterprisesit is part of the 37 in its arrangements. To take the first illustra- tion which presents itself, we may refer to our country merchants who used to lay in goods at considerable intervals, and on a comparatively large scale. Now scarcely any of them keen large stocks on hand; by the aid of the railway they receive supplies they immediately want at intervals throughout the year. They are thus less subject to speculative uncertainties of price, less exposed to loss by injuries of accident to their stock, and more able to con- duct their business on a safe ready-money system. The change is great from the meth- od of some ten years back. In every depart. ment of commerce changes more or less akin to this can be traced to the agency of the railroad. BallOoning. Of the practicability of this air flying, N. P - Rogers wrote in this wise This rerostation can never, probably, come to anything useful. We cant navigate, for the purpose of commerce, travel, or dis- covery, the brave oerhanging firmament, or explore, in the gas distended craft, the great orb of da,y, the waning moon, or those islands of light that spring at sight frena the bound- less Pacific hung on high. No rudder can be invented that shall steer the light airship thro the billowy clouds. The compass will not traverse, to point to the celestial pole, and no anchor can fix its crooked fluke in the bottom of the ronauts ocean. This view of ballooning has been truly ver- ified in the case of Dr. Morrill, who last week made a journey from Niblos Garden in this city and came near losing his life by dropping into the Atlantic instead of terra firma. Femaic Medical Instruction. We see by a paragraph in the Boston Mail, that a course of medical instruction for fe- males is about to commence in that city. This is said to be the first time, in our country, that systematic instruction has been provided for females in this rich branch of practice. It is stated that there is in all directions, an urgent demand for qualified Midwives. In a number of places, money has been raised and committees appointed to select suitable fe- males to receive instruction in this course. Quite a number of pupils are already engaged. We would be more obliged to our worthy contemporary, the Farmer and Mechanic, if it would give us credit for our original arti- cles, instead of giving it to imaginary papers, as it did with the Improvement in Printing Yarns. There is nothing more disrespectful to a co-laborer in the same field, than an act of this kindrather give no credit at all. It is like borrowing a tea kettle from Mrs. Jones and taking it home to Mrs. James, with ma- ny obligations for her favors. We are not in- debted to our friend for such favors, but oth- ers are at our expense, as the last weeks Farmer and Mechanic can abundantly testify. Suspension In the Coal Trade. In consequence of the reduced consumption of coal this year, from the general suspen- sion of iron foundries in Pennsylvania and other states, the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Com- pany find themselves unable to dispose of their stock, except at prices which will not pay expenses. They have accordingly sus- pended their shi p ments from Mauch Chunk. Much distress among the operatives in the mining regions will necessarily follow this suspension- A splendid steamer, called the Hiram Pow- ers, in honor of Ohios celebrated artist, has been built at Cincinnati. THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. Persons wishing to subscribe for this paper have only to enclose the amount in a letter di rected (post paid) to MUNN & COMPANY, Publishers of the Scientific American, Ne~ York City. TERM5.$2 a year; ONE DOLLAR IN ADVANCEthe remainder in 6 neonths Postmasters are respectfully requested to receive subscriptions for this Paper, to whom a discount of 25 per cent will be allowed. Any person sending us 4 subscribers for 6 months, shall receive a copy of the paper for the samelength of time 38 For the Scientific American. Patent Laws.Seliing before the issue of a Patent. No 3. It may be said, and many no doubt sup- pose, that the 7th section of the Act of 1839 must be understood to apply to sales only du- ring the time intervening between such sale and the applJcatiOn for a patent, and cannot mean to allow sales of the same articles after that time. The language, however, is per- fectly clear and explicit, that every sale or construction of a newly invented article made prior to the application for a patent, vests a right in the purchaser or manufacturer to use and vend to others to be used, the specific articles so purchased or construct- ed, without liability therefor to any per- son whatever. It does not indeed in words, say that such right may be exercised after the patent issues; but, unless such were the ef- fect intended and naturally resulting, the pro- vision would be absurd, for if one possesses a right he cannot be divested thereof in law, except by his own act, and as the statute authorises him to use and vend, this pri- vilege is unlimited, for the inventor or paten- tee has no privilege of monopoly not expressly confined by statute or necessarily resulting from and belonging to the privileges given him ; and in thus using and vending such per- sons are particularly exempted from all li- ability to any person whatever, at any time, as is shown by the use of the comprehensive and universal expression without any lia- bility. Thus if the inventor allow B. to con- struct a quantity of his machines prior to ap- plying for a patent, which machines remain in B.s hands after the patent issues, B. can sell them and the purchasers may use them without infringing the patent. As to sales of territorial rights before a patent is obtained, nothing is said in the sta- tutes; the subject must therefore be governed by such other principles of law as will ap- ply. Since it is uncertain whether the in- ventor will succeed in obtaining a patent un- til he actually receives itlong delay and careful examination being had at the Patent Office by the proper officersit is plain that he cannot sell a patent right, for he pos- sesses none. He can, however, make a con- tract (if a person can be found sufficiently de- void of common shrewdness to make such a purchase) that he will assign a territorial right in case he obtains a patent, and may in- clude a stipulation in regard to intermediate manufacturing, using or vending. Such a con- tract would be good in law, and similar agree- ments are of daily occurrence. As such a vention. If the inventor be poor, then he should borrow money to secure his patent, or failing in that let him labor with increased energy until the necessary sum has been earn- ed ; he will be much wiser by being patient and persevering, and in the end much richer than if he had made sales indiscriminately or taken a partner. If any are desirous to obtain the laws, forms and instructions of the Patent Office, they can be had without expense by writing to their representatives in Congress. It has occurred to me, however, that a compilation of the pa- tent laws and judicial decisions (American,) with a concise elementary exposition of the whole patent law, and full directions and forms of procedure, accompanied by a com- plete general index, presented in a cheap and comprehensive form (pamphlet) would be of great benefit to a large class of enquirers whose numbers are constantly increasing, at the same time that it would supply a deficien- cy nowhere at present filled, being in charac- ter and arrangement entirely different from any other work on patents. If this impres- sion is correct, and sufficient desire for such a work should be manifested, I will engage to prepare it. W. F. LIDDELL. Rochester, .N. F. For the Scientific Ameiican. Turning of Irregular Forms. Prior to the invention of Thomas Blanchard (as he mentions in his specification) there was a machine in Waterbury, Conn, for turn- ing lasts,the invention of Azariah Wool- worth now of Hartford, Conn. who, like most original inventors, was by reason of limited circumstances prevented from securing him- self or invention against piracy and was there fore compelled to convey it to an Assignee for the purpose of obtaining letters patent, which assignee brought a suit against said Blanchard for the infringement of said patent when he, (Blanchard) compromised the suit and purcha- sed the right of said patent, and conveyed it to the Blanchard Gun Stock Company; and for the space of 14 years had control of said Wool- worths patent ;and said Blanchard not ask- ing a renewal of said conveyed right, it has become common property and the public have a right to use the same. But Blanchard contendi~sg that Congress had renewed to him his invention (which if he ever had a legal one, except that conveyed to him by said Assignee) is a question to be settled hereafter. For nearly the space of 14 years the original in- vention was locked up in the Blanchard Gun Stock Company and all right of the inventor lost. contract is executory, to be valid only in Mr. Blanchard has made Congress as well case the patent is obtained, there would be as the public believe that it was his own in- considerable risk to both parties in making it, for the issuing of the patent is in reality but an uncertain contingency. The safe course to be adopted, if inventors make sales before applying for patents, is, to require written agreements from all purcha- sers that they will use the invented article only and return it to the patentee when a pa- tent is issued ; and if they permit others to manufacture, to require a stipulation from them that all machines they may have on hand or unfinished, at that time, shall on just terms become the property of the patentee, the manufacturer to agree also that every per- son to whom he sells shall be restricted to the use only of his purchase, and by no means to construct another after the same manner. I will observe in conclusion that it is not necessary and scarcely expedient that an in- ventor should scatter his contrivances over the country before applying for a patent, whether for the purpose of advice, commendation and popularity, or to raise money. If he knows in the outset what he wants to invent, he can tell for himself whether it be worth attempt- ing ; and after a little progress he can, if pos- sessed of an intelligent acquaintance whh the scientific principles applying, form a sufficient opinion of its utility~ Then after making a working model for private use and experiment he can himself ascertain and correct all defici- encies. After doing this he can apply for a patent, and no other person will be acquainted with his seeret. If, however, he must have the advice and suggestions of competent jud- ges, they may be had withoutgiving or selling to such persons a single specimen of the in- vention; and under the renewal granted him presumes to have the power to prevent any person, except those having license from him to make lasts or spokes by any machine what- ever; although in the case which was tried last Spring, Blanchard against myself and oth- ers, in which the jury were unable to agree, the judge charged the jury that although the defendants machine was superior to Blanch- ards it contained his combination, for it was not in evidence that said combination was in use before his alleged invention. And when the evidence was produced to piove that such combination did exist, it was objected to, on the ground that legal notice of its production had not been given. Yours, & c. Philadelphia. J. B. ELDUIDGE. Adulteration of Bread. In England when alum is cheap and flour dear, it is a common thing to adulterate the flour with this stuff, and so inveterate is the evil, that many have supposed it morally im- possible to iradicate it. The custom is so uni~ versal that the most respectable baking es- tablishments are stained with the crime, for we can call it nothing else. Alum to be sure, is not a deadly poison but it contains no nutri- ment, and is so far a fraud upon the purcha- ser. But it has also a very decided effect up- on animal matter either dead or living; it dries, contracts, and hardens. Of course when continually taken in food it gradually acts upon the bowels; by hardening them, it hinders the proper performance of their func- tion and constipation is the result. To coun- teract this, purgative medicines are given, but as the cause of the evil still continues these can afford merely a temporary relief. These are mainly called into existence by the alum bread, and thus the consumer is first robbed by the baker of his money and his health, and then again fleeced by the quack. The poor people are the greatest sufferers, and this is a great shame, for as they raise the beef and bread, they certainly have the best title to use them. To detect the presence of alum in bread the bread must be soaked in water, and to the water in which it has been soaked, a little of any test for sulphuric acid must be added. (Solution of inuriate cf lime will do.) Upon which, if any alum be present, the liquid will be pervaded with milkiness; but if the bread be pure, the liquid will remain limpid. RationaleSulphuric acid has a stronger affinity for lime than for the alumina and potass with which it forms alum; it, therefore, quits those bodies, to form sulphate of lime with the lime of the test which pro- duces the milkiness. Charconi. Charcoal is usually made by piling wood, covering it over with a compact earthy layer and firing it, when the slow combustion of a portion of the volatile combustibles and of the wood itself expels the residue of the volatile matter. Such heaps are termed charcoal pits. The following is an outline of the process. Logs uot more than 6 feet long and 6 inches thick are laid either horizontally or vertically and stems and branches are employed to fill up the interstices. The whole is covered with from 3 to 5 inches of earth, or still better with a mixture of earth and fine charcoal over a layer of leaves and small brushwood, and kept moistened with water. The heap is ig- nited by coals thrown into the chimney in the centre when the fire draws to the sides towards small openings left around the base. A heavy, yellowish-gray smoke and much watery vapor first appears, which condenses on the outer covering called sweating. The fire should be rapid during sweating, to avoid explosions, and the heap carefully sweated off, requiring 16 hours from the bcginning. The general shrinkage of the wood opens cracks, when the coalman mounts the heap, rams the wood together, and replaces the covering. When the heap is fairly warmed, and no farther explosions to be feared, the openings are closed, and the heap suffered to burn several days. A few openings are now and then made for the escape of the tarry matter, & c., and afew others at the foot: and after 48 days others half-way up the heap to char the outside logs. If a blue flame rises, the openings are stopped and made lower down. When the fire gradually breaks out uniformly around the base, the charring is complete. The heap has become smaller and very irregular in form from shrinking, & c. The whole time required is from 6 days to 5 weeks, according to the size. A heap of 3000 ,cubic feet requires about 15 days. Economy is an important point in charring, for the object is to employ as little of the char- coal as possible for expelling the volatile matter, and no doubt the combustion of some of the volatile matter assists in it. There is a great difference in the amount obtained by slow and rapid charring, in favor of the slow process. To insure slow charring, little space should be left in the pile, and the interstices should be filled with fine coal, or eulm, of a previous burning. This was tried and found to give 10 per cent more in bulk, and the charcoal was 20 per cent heavier, and well charred. The ashes of charcoal is less in quantity than that of the wood from which it is pro- duced, a portion passing off even by a very slow distillation. The alkaline matter espe- cially diminishes, being probably carried over in combination with acetic acid. Charcoal is chiefly employed as a fuel, igniting readily, burning freely, with a strong heat, making a clean fire, from the absence ot volatile and other matters. It is farther used in the manufacture of gunpowder and fire- works ; as a decotorizer, disinfector, and antf- septic. From its imperfect conduction of heat, it is often used as a casing for heated pipes; and from the same property and its reducing quality it is useful in Blowpipe ex- periments. It is an important reducing agent employed in the arts and in this respect is decidedly superior to any other, where the quality of the metal, & c. is important. Influence of Sounds on the JI~lephant and Lion. In the human ear the fibres of the circular tympanum radiate from its centre to its cir- cumference, and are of equal length b.it Sir E. Home has found, that in the elephant, where the tympanum is oval, they are of dif- ferent lengths, like the radii from the focus of an ellipse. He considers that the human ear is adapted for musical sounds by the. equality of the radii, and he is of opinion that the long fibres in the tympanum of the ele- phant enable it to hear very minute sounds, which it is known to do. A pianoforte hay. ing been once sent on purpose to Exeter Change, the higher notes hirdly attracted the elephants notice, but the low ones roused his attention. The effect of the higher notes of the piano-forte upon the great lion at Exe. ter Change was only to excite his attention, which was very great. He remained silent and motionless. But no sooner were the flat notes sounded, than he sprang, up, at- tempted to break loose, lashed his tail, and seemed so furious and enraged as to frighten the female spectators. This was attended with the deepest yells, which ceased with the music. Sir E. Home has found this ine- quality of the fibres in neat-cattle, the horse, deer, the hare, and the cat. Singular insanity In Paris. It could not have been expected that three revolts in Paris, fighting in the street, 300,- 000 men engaged, and dreadful slaughter should have taken place without creating wildness and insanity among many classes to a great extent. As soon as the revolution broke out in February, the hospitals began to fill. Dr. Borsmont states that the first patients were generally sad, melancholy, and despondent. Their fancies were of a heart- rending description, as they expressed a con- stant fear of being slaughtered and assassina- ted. The patients of this class mostly be- longed to the respectable trading part of the onrornunity, nod many of them had, by indus- try and preseverance, succeeded in amassing some property. In order to escape the mis- foi-tunes they dreaded ; some of these patients tried to destroy themselves, and the most care- ful watching was necessary to prevent theni from doing so. Two starved themselves to death in spite of every precaution. A short time afterwards, another description of pa. tients were received, whose derangement might be fully attributed to the working of the new political ideas. These were not de- jected and sad ; on the contrary, they had proud, gay, and enthusiastic looks, and were very loquacious. They were constantly writ- ing memorials, constitutions, & c., proclaim- ing themselves great men, the deliverers of the country, and took the rank of generals and members of the government. The last revolution greatly increased the number of insane patieiits, who talked of death, guilo- tine, ruin, pillage and fire. Something for All. So various are the appetites of animals that there is scarcely any plant which is not cho- sen by some and left untouched by others. The horse gives up the water-hemlock to the goat ; the cow gives up the long-leaved water-hemlock to the sheep; the goat gives up the monks head to the horse, etc. ; for that which certain animals grow fat upon others abhor as poison. Hence no plant is absolutely poisonous, but only respectively. Thus the spurge, that is noxious to man, is wholesome nourishment to the caterpillar. That animals may not destroy themselves for want of knowing this law, each of them is guarded by such a delicacy of taste and smell tkat they can easily distinguish what is perni- cious from what is wholesome ; and when it happens that different animals live on the same plants, still one kind always leaves something for the other, as the mouths of all are not equally adapted to lay hold of the grassby which means there is sufficient food for all. ~cicntific 2~anetian. 39 TO CORRESPONDENTS. S. D. B. of N. Y.Your letter caine too late to be answered last week. Y,u cannot obtain a patent for a new application of an old principle. You could for a new combi- nation of machinery by which you used the old principle. $1, 0. K. W. F. M. of Chesterfield.You will re- ceive an answer by mail soon. H. L. of Md.We cant find out. You can learn who holds the rights by dropping a line to Rochester. 0. L. R. of N. H.We do not know of any machine such as you describe. We think no notice of such a machine has appeared in our columns. N. G. Jr.Your combination is a little diflerent but of no practical benefit. We do not think it worth patenting. J. F. M. of Pa.Polish your glass with Tripoli. It will take a long rubbing, as the scratches have literally to be ground out. T. A. D. of Ind.There is no doubt but your plan would operate, though the power produced from the wheel would probably be so small as to be of no service. No practical benefit can result from it. A. M. W. of Mass.You are welcome to the papers, which is herewith sent. Hope you will induce some of your friends to subscribe. We should be glad to receive your plan of a rotary engine. B B. of Me.We are very much oblig- ed for the list of subscribers you have sent. You have our sincere thanks for your exer- tions. We are glad to know that the engra- ving pleased you. Mr. A. will see an engra- ving of a planing machine and description in this paper soon. If he or any one in your part of the country wants one please send them to us. Please say to Mr. S. that the best work on Naval Architecture costs $35. There is also a good work costing $4. We can send either of the above if he will enclose the amount to us. W. P. E. of Ct.We 4o not understand your plan. E. M. of Mass.No one but the origi- nal insentor, can obtain a patent for an inven- tion, whether foreign or American. If you make an improvement on a foreign invention, you can obtain a patent for the improvement only. In England any one can obtain a pa- tent for an invention. But in this country the inventor only, receives a patent. Patent Office Business. Some of our friends who were promised that their specifications and drawings should be finished and forwarded this week will have to excuse us till the next. We are very sorry that we are not able to fulfil every promise made to them but the illness of our principal Draftsman and a multiplicity of business con- nected with the Great Fair has preve~ited our usual promptness. They shall receive proper attention next week, however, and we hope never to be obliged to disappoint again or to ask forbearance for not fulfilling our pro- mises. Reply to J. K. Eliridge. Mr. A. R. Carter, agent for Blanchards machine for turning irregular shapes, requests us to say that he shall furnish an article in reply to the one over the signature of J. B. Eldridge as soon as his infringement cases are decided upon, at Philadelphia, and that he will also give many statistics relative to the validity of their claim and the important deci- sions made in their favor. Lead Pipes and Water. Dr. James R. Chilton of this city, says that he tried experiments with Croton water on lead pipes, composition pipes, and lead coated with pure tin after the plan of Mr. Ewbank. The pipes were forty feet in length and were filled with water brought in a cask from the Croton River. The water was dis- placed from the pipes by admitting fresh sup- ply at intervals of a day or two, for three weeks; and that which escaped was tested each time. The result proved that the water which passed through the lead pipe always contained lead, while that from the pipe made of the alloy of tin and lead, as also that from the pipe coated with tin, both upon the in- side and outsh~e, did not contain a particle of lead, but for the first few days yielded a trace of tin. It is possible that the water, in passing rap- idly through a lead pipe of moderate length, in constant use, may not become so impreg- nated with lead as to be injurious to health. But there are hundreds of instances where the pipes are conveyed to the second and third stories of houses, where the water is seldom used, but from which the servant may find it convenient to fill a pitcher. The internal use of the water from such situations, is highly in- jurious, and manifests itself by tremulous- ness and generally debility of the nervous system. Increase of American Exports. A Parliamentary report of exports from the United States to Great Britain for five years, from 1843 to 1847, shows an aggregate increase since 1843, of more than one hun- dred and fifty per cent. Among the arti- cles enumerated are oil, staves, naval stores, beef, tallow, hides, pork, bacon, ~,ard, cheese, wheat, corn, flour, corn meal, rice, wool and hops. The increase of bacon, lard and cheese is equal to one hundred per cent., of corn more than fifteen million per cent, there hav- ing been none exported in 1843, and 15,526,- 525 bushels in 1847. Thus is the United States pouring her rich harvests into the old world. aWtttiZClncnt0. erg Tsns paper circuiates in every State in the Union, aad is seea principafly by mechanics and manufacturers. Hence it may be considerad the best medium of advertising, for those who import or man- ufacture machinery, mechanics tools, or such wares and materials as are generally used by those classes. The few advertisements in this paper are regarded with much more attention than those in closely printed dailies. Advertisements are inserted in this paper at the following rates: One square, of eight lines one insertion, $ 0 60 two do.. 76 three do~, 1 00 onemouth~ 126 three do., 3 76 six do., 760 - -- twelv, do.. 1600 TERMS:CASH IN ADVANCE. GENERAL AGENTS FOR THE 5CSENTIFIC AMERICAN. New York City, - GEO. DEXTER. Bostoa, Messrs. HoveHEiss & Co. Philadelphia, - - STOREs & BROTHER. LOCAL AGENTS. Albany, - - - - PETER CooE. Andover, Mass. - - E. A. RUSSELL. Baltimore, Md., - - - S. SANDS. Bermuda Islands - WASHINSTON & ~o. Bridgeport, Ct. - - SANFORD & CORNWALL Cabotyille, Mass., E. F. BROWN. Concord, N. H. RUFUS MERRELL. Cincinnati, 0. - - STRATTON & BARNARD. Dover. N. H. - - D. L. Noaass. Fall River, Mass. - Pe~x & CHACE. Hartford, Ct., - - - E. H. BowERs. Houston. Texas, - J. W. COPES & Co Halifax, Nova Scotia, II. G. FULLER. Jamestown, N. V. - E. BSSHOP. Lynn, Mass, - - J. E. F. MARSH. Middletown, Ct., - WM. WOODWARD Norwich, Ct.,. - - SAFFORD & PARES. New Haven, Ct., - - E. DOWNES. Newburg, N. V. - S. A. WHITE. Newark, N. J., - - J. L AGENS. Newark, N. J - - Robert Kashaw. New Orleans. La. - J. C. MORGAN. Paterson, N. J. - - A. H. DOUGLASS. Providence, R. I., - - H. & J. S. ROWE. Rochester, N. Y. - D. M. DEWEY. Springfield, Mass., -. - Wie B. BROCEET. M. BES,s~Y, Salem, Mass., - - - L. CHANDLER. Saco, Me., - - - - ISAAC CROORER. Savannah, Geo - JOHN CARUTHERS. Syracuse, N. V. - - W. L. PALI,LER. Taunton, Mass., W. P. SEATER. Vicksburg, Miss. - J. B. MATES. Williamsburgh, - - J. C. GANDER. Webster, Mass. - - J. M. SHUMWAY. CITY CARRIERS. CLARE SELLECE, SQUIRE SELLECE. Persons residing in the city or Brooklyn, can have the paper left at their residences regularly,bysend ing their address to the office, 128 Fulton at., 2d door United States Patent Agency. U~ Broadway, N, Y. IA ESSRS. LEROW & CO. would inform those in .LV5. terested in Inventions and Patent Rights, that they have opened an Office at 112 Broadway, for the exclusive sale of Patent Rights and Machines, and they would respeotfully solicit the Agency of any new Inventions or Machines. As we shall advertise extensively all machines that are consigned to us, this will be a most favorable opportunity for all wishing to bring their Invention before the public. Persons at a distance wishing any kind of Machi- nery, by addressing us by letter, can obtain any in- formation they desire. JOHN A. LEROW, LEROW & CO. CHARLES K. HUTOHINSON Refer to : John Lorimer Graham, N. V. Walworth & Nason, Boston; Lewis Lerow, Boston; Rev. R. W. Cushman, Wsshington 021 2t~ The Best Patent Agency in the ilnited States. THE subscribers would respectfully give notice L th atthe y still continue to attend to Patent Office business as usual. The long experience they have had in securing patents, together with their unri- valled facilities, enables them to say that TH~ BEST PATENT AGENCY, in the United States, IS AT THE OFFICE OF THE SCIENTIFIC AMERI- CAN, New York. It is not necessary, as commonly supposed, for an inventorto make ajourneyto Wash- ington in person, in order to secure a Patent, as he cannot in any manner hasten the Patent or make his invention more secure. Any business connected with the Patent Office may be done by letter, through the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN OFFICE, with the same facility and certainty as though the inventor came in person. From a want of knowledge on this point, applicants for patents are often obliged to submit to great vexation, with loss ot much money and time. They also frequently fail into the hands of designing persons, and lose their inventions as well as money. Those who wish to take out Pat. ents or enter Caveats, should by all means have the business transacted through the SCIENTIFIC AiIERI. CAN OFFICE, as they may then RELy upon its being done in a straight forward and prompt manner, on the very lowest terms. All letters must be PosT PAID and directed to MUNN & CO., Publishers of the Scientific American, s9 128 Fulton street. New York. The largest, best and cheapest Dictionary in the English language, is confessedly WEBSTERS, the entire work, unabridged, in 1 vol. Crown Quar. to, 1452 pp. with portrait of the author, revised by Professor Goodrich, of Yale College. Price, ~6. The most COMPLETE, ACCURATE, and RELIABLE Dictionary of the Language, is the recent testimo. ny given to this work by many Presidents of Col. leges, and other distinguished literary men through- out the country. Containing three times the amount of matter of any other English Dictionary compiled in this coun- try, or any Abridgment of this work, yet Its definitions are models of condensation and pu. rity. The most complete work of the kind that any nation can boast of.HoN. Wai. B. CALHOUN. We rejoice that it bids fair to become the stan- dard Dictionary to be used by the numerous mil- lions of people who are to inhabit the United States. Signed by 104 members of Congress. Published by G. & C MERRIAM, Springfield, Mass., and for sale by all booksellers. s23 2m To Mill Owners. H AVILAND & TUTTLES Patent Centre Vent Pressure Water WbeeLThese wheels are now in successful operation in man towns in Maine, Massachusetts, and Rhode Islan , ad are found to surpass in power and facility of adaptation any wa- ter wheel now in use. This wheel was awarded the silver medal at the Fair of the American Institute recently held in New York and a diploma at the Mechanics Fair in Boston. The wheels are manufactured and for sale by the FULTON IRON FOUNDRY CO., South Boston Masswhere the wheels can be seun and any infor mation concerning them had. Patent Rights for di~rent States, Counties, & c. for sale as above. 014 3In5 Those Hats KNOX of 128 Fulton street, is on hand with his Autumn style of Hats, and as usual furnishes a little prettier shape, made of a little better material and for a much less price than many of his Broad- way friends who boast of the superiority of their productions. The public wont swallow that gammon, gentle- men, and you had better put your prices down to Knoxs standard price, before he detracts ALL those regular customers from Broadway into Fulton St. o7 HE WEST STREET FOUNDRY, corner of each and West streets, will furnish at the shortest notice, Steam Engines and Boilers in all their varieties, and 00 the most reasonable terms, together with castings of brass or iron, and machi. nery in general. Orders attended to with dispatch, ann particular attention given to repairing. JOSEPH E. COFFEE, AGENT. Steam Boats, Engines, Machinery, & c. bought and sold on commissionapply as above. 823 3mo TALIIOTS PATENT BLINB HINGE. THE undersigned having become interested in .5. the manufacture and sale of the above article, would state that their facilities are such, that they can supply any demand at short notice. This hinge, having stood the test of two years trial, has fully established itself as a useful and important in- vention, being all that can be desired for blind trimmings, as the blind is managed entirely from the inside of the house without raising the sash, COMPLETELY locks it, and prevents all unpleasant noise of the blind by wind. American Window Trimming Company, Taunton, Mass. Address GEO. GODFREY, Agent A. W. T. Co. s23 3m POWER TO LET RARE CHANCE. F HREE rooms, 40 feet square, one room 60 by 40 -~ feet, 2nd floor, power from engine, 28 in. cylin- der, 4 1-2 feet stroke. Let together or in parts. Ap- ply at West street Foundry, corner of Beach and West streets. s23 3m PECKS PATENT VISE WlTII FOOT LEVER. T HIS Vise is worked entirely by the foot and is -- admitted by all who have used them to be the best and, strength, saving of time and convenience considered~ the cheapest Vise in use. For sale by QUINCY & DELAPIERE, 71 John st. New York; Geo. H. Gray & Co. Boston Curtis & Hand, Phila- delphia; Way & Brothers,. Hartford ; and by the proprietor, J. S. GRIFFING, o7 2mB New Haven, Ct. HOW TO OBTAIN THE PREMIUM. Fj~ HE Subscriber would respectfully inform all per. Sons having articles exhibiting at the FAIR, that he is prepared to execnte engravings on wood for circulars, & c. at the shortest notice, and on the most reasonable terms Particular attention given to engravings of Machi- nery, Stoves, Buildings, & c. WARREN C. BUTLER, o7 63 Fulton street, cor. Cliff. Judsons Stave Dressing Ma chine. THIS Machine, on which Letters Patent were -- granted May 1st, 1847, has been in successful operation for the past year, and hundreds of thou. sands of staves have been dressed by it. It is war ranted to dress the same quantity of staves with as little power as any that can be started, also leave the full thickness on thin edges and thin ends and conform as near to the crooks and twists of th~ tim- ber as can be desired. The jointing of the machine which accompanies it, has been subjected to the se- verest test, and pronounced superior to that perfor- med by hand. Application for a patenton the Joint- er has been made. Large quantities of Hogsheads and Shooks made with staves dressed and jointed withr~ieir machines have been sold and used to the entire satisfaction of the purchasers. For rights and machines address the proprietors at their Manufactory, Artizan street, New Haven, Connecticut, where machines in full operation may be seen. JUBSON & PARDEE. New Haven, July 17,1748, jy2S 3mB GENERAL PATENT AGENCY. REMOVED. THE SUBSCRIBER has removed his Patent Agent -cy from 189 Water to 41 Fulton street The object of this Agency is to enable Inventors to realize something for their inventions, either by the sale of Patent Goods or Patent Rights. Charges moderate, and no charge willbe made un tilthe inventor realizes something fremhisinvention. Letters Patent will be secured upon moderate terms. Applications can be made to the undersign ed, personally or by letter postpaid. au8 SAMUEL C. HILLS, Patent Agent. Johnson & Robbins, Consulting Engineers and Counsellors for Patentees. Office or F street, opposite Patent Office, Washing. ton,D.C. jl7tf Saws. 3 EAVITT & MDANIEL, Concord, N. H., make of ---1the best cast stoel the following Saws Circular, Mill, Tennon, Cross-cut, Fellow and Ve- neering Saws. Also, Turning and Billet Webs, and Butchers Bow Saws. No saws ever made equalto their cast steel Mill Saws. The trade supp1ied on liberal terms. s21 2m5 UNIVERSAL CHUCKS FOR rURNING LATHES For sale by the Msnu- ~ AJ.IALA os John street ~~ew rurk. s2 3m5 Coal. 7fHE Subscriber has constantly for sale by the ear- -~- go or ton all sizes of Coal or MANUFACTURERS and FAMILIES, from the best Schuylkill aad Lehigh mines. Harleton and Spring Mountain, lump and steamboat Coal. Tamaqua Chesnut for engines. Peach Orchard and other red ash Coal. Midlothian, Virginia, a superior article for smiths use. Cum. borland, Sidney and Liverpool CoaL For sale at the LOWEST market prices. J. P. OSTROM, au6 3m~ corner 10th Avenue and 26th St. PREMIUM SLIDE LATHE. ~F HE subicriber is constantly building his improv- -U- ed Lathes of all sizes, from 7 to 30 feet long, and casa execute orders at short notice. JAMii~S T. PERKINS, Hudson Machine Shop and Iron Works, mll Hudson, N. Y. Agricultural Implements. ~fJInventors and Manufacturers of superior Ag ricultural Implements may find customers for their goods by applying at the Agricultural Warehouse of 5- C. HILLS & CO. 43 Fulton st. auS Machinery. in any part of the United States pERSONSresiding are in want of Machines Engines, Lathes~ OR ANY DESCRIPTION OF MACHINERY, can have their orders promptly executed by addressing the Pub- lishers of this paper. From ac extensive acqua~a- tance among the principal machinists and a long ac perience in mechanical matters they have uncom- mon facilities for the selection of the best mitchinery and will faithfully attend to any business entrusted totheir care MUNN & CO. a16 fjfjThe above is prepared to execute all ordersat the shortest notice and on the most reasonable terms. Lap welded Wrought Iron Tubes FOR TtTBULAh BOILERS, From 1 1-4 to 6 inches diameter, and any length, not exceeding 17 feet. ~PHESE Tubes are of the same quality and me.nu~ .Lfacture as those extensively used in England, Scotland, France and Germany, for Locomotive, Ila rtne and other Steam Engine Boilers. THOMAS PROSSER, Patentee, d2.6 25 Platt street, New York TO IRON FOUNDERS. P ulveri red bituminous, or sea-coal Facing, an ap- proved article for mixing with moulding sand to make the sand leave the castings easily. Also fine bolted charcoal and anthracite coal dust, soap- stone, and black lead on hand in barrels, and for sale by G. 0. ROBERTSON, s23 4t~ Importer, 283 West 17th street. N. V. STEAM BOILER. BENTLEYS Patent Tubular and other Boilers of any sire, shape or power, made to order, by SAMUEL C. HILLS & CO. 43 Fulton st. ~cicntiI~c 2~metican. For the Scientific American. New Chemical Law. No. 5. This chemical law also applies to the com- pounds of ao aggregated series with other substances, full as well as to the aggregated se- ries alone, as may be seen by inspecting the properties of the following compounds. Ac- cording to the condition required by the law, each substance comprised in an aggregated se- ries must unite with an equal number of atoms of oxygen, to form an acid; and this it may be seen is the case with the aggregated series last given. All equi-carbohydrogens, in uni- tirig with oxygen to form a definite acid, unite with precisely four atoms. The following example shows a series of acids, formed by the union of oxygen with each substance comprised in the aggregate last given ; and also acids which are com- pounds of equi.carbohydrogens, not given in the previous example because not recorded. There is no doubt, however, that if their acids were distilled in contact with lime, a carbo- hydrogen might be produced, tke same as is the case with the generality of acids. S. Or. B. Pt. Formic Acid 2 C H.-j--04. 1,235 2120 fluid. Acetic Acid 4 C H.+04. 1,063 2400 fluid. Butyric Acid S C H.4-04. ,976 3l8~ fluid. Valerianic Acid 10 C H4.04. ,944 347~ fluid Cocinic Acid 7 C H.04. solid. Myristic Acid 28 C H.+ 04. solid. Palmetic Acid 32 C H.+O4. solid. Margaric Acid 34 C H.-t-04. solid. Here is a case which, as far as it goes, is complete in every particular. It may be recol- lected, that in speaking of the properties of the compounds of an aggregated series, it was mentioned that their specific gravities might increase or decrease, according to the nature and specific gravity of the substance uniting. In this case it may be seen that the spe- cific gravities decrease, as the series increase in a regular manner. The specific gravities of the four remaining substances should be less than the four whose specific gravities are given. The boiling points also increase with the series in a regular manner, and therefore by the law, the boiling points of the four re- maining substances should also be on the in- crease, and greater than those of the first four whose boiling points are given. It may also be noticed that there is a gradual increase of density. Thus Formic acid the firstsubstance in the series, is a fluid, but as the series in- crease, the substances produced exhibit the properties ot a solid. Thus while the first four substances are fluids, the remaining four are solids, which is in conformity with the conditions required by the law. The chemi- cal properties of those substances situated nearest to each other are strikiqgly similar, which also agrees perfectly with the condi- tions required; thus it is well known that the Formic and Acetic acids closely resemble each other; and although the chemical proper- ties of the substances composing the series, gradually differ as the series increase, yet when any two are taken, closely situated to each other by their composition, it will be found that they possess similar chemical properties. This similarity of chemical properties is high- ly characteristic of either an aggregated se- ries or its compounds, although it gradually diflers as the series increase. The following is an example of the com- pounds of the foregoing aggregated series, with one atom of water, and are generally known as Ethers. All of the substances com- prised in that series do not unite with water, at least they have not been discovered. The reason that they do not all unite with water, may be attributed to the 11th article or con- dition of the properties of an aggregated se- ries, which says that all those substances si- tuated the highest in the list, generally have the least affinity for any particular substance, consequently those situated the lowest in the list have a greater affinity for water than those above them. If any Ethers of the high- er aggregated compounds are in future disco- I vered, they can be easily classified. SOr. B.Pt. Oxide ofMethyle2 C H.~--HO, gas. Oxide of Ethyle 4 C H.+H 0. ,725 760 fluid. Oxide of Amyle,. 10 C A+H 0. (unknown to exist.) In this instance it may be seen that the boil- ing points also increase with the series, as the first substance being a gas at common tempe- ratures, must already be considered by the laws of chemistry as in a boiling condition. Now the second substance boils at 760 and there shows that the boiling points increase with the series. We can tell nothing by the specific gravity, as only the specific gravity of Oxide of Ethyle is given. The property of the density increasing with the series is per- fect, as may be seen upon examination. S. N. Bridgeport, Conn. History of the Rotary Engsne. Prepared expressly for the Scientific ~me- rican. BRAMAH 5 ROTARY ENGiNE. This is one of the inventive Bramahs rotary engines, he J~aving obtained three patents in 1790. The patent was taken out jointly with Mr. Thomas Dickinson. FIG. 9. Fig. 9 represents the plan of one of these engines, a nd fig. 10 a section. A A and B B, show the ends of two short cylinders or rings of different diameters, one placed in the centre of the other. C is the channel or cir- cular groove, formed between the two circles. The ends of the cylinder or ring B B, are shut up by two flat plates D D, as shown in Fig. 10 ; to these plates is joined an axis or spin- dle E E, which axis or spindle passes through the ends or caps F F, which encloses the ends of the cyiloder or ring A A, and which is made air.tight by means of a stuffing box in the usual way. By this axis or spindle the cylinder or ring B B, may be turned round from without, any external power being ap- plied for that purpose; or this axis or spindle may be applied to give motion to any other machine, when the cylinder B B, is turned round by any power or force acting from within. In the cylinder or ring B B, are fixed two sliders, G G, crossing each other at right angles in the centre where they are notched or half spliced, so far as to allow them to slide backwards as much, at least, as the diameter of the channel or groove C. The length of each of these sliders is equal to the diameter of the cylinder or ring B B, and one diameter of the channel or groove C; so that the points which perforate the extremity of the cylinder or ring B B, when they are pushed out into the channel or groove, may entirely fill the same, similar to a Diston working in a com- mon cylinder ; in order that, when the cylin- der B B, is turned round, the channel or groove may be by that part of the slider total- ly swept or emptied. In this channel or groove is fixed the partition H, which fills the same in that part, and, by its being fitted against the periphery of the wheel B B, prevents the pas- sage of any fluid that way round the channel, when the caps or ends are screwed down. On each side of the partition H, is fixed a rib I I, or piece of such a shape as to perfectly fit the circle B B, one quarter of its circumfe- rence, between the doted lines 1 2; and the remaining part is continued in a shape inclin- ing to the circle of the greater cylinder A A, with which it forms an easy juncture at the quartile points, 3 4. When the cylinders B B, with the sliders, are turned round in either direction, the inclined parts of the ribs I I, FIG .10. jorce the opposite end of the sliders 0 G, successively into their channel or groove, where they are obliged to remain during one quarter of the r%volution, being kept in that po- sition by the circular part ot the rib between 1 and 2. K M, are two pipes of any required diameter, which may be inserted into the chan- nel or groove, in any direction the situation of the machine may require, between the points H 3 and H 4. The sliders are render- ed sufficiently tight at their junction with the channel, by means of oakure or any other flexible material, being forced into the cavi- ties made for that purpose at the parts L L L; and also the partition H in the same way. The cylinder or ring B B, being thus armed with the sliders, and the caps or ends, F F, screwed on by the flanches at A A, the machine is com- plete and ready for action. Now, supposing that through the pipe K ajet of water, steam or any other fluid, from any considerable height is admitted into the channel or groove C, it would immediately force against the sli- der projected in the channel as at N, and also against the fixed partition H ; which parti- tion, preventing its passage that way to the evacuation pipe M, where the spent water is discharged, the next slider in succession has passed or covered the junction of the ascend- ing pipe K, so that each successive slider re- ceives the pressure before it is done acting on the former; by this means an uniform rotation is maintaisied in the cylinder B B, and its ve- locity will be equal to the descent of the wa- ter in the pipe K, and its force equal to the specific gravity of the same. Thus this ma- chine may be worked by steam, condensed air, or wind, or any other elastic or gravita- ting fluid, for the purpose of working mills, or any other kind of machine or engine whatso- ever, they being properly connected with the axis or spindle E E; and when any power is externally applied to the said axis, which may turn the machine in any direction, it becomes a complete pump; possessing all the proper- ties of every other sort of hydraulic engine whatsoever, by applying the pipes K and M accordingly; and it has also much advantage over every other kind of pump, as the fluid pumped is kept in constant motion both in the suction and ascending pipes. This machine may be fixed either in a horizontal or vertica 1 direction. Fire Cements. 1. For furnaces, crucibles, & c.Fire-clay and brickdust or, fire-clay and burned clay, (broken crucibles) kneaded well together with water, and spread in layers on joints, and thoroughly air dried resists heat without crack- ing. It may also be employed for coating glass retorts by spreading it as a stiff paste or thinning it with water and spreading with a brush. A little hair added to it, gives greater tenacity. 2. Clay and brickdust mix- ed with water and 1-10 part borax, gives a difficultly fusible cement; clay and red lead may be used. To make it less fusible, com- mon clay and sand may be employed. 3. For iron vessels, & c. mix 508 parts fine and pounded cast iron turnings with 2 parts pow- dered sal-ammoniac and 1 part flowers of sulphur into a paste with water and apply it immediately ; it forms a chemical union, and hardens rapidly. According to some, the sul- phur may be omitted. 4. Four parts iron filings or turnings and 3 parts of a mixture of common and burned clay are made into a paste with saltwater. To Stew Pumpkins. Cut afine ripe pumpkin in half, and re- move all the seeds and other contents of the centre. Slice it, and pare the slices. Put them into a pot with a very little water, and stew them slowly till soft enough all through to mash easily. Then put the stewed pump- kin into a sieve or cullender, and mash it smoothly with the back of a flat ladle, let- ting all the moisture drain out, and leaving the pumpkin dry as possible. Put it away to cool and it will be ready for mush, bread pud- ding, or any similar purpose. To be eaten with meat as a vegetable, season it with pep- per, adding some fresh butter mashed among it and send it to the table warm. Diock Cream, Beat three eggs well then add to them three heaping teaspoonfuls of fine flour ; beat them well together ; then stir them into a pint and a half of boiling milk; add to it a salt- spoonfull of salt and loaf sugar to taste; flavor with essence of lemon, stir it while boiling when it is perfectly smooth it is done. Line pie tartlet pans with rich puff paste, and bake them in a quick oven; when done, fill them with mock cream ; strew powdered sugar over tle brown ; when a fine color, they are done. These will be found to be al- together superior to custard pies. How to make Leceiies Bite. Dr. Rennes, of Bergerac, advises that the leeches should be put for an instant into weak wine-and-water, the better for being a little warm, just before applying them ; no sooner are they laid on the part than even the most sluggish pierce the skin instantly ; those even that had been for a short time before used, immediately attach themselves. In the Hotel Dieu, the practice is to wring a linen cloth out of undiluted xvine, and wrap the leeches in it for a few moments, which is found to have the desired effect. Mechanical Paper IN THE WORLD! FOURTH YEAR OF TILE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN! 4i6 Pages of most valuable information, illustrate with upwards of 500 MECHANiCAL EN(~RAxnvGsz 13iyThe Scientific American differs entirely from the magazines asid papers which flood tns country, as it is a Weekly Journal of Art, Science and Me- chanics, having for its object the advancement of the INTERESTS OF MECHANICS, MANUFAC- TURERS and INVENTORS Each number is il- lustrated with from five to TEN original. ENGRA- VINGS OF NEW MECHANICAL iNVENTIONS, nearly all of the best inventions which are patented at Washington being illustrated in the Scientific American. It also contains a Weekly List of Amer. loan Patents; notices of the progress of all Mechan- ical and Scientific Improvements ; practical direc tions on the construction, management and use ot all kinds of MACHINERY, TOOLS, & C.; Essays upon Mechanics, Chemistry and Architecture ; ac- counts of Foreign Inventions ; advice to Inventors Rail Road Intelligence together with a vast amount of other interesting, valuable and useful information. The SCIENTIFIC AMERiCAN is the most Popular journal of the kind ever published, and of more im- portance to -the interests of MECHANICS and IN- VENTORS than any thing they could possibly ob- tain To Farmers it is also particularly useful, as it will apprise them of all Agricultural Improve- ments, instruct them in various mechanical trades, & c. & c. It is printed with clear type on beautiful paper, and being adapted to binding, the subscriber is possessed, at the end of the year, of a large vol- ume of 416 pages. illustrated with upwards of 500 mechanical engravings. TERMS: Single subscription, $2 a year in ad- vance ; $1 for six months. Those who wish to sub- scribe have only to enclose the amount in a letter, directed to MUNN & CO. Publishers of the Scientific American, 128 Fulton street, New York. Alt Lettters must be Post Paid. INDUCEMENTS FOR CLUBBING. I copies for 6 months $4 00 1 12 $500 10 5 $7d0 10 12 $1100 20 6 $iaoo 20 12 saooo Southern and Western Money taken at par for sub. scriptions. Post Office Stamps taken at their full value. A SPLENDID PRESENT! To any person who will send us Three Subscri- bers, we will present a copy of the PAL ENT LAWS OF THE UNiTEO STATES, together with all the informa- tion relative to PATENT OFFICE SUSiNESS, inclssding fall directions for taking out Patents, method of ma- king the Specifications, Claims, Drawings, Models, buying, selling, and transfering Patent Rights, & c. This is a present of OnEAT VALUE, yet may beobtala. ed for nothing, by the reader of this prospectus, if he will take the trouble to get Three Subscribers to the Scientific American. It will be an easy matter to obtain two names besides his own. MUNN & CO., Scientific American Office, N. Y 40

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Scientific American. / Volume 4, Issue 6 Scientific American, inc. etc. New York October 28, 1848 0004 006
Scientific American. / Volume 4, Issue 6 41-48

0 d~ntific 2tmericftu. THE ADVOCATE OF INDUSTRY, AND JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC, MECHANICAL AND OTHER IMPROVE1~ENTS. ~cu, pork, ctobcr 2~, ~ THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN: CiRCULATION 11,000. PUBLISHED WEEKLY. At 128 Fuiton Street, New York (Sun Building,) and 13 Court Street, Boston, Mass. By Munn & Company. The Principal Office being at New York. W~RMS$~ a yearSi in advance, and the remainder in 6 months. fJc~-See advertisement on last page. Poetri~. LiNES. Where shall we make her grave Oh! where the wild flowers wave, In the free air! Where shower and singing bird Midst the young leaves are heard Therelay her there. Harsh was the world to her Now may sleep minister Balm for each ill. Look on sweet natures breast, Let the meek heart find rest, Deep, deep and still! Murmur glad waters by Faint gales with happy sigh Come wandering oer That green and mossy bed, Where on a gentle head, Storms beat no more What though for her in vain Falls now the bright spring rain, Plays the soft wind Yet still from where slic lice Should blessed breathings rise, Gracious and kind. Therefore let song and dew Thence in the heart reaew Lifes vernal glow! And oer that holy earth Scents of the violets birth, Still come and go. Oh! then where wild flowers wave, Make ye her mossy grave, In the free air Where shower and singing bird Midst the young leaves are heard Therelay her there! WHAT iS WOMAN. What is woman ? Mans sweet angel Gentle, tender, calm, and kind Ever loving, ever faithful, Is her soft and soothing mind; A beauteous flower, born to blossom, Giving gladness to the eye: Half designed for mans fond bosom, Half a creature of the sky! What is woman? Ask her sorrow, Know how deeply she can feel; But when hope her heart will borrow, Mark what joy she can reveal; Oer her cheek each pure emotion Of her soul is seen to fly, As fair clouds with chaste devotion Fleet oer Lunas face on high. Thus she is a flowers sweet blossom, Giving gladness to the eye; Half desighed for mans fond bosom, Half a creature of the sky! AUTUMN. The Summer days have vanished, Like a dream at break of day; The sweet, fair fiewers are banished, That used to deck our way. But the grapes, in many a cluster, Hang purple from the bough; And the Heavens glow with lustre Tis glorious Autumn now? NEW MACHINE FOR MAKING WEAVERS HEDDLES. FIGURE 1. There is a small shaft under the bed of E, which by small cog wheels on the same ope- rate and revolve the bobbins by gearing into F. II, are the heddles after the eye is for- med winding up on the beams L L. The gang of wheels at the left are for the purpose of connecting the shafts of the beams to be driven by the main shaft below. The num- ber of eyes to the foot in the heddles can be genius, but the produce of a great range of increased or diminished by the gearing of original thought and correct mechanical ar- these small wheels K, is a small bearing for rangement. the shaft of L, and J is the shaft with a screw The object of the machine is to make f cut on part of it. This is for winding the weavers heddles from the threaa, casting the loop by braiding instead of knotting, and performing triple the amount of work and better than can now be done by hand. A patent is also secured for the peculiar eye of the heddle, so that both machine and its results are protected. DESCRIPTiONFig. 1, is a perspective view and shows gangs of different heddles winding on the beams. A A, is the iron framing. B, are the driving and slack pulleys. C, is the lever to gear and ungear. E E, are the bob- bins with the thread to make the heddles. This machine is the invention of Mr. Kas- simir Vogel, late of Lowell, Mass., and secur- ed to him by letters patent last year, which patent is now held jointly with him by Mr. Thomas of Saccarappa, Maine, This machine was exhibited at the Fair and was pronounc- ed tobe the most ingenious new Machine ex- hibited. It will be perceived that this ma- ehine is not the result of a sudden glance of hc~idiegrs.duod1y elocig the beam, and as K is a grooved and wormed faced pulley driven slowly by the small gang of wheels at the right, the shaft J, is wormed slowly through its bearings carryis~g the beam to let the hed- dles wind one after another on the same. The heddles are formed of a double cord which is twisted by the bobbins revolving and the eyes or loops are formed by the bobbins being in- terlocked, braiding the two strands at the two points ~vhich form the eye of the heddles. The section views will explain the operations better in detail. RAIL ROAD NEWS. Erie Rail Road to this City. The Paterson and Ramapo Railroad is fin- ished and a communication is opened up with this city and the Erie Rail Road via Paterson, N. J. This is a branch road and laid with the heaviest H rail and cost only about $21,. 000 per mile total $350,000. The first train passed over the road on Wednesday last, and every thing was in perfect order. Their four new cars made by the Springfield (Mass.) Company, and the locomotives New York and Ramapo, built by Ketchum, Rogers & Go- verneur, Patterson, N. J. were tried and work- ed to admiration. The ladies car is provid- ed with mirrors, dressing room, & c. One of the locomotives traversed a portion of the roadwith tender, baggage car and three pas- senger cars attached,at the rate of forty- one miles an hour! Syracuse and Oswego Railroad. Twenty-four miles of this road are now ready for use, and regular trains will run to Fulton on and after Monday next. The es- timated cost of the entire road, 35 miles, with a rail weighing 57 lbs. to the yard, the Syra- cuse Star says, will be about $400,000, and the maximum grade not to exceed twenty feet to the mile. John Lathrop, Esq., is the Chief Engineer. _______________________ Costly Railroad Bridge. The bridge across the Richelieu River, near Montreal, on the line of the Atlantic and St. Lawrence Railroad, is represented in the Montreal papers to be one of the most solid and substantial on this side of the Atlantic. It is over eleven hundred feet long, and it is at an elevation of fifty feet from the water. Its cost is stated lobe about $110,000. The Mon- treal Gazette states that the President of the Atlantic and St. Lawrence Railroad, accom- panied by the engineers and a party of gentle- men, lately examined the work upon the road as far as St. Hyacinth, thirty miles from Mon- treal to which spot, it is thought the cars can run by the first of next month. Nine miles are already in running order. Great Speed of a Locomotive. Recently in England, on the Great Western Railroad, seventy-seven miles were passed over by an express train in seventy-eight mi FIGURE 2. nutes twenty-nine seconds, including stop page of five minutes thirty-five seconds. Fifty three miles of the journey were performed in forty-nine minutes thirteen seconds. The speed in some cases was kept up at seventy, seventy-two and seventy-seven miles an hour. This rate of speed was attained, it will be ob- served on a broad guage track seven feet wide, and with engines having driving wheels eight feet in diameter. The Erie Railroad must show some point of superiority te convince the public of the be- nefit of the broad guage here. Locomotive Speed. The Lowell Courier says that a new engine called the Camilla, built by Hinkley & Drury, and designed for speed, on the Boston and Lowell Railroad, has driving wheels of 6k feet diameter, and is capable of running a mile in a minute. Forty miles of the New York and Erie Rail- road, south and east from Dunkirk, are graded and ready for the superstructure. On the 12 miles formerly laid down and completed the iron has been taken up as well as the tim- her sills, and housed for preservation. As soon as the new railroad is finished from New York to New Haven, it is said that the whole distance from Boston will be accom- As the same letters indicate like parts on Fig. 5 is a view of the underside of thema- plished in the short space of eight hours. all the following engravings, we shall describe i chine, showing the gearing by which the ta- The officers of the Customs in England re- them oollectively. Fig. 2 is a side elevation. bles that carry the spindles are made to re- tamed Iridium ore imported in a French vessel, Fig. 3 is a top view of the revolving tables volve. and~ spindles, and fig. 4 is an end elevation. (For Figs. 3, 4 and 5, see page 44.) and rated the duly as an extract, at 5s. per lb. bol. ;~i, 0dentiftc ~mctican. The Fair of the American Institute. No. 3. The Twenty-first Annual Fair of the Ame- rican Institute closed on Friday evening of last week. The dosing address was deliver- ed by Gen. Talmage, the same gentleman who delivered the closing address last year, and who was blamed by one of our Boston corres- pondents, for praising English for American cutleryState Prison labor for that of the ho- atest products of our embrowned mechanics, but as the Institute was incorporated by our Legislature to cherish labor and promote domestic economy, it was in perfect accor- dance with the conduct of their Charter givers, for the Institute to encourage convict as well as virtuous free labor. The Address was an illogical, incongruous mass displaying no small amount of ignorance. lie stated that our agricultural population paid our taxes and fought our battles and that all the boon Agriculture had been able to obtain was the publication a few years past, of a report from the Patent Office embracing a few matters of agriculture. He did not al- lude to the decided neglect of our mechanics, exhibited by government and the Institute Our agriculturists should get at least 76 per cent of government favor, because they ave- rage this amount in proportion to the number of our inhabitants,this would be right. Our mechanical classes should at least get 26 per cent of government encouragement, but have they got this amount of favor, this amount of just protection? Not they. The State of New York has a Geological and Agricultural Department at Albany, supported at no small expence and there is not a single spindle, loom, irio- del, or anandril to be seen in the whole esta- ~lishment. The Lifeof the American In- stitute, is the exhibition of works of mecha- nical and artistical invention and skill,take from the Fair the works of our mechanics and artists, and it would be a miserable display of crazy brick bats, rotten bags of hops, and stew- ed apples in a milk pan, and although we have an excellent State Agricultural Society, and it would be the province of the Institute to en- courage mechanical skill, it has studiously raised up the perpendicular of a Minor State Agricultural Association, and has endeavour- ed to buy and possess a Model Farm to spend the money that should be devoted to the en- couragement of the Mechanic Arts. Gen. Talmage forgot too, that the expen. I sive reports by appointed committees by go- vernment to investigate into the sugar man- ufacture, and to make geological surveys, were more than mere Patent Office Reports. He also forgot or was ignorant of the fact, that the Patent Office was supported by mechani- cal inventions, and that the agricultural re- ports should not be made by that Department that all such reports, were trespassing upon the nature of that Institution. It is well known that the income of the Pa- tent Office, last year, exceeded the outlay by $21,232 84. $466, was paid for agricultural statistics. The whole sum received by the Patent Office was $63,111 19, all for inven- tions, yet how have our mechanical classes been treated, in comparison with our agricul- tural classes, by the Patent Office? why so tar from Gen. Talmage being correct, the agricul- tural reports of the Patent Office, have been most voluminous and valuable, while the in- vention reports, have been but very shabby affairsa few pages only devoted to our me- chanics and inventors. We say that the Pa- tent Office should attend only to the duties of Inventors and inventions instead of devoting volumes to matter as valuable to those who pay the Patent Office revenue, as windle straws and winter greens. A great number of our inven- tors ate perfectly enraged at the manner in which they have been treated, and no won- der. There is certainly a reform needed both in the arranging and printing of the Patent Office Reports. We know not where the fault lies, but there is a grievous faolt somewhere. These remarks have been illicited, by the address of Mr. Talmagewe want not only protection and encouragement to one class but justice done to a certain classa neglected hut most valuable classthe very soul of our nations greatness, as we can satisfactorily prove to any man. CLASP COUPLING JOiNTS. The first premium for Mechanical Inventions was awarded for West and Thompsons Clasp Coupling Joint. Those who would desire to know more about this invention, will find it fully described and illustrated page 129 Vol. 3, Scientific American. We were the first to introduce this invention into public notice since that period it has been patented both at home and abroad. We saw another coupling joint at the Fair tci couple pipes without any bolts whatever, but it was very complicated and will never come into general use. BLIND HINGES. Quite a number of Blind fasteners & c., were displayed, among which we noticed particular- ly that of Mr. Talbot, manufactured at Taun- ton, Mass. This is a revolving Blind Hinge and it operates the Blind from the inside of the house without raising the sash, and an- swering all the purposes of a window lock at the same time. DOOR SPRINGS. The Door Spring of Mr. Thomas Peck, Sy- racuse, was the most simple exhibited at the Faii, and a great number of orders were given by persons who saw it. The Patent was issued last week. DODGE S BALANCE PUMP. This pump, an engraving of which appear- ed in No. 2 of our present volume engaged no small share of attention. Owing to our readers having all a taste for Science and Art, great numbers of them visited the Fair, and Mr. Dodges Pump was recognised and very high- ly praised. It is not possible, as we have mentioned be- fore, that one tithe of the articles exhibited can be described, and we must now take a brief review of some articles not mentioned rbeforp~ Mr. Hyde of Troy N. Y., exhibited new Truck, the principal object of which was for the turning of rapid curves The plan of the truck is entirely new and relates to the side bearings, from the main central cross beam to the axles. This part is made of two continu- ous iron curved springsdouble like a ribbon, forming a series of archesand thus combin- ing the best form for strength as well as the best mode of allowing the car to recurve on the one side and extend its curve on the oth- er. We will be able to present an engraving and a fuller description of this valulable im- provement to our railroad interests, in two weeks. Woodworths Planing Machine was exhibit- ed by Messrs. Frink and Prentiss of Jersey City, also Mr. Carters Model of Blanchards Machine for turning irregular forms. These two machines were objects of very special at- tention, every mechanic seemed to know them and exhibited an interest, which we gleaned by their conversationwas raised by readir~g about them in the Scientific American, No machines have caused se many law siits in A- merica or the wide world, as these t~o,this speaks volumes for their value and impor- tance. Mr. Joseph Dixon, of Jerse3 Citya very ingenious and scientific gentleman, exhibited specimens of pure iron, and improved steel, also some of his superior crucibles. Mr. Dix- on is well known for many valuable inven- tions, such as the duplication of engraved cy- linders, improvements in the manufacture of iron and steel, and the best black lead cruci- bles in the country. Philadelphia and Balti- more were well represented. We noticed par- ticularly a very neat and useful invention from Philadelphia. It was a Music Frame which turned the leaves of the music book while the operator was playing on the piano. The foot operates a stirrup, which moved a vibrating arm that regularly turned round cat- ching a small rod between the leaves, bending it over and opening lip a new page. A portable saw mill from Baltimore, was a very ingenious and valuable machine, and was universally esteemed as such. The Fur- niture department was well stored, and Jew- ellery and glass of every description made no small show. Woolen Cloths exhibited some improvement but in the Cotton line, the Jeans of York Mills, Oneida Co. N. Y. and the Ginghams of Ida Mills, Troy, were this, as they were last Fair, by far the bestnothing like them. Not being able to spare~more room at this time, we will publish the prize medallistnext week. New Invention. Our exchanges say that an invention for cutting stone is in operation in New Haven, which dresses down stone at the rate of a square foot in from one to two minutes, and with two attendants only, and a limited amount of steam power, doing the labor of more than a hundred men. There is said to be no mis- take in the thing ; and if so, it promises to make stone supersede brick, and revolutionize entirely our present mode of building. As we are not acquainted with its particular construc- tion we cannot tell whether or not it differs from other Steam Stone Cutting machines. Tanners Suisiach. The Venetian sumach, (Rlzus coriaria) so much used in tanneries, is imported in large quantities from Sicily, and from tha South of France, and sells at ~45 to ~50 per ton. It is very distinct from all the American species in its growth and general appearance, with the exception of the Rhus copallinum, and it is superior to them all for manufacturing pur- poses. The best mode of forming plantations would he from seeds, which may be imported from Naples, or the south of France. It is of easy culture, and propagates rather freely from suckers. The Rush coriaria, being a native of the South of Europe, it will not flourish to the northward of New York. On the light soils of New Jersey, which are there so prevalent, it would, no doubt grow well;but it would, probably, produce more shoots in the lower sections of the Southern States, where the climate is more congenial and mild. Basemn.,r.ta TT.~I~~iiIa~, viny. They are naturally dark and not ventilated every day, as they should be ; and the air is much worse near the floor, which renders such places generally unfit for small children to stay in. Parents and nurses should be very particular to remove the air by allowing the doors and windows to be frequently opened, to let in fresh air. 0 how much comfort and enjoyment, as well as prevention of ill health may be secured by a little care and attention to these matters! Hydrophobia. A cure for hydrophobia has been tried with complete success by Dr. Haller, of York, Pa., in consultation with Drs. Mellvain and Fisher. The patient, a lad twelve years of age, was bitten by a mad dog in April. Symp- toms of hydrophobia appeared on the 2d of Oc- tober, instant. The doctors ordered him to take two grains of acetate of lead and two grains Dovers powder every four hoursto drink feely of diluted acetic acid, and have his spine freely rubbed with equal parts of Grasivilles lotion and olive oil. Under this treatment, (although but little was hoped) he commenced in 10 hours to show symptoms of amendment and has been gradually improving. He took eighty grains of each article without producing any other sensible effect upon his system than tranquilizing the spasms and pro- ducing sound sleep. ______ Something startaing. A German gentleman advertises that he has at last solved the problem which the great- est chemists have hitherto thought impossible, viz: by discovering an ingredient by means of which the azote of the atmosphere can be totally destroyed, and thus producing a per- fect vacuuma new, cheap, and valuable mo- tive power being obtained. We are scepti- cal on this point and believe the inventor to be an enthusiast or worse. Telescopes four and one half inches long when closed, of power sufficient to show Sa- turns ring and some of the double stars, are now sold in London, with stand, case, & c. for fifteen dollars. Cause of an Expiosion. A number of practical aud scientific engi- neers having examined the cause of the explo- sion of the Concordia which recently happen- ed on the Mississippi made the following re- port: That from the appearance of the boilers, there was at the time of the explosion a defi- ciency of water, though from evidence advan- ced it appears that the second engineer left watch some half an hour previous to the acci- dent, and left with an adequate supply of wa- ter in the boilers. That it may be probable the flues in the larboard boiler were bare of water, in consequence of the boat having been listed to starboard considerably, when leaving Plaquemine, and when righted up, the water came in contact with the flue intensely heat- ed by being left bare. Prussic Acid. Dr. Nesbitt, of the University of Glasgow was recently found dead in his room with a vi- al of prussic acid and one of ammonia beside him. A post mortem examination showed that he had taken some of the acid, probably as a narcotic, but finding that he had taken too much, it is supposed he had used the am- monia to counteract its effect. New South Waies. A manufactory of japanned leather is being meet successfully prosecuted in Sydney. The article has not only superseded, to a great ex- tent, that which was once imported largely from England for coach builders and others, but it is thought there will be eventually a a considerable export of the Sydney manufac- ture. The new Satellite of Saturn, discovered by Professor Bond of Cambridge Observatory, in the United States, was discovered by Mr. Lassel of Starfield, on the 18th of September. The honor of the first discovery of course be- longs to Professor Bond and his country. Mr. Lassels telescope is one of the most power- ful in Europe. Professor Bond writes to the Boston Traveller under date of 11th instant, that he has followed the new satellite through an entire revolution, and finds that a periodic time of twenty-one days approximately satis- Lies the observed positions. On the coast of Africa, a British man-of-war chased a slave steamer, which, after leading her sixty miles from the coast, suddenly re- turned leaving the vessel of war to beat back~ and in the meantime the steamer took on board her cargo of fit teen hundred slaves and was off. A society was established in London recent- ly, to be called the Irish Amelioration So- ciety, to employ the peasantry in the pro- partion of peat fuel and charcoal ; and by re- moving the peat, to effect f he full reclamation of the bog lands. Dr. Chalfice a writer on cholera considers that the Asiatic form of this disease is propa- gated by a minute insect which traverses dis- tricts like the blight with us. If you multiply any given number by itself, say 8 :thus say 8X8 ~l4; then take one from the multiplier and add it to the multi- plied the product will always fall short by one of the former product. Thus :from 87, one added to 89 ; 7fr~ 963. The Montrose Review mentions the death of John Smith a labourer, who was wrapped in wet sheets, by George Steel, a hydropathic practitioner to cure him of rheumatic fever, and died within an hour. The doctor is to be tried for manslaughter. The St. Louis Courier says that a company of stockholders residing in Kentucky, Indiana, Arkansas, Louisiana and Mississippi have or- ganized themselves for the purpose of manu- facturing cotton at Cannelton, about 120 miles below Louisville. A rock of salt three hundred miles west of Fort Gibson Arkansas, furnishes salt equal to the whitest and finest table salt. It is ob- tained by the simple process of scraping the rock. A diamond has been found in Borneo weigh- ing 104 carats. It is said to be of the purest water, very regularly crystalised and will pro- bably lose but little in polishing. ~denti6~c ~metican. The Electric Telegraph. No. 2. In our last we explained what electro mag- netism was in a general sense, but in a speci- Ic sense, it is understood to relate only to the combination of a piece of horse shoe shaped soft iron surrounded with insulated helices of wire connected with a galvanic battery. The soft iron is only magnetic while under the in- fluence of the galvanic current, and is a focus of magnetic power, capable of driving machi- iery. It is this virtue in the electro magnet, on which the invention of Prof. Morse is bas- ed. When the electro magnet is influenced ny the galvanic current, it exerts considera- ble mechanical power, which immediately ceases when the current is broken. It is employing this power and breaking the cur. rent, to transmit messages from place to place by extended lines of wire that consti- tutes the whole invention, The closing and the breaking of the circuit in rapid succes- sion gives the pen lever, a rapid vibratory motion, and a pen lever connected with, but separated at any distance from the battery, obeys this law and exhibits the vibratory mo- tion in the same manner as if it were only se- parated a few feet. Mr. Alfred Vail express. ly says that this is the principle upon which Morses Electro Telegraph is based, and no one knows better than he. This invention then some will say is based upon the princi- ple of Oersteds discovery, viz, the deflection of the needle by an electric current. In 1819 Prof. Schweiger of Halle, invented the wire coil or the Electro Magnetic multiplier, which caused the current to exert a greatly in- creased force upon the needle, and the electro magnet is just a superior substitute, a very superior one, for the wire coil. But heie let us state the difference between the deflection of the needle by electricity, and the use of the electro magnet for telegraphic purposes. Prof. Morse uses the attractive power of the electro magnet, the deflection of the needle is a dif- ferent affair. But who discovered the Electro Magnet There are many claimants for this honor, but we believe that the real discoverer has been overlooked, whether intentionally or not we will not say. In the Transactions of the So- ciety of Arts for 1825, there is the first descrip- tion of apparatus to which the name could justly be applied and this is by a Mr. William Sturgeon, of London. Ampere and Davy, had previously, it is true, magnetized steel needles as we described in our last, but there is no evidence that they had any knowledge of the suddenness with which the polarity of soft iron might be reversed by a change in the di- rection of the current. Prof. Jacobi, of St. Petersburgh, the eminent discoverer of Elec- trotyping, awards to Mr. Sturgeon in conjunc- tion with Prof. Gersted of Denmark, the dis- covery of the electro magnet as a focus of mag- netic power to propel machinery. To this gentleman also belongs the credit of construc- ting the first rotary electro magnet engine. In 1832, Dr. Sculthess, in a lecture before the Philosophical Society of Zurich, gave it as his opinion that a power for mechanical purposes could be obtained by breaking and restoring the current. In 1833 he exhibited a machine which accomplished this, and Ja- cobi in 1834, laid before the Academy of Sci- ences of Paris, a plan of an electro magnetic engine. In 1836 Mr. Davenport, a blacksmith, of Philadelphia, turned lathes by electro mag- netism. Thus as a motive power electro mag- netism had been employed for more purposes than one previous to its first employment for telegraphing in 1837 publicly by Prof. Morse. The moving of machinery by the electro magnet, is no doubt a different thing from tel- egraphingthe results are entirely unlike, but we make these statements as historical evidence of the electro magnet being used as a motive power for other purposes than tele- graphing years before the first electro magne- netic telegraph was constructed, Electricity had been employed for telegraphing by an ex- tended line of wire in 1816, by Ronalds, of Hammersmith, England, who published a pamphlet in 1823 describing his apparatus therefore the application of the electro mag- net to attract a pen, that by a vibratory motion make marks on a running slip of paper near or at a distaace from the battery, constitutes the whole of Professor Morses invention in a direction exactly straight against the saw. This is all that Professor Morse claims him- self, and is a different system of telegraphing from the deflection of the needle, although both are based upon electro magnetism. Planing Machines. We hereby resume the publishing of Pla- ning Machine Patents, and we would call par- ticular attention to this one of Benthams, granted in 1793, as it is one which covers much of the debateable land, of Woodworths patent, and is therefore of much importance. Specification of tile Patent granted to Samuel Bentham, of Queen Square Place, Westminster, in the County of Middlesex, Esquire ; for his Invention of various new and improved Methods and Means of working Wood, Metal and other materials. Dated April 23, 1793. To all to whom these presents shall come, Now know ye, that in compliance with the said proviso, I the said Samuel Bentham do hereby declare, that my said invention is de- scribed in manner following; that is to say A saw mill of this sort consists of a saw- frame moving up and down, in which one or more saws are fixed, and a horizontal bed, on which a piece of timber is held, while the bed is moved on towards the saw ; the saw- frame is confined to its course by fixed chan- nels. By the up-and-down motion of the saw-frame, a progressive motion is given to the bed on which the piece lies, whereby at every descent of the saw, the piece is cut to a certain depth and at every ascent the piece is advanced ; this advancement is made by a rack and pinion, set in motion by a ratchet wheel, of which a tooth is laid bold of by a claw, every time the saw goes up. Thus far, generally speaking, I adopt the same contriv- ance in my sawing machine. p. 228. Working by a rotative motion of the tool. In the instance of circular saws, not to men- tion boring and grinding tools, working by a rotative motion has already been used, as I un derstand in a few instances, such as cutting timber into boards, cross cutting logs for fire- wood, cutting mortises for ships blocks, cut- ting the teeth of cog wheels, and other slight indentures in metal. But the idea of adapt- ing the rotative motion of a tool, with more or less advantage, to giving all sorts of sub- stances any shape that can be required, is my own, and, as I believe, entirely new: I place it,accordingly, among the inventions of which I claim the exclusive property, in as far as it has not yet been reduced to practice by others and in as far as the contrivances here described afford sufficient instruction for producing the effect: To take the sim- plest mode of fitting up a circular saw, for cutting in this way, conceive a spindle furn- ished with a circular saw, turning between two centres, as if in an ordinary turning lathe with a rigger or pulley to receive a band. Let the saw be strengthened, and confined to its position, by two fianches one on each side of it of equal diameter one to the other: as this diameter limits the depth of the cut which can be given by the saw, it should therefore be no greater than what is necessary to give the saw the necessary degree of stiffness. Im- mediately over the spindle fix a bench, of a size adapted to the work you have to perform and crossing the spindle at right angles. In this bench make a slit, for the saw to play in, projecting above it, more or less according to the depth of the piece which it has to cut. Stan- ding now in the direction of the saw, put it in motion in such manner as to make the upper part move towards you, as it turns, shoving the piece on against the saw, it will be cut through. Where a rigger, if small enough not to come in the way of the piece, would be too small to give motion to the saw, its office may be performed by a cog wheel of somewhat less diameter than the flanches ; to which cog-wheel you may give motion by another cog-wheel, fixed to a rigger ot a larger size, turning upon a separate spindle. How, by means of a rotative saw to shape a piece from the rough : a piece of wood for ex- ample for the state of a log, or a small branch of a tree ; ora piece of metal as it comes from the crucible or the forge. 1. The first thing to be done is to give it a straight side : for this purpose, the business is, to advance tbe piece For securing this straightness more methods may be employed than one ; the following I found as commodious as any. Cut in the bench a longitudinal channel, in a direction parallel to the saw, and the nearer to it the better. Into the channel or grove insert a bar or tongue, so as to fit exactly, and yet slide with ease, but without projecting above the bench. On this longitudinal bar fix two trans- verse bars, projecting their whole thickness above the bench ; one of them fixed, and the other moveable, so as to be fixed at different distances from the former, the distance being adjustable to the length of the piece which is held between them. (To be continued.) Treatment of Cholera. Dr. Maxwell, of Calcutta, who has lately published a Key to the Cholera (he him- self having had three attacks of the disease,) thus alludes to his recovery from the attacks. My thirst became worse and worse, and I de- termined to relieve it at all hazards, and not add misery to death. Having made up my mind, the next point was the choice of the particular beverage ; there was plain water, whey and barley-water, gruel, congree, & c., wine and water, brandy and water, & c. To the last of these I had a repugnance, as every one has in fully-formed cholera and the others would require time and direction for their pre- paration which my disease was not able to afford, or I give. Whilst thus ruminating, my eye accidentally fell upon a packet of effervesing soda powders standing among a crowd of other remedies and nostrums on the table. II immediately took my fancy: it struck me as the very thing I wanted, and without further delay I pointed to it, and made signs for a copious draught thereof. It was soon made and soon swallowed; it was extremely refreshing and agreeable, and the thirst was allayed; no nausea succeeded, and the pleasing anticipation remained of having a repetition of the draught whenever I de- sired. This I was not long in desiring : in fact, almost immediately after I swallowed another, and continued repeating it whenever the thirst became urgent. Instead of retro- grading or remaining stationary, I began to improye the stool became easier, and the spasms less vigorous and vicious. I experienced an inclination to sleep, a desire to be covered up, and for something hot to drink (these are the best signs, pointing to the disease escaping from the collapse stage.) I had a large tumbler full of very warm but weak brandy and water made, and drank it off. I fell asleep and had five or six hours of sound repose. I awoke bathed in perspiration, and with the exception of a little stiffness and considerable thirst, I felt perfectly well. The thirst was again relieved by the effervescing draughts, and I followed up the principle with a couple of dishes of that most delectable and pre-eminent of all stomachics, tea. Spent Tan-Bark may be employed as a hanure. This substance can easily be dried and coii- verted into charcoal in a similar manner as recommended for charring peat. It may then be mixed with night soil, answering both the purpose cf drying and rendering it fit for car- riage, at the same time absorbing all the am- monia, & c. It may also be mixed with urine or with animal manure of any kind for simi- lar purposes. Tan-bark, in an uncharred state is of no immediate value as a manure in consequence of the gallic and other acids it contains. The above extract from an unknown ex- change, is something interesting to our far- mers, and it is correct too. Unburned tan bark we know to be injurious to vegetation, but when the acid is driven off by heat, its nature is quite different. iceland. Iceland is little less than a mass of lava; and so intense is the energy of volcanic action in that region, that some eruptions of Hecla have lasted six years without ceasing. Earthquakes have often shaken the whole island, carrying a complete revolution in its geographical physiognomy : such as the rending of moun- tainsthe elevation of some and sinking down of others, the desertion by rivers of their channels and the appearance of new lakes, Piano Porte Tuners, This useful class of persons often fall under unjust censures passed upon them by those who, though they play upon the piano, are- entirely ignorant of many of its peculiari- ties. The piano forte is susceptible of the changes of temperature, and when tuned in one temperature will be out of tune in an- other. Good and well made piano fortes will stand in tune if they are tuned at proper peri- ods. Many people, as they think to avoid expense, will let their instruments remain long out of tune, which is a great detriment to them, as they are less likely to stand well after having been so left. A piano forte ought justly to be tuned twice a year, at least. First, when you com- mence with a fire in the room; and second, when a fire is discontinued. By following this course you have the best guaranty that the instrument will remain in tune for the longest period of time. Again, the instrument should not be suffered to remain below concert pitch ; if it is for years tuned below, it will never stand up to the pitch without a great deal of labor, if in- deed it ever stand at all. Many a beautiful instrument is nearly ruined for want of attention to these simple facts. Yet it will not answer for a professional tuner to recommend these things; if he does, the people will suspect him immediately of sel- fish motives, and say that he is planning for his own advantege. Owners of piano fortes who are not acquainted with the nature of the instrument, ought to bear these facts in mind when by a yearly outlay of a trifling sum they may save to themselves infinitely more than they expend, by the preservation of their in- struments in which they have invested so much. An Enormous Gas Meter. A London gas meter of immense size has just been cast and completed at the ironworks of Messrs. Glover in Charles St. Drury Lane, London, which is about to be erected in Co vent Garden Theatre for the measurement of gas supplied that establishment by the Char- tered Gas Company. It is what is called a dry gas meter,no water being employed in the process, as in the common meters: and is the invention of a Mr. Defries. It contains two chambers: the upper one holds the ma- chinery,the lower is divided into six com- partments by three moveable diagrams and three fixed partitions. The gas enters at the inlet pipe, whence it passes to the bottom of the meter, and fills each compamtment in suc- cession. A continuous supply is kept up by the action on the moveable diaphragms, which act upon the indicating machinery by means of a very simple and ingenious contri- vance, that registers the consumption of gas with unerring accuracy on a plate of six dials and indexes from units to millions. The me- ter is capable of measuring 6000 cubic feet per hour,and is to measure the supply of 1500 burners. It weighs two tons; is 16 feet in circumference, and 8 in height. The shape is a sexigon, with Gothic devices and ornaments. Farmers Wives in Olden Times. The duties of farmers wives, in England, in olden times, were somewhat differest, than is at present the case in this country. In the reign of Henry VIII. Sir A. Fitzher- bert wrote a treatise, entitled A Prologue for the Wyves Occupation, in which he says It is a wyve s occupation to winnow all maner of comes, to make malte, ivashe and wrynge, to make heye, shere come, and in time of nede, to help her husbande to fill the mucke wayne, or dounge carte, dryve the ploughe, to lode heye, come and such other, and to go and ryde to the market to sell but- ter, chese, mylke, egges, chekyns, capons, hennes, pygges, gese, and all maner of comes. How to make the Hair Wavy. A fashionable newspaper in London thus tells the young ladies how to make their hair wavy. It is toe important an affair to be lim- ited to any one country! Damp the hair with water, and plait it three or four plaits every night. It will then take the waved form, thoogh combed and brushed next morn- ing. This is owing to the steaming process it undergoes under the night cap. 43 ~cicntific ~2tm~irnn. New Wheel Pump. A new and very large wheel is now con- structing at Pittsburg Pa., to be worked by a steam engine, for the purpose of draining lands. It is twenty four feet in diameter and so constructed as to sweep an immense body of water from a plantation. ~lackine for making Weavers lieddles. (Continued from first page.) A is the heddle beam. B B B B, are revol- ving spool frames or tables. C represents the spool spindles, a are slots in the spool tables. Each table has six slots or spindle recesses, hut only three are occupied at once with the spindles. As the tables revolve, three slots are occupied with spindles and three are empty alternately, and an occupied slot in one, is brought opposite to an empty recess in its fellow table as seen in fig 3. The tables B B, constitute one pair and the tables B2, B3, another forming two distinct harnees, one on each side on two2~ea: but driven-by the same g~ ring. The yarn is put on the spindles C, and passes through a hole in the top of the flyers D, or over a depression (fig. 2) to hold it in its place and then passes under c, a recurved wire, that has a perforated weight d d, at each end. The flyers pass through these holes and the legs serve as guides to the weights. This is to take up the slack of the yarn. The spindles have each a groove in their lower parts adapted to slide into the recesses of the tables when the recesses coincide. The platform E E, has circular cavities for the lower ends of the spindles. F F, (fig. 2,) are fast and loose pulleys to drive the shaft G. A bevel wheel H, on G, gives motion to the revolving spool tables by toothed wheels, as seen at fig. 5. The bevil wheel I, (fig. 2,) gives motion to the heddle beams by gearing into J, on the shaft K. This shaft carries a worm wheel which gears into M to drive A. N is an eccentric on K, to vibrate g, a shipper, which shifts the spindles from one table to anotherthe opposite ends of g, op- erate on two pair of tables. A connecting rod with N, vibrates the shippers. N, is con- nected with K and turns with it by clutch pins and when these are not engaged the shafts turn without N. ii, fig. 4 is a pin that passes through N, projecting out above and below, nearly in contact with K. There are two clutch pins on K, either of which may be brought in contact with i, as the eccentric wheel is made to slide up and down on the shaft. 0, fig. 2 and fig. 4 is a forked lever with its fulcrum at e. Its fork ends m m, embrace N, the eccentric and raise and lower it at proper times. n n is a spiral spring at- tached to the forked lever, serving to draw it inwards, to depress the eccentric and make it clutch with the lever clutch pin. On the wheel M, are cams or lifting pieces p p, which when they come in contact with the end of 0, force it out and raise N, the ec- centric, so as to engage with the upper clutch pin at the required time, as will be understood by fig. 4. The axis of A is P, a screw, fig. 2, tapped into the frame of the machine and moves A endwise as it revolves, to wind the heddles as they are made spirally on the beams. q, is the smooth axis of A, on which the beam slides moved by the screw on the guide rods r r. Q Q, are rods that may be inserted in grooves in A. The semi-diame- ter of A, must be of the length of the hed- dles. After the number of heddles for a har- ness have been made, grooved pieces may be slipped over Q, and glued upon them to em- brace the twisted strands, or any other mode may be adopted. The shipper connecting rod A, (which looks like an n,) figs. 2 and 3, has a hinge joint t, to allow it to be lifted from the shipper g. The small bevil wheel J, on the shaft K, is one third of the diameter of the driving wheels, when there are three spindles on the table, and therefore makes the changes of the spindles in the recesses in one Plain its operation so that all may understand revolution of the revolving spool tables. If it, but we will state first, that fig. 1 exhibits there were four spindles in the table, the a different arrangement of mechanical parts wheel J, would be one fourth the diameter of from the section views, but they are just the the driving wheel, & c. mechanical eq~iivalents to accomplish the We have now explained the different mech- same thing. Heddle or harness making is the anical parts and offices of this machine as re- formation of eyes by two cords being knotted ferred to in these drawings. We will now ex- together. These eyes must be formed at reg- FIGURE 3. H Li ular distances on the harness. Well this ma~ heddles every revolotion of the beam; well chine forms two cords by B B, revolving and look at fig. 3. We know that if the strands twisting the yarn on the three spindles, one by that make the two cords, were interlocked at each table revolving, the cord winding at the cerlain periods, 8 times during the revolution same time as it is twisted on the beam A of A, that 4 eyes would be formed by the Now suppose we wish to form 4 eyes on the strands of the two cords being thus at certain FIGURE 4. points braided into one another. Tnis is the make the spindles in c, interlock, to braid way this machine does its work. and this can the eyes. The cams or clutch operate the ship- be done by the forked lever in fig. 4, shifting per g~ so that instead of vibrating from side to the shipper, or by cams on the inside of the side as now seen in fig. 3, touching the spin- upper gear wheel of fig. 1. At any rate, ~t i~ dIes outside, it is (the shipper) stopped by the just the operation of a reversing sell actin~, resting of the eccentric one sixth of the revolu- clutch, so well known to any mechanic. To lion of the table, and then it will be easily per- FIGURE 3. OFFICE, For Ike week ending Oct. 17, 1S48. To Thomas Lyle, of Collinsville, Pa., for improvement in machinery for doubling and twisting Yarn. Patented Oct. 17, 1848. To Stephen Parks,jr. of Brooklyn, N.Y. for improvement in Archimedean Lead Pipe Ma- chine. Patented Oct. 17, 1848. To Charles J. Richards, of New York City, for improved Cylindrical Wrought Nail Ma- chine. Patented Oct. 17, 1848. To John P. Taylor, of Little Compton, R. I., for Floating Battery. Patented Oct. 17, 1848. To W. XV. Metcalfe, of York Springs, Pa., for improvement in Ploughs. Patented Oct. 17, 1848. To David Dick, of Meadville, Pa., for im- provement in Presses. Patented Oct. 17, 1848. To John A. Swope, of Germany, Pa., for improved Flood Fence. Patented Oct. 17, 1848. To A. B. Earle, of Colesville, N. Y. for im- provement in Planting Ploughs. Patented Oct. 17, 1848. To George Beeching, of Augusta, N. Y. for improvement in Cultivators. Patented Oct. 17, 1848. To John J. Carrel, of Petersburg, Va., for improvement in Harness Saddle Mounting. Patented Oct. 17, 1848. To George F. Southwick, of Somerset, Mass., for improvement for Locking Urnbrel - las and Parasols. Patented Oct. 17, 1848. To John Russell,of New York City, fer im- proved Domestic Telegraph. Patented Oct. 17, 1848. To M P Coons, of Lansingbisrg, N. Y. for Iron Hurdle Fence. Patented Oct. 17, 1848. To Thomas Peck, of Syracuse, N. Y. for improved Uoor Spring. Patented Oct. 17, 1848. To Charles H. Dobbs, of Natchex, Miss, for improvement in Dentists Instruments. Pa- tented Oct. 17, 1848. To Kirby Spencer, of Athens, Geo., for im- provement in Dentists Instruments. Paten- ted Oct. 17, 1848. To Caroline C. Nichols, of Providence, R. I., for improvement in manufacture of Arti- ficial Flowers. Patented Oct. 17, 1848. To George H. Marsden, of Charlestown, Mass., for improved Engine for Cutting Files. Patented Oct. 17, 1848. To Samuel Rodrnan. of New Bedford Mass for improvement in Scoups. Patented Oct. 17, 1848. INVENTORS CLAIMS. improved Turn Tabies. George Dryden, Worcester, Mass., for ma- proved turn table. Pattented August. 29th, 1848. What he claims is the combination of circular bearing rails, the wheels cogged, pinion or geer applied to the cogged wheel either applied to the platform or between the rails as arranged and applied to the turning table and made to operate together. Pen Holders. A. S. Lyman and M. W. Baldwin, Phila., Pa., for improvement in fountain pen holders and nibs. Patented Sept. 19, 1848. Claims, first the method of supplying ink to pens from a resorvoir in the handle by means of a bag or chamber, the whole or part of which is made of gum elastic or other yielding substance, substantially as herein described, whereby the writer can by the pressure of the finger or thumb supply the nib with ink while ceived that the shipper will take into the inside make as large, or as many eyes in a foot as writing and thus avoid the necessity of dip- of the spindle e, and throw it into the empty may be desired, but the changing or passing ping the pen. Also the method substantially as described of preventing the escape of ink recess a, of the other table, which coincides of the spindles from one table to another, from the fountain, by combining the spring thus the threads and the t~vce for interlocking tuaidin~ must be performed by the shipper plug attached to the cap as described. two cords together into one, forming an eye one eye, according to the length of the eye, of the heddle by braiding instead of knotting. and then they are not shifted again until A has An English inronaut, Mrs. George Batty, It will be observed too, that the clutch can be revolved the distance wanted to form the base now ascends from the Cremorne Gardens in changed by cams, to operate the shipper, ~O of a new eye for the harness, company with a real lion! 44 L New Thucution~. 9 LIST OF PATENTS ISSUED FROM THE UNITED STATES PATENT 0fitntifrc 2tmetican. A- ~ NEW YORK, OCTOBER 28, 1848. Honor to whom Honor Is Dne. It is a lamentable fact !hat many men who are esteemed for honor, honesty, probity and worth in private life, seem to have no qualms of conscience in appropriating to themselves the scientific discoveries or inventions of oth- ers. This is particularly true in reference to the handiwork and productions of our mecha- nics and artisans. It pained us not a little to behold at this years Fair of the American In- stitute (as it has before,) the studied trumpet- ing of Agents ware, without a single refer- ence to the actual producer. In the displays of mechanical and artistical skill that are yearly exhibited in Paris, the articles entered must have the name of the mechanic or me- chanics and artisans who labored on the same, labelled or engraved on them, so that the public may not bow to a proxy genius. We wish this custom to be universally adopted in our own country, because it is so democratic and republican in nature and justness. We might here point distinctly to articles exhi- bited at the Fair, and say to the Managers and respectable gentlemen, as the prophet said to David, thou art the man. There is no class so guilty of the evil that we speak of, as our manufacturers. Now, it would be even something to their interest to send with their goods the name of the girl that wove such a piece of clothand the per- son who had charge of the same. This would be no more than an act of justice, and would (we are perfectly confideat,) be not unpro- fitable to the manufacturer. Our Fairs are far the ostensible object of en- couraging American genius, skill and indus- try. It is surely a poor plan of carrying out these objects, by exhibiting, in too many ca- ses, splendid tokens of artistic skill to dazzle the eyes of onlookers, for the mere purpose of letting people know where these thiugs are sold, not made. An humble mechanic or artisan, has frequently to chew the cud of chagrin in seeing some agent receive a medal or diploma for a piece of workmanship which, the person who received the reward, could no more perform than the man in the raoon. We hope that these few hints will not fall like good seed cmong thorns and briars, but upon good soil and bring forth good fruit. It is a great source of honest pride, to be- hold the handiwork of our mechanics and ar- tists made the theme of just praise, but we take mare pleasure in witnessing the admira- tion transferred from the work of art, to the artist ; but oftentimes we are deprived of this pleasure, because honor is not awarded to whom it is due. Evening Free Schools. Evening Free Schools are now opened in various parts of our city for the instruction of our young men and women. We hope that they will take advantage ot this blessing, for a blessing it really is, and that they will ap- preciate the benefits of a good education. There are many very eminent men who have received all their education after the toils of the day were over. There is certainly a great pleasure arising from having mastered some difficult problem before retiring to sleep, in comparison with beholding the performance of Forest or a Macready. Our young Mecha- nics should not neglect availing themselves of the additional privileges provided by the Education Board of this cily. Honor to Mechanical 1ngenult~. In Paris there is a Central Jury appointed by government to examine articles of mecha- aical ingenuity, decide upon their merits and grant proper rewards, and the Legion of Ho- nor is often granted. We have uften thought that an Order of .Merit should be established among our Mechanics and Farmers. L. L. I)., D. D. & c., with the Hon. this and that, belong to every body but our working people. Prevention of Explosions In Steam En- of engines must be complete, the cost and gines. trouble only nominal. Mr. John Wilder of this city, in a letter to _______________________ the Tribune, says that it is impossible for the Words of Wondrous Length and Thun- force of elastic steam to produce the breaking dering Sound. of engines and rending of boilers that so fre- The Philadelphia Ledger opens its batteries quently occur : they are the work of the ex- upon the name of the New York Pomologi- plosive principle, when disengaged from its cal Society, and enquires what ology is combination with steam. Similar in its ef- this ? The only answer we can give is, non- fect to lightning and identical with electricity sensology. Our scientific system makers, are in its distinctive properties ; its velocities are sadly debasing our mother tongue, by adding in effect unlimited ; it is devoid of weight, to it strange and uncouth foreign terms, and not subject to the laws of gravitation, which have neither sweetness of sound nor which are inherent in all matter that has sense of application to compare with our sim- weight, and it is hence evident that it may be ple and energetic Anglo Saxon. The Asso- conveyed away by similar conductors. ciation of Fruit Growers would not only be It is absolutely certain that the explosive a name more easily understood, but more principle is disengaged from steam as it is beautiful than Pomological Society. The let into ihe cavity of the nozzle, or valve- English language by the combination of words chamber, on the opening of the steam-valve: is capable of indefinite expansion, and in spite the pressure that kept them combined is then of many lamentations made by dull professors in great part taken off, until the cavity is flu- about the barrenr.ess of our language, we find led with steam. There is no proper escape no literature that thrills deeper on the heait of the explosive element from the nozzle, than some of the old ballads in which are not which is heated, and in effect insulated, and to be found a word exceeding three syllables the accumulation is highly dangerous ; but it in length. Shakspeare and Burns, show may be safely carried off by proper conductors, what can be done with their native tongue those most convenient are small copper tubes. and those who complain of it are like misera- One end of a tube at proper length is to be ble mechanics who complain of their tools, to terminated in the best manner for the diffu- hide their iucapacity to use them. sion of the electric fluidthe other end to Mammoth Pump. enter the cavity of the nozzle, and have over The St. Louis Republican of the 5th instant its orifice a slight valve, kept by a spring a says that Capt. P. Bennett will, to-day at 3 little open, to allow the explosive element to oclock, P. M., put in operation, on board the pass off by tbe tubular conductor, the valve to steamer Cumberland Valley, foot of Florida close by the force of steam as the cavity be- street, Walshs mills, his new invented patent comes filled therewith. The conductors of a pump, constructed on scientific principles, condensing engine should be carried high without valve or piston, calculated for treeing enough above the water in which they ter- sunken boats from waterthrowing the un- inmate to preserve the vacuum, heard of quantity of one thousand barrels per The security from explosions and breaking minute. FiG. 1. IMPROVED SLEIGH. These sleighs are the invention of Mr. Mo- ses Miller of Fort Ann, Washington Co. N. Y. and secured to him by letters patent. The improvement consists in the manner of con- structing sleighs ; by means of which improv- ement the dash board may be made of any desired width, so as to form wings on each side thereof, out of the same piece which con- stitutes the dash board itself, thereby affording more effectual protection from annoyance, by the throwing of snow; whilst also the struc- ture of the forepart of the vehicle is rendered more permanent than heretofore, and will more rapidly admit of repair. In the accompanying drawing, fig. 1, is a side elevation, and fig. 2, a view of the front of the sleigh. A A, are they runners,B B and C C the timbers that are called the raves; B B being the lower, and C C the upper raves, which with the necessary cross pieces consti- tute the main frame 01 the sleigh body. ID ID are fenders which are curved round so as to bring their outer ends opposite to the main raves B B, as shown at 3 in fig. 2, to which raves they are fastened by a screw bolt, or some analogous means. The main raves B B, are turned up in the form seen in the front at B fig. 2, but this curve may of course be va- ried at pleasure. The fore part of the raves are connected firmly together by means of a cross piece, the place of vihich is shown by the dotted lines at F F, fig. 2. In the constructing of sleighs as heretofore made, the dash board constituting the fore part of the body of the vehicle, has been pla- ced on the inside of the raves, and it has therefore been limited in its width to that of the frame work of the sleigh, which width is designated by the dotted lines B B, fig. 2, this being the place of the raves. under this ar- rangement, the dash board is planted on the FIG. 2. raves at their outer sides, and it may, there- fore, be extended out in width so as to form wings, in one solid piece with the said board. The board so attached is shown at E E, where the part of E E constitutes wings, which may be extended out to any desired width without any additional cost, and in a manner much more permanent and convenient than such parts could be made of, added to sleighs on the old plan. The runners, A A, are curved upwards, and backwards, so as to bring their fore ends in contact with the dash board at a point im- mediately opposite to the cross piece F, to which they are confined by the use of suitable screw bolts. The dash board is affixed to the raves by means of wood screws, and the whole arrangement of the front, therefore, is such that runners, fenders and dash boards may readily be removed for the purpose of repair. The dash board being made all in one piece is a very important improvement over the old way, and they can be made much cheaper and certainly more easily repaired. The main raves are formed in a proper press, and the pannels of the sides of the sleigh are secured by grooves and tennon to the raves, and a series of small bolts or bands pas- sing through the raves inside joining the pan- nel and raves, dispensing with the more ex- pensive stays, and making a far stronger sleigh at the same time. These improvements will no doubt be universally adopted by our sleigh makers. Two of these sleighs may be seen at Mr. Brewsters Carriage Repository, No. 396 Broadway, this city, and we have examined them personally, and are convinced that they embrace new and valuable improvements, be- ing neater, lighter and stronger than those made in the old way. Vogel and Thomass Harness. Fra. 1. Fig. 1, exhibits the eye of the heddle and shews that it is braided forming not two but one cord at the base and top of the eye, and cer- tainly superior to the old heddle. One advan- tage of it, is that the varnish will saturate the cord more thoroughly than if the eye was made of knots, making them far more durable as has been proven with a harness that has been severely tested for more than one year. Another advantage is, that it forms a far smoo- ther eye as will be observed in FIG t. ~ ~ A A are the two slips that confine the hed- dles and B are the heddles. Now it ,vill easi- ly be perceived that for fine work a vast im- provement is embraced in the form and make of a harness made of these heddles, while for all other kinds of weaving, the advantages are indisputable. Both the machine and the work it produces have peculiar claims upon the ma- nufacturing interests of our country, and both are patented. The proprietors have wisely con- cluded to sell rights of States, in such a man- ner, that the person or persons who secure single rights, will have a respectable field for operations and be well remunerated in their enterprise. The Institute awarded a gold medal for this invention and it certainly was not too high a prize. Emigration and Trade Societies. The Sun says that one of its correspondents a hard-working mechanicendowed by na- ture rather than by study with strong percep- tive faculties and good reasoning powers, wishes to impress upon the different trades societies of the city, the importance of action being taken by those who are able, for the as- sistance of those who are not, during the severe winter months in prospect and for all future time. No means are better calculated to ef- fect this desirable object than a good emigra- tion system, such as he suggests. Let our labourers and mechanics form Emigration Societies and thus assist those of their num- bers who are disposed but unable to seek em- ployment in the vast fields and new cities of the boundless West. Thus they would do a double good. In relieving those, they relieve themselves of their competition and advance so much nearer to constant employment and good prices. California Gold. Edward N. Kent, chemist, of this city, in a letter to the Sun says that lie has analysed some of the California gold ore and finds it composed of arsenite of copper, containing a little Nickle and Zinc, and mixed with Iron Pyrites, some of which is in well defined crystals, and without a single particle of gold. This is cooling news to the builionists, but they must just smelt their disappointment in- stead of their goldin the crucible of resig- nation, and after this stick the old proverb on the tips of their noses It is not all gold that glitters. THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. Persons wishing to subscribe for this paper have only to enclose the amount in a letter di rected (post paid) to MUNN & COMPANY, Publishers of the Scientific American, Neit York City~ Txae~s.$2 a year; ONE DOLLAR IN ADVANCEthe remainder in 6 months Postmaster8 are respectfully requested to receive subscriptions for this Paper, to whom a discount of 25 per cent will be allowed. Any person sending us 4 subscribers for 6 months, shall receive a copy of the paper for the samelength of time I ~cientiftc 2~.mericmnt. fucrustations in Steam Boilers. MR. EnrroR.In No. 3 vol. 4, Scientific American, is an article byR. Bartholomew in answer to mine in No. 2, wherein I had sta- ted that the labor of a previous article of his seemed to be directed against Mahogany Dust, & c. This he says is not true. He also says he had no knowledge of its being secured by patent until he saw my ill tempered letter. A reference to his article No. SO vol. 3, will show this language For all the many pro- fessed ways which have been discovered to prevent incrustations we believe from the practical evidence of more than one that Ma- hogany Dust, which was once to be the panacea for all incrustations, has utterly failed to confer a single benefit. Again Indian meal is the best thing so far as we are yet acquainted to remove it (incrusta- tions.) It is at least equal to more expen- sive substances and altogether superior to ex- hausted dye stuffs, for which a patent was se- cured three years ago. This was under date of Sept. 2d, and Oct. 7th, he says his refer- ence to mahogany dust almost (not quite) carelessly doneand I suppose his denial of any knowledge of the patent was also al- most carelessly made. Thus much for Mr. Bartholomews consistency and veracity, for which the reader will doubtless give him due credit. In my article in No. 2, I stated in plain En- glishthat of Mr. Bartholomew I knew no- thing. But that on reading his article with its italics and cants at Mahogany Dust as a impregnated with them, would require much less frequent discharge to carry off a given quantity of those substances, than would be necessary were the carbonates, salts or earths to settle or harden into incrustations, leaving the water blown but slightly impregnated with them. DANIEL BARNUM. New York, Oct. 1848. [This controversy has not been the least in- structive to us, and we presume, of as little benefit to our readers. We opened our col- umns, for reply, as we are perfectly impartial in these matters. We now close them peremp- torily except for explanation. Of the Comparative Duty of Long and Short Stroke Engines. The following experiments by J. G. Bod- mer, an English engineer, will be found to be not a little interesting to our engineers. From Mr. Bodmers experiments he has proven (perhaps a mistake) that different from com- mon opinion, the short stroke consumes 20 per cent. less steam than the long stroke, but the opinions expressed are founded on the compensating principle over the single crank system ; and it is Mr. Bodmers opinion that this advantage consists in the steam acting si- multaneously upon two pieces connected with the same crank in opposite directions. The question seems to reduce itself to thiswhe- ther an effort which produces no useful effect, is not so much power lost; and whether there- fore, if reaction can be converted into effec- tive action, so much power must not necessa patent, the idea was presented to the mind, rily be gained? For argumeiats sake, we may that he imagined himself to be witty in his at- assume a 12-pounder cannon to be placed at tempts at ridiculeand also that he belonged to that class of men, who are incapable of appreciating an honest effort at impprovement. With an emotion truly fanciful, Mr. Bartholo- mew has discovered that I, by this language impute to him the wonderful fancy of imagin- ing himself to belong to that class. No, No, Sir, I have subscribed my name to no such nonsense, for I am fully impressed with the idea that in order to entertain any such just notions of himself The Lord must first the power gie him, To see himsel as ithers see hint. M~. B says, I honestly confess that I can- not appreciate the honest effort to secure a monopoly of all the mahogany saw dust that may be used in steam boilers in these United States for 14 years. Here again is evidence of a wonderful fancy, powerful logic, and sci- entific reasoning. What an odious monopoly it must Ise to secure all the mahogany dust which may be used for 14 years, when its use has utterly failed to confer a single bene- fit. Indeedwell may the man who can thus reason lament that he feels not the joy which the warrior feels to meet the foeman worthy of his steel. Mr. Bartholomew says, high pressure en- gines seldom need any remedy for incrusta- tions. Now, Mr. Editor, many of Ihe disas- trous explosions on our western waters, where high pressure engines alone are used have from investigations of causes, been attributed to large deposites and incrustations upon the flues and bottoms of the boilers, to such an extent as entirely to exclude the water from the surfsce of the iron, which being exposed to the action of the fire becomes heated until the expansion causes a rupture, or break, in the incrustation or scale, when water comes suddenly in contact with the heated iron, causing the collapse of a flue, or an explosion, besides the use of high pressure engines at sea, have universally been condemned. on ac- count of difficulties and dangers of incrusta- tions, under high steam in salt waterbut these being facts, have not probably come within the range of Mr. B.s scientific investi- gations. Mr. Bartholomew says I have advanced but one scientific idea, and that is, that mahogany dust tends to Drevent deposites of carbonates and salts, keeping them in suspension, render- ing it less frequently necessary to blow water from the boiler, with, than without, the dust and this idea seems to trouble himhe says it is a new fact for chemists. Now, although it is undoubtedly a new fact to him, yet chem- ists will have no difficulty in appreciating the fact, that carbonates, salts, or earths, being kept in suspension until the water is fol y the height of say 50 feet from a perfect level, and a ball to be fired off with a charge of 4 lbs. of powder. If the length of the cannon be eighteen times its bore, the ball will touch the ground at a distance of say 1800 yards; and suppose the cannon, whose weight shall be 200 times that of the ball, to be sosp~nded in the air, it will, by the shot, be made to recoil the two-hundredth part of 1800 yards, or 9 yardsthe force which projected the ball to a distanca of 1800 yards being evidently equal to that which sent the cannon a distance of 9 yards. Now if the breech of this cannon were cutoff, and a ball placed on either side of the charge ot 4 lbs. of powder, on the shot being fired, would not the cannon remain ~t~- tionary, and would not the joint effect of the two 12 pounder balls be far greater than the effect of the one ball, upon which the whole of the 4 lbs. of powder had been expended? And it so, wherein does the principle differ from that of the compensating engine? It was observed, that the lateral rocking of the train no doubt constituted a very perceptible element in the resistance to railway trains probably the back and forward motion be. tween the locomotive engine and the carria- ges attached to it may also be considered to have some share in the matter. These deter- riorating movements may be traced to the peculiar action of the singlecrank engine. The lateral rocking motion is owing to the pressure of the pistons being exerted alternate- ly to the right and to the left, upon a lever the length of which is represented by the dis- tance from the centre line of the engine to that of each of the cylinders. But if, as in the compensating engine, the thrust in one direc- tion is counterbalanced by a pull of equal force in the opposite direction, such rocking motion can by no means take place. And ex- perience proves that at does not take place. The longitudinal hack and forward, or re- ciprocating motion, may be explained from the circumstance that the cranks are, at every revolution of the crank axles, placed in such I positions that almost the full pressure upon comotive engine really differs from those of ordinary construction ; and whether, by their use, the co-efficient of resistance to railway trains would be to any perceptible extent af- fected. Results obtained from a comparative trial of a 60 horse-power long stroke and short stroke (compensating) non-condensing steam engine, with Pronys brake. Both engines were tried on the same day and with the same brake. Data. Long stroke. Short stroke. Diam. of cylinder, 28.5 in. Sec. area cylinder, 683.49 sq. in. Length of stroke, 7 feet. Pres. of steam sq. in. 43 lbs. Back pressure, 2 3-8 lbs. Steam cut off at, ci the stroke, 0.9 Veloc. of crank shaft, rev, per minute, 21.6 Effect obtained, 170.17 hr. p. Consump. of steam per h. p. per mm. 8.01 cub. ft. 6.28 Wine in Australia, There is now every reason to believe that 21.65 in. 368 13 sq. in 3.018 ft. 45 lbs. 6 lbs. 0.537 91.91 132.55 b. p. theni become extinct, and left no posterity, the descendants of the ancient earth-architects live and thrive to this very hour. The pol- ishing-slate, or tripoli of Bilin, presents us with another instance in point. The investiga- tion of that greatest ofmicroscopical observers Professor Ehrenberg, have shown that this substance consists almost entirely of an aggre- gation of infusoria in layers, without any con- necting medium. These are much more mi- nute than the chalk animalcules. A cubic line contains about twenty-three millions of them, and a cubic inch has been calculated to be the cenotaph of forty thousand millions of these beings! The weight of a cubic inch is about 220 grains, and that of the siliceous shield of a single animalcule is estimated at the 187,000,000th part of a grain! The in- fusorial rock at Bilin forms a bed fourteen teet in thickness. Two origins are now as- cribed to limestoneone, that of chemical precipitation; the other, which has a direct tion with our subject, ascribes the formation to the labors of the infusoria. There can be no doubt that many of the enormous beds of this substance with which we are familiar, are the Western Australia will one day become a great results of the accumulation of innumerable wine country. Its vineyards are becoming more numerous and extensive every year, and the wine produced in them is of a quality to lead us to believe that when the art of pre- paring it is better understood, it will be found of very superior quality. It will, however, be a new kind of wine, and therefore, before it will be prized in Europe, prejudices in favor of older wines have to be overcome. Soil and climate combined give to different wines their peculiar flavor. The vines which in Madeira produce the wine of that name, when brought to another country, even in a corresponding latitude and planted in soil that chemically approaches as closely as pos- sible to that which they have left, will pro- duce a wine materially different from that called Madeira. So with the the vines of Xeres and Oporto, or Constantia. Different countries produce wines peculiar to them- selves ; and the wines of Western Australia will be found to be entirely sui generis. All that I have tasted though made from the poorest of grapes the common sweet water, have one peculiarity. A good draught, in- stead ot atiecting the head or flushing the face causes a most delightful glew to pervade the stomach, laborers in harvest prefer the home-made colonial wine to any other bev- erage. Every farm settler is now adding a vineyard to his estateLandens Bushma. Importance of the Insignificant. It is one of the marvellous arrangements of Providence, that results of the greatest mag- nitude and importance are not unusually caus- ed by operations apparently so insignificant as to be reckoned scarcely worthy of notice. Nothing, however, is really insignificantall has a meaningall tends to one harmonious whole in the order of creation. Some beautiful illustrations of this proposi- tion are to be found in the animal kingdom, particularly in the immense and wonderful influence of minute animated organisms upon the actual form and mass of the globe ! The chalk f~rmatien fills every reflective mind with wonder. The chalk-beds of England- are many hundred feet thick, and many miles in extent. Who raised this wall of white around that coast? Who piled up those pre- cipitous masses, from which all the labor and skill of man can only detach a few compara- tively insignificant morsels ? We did ! ut- ter a myriad million animalcules, whose dead bodies are thus beheld. It is beyond concep- tion; but the microscope assures us of the both pistons is exerted alternately in opposite fact. These vast beds are composed of the directions ; the thrust one way having evident- ly a tendency to separate the locomotive en- gine from its tender, and that and the carria- ges from each other ; whilst the pull an the opposite direction throws the locomotive en- gine back upon the tender and the carriages. In the compensating engine the thrust and pull are again equally balanced, and conse- quently this longitudinal reciprocating motion cannot take place. It would be most interesting if it could be ascertained by experiments to what extent, with regard to its action, thecompensating lo shells of info sory animalcules. A line is the 12th part of an inch. Now these crea- tures vary from the 12th to the 280th part of a line in thickness ! It has been calculated that ten millions of their dead bodies lie in a cubic inch! Singly, says a popular writer, they are the most unimportant of all ani- mals ; in the mass, forming as they do such enormous strata oi~er a large part of the earths surface, they have an importance greatly ex- ceeding that of the largest and noblest of the beasts of the field. Theirs is asafe humility; for while the greater creatures have many of millions of these tiny creatures. They swarm in all waters, indifferently in salt as in fresh; and secreting from the lime held in solution by such water the necessary material for their shields or calcareous skeletons, they form by their enormous aggregation in process of time the vast strata of which we speak. For this purpose, it is necessary that they should be capable of multiplying immensely; and this they do by the different processes of spontane- ous fisuration, germination, and the develop- rnent of ova. The white calcareous earth so common at the bottoms of bogs and morasses has its origin in the ceaseless labors of~ these creatures ; and the bog-iron ore of geolo- gists consists of the ferruginous shields of others. Thus, as has been aptly remarked by the old Latin proverb, iron, flint and lime all formed by worms, which was probably a sly sarcasm against philosophy, modern sci- ence has shown to be actually true in the his- tory of the animalcules. The Great Pyramid of Egypt has been looked upon by men as a miracle of human power and skill yet every stone in its composition is a greater far, for the limestone of which this vast structure is built was erected long ago by an army of hum- ble animalcules more numerous than all the hosts of a thousand Pharaubs. It has been finely said by Young Where is the dust that has not been alive? though perhaps he little knew the wide ap- plication of the truth he was enunciating. Bleaching Straw. A careful culture insures a requisite degree of fineness and firmness in the material, but for most purposes the color must be diminish- ed or removed. This may be done dy chlor- me, sulphurous acid, alkali or atmospheric agents but a violent process injures the fibrous texture. It may be steeped in pure fresh wa- ter, for several weeks exposed to the air and then sulphured. According to Kurrer at may be perfectly whitened by repeated steeping in boiling water and very weak alkali, which removes all soluble matter, then treated alter- nately with very dilute solution of chloride of lime and sulphurous acid vapor, finally washed and dried in the sun. The process is tedious, but it said to remove the varnish which makes the natural straw brittle and to render the fibre brilliant, white and pliant. it is even more difficult to explain the I bleaching process by means of sulphurous acid than that by chlorine. It is generally assumed that the acid combines directly with the color without either giving or receiving oxygen and forms a colorless or slightly co- lored compound with it; for by the action of alkali or a stronger acid, the original color is restored ; and hence also, the color reappears on sulphured goods in the lapse of time by the gradual dissipation of sulphurous acid. The action of of alkali in the above operations with wool, silk and straw, depends simply on the solubility of the coloring or other matters in the alkaline solution. The English papers admit there is large de- ficiency in their crops but seem to rejoice that the United States can supply all their wants 46 0cicniific 2~1ncxif tin. TO CORRESPONDENTS. H. C. of Geo.You will have received your india rubber by this time. We know of no person at present who wishes to embark for a foreign patent. The invention is par- ticularly valuable to America, but only of minor value in any other country, except Egypt and the East Indies. W. S. H. of N. Y.Ashurs Practical House Carpenter, costs $5. Every No. of Eanlett costs 50 cents. You have the fire of poetry within you, but if you re-examine and rewrite, you will find room for improvement. We never correct poetry for the press, there- fore it must come correct in every part. Now you will perceive that your rhyming lines do Dot coincide in syllables, which must be the case for the public. A. B. of Ct.Your planes arrived in good order. They look very neat and will undoubtedly answer well. We are proceed- ing with your Patent business and in a few days you will hear from us. D. V. of Ohio.Such a brake as you mention would be of great value. Please send us a more full description. Nos. I and 2, Vol. 3, are all gone $2, all right. A. B. of Wheeling.we were happy to receive yours on the 23d. Accept our thanks $3. W. E. of Pa.There are a great number of Brick Machines. Mr. Grant of Providence, R. I. has a goad one, also J. W. Ward of Cam- bidge, Mass., also Mr. Adams of Canterbury, Orange Co. N. Y. The latter gentlemans ma- chine we have seen and it is good. J. B. P. of N. Y.Your caveat and draw- ings are received. We cannot afford to ex- amine your invention as minutely as you re- quest, and reply to all the enquiries made, without being partially remunerated for the time it will require to examine it. Please send us $3 and you shall hear from us imme- diately. C. L. Y. of Ohio.We have answered you before. Ear trumpets are made in this city, and no doubt in Cincinnati also. f~. Some of our correspondents must ex- cuse us from replying to them till our next number. We are getting posted up now, and will attend tc, the wants of all our friends without further delay. international Postage. The proposition made by the Marquis Clan- ricarde, the British Postmaster General, to Mr. Bancroft, and declined by the latter is to the effect that the sea postage of ninepence sterling should be the rate paid to the steamer (English or American) on each letter, and threepence sterling should be the British in- land postagefor which it would be deliver- ed to all parts of the country including transit postage to the Continent. The American in- land postage to remain as now, 5 or 10 cents according to the distance. We can see no reasonable objection to this proposition on its face it appears perfectly reciprocal. The threepence British inland postage will about average our inland rates, and the ocean trans- mission is equal, each government acting as agent for the other in receiving the prepaid ocean postage. The Niagara Falls Suspension Bridge Case. We are happy to hear that the parties who took violent possession of the east end of the Suspension Bridge, were, on the lith inst~, brought before his honor Judge Gardiner, (Lockport,) for a riot, and bound over to the Court of Oyer and Termirier, and General Jail delivery. An inquest was also held betore his honor, under the statute against forcible en- tries and detainers, to enquire into the same case The examination lasted two days, and resulted in an unanimous finding of the Jury against the persons thus taking forcible posses- sion. The Judge, in deciding the law, gave it as his opinion that Mr. Ellet had no possession or right of possession in the locus in quo, except as agent ot the Company, and that this possession was their possession, which they had a right to end whenever they pleased. The case was ably argued on both sides. Counsel for the Company, Nathan Dayton and Lot Clark; for the Defendants, John T. Bush and George Clinton of Buffalo, and Joshua A. Spencer of Utica. Improvement in Railroad Cars. Messrs. Nettleton & Bartlett, Car Makers, in Springfield, Mass, have made some very im- portant improvements in Cars for grading roads, transporting coal, brick, stone and other freight. The cars are what are generally termed Dumping Cars, and are so construct- ed that they receive the tonnage upon the top of the trucks and upon full bearings, thus dis- pensing entirely with the suspended rock- er, which holds the tonnage upon two points only. The cars are brought lower down, about the height of common freight cars, so that they can be joined with any train of freight cars with the utmost safety, and this is cer- tainly a great advantage over the common kind. The tonnage is borne along as steadily as if on the platform of any freight car, and they are made so as to discharge the load (al- most self-acting,) farther from the truck, more easily than by the ~ rocker car. The cars of the above gentlemen, well known in the railroad world, have been tried since July last, to the great satisfaction of the able superintendent, Isaac Hinckley, Esq., of the Providence and Worcester Railroad, and another train has been ordered to be construc- ted to transport coal up the valley of Black- stone, iR. I. We have seen a model of these cars and tes- timony of their practical results. In a short time we will be enabled to present a more minute description with an engraving. Pieket Machine. The machine for turning Pickets which was represented in our last number has been sold. ~V~UCtti0cmcnt0. (XI- THis paper circulates in every State in the Union, and is seen principally by mochanics and manufacturers. Hence it may be considered the best medium of advertising for those who import or man- ufacture machinery, mechanics tools, or such wares and materials as are generally used by those classes. The few advertisements in this paper are regarded with much more attention thais those in closely printed dailies. Advertisements are inserted in this paper at the following rates: On. oqusr., ~i sight 3h,vs on~ two do.~ three do., one month) three do., six do., twelve do., TERMS :CASH IN ADVANcE. GENERAL AGENTS ron THE SCIENTIFIC ASIERICAN. New Fork City, - GEO. DEXTER. Boston, - - - Messrs. HOTCHEISS & Co. Philadelphia, - - STOKES & BROTHER. LOCAL AGENTS. Albany, - - - - Andover, Mass. - Baltimore Md., - - Bermuda islands - Bridgeport, Ct. Cabotville, Mass., Concord, N. H. Cincinnati, 0. Dover. N. H. - - Fall River, Mass. - Hartford, Ct., - - - Houston, Texas, - Halifax, Nova Scotia, Jamestown, N. Y. - Lynn, Mass, - - Middietown, Ct., - Norwich, Ct., - - - New Haven, Ct., -- - Newark, N.J - New Orleans. La. - Paterson, N. J. - - Providence, R. I., - - Rochester, N. Y. - Springfield, Mass., - - - Salem, Mass., - - - Saco, Me., - . - - Savannek, Geo - Syracuse, N. Y. - - Taunton, Mass., Utica, N. Y. - - Yicksburg, Miss. - Williamsburgh, - - Webster, Mass. - - PETER COOK. - E.A. RUSSELL. - S. SANDS. WASHINGTON & Co. SANFORO & CORNWALL E. F. BROWN. Rurus MERRELL. STRATTON & BARNARD. D. L. NORRIS. POPE & CHACE H. H. BOWERS. J.W.COPES & Co H. G. FULLER. E. BISHOP. J. E. F. MARSH. Was. WOODWARD SAFFORO & PARES. B. DOWNES. S. A. WHITE. J. L AGENS. Robert Kashaw. J. C. MORGAN. A. H. DOUGLASS. H. & J. S. RowE. D. M. DEWEY. Was B. BROCEET. M. BESSET, L. CHANDLER. ISAAC CROOEP.R. JOHN CARUTHERS. W. L. PALMER. W. P. SEAVER. G. H. BEEIULEY. 3. B. MATES. 3. C. GANDER. 3. M. SHIIMWAY. CITY CARRIERS. CLARK SELLECE, SQUIRE SELLEcK. Persons residing in the city or Breoklyn, can have the paper left at their residences regulsrly,bysend ing their address to the office, 128 Fulton St. 2d door Johnsons Improved Shingle Machine. m HE Subscriber having received Lettew, Patent .Lfor an improvement in the Shingle Ma chine, is now readyto furnish them at short notic e, and he would request all those who want a goo I machine for sawing shingles, to call on him and ~ Kamine the improvements he has made, as one eight h more shin- gles can be sawed in the same given time than by any other machine now in use. Manufactured at Augusta, Me. and Albany, N. Y. J. G. JOHNSON. Augusta, Maine, Oct. 28, 1848. 028 ly $ 0 651 75 100 1 25 3 75 7 60 1600 The Best Patent Agency in the Ilnitesi States. 711 HE subscribers would respectfully give notice -- thatthey still continue to attend to Patent Office business as usual. The long experience they have had in securing patents, together with their unri- valled facilities, enables them to say that THE BEST PATENT AGENCY, in the United States, IS AT THE OFFICE OF THE SCIENTIFIC AMERI- CAN, New York. It is not necessary, as commonly supposed, for an inventorto make ajourney to Wash- ington in person, in order to secure a Patent, RI he cannot in any manner hasten the Patent or make his invention more secure. Any business connected with the Patent Office may he done by letter, through the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN OFFICE, with the same facility and certainty as though the inventor came in person. From a want of knowledge on this point, applicants for patents are often obliged to submit to great vexation, with loss ot much money and time. They also frequently fill into the hands of designing persons, and lose their inventions as well as money. Those who wish to take out Pat. ents or enter Csveats, should by all means have the business transacted through the SCIENTIFIC AMERI- CAN OFFICE, RS they may then RELY upon its being done in a straight forward and prompt manner, on the very lowest terms. All letters must be PosT PAID and directed to NUNN & CO., Publishers of the Scientific American, iS 128 Fulton street. New York. The largest, best and cheapest Dictionary In the English language, is confessedly WEBSTERS, the entire work, unabridged, in 1 vol. Crown Quar- to, 1452 pp. with portrait of the author, revised by Professor Goodrich, of Yale College. Price, $6. The most COMPLETE, ACCURATE, and RELIABLE Dictionary of the Language, is the recent testimo- ny given to this work hy many Presidents of Col- leges, and oilier distinguished literary men through. out the country. Containing three times the amount of matter of any other English Dictionary compiled in this coun- try, or any Abridgment of this work, yet Its definitions are models of condensation and Pu. rity. The most complete work of the kind that any nation can boast of.HON. WM. B. CALHOUN. We rejoice that it bids fair to hecome the stan- dard Dictionary to be used by the numerous mil- lions of people who are to inhabit the United States. Signed by 104 members of Congress. Published by G. & C MERRIAM, Springfield, Mass., and for sale by all booksellers. s21 2m To Mill Owners. H AVILAND & TUTTLES Patent Centre Vent Water WheeLThese wheels are now in successful operatien in many towns in Malne, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island, and are found to surpass in power and facility of adaptation any wa- ter wheel now in use. This wheel was awarded the silver medal at the Fair of the American Institute recently held in New York and a diploma at the Mechanics Fair in Boston. The wheels are manufactured and for sale by the EULTON IRON FOUNDRY CO., South Boston, Masswhere the wheels can be seen and any infor Patent Rights for different States, Counties, & c. for sale as above. 014 3m4 Those Hats EZNOX of 128 Fulton street, is on hand with his ~~~ Autumn style of Hats, and as usual furnishes a little prettier shape, msde of a little better material and for a much less price than many of his Broad- way friends who boast of the superiority of their productions. The public wont swallow that gammon, gentle- men. and you had better put your prices down to Knoxs standard price, before he detracts ALL those regular customers from Broadway into Fulton It. o7 THE WEST STREET FOUNDRY, corner of each and West streets, will furnish at the shortest notice, Steam Engines and Boilers in all their varieties, and on the most reasonable terms, together with castings of brass or iron, and machi. nery in general. Orders attended to with dispatch, ano particular attention given to repairing. JOSEPH E. COFFEE, AGENT. Steam Boats, Engines, Machinery, & c. bought and sold on commissionapply as above. s21 Imo TALBOTS PATENT BLIND HINGE. 71 HE undersigned having become interested in -- the manufacture and sale of the shove article, would state that their facilities are such, that they can supply any demand at short notice. This hinge, having stood the test of two years trial, has fully established itself as a useful and important in- vention, being all that can be desired for blind trimmings, as the blind is managed entirely from the inside of the house without raisingthesash COMPLETELY locks it, and prevents all unpleasant noise of the blind by wind. American Window Trimming Company, Taunton, Mass. Address GEO. GODFREY, Agent A. W. T. Co. s23 3m PECKS PATENT VISE WiTH FOOT LEVER. THIS Vise is worked entirely by the foot and is mitted by all who have used them to be the beSt and, strength, snving of time and convenience considered, the cheapest Vise in use. For sale by QUINCY & DELAPIERE, 71 John It. New York; Gao. H. Gray & Co. Boston Curtis & Hand, Phila- delphia ; Way & Brothers,. Hartford ; and by the proprietor, 3, 5. GRIFFING, o7 2m New Haven, Ct. Lap welded Wrought Iron Tubes FOR TUBULM~ BOILERS, From 1 1-4 to 6 inches diameter, and any length, not exceeding 17 feet. VfHESE Tubes are of the same quality and mann .L facture as those extensively used in England, Scotland, France and Germany, for Locomotive, Ma tine and other Steam Engine Boilers. THOMAS PROSSER, Patentee, d26 28 Plntt street, New York STEAM BOILER. BENTLEYS Patent Tubular and other Boilers of shape or power, made to order, by SAMUEL C. HILLS & CO. iu8 43 Fulton at. 47 Judsons Stave Dressing Ma chine. THIS Machine, on which Letters Patent were granted May 1st, 1847, has been in successful operation for the past year, and hundreds of thou- sands of staves have been dressed by it. It is war ranted to dress the same quantity of staves with as little power as any that can be started, also leave the full thickness on thin edges and thin ends, and conform as near to the crooks and twists of the tim- ber as can be desired. The jointing of the machine which accompanies it, has been subjected to the se verest test, and pronounced superior to that perfor med by hand. Application for a patent on the Joint or has been made. Large quantities of Hogsheads and Shooks made with staves dressed and jointed with uieir machines have been sold and used to the entire satisfaction of the purchasers. For rights and machines address the proprietors at their Manufactory, Artizan street, New Haven, Connecticut, where machines in full operation may be seen. JUDSON & PARIIEE. New Haven, July 17,1748. jy29 3m4 GENERAL PATENT AGENCY, REMOVED. THE SUBSCRIBER has removed his Patent Agent cy from 189 Water to 43 Fulton street. The object of this Agency is to enable Inventors te realize something for their inventions, either by the sale of Patent Goods or Patent Rights. Charges moderate, and no charge willbe made un tilthe inventor realizes something frembis invention. Letters Patent will he secured upon moderate terms. Applications can be made to the undersign ed, personsily or by letter post paid. auS SAMUEL C. HILLS, Patent Agent. Johnson & Robbins, Conseetting Engineers and Cousseetior. for Patentees. Office or F street, opposite Patent Office, Washing. ton,D.C. jl7tf Saws. L EAVITT& MDANIEL,Concord,N.H., make of Circular, Mill, Tennon, Cross-cut, Fellow and Ve- neering Saws. Also, Turning and Billet Webs, and Butchers Bow Saws. No saws ever made equalto their cast steel Mill Saws. The trade supplied on liberal terms. s21 2m4 UNIVERSAL CHUCKS FOR LTJRNING LATHES For sale by the Manu- facturers Agents, QUINCY & DEALA PIERRE, 51 John street New York. 52 3m4 Coal. fIIHE Subscriber has constently for sale by the ear- go or ton Ru sizes of Coal for MANUFACTURERS and FAMILIES, from the best Schuylkill and Lehigh mines. Hazleton and Spring Mountain, lump and steamboat Coal. Tamaqia Chesnut for engines. Peach Orchard and other red ash Coal. Midlothian, Virginia, a superior article for smiths use. Cum- borland, Sidney and Liverpool Coal. For sale at the LOWEST market prices. J. P. OSTROM, auS Im corner 10th Avenue and 26th st. PREMIUM SLIDE LATHE. is bM his ilnprev- HE subscriber constantly ui~ing f all sizes, from 7 to 10 feet long, and can execute orders at short notice. JAMdS T. PERKINS, Hudson Machine Shop and Iron Works, mll hudson, N. Y. Agricultural Implements. ~ Inventors and Minufacturers of superior A~- ricultural Implements may find customers for their goods by applying at the Agricultural Warehouse of 5- C. HILLS & CO. 4.3 Fulton St. auS Machinery. p ERSONSresiding in any part of the United States who are in want of Machines Engines, Lathes, OR ART DESCRIPTION OF MACHINERY, can have their orders promptly executed by addressing the Pub- lishers of this paper. From an extensive acquain- tance among the principal machinists and a iong ae perience in mechanical matters they have uncom- mon facilities for the selection of the best machinery and will faithfully attend to any business entrusted totheir care MUNN & CO. ali JL~OO~NGR~ f~The above is prepared to execute all csrdersat the Shortest notice and on the most reasonalsis terms. United States Patent Agency. 112 Broadway, N, Y. ~JI ESSRS. LEROW & CO. would inform those in -LTD. terested in Inventions ansI Patent Rights, that they have opened an Office at 112 Broadway, for the exclusive sale of Patent Eights and Machines, and they would respectfully solicit the Agency of any new Inventions or Machines. As we shall advertise extensively all machines that are consigned to us, this will be a most favorable opportunity for all wishing to bring their Invention before the public. Persons at a distance wishing any kind of Machi- nery, by addressing us by letter, can obtain any in- formation they desire. JOSIN A. LEROW, LEROW & CO. CHARLES H. HUTCHINsoN Refer to : John Lorimer Graham, N. Y. ; Watwortli & Nason, Boston; Lewis Lerow, Boston Rev. H W. Cushman, Washington 021 2t POWER TO LET RARE CHANCE. T~j~4ofeetspnsre, one room 6Oby 40 ron engIne, 25 in. cylin- der, 4 1-2 feet stroke. Let together or in parts. Ap- ply at West street Foundry, corner of Beach and West streets. s23 3m ~cicntiftc ~2~anetican. The boiling points of the above substances are also in perfect order ; the chloride of me- thyle being a gas at common temperatures, must for reasons previously given, possess a boiling point far below that of the chloride of ethy~e. The other conditions are also fulfil- led, The Bromides might properly be intro- duced heie, but as their specific gravities, ______________________________________ boiling points, & c. hare not been calculated, - I shall in their place introduce the Todides, For the Scientific American. which gives an example agreeing perfectly New Chemical Law, with the conditions required. No. 6. Iodide of Methyle 2 C H.I H. sp. gray. As the compousds of the substances com- 2,237boil. pt. 112~. posing the aggregated series derived by the ag- gregation of C H, are more particularly known, Iodide of Ethyle 4 C H.+I H. sp gray. 1,921 I shall give a few more examples. The fol- Thoil. pt 1610. Iodide of Amyle 10 C ff4-I H. lowing example of double hydrates compri- In this case the specific gravities decrease ses substances well known. as the series increase, and consequently the Pyroxilic Spirit 2 C H.j-2 H 0. specific gra- vity ,796boiling point 14Oo~fluid, specific gravity of the iodide of amyle should H 0. sp. gray, be less than the specific gravity of the iodide Common Alcohol 4 C H.4.2 of ethyle. The reason why the specific gra- ,796boil. pt. 1730fluid. vities decrease, is owing to the superior spe- Oil of Potato Spirit 10 C H+2 HO. sp. gray. cific gravity of the iodine, and is in accord- Ethal 32 C H.+2 H 0.solid. ance with the requirements of the law. The There is some difference in the experiments boiling points also increase, and there is no doubt but the boiling point of the iodide of of chemists as to the true specific gravity of amyle is greater than that of the iodide of pyroxilic spirit and common alcohol; some ethyle. All cosnpounds of the aggregated se- considering the specific gravity of pyroxilic spirit as ,798, that is above common alcohol, ries given, must conform to the conditions re- quired by the law, however complex their whilst others consider them both of the same ~. N. specific gravity. If we consider the slight organisation. difference between the specific gravities of Bridgeport, Conn. common alcohol and the oil of potato spirit, For the Scientific Ameiican. and then compare the intervals of position I~~V aporatioxi of the Watery Particles in which they occupy in the aggregated series, As the good of Butter, the agricultural portion of with the intervals of position which pyrox- the community recei~es a considerable de- ilic spirit and common alcohol respectively occupy, we are not surprised to think that gree of your attention, I would ask if it ever difference he- occurred to you that the principle of evapo- chemists could find but little ration in vacuo could be applied to the sepa- tween their specific gravities. By the nature of the law, the difference can be but a trifle, ration of the watery matter from butter. Say say three or four parts at the most but the take a box of suitable size made of wood, and lined with lead, the cover so fitted as to be specific gravity of common alcohol must be greater than that of pyroxilic spirit. As it air tight. The box must he of such length as to leave a space below the bottom of the is, the specific gravities are on the increase the same may be said of the boiling points, pan that contains the butter for the introduc- which increase in the most regular manner. tion of a few lumps of quick lime. An ex- The density of the substances also increase haustiag syringe of simple construction will co with the series, the first three being fluids and . mplete the machine. Butter by an opera- the fourth a solid. The specific gravity and tion such as this, can be so completely drain- boiling point of Ethal should be greater than ed of its moisture as to keep sweet for an in- those of the oil of potato spirit. The simi- definite time. The butter must be submitted this operation before the addition of salt. larity of the chemical properties of the above to substances, may also be noticed. Thus the A SUBSCRIBER. similarity of the two former are complete, but Artifical Mahogany. as the substances increase in the series, it The following method of giving any spe- gradually changes, until we arrive at the che- cies of wood of a close grain, the appearance mical properties of Ethal, which is only dif- of mahogany in texture, density, and polish, ferent from the first two compounds, by rea- is said to be practised in France, with such son of their distant situation in the series If success that the best judges are incapable of we were in possession of a compound of the distinguishing between the imitation and ma- same aggregited series, and nearly similar to hogany. The surface is first planed smooth, composition to Ethal, then it would possess and the wood is then rubbed with a solution similar chemical properties. The following of nitrous acid. One ounce of dragons blood example illustrates the composition of their is dissolved in nearly a pint of spirits of wine, single si.lphurets. this and one-third of an ounce of carbonate Suiphuret of Methyle 2 C H.-j--S H. sp. gray, of soda are then to he mixed together and flu- ,843boil. pt 1040fluid tered and the liquid in this thin state is to be Suiphuret of Ethyle 4 C H.+S H. boil. pt. laid on with a soft brush This process is to 167wfluid, be repeated, and in a short interval afterwards Sulphuret of Amyle 10 C H.4-S Hfluid, the wood possesses the external appearance of The specific gravities of the above substan- mahogany. When the polish diminishes in ces have not been ascertained. The boiling brilliancy, it may be restored by the use of a points however agree with the conditions re- little cold drawn linseed oil. quired. The following gives an example of To obtain fresh blown Flowers in Win. their double iulphurets. ter any day one chooses. Doub. Sulph. Methyle 2 C H..j-2 S H. boil. Choose some of the most perfect buds of Pt. 700. the flowers you would preserve, such as are Doub. Suiph. Ethyle 4 C H.+2 S H. sp. gray, latest in blowing and ready to open, cut them ,842boil. pt. 97~. off with a pair of scissors leaving to each, if Doub. Sulph. Amyle 10 C H.+2 S H. sp. gray, possible, a piece of th6 stem about three in- ,833boil Pt. 243g. ches long; cover the end of the stem immedi- The boiling points in this example are also ately with sealing wax: and when the buds perfectly in accordance with the general re- are a little shrunk and wrinkled wrap each of quireuaents of the law. The specific gravi- them up separately in a piece of paper, per- ties also appear to decrease, which is owing fectly clean and dry, and lock them up in a to the superior specific gravity of the sulphur, dry box or drawer ; and they will keep with. although it would be unsafe to assert it as a out corrupting. In winter, or at any other fact, on account of the slight difference be- time, when you would have the flowers blow, tween the specific gravities given, which take the buds over night and cut oft the end might possibly be erroneously computed. The of the stem sealed with wax and put the buds following gives an example of their chlorides, into water wherein a little nitre or salt has Chloride of Methyle 2 C H-i-Cl. H. gas. been diflused and the next day you will have Chloride of Ethyle 4 C H,+Ci H. sp. gray, the pleasure of seeing the buds open and ex- ,874- boil. pt. 52O~fluid. pand themselves and the flowers display their Chloride of Amyle 10 C H.-f-Cl. H. boil. pt. most lively colours and breathe their agreea. 2170fluid. ble odors. History of the Rotary Engine. Prep ared eapres8ly for the Scientific ./lme- rican. FIG. 1l~ 9 i I ;K. S BRAMAH AND DICKINSONS ROTARIES. This is another rotary embraced in the same patent as the one in the Scientific Ame- rican of last. In this the sliders are in the periphery of the outer cylinder, and the wa- ter, steam, or other fluid, passes first into a smaller or inner cylinder, previous to its pro- ducing its effect in the channel or groove, as in the other example. A is the end ot a hol- low smaller cylinder, placed in the centre of the larger cylinder B; the cylinder A is fixed on an axis or spindle C, as in the section. D D, is the channel or groove, formed be- tween the outer surface of the cylinder A, and the inner surface of the cylinder B; to the cylinder A, is fixed a wing or fan E, of a projection sufficient to fill and act in the chan- nel D D, as a piston, when A is turned round by the axis or spindle C, so as to sweep the contents of the channel; or, when any force is applied on one side of the surface, it will cause the cylinder A, and the axis or spindle C,to be turned round. The cylinder A is left open at both ends, which pass through the plates F F, into the cape, and is fitted wa- ter-tight in the junctions. In or about the middle of the cylinder A is a chamber or par- tition, which divides the upper end from the lower; H H, are two sliders, stationed at op- posite points in the periphery of the outer cylinder B, where there are cells projected as at I I, to receive them and allow their mo- tion. These sliders are moved by the small spindles K K, passing through stuffing boxes in the usual way. They are ultimately open- ed and shut by half the rotation of the inner cylinder, by means of a wheel with an eccen- tric groove fixed on the axis, as L L. In this groove move two friction wheels, which be- ing joined to the sliders by a connecting bar, the sliders A A, are opened and shut, by the axis C turning round, so that one of the sli- ders H H, is always close shut against the cy- linder A, whilst the other is opening to let FIG. 12. the wing or fan pass which is again shut be- fore the passage slider begins its motion. The machine being thus complete, suppose that, at a pipe 0, a current of water, steam, or oth- er fluid having force, was admitted into the cap whilst the machine is in its present posi. tion, itwould immediately fall into the upper cavity of the cylinder A, and, passing through the aperture into the channel D, would press against the wing or fan E, on the one side, and against one of the sliders H H, on the other; which slider not giving way would cause the wing or fan E to recede, and torn round the cylinder A with its axis C; which axis, turaing the wheel with tke groove L L, would cause the opposite slider to begin its motion; so that by the time the wing or fan E reaches the station of the slider, it is totally drawn back into its cell, so as to permit the wing or fan E to pass without interruption; and, by the continued motien of the machine. the slider is again shut, before that slider on which the fluid is pressing begins to move; so that, when the first slider, against which the water or fluid is still pressing, is opened, the pressure is then the same between the other slider and the wing or fan E; and the spent fluid between the two sliders immedi- ately rushes through the lower aperture into the bottom of the cylinder A, and is carried off in that way to the open air : thus a uni- form rotation will be maintained as in the for- mer example. This engine is very simple and will make a very useful rotative machine. But no packing except metallic will answer in the grooves of the sliders. It however has a general defect of rotary engines viz., the difficulty of keep- ing it tight. This engine was published in the Repertory of Arts and made some figure in the world when it was brought before the public but oblivion in practice, has thrown a veil over its results. Preserving Eggs. Some time ago, a Mr. Jayne, of Yorkshire in England, adopted the following process for preserving eggs, which he says kept them in a good condition two years. He obtained a pa- tent for the mode in England, but that will not prevent any one in this country from using it if he likes. Take one bushel of quick lime, thirty-two ounces of salt, eight ounces of cream tartar. Mix the salt together with as much water as will reduce the composition to a consisteney that an egg when put into it will swim. The eggs may now be put into it and be kept down by a board with a gentle pressure upon it. New Cioak. A new cloak for the ladies has been inven- ted in Paris, and is called the Mantua Mar- guerite. It is made of velvet, in the form of a shawl and is trimmed with three rows of black lace headed by a narrow silk braid. Mechanical Paper IN THE WORLD! FOURTH YEAR OF THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN! 416 Pages of most valuable information, illustrate with upwards of 500 MEChANiCAL ENGRAVINGS: I~~y-.The Scientific American differs entirely from the magazines and papers which flood toe country, as it is a Weekly Journal of Art, Scieace and Me- chanics, having for its object the advancement of the INTERESTS OF MECHANICS, MANUFAC- TURERS and INVENTORS Each number is il- lustrated with from five to TEN original ENGRA- VINGS OF NEW MECHANICAL INVENTIONS, nearly all of the beet inventions which are patented at Washington being illustrated in the Scientific American. It also contains a Weekly List of Amer. ican Patents; notices of the progress of all Mechan- ical and Scientific Improvements; practical direc tions on the construction, management and use of all kinds of MACHINERY, TOOLS, & C.; Essays upon Mechanics, Chemistry and Architecture ; ac- counts of Foreign loventions; advice to inventors; Rail Road Intel~gence,together with a vast amount of other interesting, valuable and useful information. The SCIENTIFIC AMERiCAN is the most popular journal of the kind ever published, and of more im- portance to the interests of MECHANICS and IN- VENTORS than any thing they could possibly ob- tain To Farmers it is also particularly useful, as it will apprise them of all Agricultural Improve- ments, instruct them in various nechanical trades, & c. & c. It is printed with clear type on beautiful paper, and being adapted to binding, the subscriber is possessed, at the end of the year, of a large vol- ume of 416 pages, illustrated with upwards of aoe mechanical engravings. TERMS: Single subscription, $2 a year in ad- vance ; $1 for six months. Those who wish to sub- scribe have only to enclose the amount in a letter, directed to MUNN & CO. Publishers of the Scientific American, 128 Fulton street, New York. All Lettters must be Post Paid. INDUCEMENTS FOR CLUBBING. 1 copies for 6 months $4 00 1 12 $800 10 6 $710 10 12 $1100 20 6 $1100 20 12 $1000 Southern and Western Money taken at par for sub. scriptioas. Post Office Stamps taken at their full value. A SPLENDID PRESENT! To any person who will send us Three Subscri- bers, we will present a copy of the PATENT LAWi or THE UNIIED STATES, together with all the informa- tion relative to PATENT OFFICE SUSiNESS, iacluding full directions for taking out Patents, method of ma- king the Specifications, Claims, Drawings, Models, buying, selling, and transfeaing Patent Rights, & c. This is a present of GREAT VALUE, yet may be obtain- ed for nothing, by the reader of this prospectus, if he will take the trouble to get Three Subscribers to the Scientific American. It will be an easy matter to obtain two names besides his own. MUNN & CO., Scientific American Office, N. 1 48

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Scientific American. / Volume 4, Issue 7 49-56

0 deutific ~mtrican. THE ADVOCATE OF INDUSTRY, AND JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC, MECHANICAL AND OTHUEL IMPRO bot. ~i. ~cw pork, ~ouctnbtv ~ 18~i~. t~o. 7. THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN: CiRCULATION 11,500. PUBLISHED WEEKLY. At 128 Fulton Street, New York (Sun Building,) and 13 Court Street, Boston, Mass. By Munn & Company. The Principal Office being at New York. WMRXS~ a yearP In advance, and the remainder an 6 months. wy-See advertisement on last page. P ottti~. MIGHT MAKES RIGHT. BYJ. C.PEABODY. There is a law in Natures course, Pervading all her plan: Which rules alike the unconscious soul And mighty heart of Man; If makes existence what it is, And with despotic sway, Marks out the destinies of all An~ none can disobey; Or low or high, In earth or sky, By day or night, Tis Might makes Right. Earth owns it and with magic power, Draws all things to her breast; She binds the rocks and mountains firm, And holds the sea at rest But mightier storms which lash the surge, And Earths attraction break; And mightier subterranean fires Make rocks and mountains quake. The Canker worm destroys the leaf And blights the opening flower; The Robin kills ~heCaakee-woren, Because he has the power; The Hawk darts down with flushing eye The Robin is his prey; And Child with arrow or with gun The bloody Hawk will slay. And Man, fair Natures masterpiece, Must crush his brother down The mighty rule, the false do serve, And tremble at their frown. But theres a stronger tyrant yet A bloody one and grim Tis Death! he utters his commands, And all must bow to Him. TilE REST 11011 THE WJ~1ARY. BY JAMES MONTGOMERY. There is a calm for those who weep A rest for weary pilgrims found, They softly lie and sweetly sleep Low in the ground. The storm that wrecks the winter sky, No more disturbs their deep repose, Than summer evenings latest sigh, That shuts the rose. Art thou a mourner? hast thou known The joy of innocent delights, Endearing days for ever flown, And tranquil nights? 0 live I and deeply Cherish still The sweet remembrance of the past; Rely on Heavens unchanging will For peace at last. The soul of origin divine, Gods glorious image, freed from clay, In Heavens eternal sphere shall shine A star of day. The sun is but a spark of fire. A transient meteor in the sky, The soul immortal as its sire, Shall iiever die. To fix drawings of chalk or crayons, the drawings through some sweet milk. BARBERS PATENT METALLIC Figure 1. p GRIST MILL. This is the invention of Mr. Asa Barber, been esteemed tkiat both gold and silver me- and patented in June 1847. Messrs. Matthews i dais have been awarded to it by the American & Fulton, of Troy, N. Y, are the owners of Institute. rights, & c. and applications for unsold rights DESCRIPTIONA A, is the frame. B, is and machines may be made to them. J A. the hopper. C, are stays connected with the Hart & Co. of New London, Conn., own the longitudinal beam of the frame supporting right for the New England States and manu- the hopper. E, is a large revolving cylinder facture the machines. covered with a wire cloth for bolting. F, is a The mill is capable of grinding Corn in the fly wheel. G, is a band wheel or pulley, dri. ear, and can also grind all other kinds of yen by a band from the main driver to propel grain, and although it has metal grinders ne- the shaft H, which has a small pinion on it ver requiring to be sharpened, it is so construc- meshing int~~o~ ~or a large cog rim I, of the ted and the cooling surfaces so arrange~ that- iar~ cyhn4~ ~ is ft small pulley on H. the grain is not heated, and thus the great oh- which drives by a band the shaft (not seen) jection always urged against metallic mills of an interior scraper. K K, are two angular effectually removed. By a two horse power boards, to guide the ground meal into the it is capable of grinding from eight to ten bu- f grainarY. shels per hour, and so much has its utility Figure 2. -. This is a section view and does not show bed and discharged through the channels or all the interior but merely the grinding surfa- grooves on C. Still the meal thus ground has ces. B, is a revolving iron grooved roller, I to be bolted. This is done in a most simple made of a series of cast grooved rings secured manner. We mentioned before that a bolting to the shaft S. This shaft is made to sit and re- cloth covered the outside of E, fig. 1. Well volve in 0, a concave iron grooved bed which as E is revolved the fine meal falls through is stationary. D, is a shoulder with teeth to the bolting cloth at the bottom, and the coarse grind the cob as it leaves the hopper before is carried round and falls down into the mill being submitted to the grinding operation of above, to be ground over again. By this way the revolving roller B. Suppose these two of grinding, the revolving grinder and the bed sections to be placed in the inside of E, with need not be in such close contact as ether B revolving above and in the concave bed 0. grinding mills mu-I be, and the large revolv- Now suppose the grain is entered in the hop- ing surface of E keeps the meal perfectly cool per, and the revolving roller set in motion, it and allows the interior of the mill to be quite pass will easily be perceived that the grain will be open to the atmosphere. There is a scraper, carried into and between the roller aod the which we spoke of before, which is revolved by the band from I. at the right of fig. 1, which scraper keeps the grooves of the roller or bed from getting clogged. From this description it will at once be per- ceived that this is a very simple as well as a good grist mill, and it is so very portable, strong and durable, that every farmer should by it become his own miller. It will be a gre~t saving both in time and money to every farmer who purchases them. Messrs. Frink & Prentiss, of Jersey City, are now making some of these machines~ RAIL ROAD NEWS. At a meeting of the stockholders of the New London, Willimantic and Palmer R. R. Co. held at Monson, Mass., 25th ult., Andrew W. Porter, Albert Norcross, lsaac King, Cy- rus Knox, and Hiram Newton were chosen Di- rectors. At a meeting of these Directors, A. W. Porter was chosen President, F. Newell Secretary, and W. N. Flynt Treasurer. It was also vbted, that this Corporation unite with the New London, W. and Springfield R. R. Co., according to the provisions of the charter. Western TravelFare Reduced. Arrangements have been made by the railroad companies between Albany and Buffalo, so that passengers will hereafter be taken from tide- water to the Lakes in 17k to 18 hours, and after the first of November the through fare, (from Albany to Buffalo) will be reduced to $9 75. Passengers may now leave this great Metropolis in the evening, sleep on board one of the North River steai~ers the first night and in a hotel at Buffalo the second. This move- ment on the part of the Railroad Companies is in the right direction and is one that will be highly appreciated by that notorious and sometimes exacting personage, Traveling Pub- lie- Great Railroad Depot. The Common Council of our city have gran- ted a large square bounded by Read, Washing- ton and West sts., for the Depot of the New York and Erie Railroad Company. In a short time the building will be commenced. Mr. Gilmore, of the N. Y. and New Haven Railroad, has invented a Time Table, adapted for use on that road. The distances and time of running are so graduated that the proper position of a train, at any particular time, may be seen at a glance. An Ilingineer Arraigned for Carelessness, John Lentz, chief engineer of the steamer Concordia, at the time of the explosion of her boilers, was arraigned at New Orleans last week on a charge of the chief officer for gross and criminal negligence and carelessness caus- ing the destruction of the boat and the death of several persons. The prisoner after a long examination, in which many witnesses gave their belief that insuflicient water in the boil- ers was the cause of the explosion, was dis- charged an equal number of witnesses testify. ing their belief that the explosion was from other causes. Beech Trees and Lightning. A correspondent of the Gardners Chroni- cle, says: Having frequently heard that the beech tree was never struck by lightning, I felt dubious about the fact. All doubts on this subject are satisfactorily set at restat least to my satisfaction ; for during a severe thunder storm in Northumberland the light- ning struck a beech tree descending down the trunk, and ploughed up the soil to a distance of 20 yards from the base of the tree, it there- fore has no more claim than other trees to be considered a non-conductor of electricity. There are fifteen flouring mills at Oswego, with eighty run of stone, and can griad 32,000 bushels of wheat per day. ~cientiftc 2~mctican. No. 4. PREMIUMS AWARDED. GOLD MEDALS. Scofield, Capron & Co. Walden, N. Y. for best Black Broadcloth, made from American wool. New-England Co. Rockville, Ct. the best Black Fancy Cassimeres. New-York Mills, Oneida Co. the hest Cot- ton Goods. J. H. Schomaker & Co. Philadelphia, Pa for the best Piano-Forte. Ball, Tompkins & Black, 217 Broadway, for the best Silver Ware. Pierpoint, Mallory & Co. New-Haven, Ct. for the best Locks, Mineral Knobs and Trim- mings united. R. Heinisch, Newark, N. J. for best Tailors and other Shears. Holley & Merwin, Salisbury, Ct. for best specimen Small Cutlery. Spencer & Rendells Broadway and Maidea lane, N. Y. for best Gold Pens. W. Rider & Bros. 58 Liberty-st. best and great variety I. Rubber Goods. Bliss & Creighton, 42 Fulton-st. N. Y. Ma- rine Chronometers, entirely of American ma- nufacture. Brooklyn Flint Glass Co. for best Colored, Plain and Cut Glass. Woram, Houghwout & Johnson, 563 Broad. way, N. Y. for best Chandeliers and Candele. bras. Ryerson & Dunscomb, 279 Bowery, N. Y. for Superior Harness. Ebenezer Barrows, 288 Water-st. N. Y. for best Hot.Air Furnace for Anthracite coal. P. B. Lamed & Co. Albany, N. Y. for best Parlor Stove, wood or coal. Jord. L. Mott, 264 Water-st. N. Y. best Wood Stove for schools and churches. John Stephenson, 27th-st. N. Y. for Omni- bus very supel-ior workmanship. C. & A. Beatty. 87 Third-ave. for Omnibus very superior workmanship. Royal E. House, Brooklyn, L. I. for Mag- netic Telegraph. E. W. Ellsworth,East Windsor, Ct.for De- lineator of great excellence. G. A. Backus, 44 Fulton-st. for best Japan- fling on Papier Mache of American manufac- ture. R Hoe & Co 29 and 31 Gold-st. for best Circular Saws, ~c. C. Leicht, 10 Leonard-st. for best Inlaid Cabinet work. Henry Stanton, U. S. A. for wooden Life Boat, Inija Rubber Buoys outside. P. B. Savery, Phila. for very superier Ena- meled Ironware. W. J. McAlpin, Brooklyn, L. I. for Dry A. Smith, Lockport, N. Y. for best Stave Dressing machine. Geo. Page, Baltimore, Md. for Portable Horse Power and Saw Mill. Peter Von Schmidt, 48 Duane-st. for Im- proved Cotton Gin. B. Brundred, Pateison, N. J. for improved Spinner for Cotton and Worsted. Win. B Leonard, Matteawan, N. Y. for ex- cellent Cotton and Worsted Cap-Spinning Throstle. Win. B. Leonard, Matteawan, N. Y. for ex- cellent Cotton-Drawing Head Machine. S. R. Parkhurst, 16th-st. First-avenue, N. Y. for very excellent Woal-Burring cylinder. G. E. Sellers, Cincinnati, Ohio, for impor- tant improvement in Locomotives for ascen- ding and descending inclined planes. We shall publish the list of Silver Medals next week. The introduction of Plenty of Water in- to Boston. The celebration of this event took place in the Cradle of Liberty, last Wednesday week, and was the subject of a most brilliant display and the cause of great popular rejoi- cings, worthy of the great demonstration made on that occasion. The event is an im- portant one to Boston. The introduction of plenty of pure water has long been a desired object with her citizens, but it was not until within three or four years past, that the sub- ject has been taken hold of in earnest. The act of the Legislature authorising the intro- duction of water from Long Pond, was pas- sed March 30, 1846 The ground was first broken Aug. 20, 1846, and in a little over two years the work has been completed. The Boston Times says The expense was originally calculated at $i,600,000. Drafts for the work have thus far exceeded three millions of dollars, and farther expense will doubtless be incurred. Besides the Aqueduct itself, the great fea- tures of this enterprise are the Beacon Hill Re- servoir in Boston; the Reservoir on Dorches- ter Heights, South Boston; the great Reservoir and Gate House on Coreys Hill in Brookline, from which the water of the Lake is brought to the street mains and reservoir in Boston in two iron pipes, thirty-four inches in diau~eter and extending nearly four miles, and which are capable of delivering daily tbre~ millions of gallons of water; the Charles River Bridge at Newton Lower Falls, which is built on three arches; the Pipe Chamber in the vicini- ty, and the Road Bridge, which is built on a single arch, and said by all to be a most splen- did piece of masonry ; the Waste Wier, four miles be3 ond the Lower Falls, where the aqueduct passes over a considerable stream; and finally the Gate House, a granite edifice at the Lake itself. The Reservoir on Beacon Hill covers an area of 40,000 square feet and will hold 3, 000. 000 of gallons of water. The level will be 6k feet above the Fevel of the floor of the State House. This reservoir, which will throw a jet of water to a great height, is intended for a reserve fountain in case of any accident to the great pipes. The Reservoir on Dorches- ter Heights contains an area of 70,000 ft. and is capable af delivering 7,000,000 of gallons per day. This is also intended for a reserved foun- tain and the two Reservoirs together will dis- pense 7,000,000 of gallons a day. This quan- tity, it has well been said, will supply more than 16 gallons a day for five days to every man, woman and child in the city,a great Dock at Brooklyn. A. B. Allen & Co. 187 Water-st. for great- est variety and best assortment of Agricultu- ral Implements. Steam Engines, Models, Machinery, and Inventions. Win. Burdon, Brooklyn, L. I. for best Steam Engine, blessing truly. H. R. Worthington & W. H. Baker, best The fall of the water from the Reservoir in Steam Fire Engine & Pump. Brookline is two feet to the mile and the level ID. Griffen Broadway, for Heat Generator of the reservoir is consequently 8 feet high- for Steam Boilers. er than that of the great reservoir in Boston. Charles Ross, & Co. 38 Broadway, for best Thi~ reservoir covers thirty acres, and the Portable Flour Mill. water will be in some places 20 feet deep and Barber & Felton, Troy, N. Y. for best Por- will average 15 feet deep, thereby constituting table Mill for Feeds. a perfect safe-guard for the city if any accident W. P. Springer & Co. 134 Front-st. for best happens to the conduit above. And again the Smut Machine, great reserve fund of allLake Cochituate S. T. Thomas, Westbrook, Me. Machine for covers a surface of 659 acres, and drains a making Weavers Harness, surface of 11,480 acres, being in some places A. M. Freeland, 87 Mangin-st. N. Y. for from 70 to 80 feet in depth. superior Iron Planing Machine. We hope that Albany will at once take mea- Perry G.Gardiner, 40 Wall-st. for the best sures to bring in a plentiful supply of good Railroad Car Wheels. water to that city. This she can do at no Fowler M. Ray, 200 Bdway, for best India great expense, and after that, she need not Rubber Railroad Car Springs. fear for the conflagration cf the city. Improvement in making Coke. A patent has recently been secured in Eng- land for the better manufacture of coke by Mr. F. Ranksom, of Ipswich, the principle of which consists in cooling coke and other kilos or ovens, causing air to circulate or pass by mechanical apparatus through flues or passa- ges used for cooling such kilos or ovens, and the charges therein. In working coke kilos or ovens heretofore, the process of cooling has been effected, by having air-passages or flues arranged so as to allow currents of air freely to circulate in contact with the in- ner lining of the kiln or oven, but not so as to be permitted to come in contact with the charge itself contained therein, such circula- tion of air in flues or passages as heretofore, being caused by the rarefaction from the heat of the flues. This improved mode of working coke ovens, is far superior to the very old method of drawing the charge when hot, and cooling down by water. In working such description of coke kilns or oveos how- ever, it has been found that the time of cool- inga kiln or oven is very uncertain, and de- pends entirely upon the state of the external atmosphere; and he has found it also very important to cool dewii the charge as quickly as possible In all ovens constructed accor- ding to this invention, the air when passing through the flues simply rises through a short pipe into the atmosphere by its rarefactiori, the pipe having little if any eflect in causing the circulation or passage of the air through the flues. The invention therefore, uses rota- tory fans or bellows in preferenc-e to other known means for the purpose of cooling coke ovens or kilos; these blowers or fans are to be used in such a manner as to be continuous- ly withdrawing the air from such flue or pas- aforesaid, and permitting or allowing the ex- ternal air to rise into the flues, and thus cool the same quickly as well as the charge also. This method of cooling coke and charcoal evens will be of interest to many in our coal regions. As we have had a number of com- munications addressed to us on this very sub- ject, we publish the above which is isow free property for the United States for the be- nefit of those interested, in cooling rapidly, either kilos or retorts. The Strange Case In Suu-gewy. The Woodstock, Vt. Mercury, says: We gave some account a few weeks ago of the wonderful case of Mr. Gage, foreman of the railroad in Cavendish, who in preparii)g a charge for blasting a rock had an iron bar driven through his head entering through his cheek and passing out at the top of his head with a force that carried the bar some rods, after performing its wonderful journey through skull and brains. The iron was in diameter an inch and a quarter and in length three feet and seven inches ; the upper end of the iron however tapering to the diameter of one fourth of an inch. We repeat the dimensions of the rod as we observe some of the papers that copied the article substituted the word circumference for diameter, thinking perhaps the story told in that way would be quite as large as could well be believed. But we re- fer to this wonderful case again to say that the patient not only survives but is much improved, the wound in his head has healed, the scuttle in his roof is closing up, and he is likely to be out again with no visible injury but the loss of an eye. Fires. On Friday evening, the 27th ult. the large cotton weaving factory of Knox & Son, in Jane st., this city, was consumed by fire. The loss was about ~65,000. About 100 hands are thus thrown out of employment. On Sunday morning last, the 29th tilt., in Albany, the office of the Cultivator, and a large paper hanging warehouse beside it, were entirely destroyed by firewhich was said to have been caused by the spontaneous cembus- tion of paper waste in the basement. The loss is considerable. It appears as if an angry Providence was frowning upon Albany. Femaie Operatives. A number of respectable young women who are tailoresses, have taken a shop ln Liberty street, this city, and have set up for them- selves. This is right; why can they not enjoy both the benefits of labor and capital. American Slate. At the village of Brownville in Maine, there is a most excellent slate quarry of no great age. The quality of the slate is superior and the quantity is said to be inexhaustible. The workable vein is known to be sixty yards, and is supposed to be one hundred or more wide. The elevation froIn the river Pleasant to the summit is some three hundred feet, gi- ving a very good depth. A tunnel has been opened through the ledge, some sixty to eigh- ty yards, to take the water from the quarry to the river. The workmen are all Welsh, and make the slate by contract. At the village there is afactory for the manufacture of writing slates. The slates for the purpose are quar- ried at the same time as those for roofing, and laid aside, to give employment to the men in winter Some ten or twelve thom and were made the past winter, and the quality will probably increase, as the qoarry is opened further. _______________________ Maryland Ten Hour Association. The Baltimore Sun says that an association has lately been formed at Ellicofts Mills, the members of which pledge themselves to use all legal and honourable efforts to secure the enactment of a law making ten hours a legal days work. The president is Isaac Duval, Esq. Under the present system they declare there is no time for intellectual improvement, mo- ral and religious training and social inter- course. Regardless of past failures and obsta- cles, they deliberately and firmly plant them- selves upon the broad basis of philanthropy, education and progress, regarding their uni- on and culture. They also return thanks to Elias Ware, Esq., of Baltimore. for his exer- tion in the Legislature of Maryland, in behalf of the system Here we have a noble and honorable decla- ration of principles in Maryland and froin what we know of the president of the As- sociation, great good may be anticipated. ice, a Conductor of Galvanism. Prof. Dewey communicates to Sillimans Journal an account of a phenomenon that oc- curred while he was experimenting with a Groves battery of eighteen cups. The Pro- fessor left the whole standing over night, the poles not being connected or the circuit not being closed. There was no action going on, or at least no hydrogen was evolved in the cups. Owing to a sudden change of weather~ the liquid in the cups was found frozen next morning. Iii each of the cups, says the Pro- fessor, the local action was evolving hydro- gen, which continued until he had separated the ice from the platinum, by means of a knifewhen, in each instance, it immediately ceased. An extraordinary circumstance happened during the late hurricane iti the Island of An. tigua. The house of an overseer on one of the plantations was raised up into the air and after being carried about 80 feet was turned upside down before it came to the ground: a mother with her child who were in at the time escaped ~vith a few slight contusions. Until very recently the Swiss authorities at Lucerne absolutely forbade the ascent ot the Mount Pilate in order that the ghost of Pilate might not be needlessly disturbed, and storms thereby increased. The great vine at Hampton Court Palace, though more than 120 years old, is now laden with more than 2000 bunches of grapes, estima- ted to weigh altogether nearly a ton. The Cincinnati Reporter of the 1st inst. says there were 86,800 stoves manufactured in that city during the past year, of which 63,000 were shipped to other places. This business is rapidly increasing. ___________ The printers employed in the Scarbro Ga- zette, England, office have recently purchas- ed a yacht which is to be named the Caxton, after the immortal founder of their art in Eng- land. An advertisement in the Baltimore papers says seventy-five teachers are wanted for the Primary Schools in Baltimore county. A Mi - Beckeft has introduced one of Wood- worths Planing Machines into Hamilton, Ca- nada. The Hamilton Gazette says that it will be a great saving to the lumber dealers around that portion of Upper Canada. Tue Fair of the American Institute. 0heutiftc 2~rncricau. The Electric Telegraph. No. 3. In our last we explained the nature and dif- ference of Professor Morses Telegraph from all others, viz, that it was based on the em- ployment of the soft iron magnet as a focus of motive power to register marks of intelli- gence at any distance from the battery by be- ing connected with wires. To show that our opinion is correctiwe quote the claim of Prof. Morse and let it speak for itself. Morses first patent, alter describing the machinery by which he arrives at his result, concludes as follows, viz. I do not propose to limit myself to the specific machinery, or parts of machinery. described in the foregoirg specification and claims, the essence of my invention being the ise of the motive power of the electric or galvanic current, which I call electro magne- tism, however developed for marking or prin- ting intelligibly characters, signs or letters, at any distances, being a new application of that power of which I claim to be the first inven- tor or discoverer. This claim then, is for the motive power of the galvanic current, but he claims the pow- er however developed. But we will give the Professors own explanation of this, in another place. Having now come to this point, we will state our opinion to be, that there are four distinct Telegraphs based upon electricity as an imponderable matter that travels with an unlimited speed, by proper conductors. These four telegraphs are perfectly distinct and dif- ferent in the principle of applying electriciry to telegraphic purposes. 1st. There is the Electric Telegraph, which comprises that of Lomond, and Ronalds, the former in 1787, and the latter in 1816, in which the common electrical machine was employed. 2d. The Electro Deflective Magnetic Signal Telegraph. This is the same as Baron Schil- lings which was tried in 1832 before the Em- peror of Russia, at St. Petersburg, also Gauss and Weber of Gottingen, Germany, in opera- tion in 1833, and Professor Wheatstones of London, in 1837. Schilling used no less than 60 wires, but Gauss and Weber used only a single circuit, while Wheatstone of London, travelling five years behind the Germans so improved upon their invention that he blun- deringly used six wires. All these gentlemen employed the steel magnets in combination with the voltaic battery, and the deflection of the needle was the principle on which their inventions were grounded. 3. The Electro Magnetic Telegraph inven- ted by ProfessorMorse in 1837. This is are- cording telegraph and not depending on the deflection, but the attractive power of the electro magnet to write in legible characters. This is Prof. Morses own explanation of the difference. 4. The Electric Chemical Telegraph. This was invented first by Davy, in 1838, we be- lieve, but it was a crude affair until it came into the hands of Bain in 1846. This Tele- graph is very distinct from all the others, as no magnet is used whatever, arid the galvanic current without any raagnetic motive power writes legible characters. There is another telegraph, which is a com- bination of the electro magnet and deflective magnetic telegraph. This was that of Dr. Steinheil of Munich, in Bavaria, and erected in 1837, the same year in which Prof. Morse publicly exhibited his in our own country. Steinheil employed two permanent magnets moveable on their axis surrounded with a coil multiplier, but he wrote with ink and two peus,and employed only one wire, using the dot, only for an alphabet, a very simple ~nd beautiful improvement to the alphabet first used by Prof. Morse, which was a system of VVs, as will be seen by reference~to the Franklin Journal of Oct. 1837, also the Jour- nal of Commerce, Sept. 4, 1837. From the descriptions given of Prof. Morses Telegraph, in our papers, Europeans mistook its nature and thought it was a deflective Te- legraph also, but its difference is very great, for all the deflective telegraphs are dependant on the movement of the magnet. Prof. Morses Magnet, is immoveable. We will state here, that we believe Steinheil and Prot~ Morses telegraph to be entirely different, except both recorded their messages by marks upon paper the difference then consists in eniploying the deflective motive power of the moveable mag- net by the former, and the concentrated at- tractive power of the stationary magnet, by the latter. We think that we have explained the diffe- rence between the four different kinds ot tele- graphs in such a manner that any person will understand the distinction. But as there has been much wrangling on this point, we will give the opinion of Prof. Morse himself as col- lateral testimony on the lines of demarcation. It is of no use to recapitulate the distinctive features of the electric machine telegraph and the electric chemical telegraphas no magnet is used by themtheir distinction, is apparent to all. ln reference to the difference between the electro magnet telegraph, and the deflec- tive needle telegraphs, Professor Morsein his letter to the Hon. C. G. Ferris, Decem. her 6th, 1842, says, after the discovery of Oerstead, the deflection of the needle became the principle upon which the savans of Eu- rope based all their attempts to construct an electrie telegraph. Under this head he classi- fies the names of those inventors we have men- tioned. But there was another discovery he says in the infancy of the science of elec- tro magnetism, by Ampere and Arrago just after that of Qerstead, namely, the electro magnet, which none of the savans of Europe who have planned electric telegraphs ever thought of applying until within two years past. My telegraph is essentially based on this latter discovery. Supposing my telegraph to be based on this same principle with the European telegraphs, which it is not, mine having been invented in 1832 would still have the precedence, by some months at least of Gauss and Webers, to whom Steinheil gives the credit of being the first to simplify and make practicable the electric telegraph. But when it is considered that all the Euro- pean Telegraphs make use of the deflection of the needle to accomplish their results, and that none use the attractive power of the elec- tro magnet to write in legible characters, I think I can claim without injustice to others to be the first inventor of the electro magnet telegraph. Thus Prof. Morse considers his invention to be new and different from all the Europeans invented previous to 1840, and so do we, but we believe that Schilling and Gauss and Weber are entitled to priority as success- ful telegraph inventors. Steinhil we consider to be h~s compeer, as both exhibited their machines complete within two months after one another, ar1d separated at a great distance. It is true that Prof. Morse claims the idea of inventing his telegraph in October 1832, while on a voyage from France to his native land in the ship Sully. This is not doubted, but the suggestive idea, was not an invention un- til the machine was operated in 1837. The difference between the conception, of an in- vention and the invention itself, is as great, as thedifference between the scene in the ar- tis~s imagination betore a brush has touched the canvas, and the picture after it receives the last touch of the pencil. Prof. Morse need not go back to 1832 to prove his original in- vention1837 is the true basis, and a suffici- ent one, for the electro magnet telegraph is certainly superior to all the others invented previous to that period. In a letter to Mr. A. Vail, see page 154 of Mr. Vails work, Prof. Morse says all the telegraphs in Europe, which are practicable, are based on a different principle from Inine. We have explained this difference and there is not the least doubt on our mind, that Prof. Morse stands firm on his original right of the inventor of the electro magnet telegraph, which is essentially different froni others in principle. In our next we shall treat of conflicting opi- nions relative to what a patent covers and what it does not. To make up gold liquid for vellum ornamen- ting, grind up gold or silver leaf with honey in a mortar, then wash away the honey that remains, and use the powder that is left with gum water. It may be applied with a camel hair pencil. The Results ofSktlk and Industry. I have traversed (says a recent Western tourist) the great Erie Canal from one end of it to the other; I floated on the waters of the Ohio Canal; and I returned to the seashore by the Pittsburgh and Pennsylvania canals and railroads. What a magnificent ex- cursion ! What mighty triumphs of art arid labor are here. What a moving of the affections! What an expanding of the ima- gination! How many beautiful and splendid visions have floated before the mind, which were surpassed by the great realities. Here were deep basins excavated and noble and by the milk of every distinct species. Rats andleverets have been suckled by cats, fawns by ewes, foals by goats, and man, iii all stages of his existence, has been neurished by the milk of various animals, exceot the carnivor- ous. The milk of the mare is inferior in oily matter to that ef the cow but it is said to contain more sugar, and other salts. The milk of the ewe is as rich as that of the cow in oil, but contains less sugar than that of other animals. Cheese made of ewe milk is still used in England and Scotland, but it is gradually being disused. The milk of the ass approaches that of human milk in several of long-stretching embankments, which rivalled its qualities. To this resemblance it owes its the neighboring hills. Here were rivers, use by invalids in pulmonary complaints, but hundreds of miles in length, flowing at Mans it has no particular virtue to recommend its pleasure, and in channels formed by his preference, and is only prescribed by nurses. hands. Here were streams crossing streams Goats milk perhaps stands next to that of the on beautifully arched aqueducts. Here were cow in its qualities ; it is much used in South- mountains of granite pierced through and em Europe. It affords excellent cheese and through and a passage opened through the butter, its cream being rich, and more copious the heart of adamantine barriers for vehicles than that from cows. Camels milk is em- freighted with human life. Here were deep ployed in China, Africa, and, ir~ short, in all inland oceans mingling their waters with the those countries where the animal flourishes. mighty seas that sweep from pole to pole ; It is, however, poor in every respect but still and bearing upon quiet tides ten thousand being milk, it is invaluable where butter is floating and deeply laden arks, myriads of got to be procured. The milk of the sow re- human beings active in the pursuit of business sembles that of the cow, and is used at Can ton and other parts of China. The milk of the buffalo is also like that of the cow, though the two animals belong to different species. Every preparation of milk, and every separate ingredient of it is wholesome ; milk, cream, butter cheese, fresh curds, whey, skimmed milk, buttermilk, & c. Butter-milk and whey will undergo a spontaneous vinons fermenta- tion if kept long enough, and alcohol can be distilled from it. The Tartars it is well known prepare large quantities of spirituous drink from mares milk. How to acquire Cheerfulness of Mind, ______________________ But, says, one, what has this to do with health ? More than words can express, in consequence of the fact, that bodily health depends very much on the state of the mind. Now for some of the means. First, you are en- joined to think innocently upon all things. You reply that this is not practical, when there is so much evil without, as well as with- in us. It is a maxim of divine Wisdom, that to the pure all things are pure : of course or pleasure; accumulations of wealth from the deep and tangled recesses of the forest, now first springing into life under the touch of civilization from the glittering fields of polar ice, and from the shores of the Wes- cern Ocean; accumulations whose growing extent defines all calculations. All this too, is the work of a little animal of the ordinary bight of sixty inches with only two feet and two hands and of an average duration of life less than twenty years. His mighty imple- ments a hoe, a pick-axe and a spade! Such are the results of intelligent, concentrated, persevering Labor. Boat. A small open vessel adapted either for row- ing or sailing. The boats belonging to a ship of, war are as follews :The launch or long boat, which is the largest en board and is built full, flat and high so as to carry a great weight. The barge, next in size, of a slighter frame rowed with ten or twelve oars, and intended for carrying commanding officers to or from the the opposite is equally true, that to the im- pure all things are impure. Hence the great importance of cherishing right principles and right motives : if, then, we think from right and good affections, we cannot but think in- nocently about all subjects ; for as is the principle of our thought such is the thought itself; and thus thinking from pure motives in ourselves, we thereby change the evil into good ; either in the way of example for the avoidance, and strengthening of ourselves iii the good ofinnocency by the contrast, or by suggesting a remedy for the evil, and correct- ing the instigation thereto in ourselves as well ship. The pinnace, of a similar form, but somewhat smaller than the barge, pulling six or eight oars ; it is for the accommodation of the lieutenants and subordinate officers, & c. or is used instead of the barge for the smaller classes of ships. Yawl, a boat of the same description as the pinnace but somewhat smal- ler. (The above mentioned boats are all car- vel built.) Cutters, which are clinker built and are shorter and broader in proportion to their length than the long-boat ; they are used for the conveyance ofstores, & c. The jolly- boat, similar to that of a merchant vessel. Gig, a long narrow boat, also clinker built, adopted for rowing expeditiously and also f or as in others. The cultivation of a chaste prin- sailing ; usually belongs to the captain. The ciple of thought, from good affections, will boats belonging to merchant vessels are: The inevitably lead and dispose us to think inno- launch or long, boat, already described. The cently on all subjects ; and this will oroduce a skiff, next in size, used for towing, running heavenly state in the mind, and consequently out a kedge, & c. The jollyboat, or yawl, angelic cheerfulness, which is perfect health, the third in size : kept for shore purposes and & c. other light work. It is very commonly called the stern-boat, if hung to davits over the ships stern. The quarter-boat, which is so called from being hung over the ships quarter : it is longer than the jolly-boat some vessels are provided with only one quar- ter-boat : others have a boat over each quar ter. The captains gig frequently forms one of the quarter-boats. It may here be remark- ed that under policies of marine insurance, the loss of boats lashed to ring-bolts on deck, or to the quarters, is allowed but not so if hung over the ships stern. Varieties of 1~IiIk. As far as we know, no nation uses the milk of any carnivorous animal. There is no rea- son for believing that the milk of this order of animals would be either disagreeable or unwholesome : but the ferocity and restless- ness of the creatures will always present an obstacle to the experiment The differei~t milks of those animals with which we are acquainted agree in their chemical qualities, and is confirmed by the fact, that other ani- mals beside man can be nourished in infancy ScientiSic Prolapecy. About nineteen years ago Mr. Hait, of Wil- ton, Ct., then a remarkable good student in his collegiate course, lyas suddenly deprived of his reason and memory. In those circum- stances his father, Rev. Mr. Hail, sent him to Hartford ; but finding no relief he sent him to Dr. Chaplain, of Cambridge, Mass. The Dr. said that there was no relief for him at that time,but at the age of thirty six or seven, there would be a change ; that the brain was too much expanded for the cranium, and there would at that age be a contraction which would enable it to act healthfully. His anxious father and family saw their hopes peremptorily deferred for 19 years. That time has recently expired and to their great joy the prophecy is fulfilled. The man began to enquire after his books as if he had just laid them down and resumed his ma- thematical studies where he left them. There was no trace on his mind of this long blank in his life or of any thing which had occurred in it and he did not know that he was almost forty years of age. 51 Zcientifit ~merian. 5.1! Priming Fire Lock. Mr. Walter Hunt, of this city, has inven- ted a very neat and valuable self priming lock. There is a small priming chamber by which the gun is supplied while in the act of setting the hammer, which deposits a priming of percussion powder, whioh is struck by the hammer point and explodes the priming thus acting as a very superior substitute for the percussion cap. By our late foreign oxchanges we perceive that a pistol has been registered in London, lander the act for the protection of articles of utility, which is so ingeniously contrived that it primes and loads itself by the most simple and unerring operation. K~ anized Cordage. Messrs. J. T. Crook & Co., of Louisville, Ky. have manufactured cordage from unrotted hemp, which is so kyanized or cured by anti- septic substances as not to be liable to decay. Cordage prepared in this way is said to have been exposed in a heap of decayed vegetable matter for five years without showing the least sign of decay. It has a good color, almost as light as Manilla. The L@uisville Journal says that most ef the flatboats which recently left this place were supplied with lines of this kind, and some of them are said to have stood some very severe tests as it regards stre ngth. Common hemp lines for navigation are very liable to decay and this new cordage must be a valuable discovery and in the end entirely supercede the foreign Manilla, it being cheap- er and stronger. Probably this cordage is kyanized with a solution of tannin and chloride of tin. ice Blacnuae. A machine has been made in Cincinnati for the manufacture of ice, which the Gazetteer says, turns out huge blocks of ice in a few seconds. It seems to be considered a very valuable invention,but as its construction has not been set forth, it, being a machine, must produce the ice in some manner by the for- mation of vacuum. A patent was secured in England about two years ago, for a machine to accomplish the same object which not only made blocks of ice, but could make them of any formf Although the London papers boas- ted of its advantages, and predicted the de- cease of our Eastern ice trade, y et ice is ship- ped from Buskon and always will be, while na- tures laboratory exists free as the air and boundless as our waters. New System of proauctng Engravings. Mr. F. B. Nichols, late of Bridgeport, Ct., but now of this city, has discovered a new mode of producing engravings, which by ve- ry little more trouble than merely drawing the figures, & c., lines in relief, the same as wood cuts, are produced. We have seen some samples of plates preduced by this system, which looked very neat, but it is yet i nitsin- fancy. Where there is much cross lining there can be no doubt of its superiority. Mr. Nichols assures us that engravings can be made by his process for one half of what they can be made for on wood. Rotary Mould Board Plough. At the Fair, the most novel agricultural implement, was a revolving Mould Board Plough, the invention of Mr. Page of Balti- more. The mould was a circular concave co- nical shield revolving from the point with the sod or earth. This mould board was movea- ble and could be taken off and put on at plea- sure. Whether its complexity will prevent its general introduction or not, remains yet to he seen. Its principle is the combination of a revolving apron to move with the earth, and perform the same office as a friction wheel in a shaft box. A Uew Steering Apparatus. the purpose of a tiller) fixed on the side of the A new steering apparatus has been invented rudder head. The main advantage of this by Messrs. Clark & Pirnie ofNewburg in Fife, contrivance is, that any strain on the rudder Britain, which is now deserving of some can never have the effect of turning the screw notice as it is nearly akin to some steering round in either direction, while the screw apparatus that has been exhibited in our city. acts with ease in directing the movement of It consists of an endless screw revolving be- the rudder. Between each end of the screw tween two metal blocks fixed in the deck at shaft and an abutment on the metal block, one side of the shaft of the steering wheel, a piece of cork is introduced for the purpose and parallel to it abaft the rudder-head there of giving the rudder a little play in a heavy sea. is a spoket wheel on the shaft of the steer- One steering apparatus exhibited at the ing-wheel, and another spoket wheel of the Fair, is something like the above, only the same diameter immediately opposite to it on segment of a large grooved pully with the the shaft of the screw, with a pitch chain over chain working in the groove is attached to the them for driving the screw. The latter acts rudder-head, and used instead of a toothed upon the segment of a toothed wheel (serving wheel. DANIELS PLANING MACHINE. Figure 1. Among the many Wood Planing Machines small groove in the transverse bars to slide on that have been invented and which are at pre- the rail as the bed is carried backwards and sent in use, no one is better adapted for some forwards. E E, are lappets to wedge in, by purposes, than the one which we have here turning them up and slacken the board by represented in these two engravings. For turning them down. F F, is the revolving wood that is somewhat rough, and when the cutter arm or stock, fig. 2, and G G, are the work is not required to be exceedingly fine, cutter knives or gauges on the extremities of perhaps it is the best machine in use, at any said arm. TI, is a disc which is secured to rate, it should never be absent from any small the frame so as just to allow the board to pass country saw mill where there is power to under it, yet to exert a pressure on the board drive it, for certainly it will soon pay for itself, so as to let the whole face of it, however as it is exceedingly cheap, simple and strong, warped, be subjected equally to the action seldom needing repairsthe grand desidera- of the cutters, which plane by their rotary tum in all kinds of machines. motion at the outside of this disc. J, is a DESCRiPTION Fig. 1, is a perspective and heavy roller suspended op the frame and pres- fig. 2, a top, or view of the machine looking sing on the board to graduate or smooth the down upon it. The same letters indicate like towards the cutter. I, fig. 2, is a warpings parts on both engravings. A, represents the board in the act of being planed. S is the frame. B B, is the moveable bed plate, C C, main driving band and L is a pulley on a ver- are transverse under bars. D D, is an iron tical shaft behind the upright post. N, is a rail on the upper surface of A, and there is a vertical shaft on this side of the machine. Figure 2, On the lower ends of these two shafts are pul- which we will dispose of for the very low sum leys which by bands move small stub shafts of $250. It is capable of planing boards, tim- with pinions under the moveable bed B,the ber, or any stuff from one fourth to 16 inches pinions meshing into the rack and carrying thick, by 1 to 22 inches wide and 16 feet long. backwards and forwards the bed with the It is so simple as to be easily managed by a board to and from the cutters. The reverse boy, and operates with great rapidity and motion is given by the handle M, carrying the bea~aty. Any number of pieces of different bed or table, as it is sometimes called, to and thicknesses or lengths, can all be planed from the revolving cutters. The motion is changed by the lever of M, which moves a down even at one operation. It performs a days labor of one man in 20 minutes. clutch in the usual way. K, is a pulley on We can ship it to any part of the country the dri;ing shaft, which by a band passing with perfect safety. Letters may be directed around R, as seen in fig. 2, drives the cutter (post paid) to Muon & Co., Scientific Amen. shaft. can Office, New York. The operation of this planing machine is so _______________________ simple, that every one who reads this descrip- New Tile. tion will understand it, and although it has been A very ingenious description of tile is being patented some time, yet an understanding of its manufactured for the use of his estates, by construction and operation will no doubt be Righy Wason, Esq. of Corwar, England, con- of interest to many. sisting entirely of peat and cut out of the moss We have now on hand one of these machines y an instrument for the purpose. OFFIcE, For the week ending Oct. t4, 1848. To Thomas Paton, of Providence, R. I., for improvement in making Mills and Skeleton Dies for Printing. Patented Oct. 24, 1848. To Robert Calwell, of Near Nashville,. Tenn , for improvement in Saddles. Patented Oct. 24, 1848. To D. George and H. Robertson, of Gran- ville, Ohio, for improvement in cutting irre- gular forms in Wood. Patented Oct. 24, 1848. To J. S. Yeddcr, of Schenectady, N. Y. for improvement in the Apparatus for raising Water. Patented Oct. 24, 1848. To New England Glass Company, assignee of Jos. Magoun, of Cambridge, Mass., for im- provement in Moulding Glass. Patented Oct. 24, 1848. To Jarvis H-swe, of Worcester, Mass., for improvement in Boot Trees. Patented Oct. 24, 1848. To John R. Rowland, of Philadelphia, Pa., for improvement in Pessaries. Patented Oct. 24, 1848. To James Dane, of West Derby, Vt., for im- provement in Brick Presses. Patented Oct. 24, 1848. To Enoch Hidden, of New York City, for improved Ships Light. Patented Oct 24,1848. To Seth E. Winslow, of Kensington, Pa., for improvement in Lamp Tops. Patented Oct. 24, 1848. To Mathias P. Coons, of Lansingburg, N. Y. for improved Rock Drilling Machine. Pa- tented Oct. 24, 1848. To Samuel Cronce, of Flemington, W. .1., for improvement in Machines for Creasing Leather Straps. Patented Oct. 24, 1848. To Eli Saunders, of Weathensfield, Vt., for improvement in Horse Rakes. Patented Oct. 24, 1848. To Zephaniah Knapp, of Pittston, Pa., for improved method of fastening Wire to Fence Posts. Patented Oct. 24, 1848. To Lyman P. Judson, assignee of J. D. Willoughby, of Susquehanna, Pa., for method of working Lock Gates by water power. Pa- tented Oct. 24, 1848. RE IsSUE. To Samuel Colt, of New York City, for im- provement in Revolving Fire Arms. Paten- ted Feb. 25, 1846. Re-issued Oct. 24, 1848. DEsIGNs. To George W. Rathbun, of Leroy, N. Y., for Design for Stoves. Patented Oct. 24, 1848. To Lowell Manufacturing Company, assig- nee of Peter Lawson, of Lowell, Mass., for Design for Carpets. Patented Oct. 24, 1848. INVENTORS CLAIMS. Screw Thread MaclaIn.. Henry L. Pierson, assignee of John Crum, of New York City. for improvement in screw threading machine. Patented September 19th 1848. Claims the carrying wheel on the re- ciprocating carriage operated substantially as described in combination with the dies in thc jaws of the mandrel substantially as described, wherehy the stem of the screw is moved in and out the chasing or cutting of the thread of the screw, by a series of operations as des- cribed. Also the method of holding the blanks in the rim of the carrying wheel by combining with the rim of the wheel a pressure roller substantially as described, And finally I claim the method of increasing the depth of the cut of the chasers or dies in the jaws of the rotation mandrel for each cut in the series by the threading cane and the wedge formed slide, operatedPubstantially as described, in combination with the carrying and holding wheel as described. Andrew Meneely of West Troy, N. V. has cast and sold 400 of his incomparable bells during the past year. 52 New ~flX~CfltiOfl0. LIST OF PATENTS ISSUED FROM THE UNITED 5TATEs PATENT NEW YORK. NOVEMBER 4, 1848. Honor to whom Honor is Due. In our leader of last week, we made this remark, that~ many men esteemed for honor and probity in private life, seemed to have no qualms of conscience in appropriating to them- selves the scientific discoveries or inventions of others. The ink was scarcely dry upon our sheet when the European Steamer arrived and among other news in our foreign files, we perceive a celebrated paintera member of the Royal Academy, Mr. Reinagle, has been detected in the most despicable act of exhibi- ting a beautiful painting as his own produc- tion, which was the work of a young artist named Yarnold. Mr. Reinagle is reported to have resigned his office, and certainly it was high time for him. But we venture to say that there are more members of the Royal Academy, and in every one of these aristocratic purse proud associations, whose honors are as stolen waters. It has lately been discovered that the celebrated work of Paley on Natural Reli- gion, is a gross piece of plagiarism, from the writings of a Dutch author. If an inventor happens to be poor, ten chances to one, if his invention does not come out, some how or oth- er to be that of some numbscull, who had craft to steal and wealth to take advantage of the poor mans necessity. The Dignity of Labor. This is a subject which at present is enga- ging not only a numerous host of heads and hearts, but a numerous host of pens also. We seldom take up a paper which does not contain an original or copied article on labor and its dignity. In treating upon this, like every other subject, the old adage is faithfully veri- fied, many men, many minds. Some treat the subject as if manual labor and brute force were synonimous, and that in severe toil lay the man anda buried dignity. Others treat the subject with a perfect, and we must say a crazy disrespect for every kind of labor but agricultural or mechanical. Others again, and by far the most consequential class, look upon all kinds of physical labor as indicative of an inferior understanding and an inferior race of beings. It is almost needless for us to say, that all these views are erroneouswe wish that we could indelibly impress the heart of every man and woman with Popes idea of a man Worth makes the man, the want of it the fellow. All kinds of honest labor are alike respectable. We have not a word to say about the dronesthey are not worth a paragraph, and apart from personal worth, no occupation or profession should gild aman with false dig- nity. We may talk about the dignity of labor as we may, but what we want, is the appre- ciation of its valueto make the workman himself feel that he is a nobleman, when an honest man. It is the absence of this feeling in the working classes that has led them to be too lightly esteemed by the more wealthy clas- ses. It is no doubt true that poverty robs a man of his independenceyes, this is a fact, and one on which all our people should deep. ly ponder. If we look abroad to other lands, we behold excessive pride and tyranny in one class, coinciding with misery and squalid po- verty in another classthere we behold the castle and the hovelthe palace and the clay built cotpride on the one hand, poverty and dependence on the other. If our mechanics self respect is to be main- tained. they must be always well remunerated, without this, the laborer will lose his dignity of feeling. It makes no matter how much people may talk of the dignity of labor, ex- perience has established the tact, that worth, however much admired in the abstract, never looks very gracetul in rags. It is true that this is not rightthat it says little for our common sense or common humanity, but while it is a fact, it is the best part of wis- dom to prevent the eflect by the removal or absence of the cause. In America, the me- chanical classes know not the philosophy nor the religion that succumbs to wealth or pow- ermay they never be subordinate to the one or the other. If the past is of any use at all as experience to guide, if the present in other nations is of any use at all to warn and ex- hort, we would bid those who so zealously ~-----, and talk of the dignity of man, never to forget that where labor is not duly reward- ~ it is a sure sign that it is not duly respec- tedthat it is robbed of its dignity and shorn of its independence. Let those who wish well for their country, think of these things. Patent Case.Pursfying Tallow. At the U. S. Circuit Court, before Judge Betts, held in this city last week, a case was tried for an infringement in the mode of pre- paring tallow for the manufacture of candles. Mr. Kirkman was the plaintiff and Mr. James Buchan, of Elizabeth st., the defendant. Da- mages were laid at ~l0,O00. The patent was for preparing the tallow without pressing, so as to make candles in the hottest of weather. This was done by means of a vat or cask with a false bottom, perforated with holes, and the water thrown over, and a tub to receive the oil. The defendant denied the validity of the pa- tent, on the ground that it was not a new discovery, that the mode alluded to in the patent to place the tallow in a vat, the room being of a certain temperature, and cause the oil to drain by means of a talse bottom perfo- rated with holes, & c., was not new, having been in use, as regards the principle, for a long time, and that tallow was so prepared by Mr. Winship, of Cambridge, Mass., and by others, for more than twenty years ; also that Mr. Kirkman was not the discoverer of the particular plan designated in his patent. Nei- ther of the parties, it was said, bad been bred to the business. Mr. K. was a painter, and went into the soap and candle manufactory trade in 1840. Mr. B. had been in the hard- ware business and went into this trade in 1838. Both parties, therefore, had at first to employ men well acquainted with the business, On Saturday last the Jury returned a sealed verdict tor Mr. Buchan, the defendantbas- ing their decision upon teatimony, that th~ process described in the patent was in public use previous to the period when the patent was granted. Telegraph injunction. Mr. Morses Patentees have asked a further injunction against OReilly. It appears that since the latters Southern line (Ky.) has been prevented from making marks as a means of telegraphic communication, the operators te- legraph by the sounds, or clickings of the in- strume nt. Morses claim we believe covers sounds as well as marks. Bang Machine. The Bong Machine illustrated and descri- bed in No. 4 of this volume, is now in suc- cessful operation at No. 35 Cross st. this city, where it is well worth the visiting by all who are interested in these things. In our des- cription a mistake was made in the name of Mr. Doughty, which reads Dowdy. DIstances Between this Country and En- gland. BY MERCATORS SAiLING. Boston to Liverpool, 2884 miles. Battery, N. Y. to Liverpool, 3084 Boston to Southampton, : 2883 Battery, N Y, to Southampton 3156 BY MERCATOR AND GREAT ciRcLE. Boston to Liverpool, 2849 miles. Battery, N. Y. to Liverpool, : 3023 Boston to Southampton, : 2849 Battery. N. Y., to Southampton, 3087 rhese calculations allow for the detour made by the British steamers in touching at Halifax, and from them it will be seen that the B~ton steamers, supposing them to sail on the Great Circle (as they usually do) on the outward passage to Liverpool, have an advan- tage over a New York steamer bound to Sout- hampton of 307 miles, or about one eighth of the whole distance. A steamer from New York to Liverpool has 72 (Jr 64 miles less to sail, according to the respective modes of sail- ing, than the Southampton steamer from the same port. For Inventors to Head. We give place below to an extract from a letter from one of our Western subscribers showing the benefit he has derived from the mere publication of an engraving of his inven- tion in our paper. We have often men- tioned the importance of this mode of intro- ducing inventions and we again repeat it, ho- ping that many inventors will profit thereby. The large circulation of the Scientific Ameri- can makes it a most valuable medium for giv- ing publicity to inventions and there is noth- ing which so quickly calls the attention as an engraving. Those who have rights or ma- chines to dispose of should by all means avail themselves of this mode of making it public- ly k flown. The cost of an engraving is tri- fling. MEssRs. MUNN & Co.Gentlemen.En- closed you will find eight dollars, two dollars for my subscription to the Scientific Ameri- can and six dollars for one of your Camera Lucidas. **** I cannot let this opportunity pass without informing you of the great be- nefit I once derived by following your ad- vice and availing myself of the facilities of- fered through your paper. About two years since I read an article in which you strongly urged upon inventors the importance of hav- ing engravings of their inventions published in the Scientific American. Some time pre- vious I had patented an invention which I considered a valuable one, but from some rea- son nobody would use or buy it and so I gave it up as bad property. When I saw the op- portunity offered through your paper I deter- mined to have you publish an engraving for me and accordingly forwarded my drawing. In due time thc engraving appeared arid the result was, that in a short tiino I was beseiged with letters from all parts of the country rela- tive to my invention, and I finally concluded a sale of it for $4000. With this money I bought me a fine farm, well stocked, and am now as well situated as any one could wish to be. All my present prosperity I owe, under Providence, to having published an engraving of my invention in your paper. I consider it the most useful newspaper in the United States and would not be without it under any considerations. * ** * * ** * ~. J. B. Joliet, Ill. Bennets Great Pump again. The St. Louis Reveille says that they have witnessed the operation of the pump for rais- ing sunken boats, (which we noticed last week) and it is thus further described. It is formed by two cylindrical iron tubes; one in- side of the other, with a conical shaped base, having an opening to admit the water. A flange having fans placed upon its face is fas- tened to an upright shaft, to which gearing is attached connected with the steamers wa- ter wheel, and the same engine used to pro- pel the boat works the pump. The centrifu- gal force created by this flange within the in- ner tube forces the water up the outer one, with a velocity and in a quantity truly aston- ishing. The inventors estimate is one thou- sand barrels per minute, aiid from observation we should judge he claims less power than its real force. The action of the machine produces such great commotion in the water, that the sand in the sunken hull will be put in motion and raised by the pump. The pro. prietor bas large canvas cloths to place be- neath a damaged hull, by which to close up leaks, and the suction of the machine acts with power sufficient to draw these covers close to any opening in the vessel. This description appears to be an exact counterpart to a description of Schmidts Ro- tary pump, exhibited at the Fair. Newspapers by the European Steamers. Postmaster General Johnson has ordered that newspapers for editors and newspapers sent as freight shall not be charged with U. S. postage and that they shall be delivered from the steamer without passing through the Post office. Should he find, however, that the Bri- tish government pursues a contrary policy toward American newspapers, he reserves the right to retaliate. The French Canadian population are said to be emigrating in large numbers to the Uni- ted States. 53 Chemical Charaeter of Stesi, The following opinions of Mr. Nasmyth re- garding the chemical character of steel ex- pressed before the Scientific Association will be foun4 to be new sod worthy of conside- ration Mr. Nasmyth says Were we to assume as our standard of the importance of any investigation the relation which the sub- ect of it bears to the progress of civilization, there is no one which would reach higher than that which refers to the subject of steel: seeing that it is to our possession of the art of producing that inestimable material that we owe nearly the whole of the arts. I am desir- ous of contributing a few ideas on the sub- jec t with a view to our arriving at more dis- tiiact knowledge as to what (in a chemical sense) steel is and to lay the true basis for im- provement in the process of its manufacture. It may be proper to name that steel as hi-med by surrounding wrought bar iron wish char- coal placed in fire-brick troughs from which air is excluded, and keeping the iron bars and charcoal in contact and at a full red heat for several days, at the end of which time the iron bars are found to be converted into steel What the nature of the change is which the iron has undergone we have no certain knowl- edge ; the ordinary explanation, is, that the iron has absorbed and combined with a por- tion of the charcoal or carbon and has in cong- sequence been converted into a carburet of iron. But it has ever been a mystery that on analysis, so very minute and questionable a portion of carbon is exhibited. It appears that the grand error in the above view of the subject consists in our not duly understand- ing the nature of the change which carbon undergoes in its combination with iron in the formation of steel. Those who are familiar with the process of the conversion of iron into steel must have observed the remarkable change in the outward aspect of the bars of iron after their conversion, namely, that they are covered with blisters. These blisters in- dicate the evolution of a very elastic gas which is set free from the carbon in the act of its combination with the iron. I have the strongest reasons to think that these blisters are the result of the decomposition of the car- bon, whose metallic base enters into union with the iron, and forms with it an alloy, while the other component element of the carb on is given forth and so produces in its escape the blisters in question. On this as- sumption we come to a very interesting ques- tionWhat is the nature of this gas ? In or- der to examine this all that is reqnisite is to fill a wrought iron retort with a mixture of pure carbon and iron filings, subject it to a long-continued red heat and receive the evolv- ed gas over mercury. Having obtained the gas in question in this manner, then permit a piece of polished steel to come in contact with this gas, and in all probability we shall then have reproduced on the surface of the steel a coat of carbon resulting from the reu- nion of its two elements, viz, that of the metalic base of the carbon then existing in the steel, with the, as yet unknown, gas, thus sythetically, as well as by analytic process, eliminating the true nature of steel, and that of the elements of carbon. Reverencing the Sabbath. An amendment to the law on the hours of labor to the effect that no employer should be allowed to hold his workmen to work during Sunday, was passed unanimously at the Na. Assembly at Paris. We have some hopes of France now. Well spent Sabbaths lead to well spent weeks. THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. Persons wishing to subscribe for this paper have only to enclose the amount in a letter di rected (post paid) to MUNN & COMPANY, Publishers of the Scientific American, Ne~ York City. TERMS.$2 a year; ONE DOLLAR IH ADVANCEthe remainder in 6 nionths Postmasters are respectfully requested to receive subscriptions for this Paper, to whom a discount of 25 per cent will be allowed. Any person sending us 4 subscribers for 6 months, shall receive a copy of the paper for the samelength of time Ztientifu ~2tnuritan. 54 Planing Machines. (Continued from our last.) Of these transverse bars, the foremost, it is evident, cannot at that end of it which points to the saw, extend beyond the saw; since if it did, it would be cut off by it the hinder may or may not, according as the purpose requires or not, that it should pass the saw. The longitudinal bar thus furnished with two transverse ones, forms what I term the slider. To diminish the friction between this bed and the bench or floor on which it slides friction rollers may of course be applied and that either to the bench or to the bed. To this slider make fast the rough piece by any means and so shove it along from end to end against the saw ; the consequence is, that if the saw be deep enough either the piece will be simply cut to an even surface on one side or it will be cut into two distinct pieces, each having one such even or flat side. Fix now one of these pieces on the slider with the flat side downwards; shove it against the saw as before and in this manner this piece will ac- quire a second smooth side contiguous to the former, or be cut into two other pieces each having two such contiguous smooth sides. The angle formed by these two contigu- ous sides will be a right angle, while the upper surface of the bench is parallel with the saw spindle but if it be requi- red to give the piece any bevelling, this may be done by making the bench to turn or tilt on pins or gudgeons like that above des- cribed for cutting to any bevelling by up-and- down saws; or the saw-spindle may be made to tilt, the bench remaining fixed or, the bench and spindle remaining as before, the piece it- self may be tilted and confined to the slider so as to meet the saw at the angle required Pieces of any figure by being confined to this slider by stops and supports may be cut length- wise or transversely, to any angle or length. In speaking of cutting from the rough we showed how to give a piece two straight sides; as to the remaining sides though the piece might be fixed to the slides again, yet, to save the time that might be consumed in adjusting and confining the piece according to the di- mensions required the following method may be employed let a bar of wood or metal which we will call a guide be applied to the bench longitudinally, in a direction exactly parallel to the saw and (as in general it will be more convenient) not on the same side as the slider is. This guide should move so as to be set at different distances from the saw, preserving always its parallelism with respect to the saw. If the piece to be cut he applied with one of its flat sides lying on the bench and another pressed flat against thisguide, ad- vance it now against the saw and so much as extends beyond the saw will be cut off, and thus another fiat side will be given to the piece and so on for any other side or sides the distance of this guide for the saw will, it is evident, give the thickness or breadth of the piece to be cut, and, the same distance being preserved, any number of pieces may be cut exactly to the same thickness or breadth. To cut a piece taper or wedge fashion, provide a wedge of the degree of taper requir- ed ; apply this wedge to the longitudinal guide; then, applying the piece to the other side of the wedge, shove up piece and wedge together as you would the piece alone to cut it pa- rallel-wise ; this contrivance may equally be applied to the up-and-down saw. Where a very thin saw is employed in roughing out a piece, there is a case in which its thinness, though supported by guides, like those to the up and down saw, might render its work less true; that is, where the quantity of matter it has to detach in different parts is so unequal, as that, on one side having here and there no- thing to cut off, it would be thrown off to that side, and bent out of its course by the ine- quality of resistance. To obviate this danger the flanch on that side maybe made to extend nearly to the root of the teeth ; at which place it should be chamfered ofi to nothing, so as, by the inclination of its surface, to wedge off as it were, and so bend or break whatever it finds on that side. Where the diameter of such a saw is considerable, the saw, instead of be ing one piece, may be more advantageously composed of annular segments fastened on the face of the fianch. (To be continued.) A HORIZONTAL ENGINE. Those who have not seen the ~ engines are scarcely able to judge of the great improvements which have been made within a few years both in their construction and ar- rangement. Having come into possession of a very beautiful, strong and well finished hor- izontal engine of sixteen horse power,all complete and in running order, which we will seE for the low price of $1250, we con- clude to publish this engraving of it and ex- plain its parts and convey an idea of what it is in itself. A,N~ the frame. B, the cylinder. C, the piston rod. D, the connecting rod. E, the crank. F, the fly wheel. G, the rod for working the slide valves which are operated by an eccentric on the small shaft in the mid- dle of the arch, which shaft with a pulley on it, is driven by a band P. H, is the steam pipe, by which the steam is admitted from the boiler. I, is the exbausf pipe. J, the gover- nor, connected with the main shaft by band 0 and pulley, and with the steam pipe by the small rod seen above G. K L, are the two feed pumps worked by one connecting rod R. M N, are the two discharge pipes of the said pumps. The small pipe on the outside is the supply pipe. S. is a large pulley on the main shaft to drive the machinery. The horizontal engine, has superseded every other kind for factories, saw mills, Our Mechanics. Many, but they are growing less in number, are too apt too sneer at the mechanic as if man can blush at a calling which the great Me- chanic of the Universe stamped with especial favor. His divine Son was not only clothed with the garb of humanity but he was even an humble carpenter. And yet a mechanic is by some deemed unworthy of association with the magnates of the land. What individual possessing the genius of an Eckford or a Rhodes, would exchange it for the tinselled glories of a rent-roll which lead to the idle dissipations of fashionable life or to be the ephemeral flower around which sport the butterflies of the earth Every youth, should be taught some traae, for without such knowledge he is more or less dependant upon the freaks of fortune. Riches have wings~ is an adage as trite as it is true, and with the experience of life before us, who would not when the flood of misfortune or the fire of adversity sweeps away human hopes, wish sincerely wish that he too were a mechanic- The progress of our country in the scale of nationsthe march of mind on the land and on the water is hastened by the improvements developed in the mechanic arts. Who can observe the power of the steam engine not only impelling the massy vessel with speed through the waters but successful ly combatting the mountain wave and the fu- rious gale, without being lost in wonder at that intelligent mind which has wrought out machinery so complicated yet so perfectly sim- ple as by obeying the power of steam, to an- nihilate space and reveal to the eye of com- merce nations and people but little known. Look too at the benefit to the human race conferred by machinery in manufactures, in preparing the tree of the forest for the ship. iounuries ane - - purposes. They can be built at less expense than the walking beam kind and beside they are more easily attended. Some have objected to horizontal engines, as being liable to wear out of line in the under part of the cylinder. This objection has a sound and reasonable appearance, but we are convinced from the testimony of a number of good engineers, that experience has proven it to be incorrectcylinders of horizontal en- gines,after having been used daily for years, have exhibited no signs of uneven wearing. As before stated the above engine is of 16 horse power nearly new and in complete run- ning order. It has been used a little less than 6 months, just enough to make it run smooth, and we consider it better than a new one because it has been tested and all its pipes connections, & c. are fitted and attached. It may be run from 2 to 16 horses power as de- sired, or even more, with a corresponding graduation of fuel, which in New York to drive it 16 horses power, 12 hours per day, costs $5 a week. In the country the cost of fuel would be much less as wood can be had far cheaper than in this city. The boiler at- tached to this engine is a cylindrical one and is built in the most substantial manner. It is calculated for wood or coal. The following on the next column are the dimensions of the engine, boiler and fly wheel BOILER. Length 23 feet. Diameter 3 feet. Return Flue. Warranted at 100 lbs. pres- sure for constant use. Will bear 150 lbs. with perfect safety. FLY WHEEL. Diameter 11 feet. Weight 2300 lbs. We will ship the above engine and boiler with all their appurtenances to any part of the United States desired, for the very low sum of $1250. Their cost when new was $2000. It is only the pressure of the times in this part of the country that enables us to dispose of them at such a great discount from their cost. Any one who wants a first rate engine and boiler with everything complete will find this an uncommon opportunity. We will warrant therr. to be as here descri- bed and those who wish, can see them in ope- ration or have them examined by a compe- tent engineei- before purchase. Letters may be directed (post paid) to Mun~ & Co. Scientific American Office, of whom any further information may be had, wright and house-carpenter and in all those To Gild Silk or Ivory by the action of uses to which it is applied, and the glory of HYdrogen Gas. the Bar eclipses not the glory of the Mechanic Immerse a piece of white satin, silk or ivo- who has contributed to these results. ry, in a solution of nitro-muriate of gold, in We speak not here of the Press without the proportior. of one part of the nitro-muri- which the mind would be clipped of those ate to three of distilled water. Whilst the wings enabling it to take its eagle flight and substance to be gilded is still wet, immerse it to soar beyond those confines from which the in a jar of hydrogen gas, and it will soon be Art of Printing released it. covered by a complete surface of gold~ Its prison house has been demolished and REMARKSThe divisibility of gold by pre- the light of science like the light of the solar cipitation in this manner is astonishing, for system pierces into the hovels of the poor the coating is hardly the ten-millionth part man, as it irradiates the palaces of the weal- of an inch thick. thy. - This experiment may be very beautifully A writer has truthfully observed :Me- and advaRtageously varied as follows :Paint chanics are the palace-builders of the world; flowers or other ornaments with a very fine not a stick is hewn nor a stone shaped in all camel hair pencil dipped in the solution of the lordly dwellingsof the rich that does not gold, before mentioned, on pieces of silk, sa- owe its beauty and fitness to the mechanics tin or ivory, and hold them over a Florence skill ; the towering spires that raise their flask, from which hydrogen gas is evolved du- giddy heights among the clouds, depend upon ring the decomposition of water by sulphuric the mechanics art for their strength and sym- acid and iron filings. The painted flowers metry. Not an edifice for devotion, for busi- or other devices will in a few minutes shine ness or comfort but bears the impress of their with all the splendour of the purest gold. A handiwork. How exalted is their calling coating of this deacripfion will not tarnish how sublime is their vocation I Who dares upon exposure to the air or in washing. to sneer at such a fraternity of honorable men Porcelain is gilded by mixing nitro-muriate who dares to cast odium upon su..n a patrio. of gold, gum water and pulverised borax. The tic race? Their path is one of true glory, mixture is laid on by a brush and the porce- and it is their own fault if it does not lead lain is burned in an oven. The gold is thus them to the highest post of honor and re- revived with great splendour. Porcelain and flown. wares may be platinized, silver-edge tinned Who can estimatewho appreciate the ag- and bronzed in a similar manner. gregate of benefits to a country which me- The Europa made the quickest trip on her chanics confer. May we not with just pride last voyage ever made. The entire voyage from anticipate the period when the highest pass- New York to Liverpool and back, including port to the circles of the refinedthe intelli- gentthe good, will be that he is a well-bred, her stay at Liverpool was made in 28 days. an educated mechanic. Never marry but for love, says William Penn, in his Reflections and Maxims, but see thou levest what is lovely. The court yard of the English Admiralty, Whitehall, has a pavement of India rubber. It is laid down in pieces about twelve inches square and one in thickness. ENGiNE. Cylinder 11 inches diameter. Stroke 28 inches. Governor, pumps and every thing belong- ing to the most approved engines are at- tached. ~cientifif 2~nutuan. TO CORRE~PONDENTR. C. M. M. of Pa.We like your plan and advise you to make a small model and try it. You will, as you say, get the expansive force of the steam, but we doubt whether it will be of much advantage. $2, all right. E. A. D. S. of Ohio.We think the ac- tion of the vanes would be entirely too slug- gish to be of any advantage. If it would op- erate well at would be a grand thing and soon take the place of the valves in force pumps. N. C. of N. Y The engraving of your Cider Press which you send, is too large for our paper. We can have a handsome one, on a reduced scale taken from it if you desi~ e. It will cost you $6. Your other press is- paten- table. We can attend to your Patent Office business if you wish. $2, all right. 0. F. T. of Ky.It has cost us years of labor and study to be enabled to reply rightly to the numerous questions which we are cal- led upon to answer. You could not expect us to give you all the information you desire without compensation, particularly as yours is a subject of much intricacy. In general we leave the sum to the option of those who vtrite, as they can best teJl the value to them of the information desired. Please forward $10. E. B. of Mass The manufacture which you speak of, is not difficult, and might be prosecuted as you have suggested, but not to compete with Cincinnati, for the very reason, that the scraps will not yield a sufficient amount to pay expenses. The fixtures are siaiple and the price would be about $300, to commenceon a small scale. N. C. of Ohio. We have made enquiries about Griffins heat generator, and find that it has its favorites and its opponents. His heat generator appears to be the most popu- lar here at presenthow long we cannot tell. The engines you wrote about are constructed with the common slide valveeccentric on the main shaft. Your views and discoveries, relative to the power gained and lost by the length of the connecting rod & c., is a new view and new light on the subject of steam engines. Would yon send us an article of moderate length, with the experimental data the light should not be hid and you should have the due credit. C. M. of Ct.The following is the best method of finding the pressure of a fluid upon the bottom of the containing vessel :Multiply area of base in feet by height of fluid in feet, and their product by the weight of a cubic foot of the fluid. M. M. G of N. Y.In regard to the pow- er of a man unaided by machinery, the com- mon estimation is the raising of 70 lbs. 1 foot high in a second for 10 hours in a day, which is equal to one fifth the work of a horse. The muscles of the human jaw exert a force 534 lbs. E. P. of N. Y.10 cubic yards of meadow hay weigh a ton. When the hay is taken out of large or old stacks 8 and 9 yards will make a ton. 11 or 12 cubic yards of clover dry, weigha ton. B. P. N. of S. C.The 16 horse engine an engraving of which appears in another part of our paper, would be just the power you require. To Patent Correspondents, M. S. of Tenn.Your model arrived safe on the 25th ult. It is a very ingenious invention. We shall have your papers ready shortly. A. E. B. of Ohio.The quickest way will be to have us make an examination for you at Washington, through our agents. The expense will be small. E. N. of Vt,We are gratified to know that you have received your Patent papers and that you feel so well satisfied with the way we have done your business. Your let- ter is so complimentary that we should be glad to publish it. Will you consent C. W. of La.We regret you did not employ us from the first to secure your Pa- teat. Not one in a hundred of those who take out Patents for inventors understand ma- king out the papers properly, and many is the invention which has been utterly lost in con- sequence. Send on your model and we will draw up new specifications, and you may de- pend upon having things done right. C. D. R. of Mass., B. ID, S. of Pa., and ID. D. Y. of N. Y. Your specifica- tions and one copy of each of your drawings were forwarded to your address for signing and making oath to, last week. J. J. C. ofPa., J. & N E. of Ohio, E. R. B.of Wis., A. B. and M. M. of Mass, S. G. W. of N. Y., and both of P. B.s of Mass., with A P. C. of do, will be atten- ded to next week. A. B. of Ct.Your Plane has arrived. We will add it to your papers which ate in preparation. A. Mc.K. of N. Y.We are making out new drawings. You will have your papers again shortly. Itoidens Dollar Magazine. Again we chronicle the advent of the Am- erican Blackwood for November. premising as usual that it fully sustains the high literary reputation it has so nobly won. The contents embrace every variety of reading and present some of the most truthful as well as vigorous Tales to be found in the range of the periodi- cal press. The style of articles in Holden are not of the namby pamby orderthey are en- ergetic as well as graceful, useful as well as readable. The Pulpit Portraits give us a bet- ter range of what may be styled good writing than any series of Magazine articles for ten years past and there is no disputing the fact that Holdens is the very beat of the American Monthlies. Each number is handsomely illus- trated and the volume of 12 numbers form as pretty a hook as one of the high priced monthlies. We hope /Imericans will support and encourage this Magazine of Magazines, for they can certainly find none more worthy of their patronage. Mr. Holden gives a three dollar work f or half price and must eventual- ly supplant our high priced literature. Office 109 Nassau-st. 2~ucrti~emcnts. Advertisements are inserted in this paper at the following rates: One square, 01 eight lines one insertion, two do. three do., one month, three do., six do., twelve do., TERMS:CASH IN ADVANCE. $ 0 60 76 100 1 25 a 75 7 60 1600 GENERAL AGENTS FOR THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. New ForkCity, - GRO. DEXTER. Boston, - - - Messrs. HOTCHE;SS & Ce. Philadelphia, - - STORES & BROTHER. LOCAL AGENTS. Albany, - - - - PETER Coox. Andover, Mass. - - E. A. RUSSELL. Baltimore, Md., - - - S. S~rsns. Bermuda Islands - WASHINGTON & Ce. Bridgeport, Ct. - - SANFORD & CORNWALL Cabotville, Mass., E. F. BROWN. Concord, N. H. RUFUS MERRELL. Cincinnati, 0. - - STRATTON & BARNARD. Dover. N. H. - - D. L. NoRsus. Fall River, Mass. - POPE & CHAOS Hartford, Ct., - - - E. H. BOWERS. Houston, Texas, - J. W. COPES & Ce Halifax, Nova Scotia, E. G. FULLER. Jamestown, N. Y. - E. BIsHoP. Lynn, Mass, - - J. E. F. MARSH. Middletown, Ct., - WM. WOODWARD Norwich, Ct., - - - SAFFORD & PARES. New Haven, Ct., - - E. DOWNES. Newburg, N. Y. - S. A. WHITE. Newark, N. J., - - J. L AGENS. Newark, N. J - - Robert Kashaw. New Orleans. La. - J. C. MORGAN. Paterson, N. J. - - A. H. DOUGLASS. Providence, R. I.,- - H. & J. S. ROWE. Rochester, N. V. - D. M. DEWEy. Springfield, Mass., - -. - Wss B. BEOCEET. M. BESSEY, Salem, Mass., - - - L. CHANDLER. Saco, Me., - - - - ISAAC CROOKER. Savannah, Geo - JOHN CARUTHERS. Syracuse, N. Y. - - W. L. PALSIER. Taunton, Mass., W. P. SEAVER. Utica, N. Y. - - G. H. BEEBULEY. Vicksburg, Miss. - J. B. MAYES. WilliamSbnrgh, - - J. C. GANGES. Webster, Mass. - - J. M. SHUMWAY. WATERPROOF FELT FOR ROOFS. TU~ HE patent Asphalte ROOFING FELT hasbeen exten- J sively used in England for many years, and is an article that for strength, durability, and FITNESS for all kinds of buildingsdwelling houses, sheds, barns Conservatories & c. cannot fail to recommend itself. Cheaper than shinglesLIGHTER than slate, SUPE- RIOR to zinc for FLAT ROOFS (as it is not affected by heat or frost) it makes a neat and elegant roof whe- ther covered by PAINT, or Tarcomposition and sand. 13 yards wide Cover 10 feet squareit comes in rolls 12 inches wide, and a persosi of ordinary inge- nuity can complete a large roof in a few hours. Samples and information respecting it will be for. warded on application (post paid) to SAMUEL RITCHIE & Co., Agents, n4 4t East Boston, Mass. LAWS STAVE DRESSING AND JOINT- ING MACHINE. THIS Machine is now in operation at Mr. William Burdons, 102 Front st., Brooklyn, every work- ing day, between 9 and 12 A. M. It dresses and joints properly, and with facility, the rived, or other stave, of ALL shapes and dimen. sions, without assorting and without waste of stock. It needs only to be seen fo be approved. n4 Sw4 The Best Patent Agency in the United States. TH~ subscribers would respectfully give notice aithey still continue to attend to Patent Office business as usual. The long experience they have had in securing patents, together wsth their unri- valled facilities, enables ihem to say that THE BEST PATENT AGENCY, in the United States, IS AT THE OFFICE OF THE SCIENTIFIC AMERI- CAN, New York. It is not necessary, as commonly supposed, for an inventorto make ajourneyto Wash- ington in person, in order to secure a Patent, as he cannot in any manner hasten the Patent. or make his invention more secure. Any business connected with the Patent Office may be done by letter, through the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN OFFICE, with the same facility and certainty as though the inventor came in person. From a want of knowledge on this point, applicants for patents are often obliged to submit to great vexation, with loss of much money and time. They also frequently fall into the hands of designing persons, and lose their inventions as well as money. Those who wish to take out Pat. outs or enter Caveats, should by all means have the business transacted through the SCIENTIFIC AMERI- CAN OFFICE, as they may then RELY upon its being done in a straight forward and prompt manner, on the very lowest terms. All letters must be PesT PAso and directed to MUNN & CO., Publishers of the Scientific American, s9 12.8 Fulton street. New York. Portable Saw Mill, F OR SALE CHEAPA first rate up and down saw, for boards, planks and heavy work, already fitted up with frame, table, fly wheel, & c. Length of saw 4 feet 6 inches. Price for the whole $60. Curve Saw. Also for sale, a first rate up and down saw for saw- ing out curves. It is in complete order, already set in frame, with table, fly wheel, band pulley, & c. Length of saw 2 ft. 6 in. Price for the whole $25. They can be sent with perfect safety to any part of the country. Any one wanting either or both the above has only to enclose the amount named and the saws shall at once be forwarded MUNN & CO. Scientific American Office, n4 New York. Johnsons Improved Shingle Machine. T HE Subscriber having received Lette,~ Patent for an improvement in the Shingle Machine, rs now readyto furnish them at short notic e, and he would request all those who want a goo I machine for sawing shingles, to call on him and xamine the improvements he has made, as oneeiglat 0 more shin- gles can be sawed in the same given time than by any other machine now in use. Manufactured at Augusta, Me. and Albany, N. V. J. G. JOHNSON. Augusta, Maine, Oct. 28, 1545. 025 ly The largest, best and cheapest Dictionary in the English Isonguage, is confessedly WEBSTERS, the entire work, unabridged, in 1 vol. Crown Quar. to, 1462 pp. with portrait of the author, revised by Professor Goodrich, of Yale College. Price, $6. The most COMPLETE, ACCURATE, and RELIABLE Dictionary of the Language, is the recent testimo- ny given to this work by many Presidents of Col- leges, and otiser distinguished literary men through- out the country. Containing three times the amount of matter of any other English Dictionary compiled in this coun- try, or any Abridgment of this work, yet Its definitions are models of condensation and pu- rIty. The most complete work of the kind that any nation can boast of.HON. WM. B. CALHOUN. We rejoice that it bids fair to become the stan- dard Dictionary to be used by the numerous mil- lions of people who are to inhabit the United States. Signed by 104 members of Congress. Published by G. & C MERRIAM, Springfield, Mass., and for sale by all booksellers. s21 2m5 To Mill Owners. H AVILAND & TUTTLES Patent Centre Vent Pressure Water WheelThese wheels are now in successful operation in many towns in Maine Massachusetts, and Rhode Island, and are found to surpass in power and facility of adaptation any wa- ter wheel now in use. This wheel was awarded the silver medal at the Fair of the American Institute recently held in New York and a diploma at the Mechanics Fair in Boston. The wheels are manufactured and for sale by the FULTON IRON FOUNDRY CO., South Boston, Masswhere the wheels can be sean and any infor mation concerning them had. Patent Rights for different States, Counties, & c. for sale as above. 014 3m5 Those Hats TI NOX of 128 Fulton street, is on hand with his -~-- Autumn style of Hats, and as usual furnishes a little prettier shape, made of a little better material and for a much less price than many of his Broad- way friends who boast of the superiority of their productions. The public wont swallow that gammon, gentle- men. and you had better put your prices down to Knoxs standard price, before he detracts ALL those regular customers from Broadway into Fulton at. o7 p~\WQODENOR~ fjr3The above is prepared to execute all ordersat the shortest notice and on the most reasonable terms. TALI3OTS PATENT BLIND HINGE. T HE undersigned having become interested in the manufacture and sale of the above article, would state that their facilities are such, that they can supply any demand at short notice. This hinge, having stood the test of two years trial, has fully established itself se a useful and important in- vention, being all that can be desired for blind trimmings, as th. blind is managed entirely from the inside of the house without raising the sash, COMPLETELY looks it, and prevents all unpleasant noise of the blind by wind. American Window Trimming Company, Taunton, Mass. Address GEO. GODFREY, Agent A. W. T. Co. s23 3m STEAM BOILER. B ENTL~IYS Patent Tubular and other Bollers of any size, shape power, made to order, by SAMUEL C. HILLS & CO. auB 411 Fulton et. GENiCItAL PATENT AGENCY. REMOVED. THE SUBSCRIBER has removed his Patent Aput Acyfrom 189 Water to 411 Fulton street. The object of this Agency is to enable Inventors to realize something for their inventions, either by the sale of Patent Goods or Patent Rights. Charges moderate, and no charge wilibe made u.n tilthe inventor realizes something from hisinvention. Letters Patent will be seenred upon moderate terms. Applications can be made to the undersign ed, personsilly or by letter post paid. auS SAMUEL C. HILLS, Patent Agent. Johnson & Robbins, Consulting Engineers and Counsellors for Patentees. Office or F street, opposite Patent Office, Washing- ton, D.C. jl7tf Saws. & MDANIEL, Concord, N. H., make of LEAVLTT eat cast steel the following Saws Circular, Mill, Tennon, Cross-cut, Fellow and Ve- neering Saws. Also, Turning and Billet Webs, and Butchers Bow Saws. No saws ever made equalto their cast steel Mill Saws. The trade supplied on liberal terms. s21 2m5 UNIVERSAL CHUCKS FOR TURNING LATHES For sale by the Manu- facturers Agents, QUINCY & DEALA PIERRE, 81 John atreet New York. s2 3m5 Coal. THE Subscriber has constantly for sale by the ear -- go or ton all sizes of Coal for MANUFACTURERI and FAMILIES, from the best Schuylkill and Lehigh mines. Hazieton and Spring Mountain, lump and ~teamboat Coal. Tamaqas Chesnut for engines. Peach Orchard and other red ash Coal. Mid lothian, Virginia, a superior article for smiths use. Cure- borland, Sidney abd Liverpool Coal. For sale at the LOWEST market prices. J. P. OSTHOM, aul 3m5 corner 10th Avsnue and 2.6th st. PREMIUM SLIDE LATHE. 7 HE subscriber is constantly building his imprev- ed Lathes of all sizes, from 7 to 30 feet long, and caa execute orders at short notice. JAMO~S T. PERKINS, Hudson Machine Shop and Iron Works, mll Hudson, N. Y. Machinery. ERSONSd in any partof the United Stat p ressing who are in want of Machines Engines, Lathe#, OR ANY DESCRIPTION 55 MACHINERY, can have their orders promptly executed by addressing the Pub- lishers of this paper. From an extensive acquain- tance among the principal machinists and a long so perience in mechanical matters they have uncom- mon facilities for the selection of the best machinery and will faithfully attend to any business entrusted to their care MUNN & CO. ala United States Patent Agency.. 112 Broadway, N. V. ESSRS. LEROW & CO. would inform those in ~-terested in Inventions and Patent Rights, that they have opened an Office at 112 Broadway, for the exclusive sale of Patent Rights and Machines, and they would respectfully solicit the Agency of any new Inventions or Machines. As we shall advertise extensively all machines that are consigned to us, this will be a most favorable opportunity for all wishing to bring their Invention before the public. Persons at a distance wishing any kind of Machi- nery, by addressing us by letter, can obtain any in- formation they desire. JOHN A. LEsow, LEROW & CO. CHARLES E. HUTCHINSON Refer to : John Lorimer Graham, N. V. Walworth & Nason, Boston; Lewis Lerow, Boston; Rev. R. W. Cushman, Washington o21 2t~ PECKS PATENT VISE WiTH FOOT LEVEE~. T HIS Vise is worked entirely by the foot and is A admitted by all who have used them to be the bslt and, strength, saving of time and convenience considered, the cheapest Vise in use. For saleby QUINCY & DELAPIERE, 71 John at. New York; Geo. H. Gray & Co. Boston Curtis & Hand, Phila- delphia; Way & Brothers, Hartford ; and by the proprietor, J, S. GRIFFING, o7 2m5 New Haven, Ct. T HE WEST STREET FOUNDRY, corner of West streets, will furnish at the shortest notice, Steam Engiaes and Boilers in all their varieties, and on the most reasonable terms, together with castings of brass or iron, and machi- nery in generaL Orders attended to with dispatch, ano particular attention given to repairing. JOSEPH E. COFFEE, AGENT. Steam Boats, Engines, Machiisery, & c. bought and sold on commissionapply as above. s23 Smo Lap welded Wrought Iron Tubes FOR TUBTILAIk BOILERS, From 1 1-4 to 6 inches diameter, and any length, riot exceeding 17 feet. 7J~ HESE Tubes are of the same quality and manu~ .Lfacture as those extensively used in England, Scotland, France and Germany, for Locomotive, Ma rine Rod other Steam Engine Boilers. THOMAS PROSSER, Patentee, d26 28 Platt street, New York POWER TO LET RARE CHANCE. Pf~ HREE rooms, 40 feet square, one room 60 by 40 A feet, 2ad door, power from engine, 25 in. cylin- der, 4 1-2 feet stroke. Let together or in parts. Ap- ply at West street Foundry, corner of Beach and West streets. s23 3m Agricultural Implements. ~r.y Inventors and Msnufacturers of superior Aj ricultural Implements may find customers for their goods by applying at the Agricultural Warehouse of S. C. HiLLS & CO. 41 Fulton St. asaS Scicntitlc ~2~nutican. For the Scientific American. New Chemical Law. No. 7. It may be thought by many who are too anxious to oppose the rapid progress of any new truth, and who perhaps even now, hav0 in their own minds condemned this law, with- out the least examination, that the examples which I have given, and which coincide so perfectly with the conditions required by this law, are selected expressly for the purpose, and with the object of coinciding with its con- ditions If there is any one who believes that such has been the case, I would ask him to examine the series and their compounds for himself, and to show if possible one single instance where the law is at fault. A vast number of the boiling points, specific gravi- ties, & c. of the substances contained in the ex- amples previously given have not yet been as- certained; now then, if it so happens that when the specific gravities, & c. of these sub- stances are calculated, and it is found that the results so obtained are at variance with the conditions of the law, then must it be aban- doned ; but until that circumstance happens, and with the present amount of proof for its support, the law will be held in esteem, re- garded in a probable light, and impartially tested when an opportunity occurs. Some objections may be raised to the ad- mission of the truth of this law, on the ground that in its application, it entirely dispenses with organic radicals, instituted by the best authority, and which even now are employed by the generality of chemists, to illustrate the different transformations of their compounds. I have reference to the following radicals, viz. Methyle, Ethyle, Amyle, Cetyle, Formyle, Acetyle and Valeryle. How can the applica- tion of this law dispense with radicals,which never had the least shadow of existence but in name, purely hypothetical, and instituted only on the supposition that the constitution of organic compounds were similar in every respect to the inorganic. It is certainly bet- ter to claim the existence of known real radi- cals, than to place unlimited confidence in the existence of hypothetical radicals, which never have been produced. The present con- dition of science requires something more real and substantial than the idea that a number of substances can act the part of radicals, and yet can never be proved to exist. The benefit and advantage of this law to Chemis- try are invaluable, and there is no doubt but that the time will come (when the laws which govern the specific gravities and boiling points of substances have been accurately ascertained) that it will be applied to their exact calcula- tion. In this manner we shall know the re- lations which exist between the specific gra- vities, boiling points, & c. of a substance and its composition, and be enabled after the clas- sification of a substance by the similarity of its chemical properties, to calculate its com- position from its specific gravity, boiling point, .& c., or the specific gravity, or the boiling point of a substance from a knowledge of its composition. It must be apparent to all, that when a more perfect knowledge of the chemical pro- perties of substances is attained by chemists, then they will be enabled to classify them in- to series, similar to those we have just des- cribed, and consequently will arrive at the knowledge of their specific gravities, boiling points, & c. by a much sorer and easier meth- od than by experiment. If introduced into the department of Organic Chemistry, upon the basis of the similarity of chemical pro- perties of substances ; it will reduce it to per- fect ~irder, by which each peculiar pro- perty of any substance may be easily retain- ed in the memory. This is much to be desi- red, as in the present condition of organic chemistry all is confusion, and no particular chemical properties. Some doubt may exist in the minds of some whether this law does actually extend throughout the whole depart- ment of organic chemistry, but upon reflec- tion it will be found that there is no room for doubt. The laws of nature are universal and therefore must extend throughout the whole department of organic chemistry. We con- clude that this law is universal, for the same reason that we conclude upon the universaiity of the law of gravitation ; the one is similar to the other. The law of gravitation consists in the fact that the particles of matter attract each other, whilst this law consists in the fact that the particles of matter attract each other with a peculiar order. It is therefore but an extension of the universal law of gra- vitation or attraction. If therefore the law of gravitation be universal, then also must this law, and consequently must extend to those substances which are at present considered elementary. At all events upon applying this law to these substances, we obtain results, which plainly indicate that they also are com- pound, and numbers of certain aggregated se- ries. S. N. Bridgeport, Conn. New Flooring Composition. Saturate a quantity of chalk, or marl, or lime, or loamy clay, or sandy earth, p~evi. ously reduced to the state of a fine powder, with oil of tar, or mineral tar, or vegetable naptha, or any other resinous, Oily, or fatty matter. Then take 1 cwt. of rosin, and melt it in a caldron exposed to a gentle fire, until all the water in it is evaporated, and throw into the caldron 2 cwt. of the saturated chalk, or other earth, and mix it well with the mel- ted rosin. Next add from three to six pounds of liquid india rubber, or from three to six pounds of essential oil of tar, or some other oily or fatty substance, and after that from 3 to 6 pounds of sulphur; and finally 2 cwt. of fine dry grit, keeping all the while the con- tents of the caldron well stirred, till the whole are thoroughly amalgamated. When cool, the compound is of a slatish grey color, and of a close, granular texture. This compound may be used by being laid down in a hot and fluent state, and of suffi- cient thickness ; or combined with any of the natural asphaltes, or bitumen, or with wood or stone, to make a perfectly anti.damp floor- ing, durable and cheap. Fire Eucapem. In London the Fire Department is provided with an adundance of Fire Escapes, which are found invaluable in saving property in the upper stories of buildings, also human life. They are simply long sacks with a hoop at one end with hooks to attach to the sides and sills of the windows. The other end is held in the street, and persons or packages are slid through them with perfect ease and safety. They are wound on two wheeled carriages with an apparatus which moved by a crank, runs them up to any height. One person can ma- nage a single one with ease, and whoever has passed through the principal streets in Lon- don at night, cannot have failed to see these Escapes standing ready for service. As fires often occur in our cities where lives are lost for want of proper escapes, we do not see why Mr. Van Loons, of Coxackie, in this State, should not answer a good purpose. Chinese VarYing. The means by which the concentric balls which come from China can be carved, one within the other, has long been matter of dispute. No joining is to be discovered, but a recent traveller states positively that each ball is constructed of two pieces, the edges of which are so finely scraped down that the edge of one hemisphere is made to overlap its coun- terpart with the greatest nicety. Thus one ball is easily enclosed within another. The joinings are then united by a peculiarly strong cement and by the employment of steam and pressure. He said that any one who wishes to make the expensive trial will soon ascertain the fact by applying a very powerful heat to one of these balls, which will epen at the joints in due time. Marble may be cleaned with caustic ley and connexion appears to exist between the sub- lime, after which it should be weil washed stances, either in their composition or thetr with soap. History of the Rotary Engine. Prepared ea~pressly for tlze Scientific Ame- rican. FIG. 13. a .0 - B. BRAMAH AND DICKiNsONs ROTARY ENGINE. No. 3. This is another rotative engine of Messrs. Bramah and Dickinson, and is constructed nearly like No. 1 of Bramahs. It exhibits in- genuity and is better than many which have been brought forward since this one was in- vented. A is a small wheel or cylinder, ar- med with cross sliders, fixed in a larger one B, but, instead of its axis being stationed in the centre B, as in the previous instances, it is moved as much eccentric as to cause the periphery of A to rub against the side of B, as at C ; this causes the channel or groove D D D, to be formed of the shape which appears in the figure. The inner surface of the wheel or ring B is not perfectly cylindrical, but is a curve of such a shape as would be described by the points of the sliders E F, being of equal length in the revolution of the wheel A; or in other words, of such a shape as would occasion all the four points of the side sliders to be in constant contact therewith. The dot- ted lines G G show two grooves or cavities, through which the water, steam, or other fluid, contained between the point C and eith- er of the apertures or the pipes H and I, passes into either of the said pipes; which water, steam, or other fluid, would otherwise be pinned up by the slider, and stop the mo- tion of the machine when turned in either di- rection. FIG. 14 SADDLERS ROTARY ENGINE. This singular rotary engine is the invention of a Mr. James Saddler of Oxford, England, who obtained a patent for the same in 1791. The following description will impart a full knowledge of its construction and operation. The steam generator in the boiler is convey- ed through the pipe C, into the spindle or axis of the rotative cylinder A D, which is made steam tight by working in a stuffing-box. The steam passes along the arm of the revolving cylinder, nearly to its ends, where it meets a jet of cold water falls from the revolving cy- linder into the bottom of the case, whence it is conveyed through a pipe, and is discharged by openings made in the ends or sides of an- other cylinder moveable in the horizontal di- rection, giving it a rotatory movement in the same manner as Barkers mill. The jet cf cold water from the pipes X X, having con- densed the steam, produces re-action, and the cylinder A D acquires a rotative movement. The inner case is steam tight ; and the outer case serves the same purpose viith the jacket in the reciprocating engines. Another mode of action is suggested by Mr. Saddler to be had by filling the case (in which the arms re- volve) with steam, which would cause them to revolve by the pressure it would produce in being condensed in entering the arms. No one can fail to perceive in this engine, the germ of what is called Whitelaw & Stir- retts Water Wheel. The principle is that of Heros engine and as constructed by Mr- Saddler and explained in this engraving and description, it will serve as a beacon to warn our mechanics from wasting time on such toys as this in future. We have no doubt but the History of the Rotary Engine which we are now publishing will be of great benefit in ex- hibiting what has been already invented in this field, and thus prevent time and money being wasted to reinvent (unwittingly) some- thing old and thrown aside. This is one rea- son why we publish this history, and another, is the possbility that some hint may be sug- gested to some original thinking mechanic, that will lead to what is now considered an impossibility, by almost every practical en- gineer viz., a perfectly tight operative rota- ry engine. To prevent 1~Ietai from Oxidizing. The metal should first be dipped in a weak acid composed of 2 parts sulphuric, 1 of nitric acid, in nine parts of water. After immersion in this till the metal is perfectly clean the ar- ticle is to be washed in clean water, but the metal must not be rubbed, or touched with the fingers. It is then allowed to drain and when dry it is brushed over with copal var- nish, which adheres firmly to the acidulated surface of the metal and never peels off. Iron plates treated in this manner have been subjec- ted to the action of salt water for months with- out sustaining any injurya little litharge ad- ded to the varnish makes it still better. Tne bite of Serpents. The shrub guaco, a sort of climber or plain willow, found in the warm and temperate re - gions of Santa Fe, about 45fl N. let. not only possesses the property of neutralizing the venom of the rattle-snake, and other serpents whose bites prove fatal in the course of a few minutes but may be used as a prophylactic, with such efficiency that some drops of the juice of the compound leaves, properly admi- nistered, will be a complete antidote against the bite of these reptiles. HE BEST Mechanical Paper IN THE WORLD FOURTH YEAR OF TIlE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN! 416 Pages of most valuable information, illustrate with upwards of 500 MECHANiCAL ENGRAVINGS: fty-.The Scientific American differs entirely from the magazines and papers which flood toe country, as it is a Weekly Journal of Art, Science and Me- chanics, having for its object the advancement of the INTERESTS OF MECHANICS, MANUFAc- TURERS and INVENTORS Each number is il- lustrated with from five to TEN original ENGRA- VINGS OF NEW MECHANICAL INVENTIONS, nearly~all ofthe best inventions which are patented at Wathirsgton being iiluatrated in the Scientific American. It also contains a Weekly List of Amer. ican Patents; notices of the progress of all Mechan. ical and Scientific Improvements; practical direc tions on the construction, management and use ot all kinds of MACHINERY, TOOLS, & C.; Essays upon Mechanics, Chemistry and Architecture ; ac- counts of Foreign Inventions ; advice to inventors; Rail Road Intelligence, together with a vast amount of other interesting, valuable and useful information. The SCIENTIFIC AMERiCAN is the most popular journal of the kind ever published, and of more im- portance to the interests of MECHANICS and IN- VENTORS than aay thing they could possibly ob- tain! To Farmers it is also particularly useful, as it will apprise them of all Agricultural Improve- ments, instruct them in various mechanical trades, & c. & c. It is printed with clear type on beautiful paper, and being adapted to binding, the subscriber is possessed, at the end of the year, of a large vol- ume of 416 pages. illustrated with upward, of aoe mechanical engravings. TERMS Single subscriptson, $2 a year in ad- vance; $1 for six months. Those who wish to sub. scribe have only to enclose the amount in a letter, directed to MUNN & CO. Publishers of the Scientific American, 128 Fuiton street, New York. All Lettters must be Post Paid. INDUCEMENTS FOR CLUBBING. S copies for 6 montisM $4 00 5 12 $800 10 6 $750 10 12 $1500 20 6 $1500 20 12 $3000 Southein and Western Money taken at par for sub. scriptions. Poet Office Stamps taken at their full value. A SPLENDID PRESENT! To any person who will send us Three Subscri- bers, we will present a copy of the PATENT LAWS OP THE LNiTEO STATES, together with all the informa- tion relative to PATENT OFFiCE SUSSNEsS, lacluding full directions for taking out Patents, method of ma- king the Specifications, Claims, Drawings, Models, buying, selling, and transfersag Patent Rights, & c. This is a present of GREAT vALUE, yet may be obtain- ed for nothing, by the reader of this prospectus, if ~e will take the trouble to get Three Subscribers to the Scientific American. It will be an easy matter to obtain two zanies besides his own. MUNN & CO., Scientific Amerloan Office, N. 1 56

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Scientific American. / Volume 4, Issue 8 57-64

0 cieutific 2tnuricau, THE ADVOCATE OF INDUSTRY, AND JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC2 MECHANICAL AND OTHER IMPROVEMENTS. boi. Zi. ~O. ~, THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN: CiRCULATION 11,500. PUBLISHED WEEKLY. At 128 Fulton Street, New York (Sun Building,) and 13 Coart Street, Boston, Mass. By Munn & Company. The Principal Office being at New York. WE.RMS$2 a year$1 in advance, and the remainder in 6 months. f~~See advertisement on last page. llloettu. PICTURES OS XEl~1ORY. BY MISS ALICE CAREY. Among the beautiful pictures That hang on Memorys wall, Is one of a dim old forest, That seemeth the best of all. Not for his gnarled oaks elden, Dark with the mistletoe, Not for the violets golden That sprinkle the vale below Not for the milk-white lilies That from the fragrant hedge, Coquetting all day with tbe sunbeams, And stealing their golden edge Not for the vines on the upland, Where the bright red berries rest, Nor the pinks, nor the pale sweet cowslip, It seemeth to me the best. I once had a little brother With eyes that were dark and deep In the lap of that old dim forest, He lieth in peace asleep; Light as the down of the thistle, Free as the winds that blow, We roved there beautiful summers, The summers of long ago, But his feet on the hill grew weary, And, one ~f the autumn eves, I made for my little brother A bed of the yellow leaves. Sweetly his pale arms folded My neck in a meek embrace, As the light of immortal beauty Silently covered his face And when the arrows of sunset Lodged in the tree-tops bright, He fell in his saint-like beauty, Asleep by the gates of light. Therefore, of all the pictures That hang on Memorys wall, That one of the dim old forest Seemeth the best of all. o THE HEART IS A TREASURE BY J. E. CARPENTER. o ! the heart it is a treasure That should not be lightly won, To be thrown aside at pleasure, When the festive hour is done: Tis a jewel that, to cherish, Should be still thy dearest boast For when all beside it perish, Will its worth be known the most! If the heart of thee is beating, Use it gently lest it break; Warm and tender be thy greeting, Twill grow fonder for thy sake And in sickness or in sorrow, Let thy cares thy solace be; Then twill all its gladness borrow From its sun of hope, in thee! 0 ! the heart it is a blessing, In its freshness and its youth, Be it thine, mid thy caressing, To preserve it in its truth. Tis no worldly gem, at pleasure To be worn or cast aside, But a firm and priceless treasure, And more valued when tie tried! IMPROVED AXLES FOR TURNING NARROW CURVES. Figure 1. This is an improvement in the construction of Railroad Car Axles, invented by Messrs. Morse & Mansfield, Machinists, Canton, Mass. This invention has been effectually tried during the past year on the Boston and Wor- cester, the Boston and Providence, and several other Railroads in New England, and the va- luable practical testimony of the Superinten- dents and Engineers of these roads is highly favorableexceedingly so. The saving of tear Figure 2. DEsCRIPTIoNFig. 1 is a view looking down upon the truck, and fig. 2 an end ele- vation. The same letters r~fer to like parts on both figures, therefore we will describe the engraving collectively. A A A A, are the wheels. B B B B, are the axles. C C, are pinion and rack coupling. D D, fig. 2, are the pivot axis of W W, the suspended axle bearings. K K K, are the transverse timbers of the truck frame. E, is a pinion crank, and F F, are vertical bolts in the end of the pinion crank to fit into reces- ses in the bottom beams of the car. G, is an iron socket to receive a vertical bolt fixed or the bottom of the car. H H, are friction pul- leys to ease the friction of the car upon the middle of the truck. The bolts F F, and the bolt in the car to fit into socket G, secure the Law and Art. A Manchester, England, landlord recently levied for rent upon the studio of his tenant, a sculptor of the name of Clark, and sold under hammer about 300 worth of busts for 60. It was proved that the auctioneer sold the head of John Wesley for that of Voltaire : one of Chantrey, as a bald-headed chaps ; that of Rafi~lle, as a long-haired show-boys, and that of Sir Charles Bell, as Deaf Burkes. The jury indignant at the oppression of the landlord, the ignorance of the auctioneer, and the desecration of arts gave the sculptor ~550 ~ damages RAIL ROAD NEWS. Baitimore and Harrisburg Raiiroad. Acommittee has been appointed to receive subscriptions to the capital stock of the Co- lumbia, Marietta and Portsmouth Railroad, the chject of which is to furnish a continuous Railroad between Baltimore and Harrisburg, and thus connect the former city with the ex- tending railroad in rapid progress between Philadelphia and Pittsburg. The people along the line of road and its vicinity have subscri. bed $100,000, together with the stock of the Turnpike Companies, $20,000, leaving *100,- 000 to be raised at Baltimore. Hudson River Raiiroad, The new contractors have commenced work on the upper section of the Hudson River Railroad which passes through Poughkeep. sie. All the sections are progressing rapidly as soon as right of way is obtained for less than one mile tIre company will have possession of the entire line to New-York. No part of the road will be put in operation this Fall, on ac- and wear of the wheels where it has been count of the deep cut through Fort Washing. used, has far exceeded expectation. The na- ton Point, near New-York. By Spring the ture of the invention consists in having each road will be nearly complete to Fishkill Land- axle as it were divided and hung in two mid- ing,and in May the cars will come to Peek- dle suspension bearings, which are allowed to skill. Before the first of July they will reach swing on pivots, whereby the angles of the Fashkill Landing, and will probably reach wheels can be diverged from the straight line Poughkeepsie before the close of that month. for the better turning of narrow curves, than In the Spring the route is also to be put Un- by extended immoveable axles der contract to Hudson, and the cars may reach that place at the close of next season. New York and New Haven Rail Road. In New Haven is to be seen a railroad usurping the place where the sluggish water formerly flowed alQnz the Hampshire and Hampden Canal, and for more than a mile ii acircuitous route under twelve bridges through the heart of the city, now may be seen firm. rails instead of water, and locomotives driving loaded trains rather than horses tugging away at almost empty canal boab The trains pass nearly twenty feet below the surface of the streets, and over them are being thrown com- modious and elegant bridges. A noble Depet is rapidly raising on Chapel st. wherr. both the New-York trains and those from the in- tenor of the State on the Coilinsville Road, will receive and distribute their passengers. The latter Road has been in successful ope- car to the truck. E, we call a pinion crank, ration some months, and a more admirable from the fact that below its cap plate it has structure cannot be found. Arrangements have been made by which the trains over this notches that fit into notches on the upper end of the swing axle bearings. These not- mute will, in a few days, run through direct- ches coincide about one quarter of the circle ly to Bridgeport, offering new facilities for on each side of the pinion with the notches in travel and freight from the interior of New- the upper part of W W, therefore the top of England to New.Haven and New-York. W W moves in slots in C C, as will be obser- Low Fares increase Travel and inerease -ved in fig. 1. The operation of these axles Profits. is obvious; they prevent torsion, also much When the Lowell and other railroads lead- wear of the wheels and rails too. To allow ing from Providence and Worcester were con- the wheels to change with the angle of the structing it was estimated that they would axle as seen in fig. 1, the outside journals of carry forty-five thousand passengers each per the axles are fixed in their boxes in such a annum. By reducing the fare from former manner that both the shoulders and journals prices each road last year carried nearly twelve move in their boxes and work very nicely. times as many as the above estimate. This The inventors have taken measures to secure is a very important hint for other roads By a patent. reducing the fare you increase the travel and the freight and consequently the profits. Reduction of Wages at Loweii. ________ __________ Notice has been given at Lowell that a re- New Rail Road Depot in our City. duction of wages will soon take place. The It is rumoured that the New-York and New Boston Republican says it is to commence on Haven Railroad Company are about to build a the 20th of November on one corpenation, and splendid depot at the corner of Centre and Ca- probably at the same time on the others. The nal sts. on the site now copied by the Gas reduction is considerable, 25 to 35 per cent. Works. A branch track will be laid down The speed is to be reduced and the girls are in Centre st. for the use of that road. The pro- to be made to tend more looms. perty was bought by the company for $75,000. The hours of labor should he reduced in preference to the reduction of speed. The Passengers for Albany from New York will very system which the Lowell Companies are be able to travel the whole distance by rail- about to ad opt, is a system which they will road after the first of January next, via Bridge- yet regret having adopted. port, Conn. ~dcntifrc 2mctican. The Presidential Election. Up to the hour of our going to press election returns from over tv~enty different States had been received in this city by the Electric Te- legraph. General Taylor has received over- whelming majorities in almost every State as yet heard from, and his election is unquestion- able. The readers of the Scientific Ameri- can may consider it settled that Old Zack is now the President elect. He will be in- augurated on the 4th of March 1849, his term of office expiring in 1853. May he not prove unworthy of the confidence reposed in him The Fair of the American Institute. No. 5. PREMIUMS AWARDED. SILVER MEDAL5 FOR MACHINERY. Win. B Leonard, Agent, Matteawan Ma- chine Co. Matteawan,N. Y. br 2d best Steam Engine. G. W. Fulton, Baltimore, for 2d best Steam Engine and Pump. Merrick & Towner, Philadelphia, for a Steam Hammer. Allen & Noyes, Greenbush, N. Y. for best Steam Stuffing Boxes. West & Thompsoii, 29 Centre-st. best Steam Coupling Joint. Nichols & Marsh, Bridgeport, Ct. for 2d best Portable Flour Mills. Chas. Ross & Co. 38 Broadway, for best Portable Corn Mill. Chas. Ross & Co. 38 Broadway, for 2d best Portable Mill for Feed. F. Harris & Son, Brooklyn, for 2d best Smut Machine. W. B. North, Jersey City, N. J. for best Paint Mill. C. Jacobs, Brooklyn, for best Rice-Hulling Machine. Wopd-Planing Machine. G. B. Hartson, 42 Gold-st, for Iron Planing Machine. G. B. Hartson, 42 Gold-st for best large Slide Lathes. Harlow Isbill, Meriden, Ct. for best medium siEe Slide-Lathe. G. B. Hartson, 42 Gold-st for best Hand- Lathe. M. Reynolds, 162 Suffolk-st. for improve- ment in Dulling-Machine. S. Mower, Philadelphia, for best Screw- Cutting Machine. J. A. Fay, New-York, for best Hand-Mor- ticing Machine. F. & F. R. Taylor, Brashers Falls, for dou- ble acting Smiths Bellows. W & B. Douglass, Middletown, Ct. for im- provement in Hydraulic Rams. James Rice, Pike, Wyoming Co. N. Y. for best Railroad Coupling. J. Stimpson, Baltimore, for Railroad Coup- ling. C. B.~Turner, Buffalo, N. Y. for Railroad Brake. Reese & Hoyt, 69 Frank fort st, for Leather Banding, with improved rivets. Win. Kumbel, 33 Ferry-st. for Leather Banding. J. A. Brush & Co, 83 Pike-st. for 2d best Power Force Pump. N. Dodge, 634 Broadway, for Balance Pump. J. A. Brush & Co. 83jPike-st. for best Hand Force Pump. New-York Pressed Brick Co. Staten Island, for best Common Brick. George Godfrey,~Taunton, Mass. for best Fire-Brick. Judson & Pardee, New-Haven, Ct. for 24 best Stave-dressing..Machine. Win. B. Leonard, Agent of the Matteawan Machine Co. Matteawan, N. Y. for Shafting, Pullies, & c. Geo. Page, Baltimore Md. for portable Wind- mill. W R. & A. Inslee,~Newark, N. J. for Cutting Engine. E. E. Lewis, 118 East-Twenty-eight-st fGr Shingle, Heading and Stave Machine. A. Anson, Waterford, N. Y. for Sash-Mould- ing Machine. B. Howard, Brandon, Vt. for Match-Splint Machine. Thomas J. Wells, N. Y. for Saw-Mill for Slitting Boards. Evans & Thompson, Paterson, N. J. for Change-Motion for Drawing Head. Davison, Parks & Woolson, Springfield, Vt. for Cloth-Shearing Machine, Manhattan Gas Works, 18th-st. for Skeleton Gas Meter. Solomon Whipple, Albany, for File-Cutting Machine. Joseph Holmes, Meadville, Pa. for Toggle- Joint Press. J. S. Foster, New-York, for Rock-Drilling Machine. W. R.& A. Inslee, Newark, for Tinners Shears. S. N. Riseley, 278 Fufth-st, for Dynamical Pulley. Paul Stillinan, Novelty Works, N. Y. for Mc Naughts Indicator. J. F. Ostrander, 53 Mercer-st. for Machine for making Bullets, Pills. & c. H. G. Guyon, 97 Thompson-st. for Steam Cotton Press. Win. Bennett, N. Y. for Wedge Caulking. Joseph Dixon, Jersey City, for Black Lead Crucibles. Fisher & Morris, Newport, Me for an im- proved Vice. F. J. Austin, Centre-st. for Book Binders Shears. J. B. Carter & Brothers, Boston, for a Coffee Roaster. Henry Nelson, Third-avenue, for Payers Tools. Walter M. Gibson, 349 Broadway, for im- provement in Filters. T. C. Clark, Philadelphia, for Water Filter and Filter Medium. - W. H. Sweet, N. Y. for Croton Filter and Medium. W. H. Jennison, N. Y. for improved Filter Medium. Seth Boyden, Newark, N. J. for Rolled Lunc ano cpeioer. A. J. Cotheal, 89 Water st, for Zinc. Joseph Dixon, Jersey City, for Cast-steel. Rays & Wilcox, Berlin, Conn. for Tinners Tools. Joseph Dixon, Jersey City, for Pure Iron. David Pretlove, 24 Thames-st. for Embos- sing Machine. W. H. Perry, 82 Canal-st for improved in- strument for sweeping circles.. J. Perry, 87 Eldridge-st, for a good Cracker Machine. Thos. Ledgewood, Brooklyn, for a Side Lever for hoisting and setting large stones. D. L. Holden, 245 Waterst for Wrights self-setting Saw Mill block. N. 0. Mitchell, Gardiner, Me. for usefol machine for turning tree nails. Chas. Cherinock, 54 Cliff-st for improve- ment in Axietrees. Chas. S. Collier, Weatherfield., for Self- weighing Scale. G. XV. Coats, XViridsor, Conn. fo~ an im- proved Card Sticking Machine. Junius- Judson, for an improvement appli- cable to Planing and other Machunes. Joseph E. Andrews, Boston, for an ingeni- ous hi~hly finished Ships Windlass. A. Ambruster, 7 Harrison st. for a supe- rior Zilographic Eu,,raving Machine, Win. Mariany, Williamsburgh, for superior Sheet Iron Kettles. J. A. Gawdey & Son, Providence, R. I. for Weavers Reeds, made by Machinery. A. T. Williams, for a set of patent Juint- less Wire Harness. Death of Thaddeus B. Wakeman. On Tuesday last, the 7th inst. Thaddeus B. Wakeman, the Corresponding Secretary of the American Institute departed this life. He was a gentleman of a liberal education, high- ly respected and beloved by a large circle of acquaintances, who sincerely mourn his death. Portable Saw huh. We have for sale an excellent Portable Saw Mill for more particular description of which see advertising page. The Best Do~ Power. The British West India Mail Line. We saw a few days since at the Cabinet This company has declared a dividend of shop of Mr. Joseph Peckover, in this city, a 2 per share for the last six months. From most excellent application of dog power to the report made by the stockholders, we learn the propulsion of machinery, which from its that the steamers themselves are as cool a~ simplicity and cheapness of construction could they were seven years ago, that the loss of be used to advantage wherever a small pow- profit in the business with the West Indies, er is wanted. It consists of a large wooden owing to their depressed condition,h- s drum 11 feet diameter and 15 inches wide, been more than compensated by that with the axle of the drum turning on friction Pana ia and New Orleans. It is also expec- wheels in order to lessen the friction. The ted that the New York and Bermuda line will dog was placed inside the drum turning it by prove profitable. The receipts for the last his weight in the same manner that a squir- six months were 216,211. The expendi- rel turns a wheel. By the power thus produ- tures, 148,758. The company, in order to ced Mr. Peckover drives two upright saws get the Pacific trade, have expended 18,000 for curves, one small circular saw and two on the road across the isthmus, and have turning lathes for wood, but not all at once. agreed to spend 3000 more. This sum was He employs two Newfoundland dogs for his to be repaid by a post office privilege granted work and has trained them for it admirably. to the company by the government of New By a word from his master the dog leaps from Grenada his kennel in the yard, runs down into the The New York and Panama Line will soon cellar and jumps into the wheel. After wor- be stepping in for a share of the trade. king two hours this dog is released by the Patent Infrlngement.===~rIc~ Machine. other, and so alternately through the day. On the 4th inst., in the U. S. Circuit Court We noticed in our paper a few weeks since the held in this city, Judge Nelson presiding, a dog power which was exhibiting at the Fair in suit was brought by Alfred Hall against Nye this city. In that case the dog was fastened & Cosgrove and Briggs & Peck, brick makers, by the neck to a circular platform and made Hagerstown, to recover damages for infringe- to work it around, the operation being much ment of patent for improvement in the press more laborious for the dog and producing less for making bricks, as to the mode of stopping power. By Mr. Peckovers plan the dogs are the machine when obsti-uctions occur. No not fastened and seem delighted at the privi- defence was offered. Verdict for plaintiffs. lege of turning the drum. At a very trifling It was stated that defendants, since the suit cost any farmer can employ his dogs at chur- was entered, have become satisfied as to the ning, winnowing, pumping water, turning the right of plaintiff, and have ceased the use of grind stone, & c. the machine, intending to purchase of plain- tiff the right to use it in their works. Verdict in each case, therefore, was taken for plain- tiff for $50, which established the patent. Manufacture of Cotton in the Southwest. An unusual degree of interest is felt just now at the South and Southwest, in the manufac- ture of cotton. The St. Louis Courier says that a company of stockholders, residing in Kentucky, Indiana, Arkansas, Louisiana and - Mississippi, have organized themselves for the purpose of manufacturing cotton at Can- nelton, about 120 miles below Louisville. The facilities offered by this location are said to be all that can be askedland is cheap and abun- dant, coal exists in almost exhaustless quan- tities, and there are existing causes that serve to make Cannelton one of the greatest man- ufacturing points in the Wester~ country, in many other things besides cotton. The capi- tal stoclo of the co~npany is $500,000 of which it is understood $200,000 will not be put to use, and 20,000 spindles will he started. The North River Lumber Trade employs about 150 boats and 720 men, and is carried on briskly from the opening of the Canal un- lii the close of navigation. The amount in- vested therein by New Yorlo Lumber Mer- chants varies greatly. Some use two or three thousand dollars a year and others as much --150,000 or $200,000. The whole amount taken annually fuom this city for Ininber is Lard Lamps. We extract the following from a letter from one of our subscribers - I have tried several- kinds of lard lamps, but have never been very well satisfied with them. I took a common glass lamp, enlarged the vent hole, and made another one opposite to it, then toek a piece of copper wire as large as a large knitting needle bent up like the letter U, and put the ends of the wire through the hole in the top of the lamo (each side of the wick) so as tua reach the bottom of the lamp and come up about j an inch above the top of the wick where the bow of the wire will be in the blaze of the lamp. This keeps the lard melted nearly tu the bottom of the lamp and burns finely, and all the extra cost of the lamp is merely for the wire. Iron wire would answer the purpose but it is not so good a conductor of heat as copper. If this is new or worth publishing, your subscribers are wel- come to it. The lard should be partially mel- ted at least when the lamp is first lighted, or it may not burn? Youus truly, L. F.M. Il6ion, .IV. Y. New Lubricating oil. MR. EDITORI take the liberty to inform you that I have discovered and applied for letters patent for a new Oil for Lubricating Machinery, which is far superior to any thing heretofore used, and I am manufacturine it at present. In all the tests that have been made on Railroads and all kinds of machinery it has been found to last in many instances ten times as long as the best speum oil, arid I can and do sell it at about half the cost of the oil now used. They are using it on all the Pi-inting Presses in this city, and is preferred to any oil they ever Osed. Knowing that you are pleas- ed to hear of any new discovery, and as I con- sider your valuable paper the Organ of Inven- tors, I have ventured to inform you of it, and if you wish a few gallons to try on your Press, send me word and I will send it by Express. Yours very respectfully, P. 5. DEvLIN. Reading, Pa. Oct. 27, 1848. We should be glad to receive a specimen. ED. Sci. AM. LoM Wages and Short Time. Speaking of the present depressed condi- tion of American manufactories a reporter of the Dry Goods Market in this city, said in his published report lately, that the manu- facturers in order to save themselves, should reduce the rate of wages and adopt the Eng- lish system of short time. The dreadful cure, this English system, is very properly scouted by the working people of America, who rightfully demand that their labor shall not be degraded to the condition of the un- fortunate people of despotic countries. between 4 and $5,000000. A considerable portion is re-shipped to Connecticut, Massi~- chusetts and Rhode Island. In addition to the quantity brought to this city over $1,000,000 worth is annually sold aleng the River, or sent to different parts of New Jersey and Pennsyl- vania. Cheap Postage in France. TheTrench National Assembly have passed one practical measure which entitles its mem- bers to the gratitude of that great people. It has passed a bill for the reduction of postage on inlar~d letters to four sous or cents. The same will go into effect on the 1st of January next. Russia has also established a penny postage throughout her great empire. The Managers of the American Institute are now looking for a lot of ground suitable for the erection of an Institute building. The Mechanics Institute will probably unite with the American in the expense and thus have also a permanent location and proper accom- modations. Let them purchase a lot in Niblos Garden. The Propeller Sarah Sands arrived at this port last Saturday morning from Liverpool, making the passage in 17 days. The time will soon arrive when all our vessels will ei- ther be steamships or propellers. 68 The Electric Telegraph. No. 4. In our last we promised to treat of what a patent covered and what it did not. There are many conflicting opinions respecting what is termed a result, that is a certain article made that never was made before. Some believe that a patent for such a result as a new shoe or a new alphabet, or new cloth, is not legally the subject of a patent and that the means only to obtain the same result is valid as the subject of a patent. Our laws however and those of all other civilized coun- tries protect by patent the result as well as the means to obtain it, but this cannot be le- gally covered in one patent. The result must be a subject of itself and so must the means to obtain it. A result however is very easily obviated for the least change in combination essentially alters the features of a result. Thus the telegraphic alphabet of Morse is the legal subject of a patent, but another per- son dropping his dash and using the dot, pro- duces a totally different result. We make this remark, because that many have suppo- sed, and it was contended for at the recent trial at Frankfort, Ky. that Prof. Morse could not legally hold his alphabet (result) under a patent, Patents are granted for a new prin- ciple, and a new combination, to produce certain results. The combination patent is easily avoided, but if the combination is the limit of improvement, a patent for the said combination is just as good as if it was for a principle, for the changes of combination must produce an inferior result, (an inferior arti- cle.) The patent for a principle might be the subject (to no purpose) of a volume. Every patent should clearly specify the principle of invention and for want of this clearness, we have had many law suits. Nothing suits law- yers better than vaguely specified patents thejefore the impropriely of employing tha* class as agents to make specificationsthose murky productions for the honest trade of the gentlemen of the bar. In respect to different principles of tele- graphing we have already specPied four that are perfectly distinct, that might legally be held and operated in one country without any jiast confliction. It is the great fault with many inventors, those that have money, that they are too jealous of inventors in the same field with themselves. This should not be. Itis perfectly possible that one might invent something this year, and another invent some- thing in the same line next year that would be altogether superior. Let every one make the most of their invention while it lasts and not be too jealous of being superseded. We ex- press no sympathy for the plunderers of prin- ciples by a simple equivalent alterationthese men should be rewarded with a just legal in- fliction. But inventions essentially different in character to produce like results (results not patented) should not be subjects of angry litigation between different parties. Prof. Wheatstone in England, and Prof. Morse of America, have been blamed for gras- ping too much in their claimsclaiming in opposition that which they never conceived (invented) Prof. Wheatstone has made him- self notorious for opposing every electric te- legraph for which a patent was requested in England. When Prof. Morse applied for one in London, Wheatstone opposed himthe two Professors were regularly pitted against one another, but Wheatstoiie the plunderer of poor men~ s inventions, was victorious and the Pro- fessor of painting came oil with flying colors. We hope that Mr. Morse will not be actuated towards other telegraph inventors, with the same sp~irit which he justly condemned in Lord Campbell and Puffer Wheatstonethat he will in the righteous spirit of equal and exact justice, give sea room to those telegraph inventors which he has calmly declared to be different from the Electro Magnet Tele- graph. Some have endeavoured to detract from the merit of Prof. Morse as the inventor of the Electro Magnet Telegraph, and make him indebted to Dr. Jackson of Boston for all hi~ information, he being a passenger in the Sully with Prof. Morse in 1832, and used to converse with him on the subject. It would have looked more candid if Prof. Morse had mentioned the name of the paslenger with whom he used to converse on the subject while on his~voyage~from France in 1832. Yet what of all this, we have ~no evidence that Dr. Jackson ever constructed an electric tele- graph, and although~Prof. Henry gives tardy praise to Mr. Mo~se, the names of great sci- entific men should net be allowed to weigh as a feather in the balance against a successful inventor buta less distinguished man of sci- ence. For more than 30 years Sir HLmphrey Davy had the world wide honor of being the first inventor of the Safety Lamp, and it was not till the summer of 1848, that the inventor, Geo. Stevenson the mechanic, was acknow- ledged before a high Scientific Association. There is another kind of telegraph which we have not yet described, viz, the printing tele- graphWe see that Houses has lately occu- pied much attentionbut this is a borrowed inventionessentially so, as we shall prove in another article. Levelling. A pole about 10 feet long must be procured and also a staff about 5 feet long, on the top I of which is fixed a spirit level, with small sight holes at the ends, so that when the spirit level is perfectly horizontal the eye may view any object before it through the sights in a per- fectly horizontal line. If you have to mea- sure the perpendicular distance between the bottom and top of a hill for. instance ; place the level staff on the side of the hill in such a way that when the level is truly set the top of the hill may be seen through the sights keep the level in this position and look the ______________________ contrary way ; then cause some person to place the 10 feet staff before the sight further down the hill and looking through the sights to the staff cause the person to move his finger up or down the staff until the finger be seen through the sights and mark the position of the fin- ger on the staff. Keep your 10 feet staff in the same place and carry your level staff down the hill to a convenient distance, then fix it in the same way as before ; and looking through the sights at the 10 feet staff, cause the per- son to bring his finger towards the bottom of the staff and move his finger up or down the staff in the same way until it be seen through the sights and mark the place of the finger. Then the distance between the two fingers marks, added to the height of the level staff will be the perpendicular distance between the place where the level staff now stands and the top of the hill. The process is perfectly simple, and it will not be difficult to repeat it ottener, if the height of the hill requires it. This process will give what is called the apparent level, which, however, is not the true level. Two stations are on the same true level when they are equally distant from the centre of the earth. The apparent level gives the objects in the same straight line but the true level gives the line which joins thero as a part of a circle whose centre is the centre of the earth. In small distances there is no sensible difference between the true afid ap- parent level of any two objects. When the distance is one mile the true level will be about 8 inches different from the apparent level. This will serve ~vell enough to re- member, but more correctly speaking it is 7. 962 inches for 1 mile, and for other distances the difference of the two levels will be as the square of the distance. Thus at the distance of two miles it will be 1+l-=2X2z~4X8~32 inches. These circumstances must be strictly ob- served in the formation of canals, and railways. Baths in Russia. In Russia they have Sweating or Vapor Baths which are resorted to by persor~s of all classes, rich and poor free of expense because these baths are supported and kept up by the government. Here mingle together the beg. gar, the artisan, the peasant and the noblemar, to enjoy the luxuries of a steam or sweating bath in both sickness and health. The me- thod as pursued by them to produce the va- por bath is simply by throwing water on red hot stones in a close room, which raises the heat from 150 to 168 degrees ; making when consists of an irregular passage or entry, with at 168 degrees, above a heat capable of melt- rooms and in some cases suites of rooms, open- ing wax and only twelve degrees below that ing at irregular distances on each side. The for boiling spirit ot wine. In this tremen- width of the entry is about twenty feet and dous and excessive heat which on an American the roof varies from five to sixty feet in height. would produce suffocation, the Russian enjoys what to him is a comfortable luxury of the vapor-bath, which shows clearly the wonder- ful force of habit among mankind. In these bath-houses are constructed benches on which they lie naked and continue in a profuse sweat for the lapse of one, and sometimes two hours, occasionally washing or pouring over their bodies warm or cold watee. During the sweating stage the body is well rubbed or gently whipped with leafy branches of the birch tree to promote perspiration by opening the pores of the skin. A Russian thinks nothing of rushing from the bath room dis- solved in sweat and jumping into the cold and chilling waters of an adjacent river ; or, dur- ing the most piercing cold to which his coun- try is liable in winter, to roll himself in the snow ; and this without the slightest injury. On the contrary lie derives many advantages from these sudden changes and abrupt expo- sures ; because by them he always hardens his constitution to all the seventies of a climate whose colds and snows seems to paralyze the face of nature. Rheumatisms are seldom known in Russia; which is certainly owing to their habit of thus taking the vapor bath. The great and sudden transition from heat to cold seems to us very dangerous and unnatu- ral ; but we have no doubt the Russians owe their longevity their healthy and robust con- stitutions, their exemption from certain mortal diseases~nd their cheerful and vivacious tem- pers, to these baths and their general temper- ate mode of living. Oxidation of the Diamond the LIquid in Way. Professors R. E. and W. B. Rogers, of Vir- ginia, lately published some of the processes pby which the diamond may be converted into carbonic acid with only a moderate heat, by the use of simple chemical agents. The pro- cesses for oxidizing the diamond hitherto prac - tised was by burning this gem, either in the air or in oxygen gas, or in some substance rich in oxygen, as nitrate of potasa. In all these experimenrs a great heat is required. It is therefore interesting to discover that the diamond may be converted into carbonic acid in the liquid way and at a moderate heat by the reaction of a mixture of bichromate of potassa and sulphuric acidin other words, by the oxidating power of chromic acid. To succeed in this experiment, it is necessary to reduce the diamond to the most minute state of division A single grain of the gem will suffice for many experiments. In repeated trials more than half a grain has never been usedand clear evidence of the oxidation has been obtained by the evolution of carbonic acid. The bichromate of potash when heated is always found to afford some carbonic acid, but error is avoided by first heating the acid alone in the retort to above 3500, then adding the bichromate by degrees, and stirring the mixture so as to effect a complete separa. tion of chromic acid A very brisk reaction takes placemuch oxygen is disengaged and. with it any carbonic acid which the materials themselves are capable of evolving. When no niore carbonic acid can be detected by lime water tests, the powdered diamond is careful- ly added. The evolution or carbonic acid, continues the Professors R., is soon evinced by the growing milkiness of lime water, and this continues slowly to increase as long as there is any free chromic acid in the retort. The chief point of interest in the subject how- ever, is the factnow published for the first rimethat the diamond is capable of being oxidated in the liquid way and at a compara- tively moderate temperaturevarying be- tween 250 and 440 degrees. A New Cave Explored. Professor Carroll, with thirteen pupils of Mercer University explored a second main- moth cave in August last which is entered through Raccoon mountain on the dividing line between Tennessee and Georgia ; and which is called the Students Cave. A communica- tion in the Savannah Republican gives these descriptions The peculiar feature in the cave is that it ~59 The floor is in some places even though gen- erally it is covered with masses of fallen rock and disfigured by yawning caverns which it required much care to pass over in safety. The ceiling is in no place smooth, but there hang from it short stalactites, which can be compared to nothing better than a washer- womans smoothing-irons fastened by the handles to the roof and hanging an inch or two apart. Down this entry this party passed for half a mite until they came to where it swells out to large dimensions and descends very abrupt- ly for quite a hundred feet forming a huge and unsightly chamber. Terminating their ex- ploration in this direction here they retraced their steps. About four hundred yards from the entrance however is to be found the most attractive part of the cave through which they passed. Here a noble and lofty dome with all its proportions perfect spanned the entire passage. On the right to our coming from the entrance and immediately under the dome, about ten feet from the floor, there is a deep recess formed by a bold curve of the wall, on each side. The back ground of this recess is filled up by the appearance ofasplen- did Grecian temple wbich would not suffer in comparison with the Parthenon in its best days Aided a little by the excitement of the visiter and by the shadows cast by the lights the facade is perfect. A little back of the regular line of the wall extends a rowofraas- sive fluted columns pediment and all, while in the rear still appears the body of the temple: the do3r in the right place and of the right dimensions and all the proportions perfect. On the left of the passage and under the same dome, ascends a regular winding stair- way about five feet in width. The walls are of stalactite formation in some places as smooth as glass, in others grooved and in others still plastered, and they glittered in the torchlight light like polished diamonds. When they had ascended this stairway some thirty five feet they came to a wall which clesed it up at right angles. In the middle of this wall, and about three feet from the floor, there is an opening about a foot and a half in diameter, through which they crawled. And here they entered into a suite of rooms gorgeous beyond description. The first was a small antecham- ber about twelve feet is diameter ; the walls of stalactite and the floor of stalagmite, and the ceiling so high that with all three of their torches together they could not get a glimpse at it. On the farther side of the chamber near the entrance to the next room were two splendid columns each about two feet and a half in diameter,that on the right side seemed tt be made of large translucent shell, (resem- bling those beautiful shells that ornament the mantles ot the rich) and so high as to be lost in the darkness abovethe one on the left ap- peared as perfect a Corinthian column, gor- geous capital and all, as art could fashion, Passing between these and through an arched doorway they entered into another large room; here was almost every variety of stalagmite formation that can be imagined Statues, py- ramids and shafts studded the floor in splen- did profusion. Gorgeous columns extended up to the ceiling and heavy stalactites ter- minating below in their curled leaves reached down to within three feet of the floor. One of these when struck sounded like the tolling of a large bell, another gave forth the deep tones of the largest pipes of the organ, not faintly but filling withs loud peal the whole compass of the cavern while its rich note swel- led and reverberated in the arches below. The next chamber seemed to be a regular wardrobe with ladies dresses hanging all a- round the walls, every . fold in the garments being as distinctly marked as if they were ve- ritable dresses. In the fourth room on a smooth place on the wall the party wrote their names and the date of their visit with charcoal, which has doubtless long betore this been obliterated. To this suite of rooms they gave the name of Cathedral. A person describing the absurdity of a man dancing the Polka, appropriately said, that it appeared as if the individual had a hole in his pocket, and was vainly endeavoring to shake a shilling down the leg of his trow- sers. ~cic-utif~c 2~merican. Kcw ~nucntion~. A New Telegraph. The Baltimore Clipper says Mr. George Mathiot of this city, has made an improvement on the receiving magnet invented by Professor Morse, by two independent a d distinct en- gines or machines at a distant station, using at the same time but a single wire between the placesa result which has been hitherto been supposed impossible to be obtained except by the use of two wires. One of the applications which Mr. Mathiot has made of his invention is the working of two pens on Morses instru- ment, by which it is enabled to write nearly twice as fast as with one pen and instead of the alphabet used by Professor Morse, a symbolical alphabet is formed, quite as dis- tinct and varied as the common English alpha- bet. From the above description we would be led to infer that two different messages could be sent upon one wire at the same time, which is an imposibility. Two or three pens can be used with Morses telegraph and his alphabet is a good one3et we do not think that his telegraphic invention is the climax, but we would like to know the improvement on the magnet spoken of above, which at once dou- bles the value of Morses invention. improvement in tne Jianufacture of Iron Mr. Loreozo Peibert, of Shenandoah Co. Pennsylvania, has invented a new smelting furnace, which the Winchester Republican says will make malleable iron from the ore and be a saving of ~4O per ton. We are glad to see the attention that is now being paid to improve our iron manufacture. It is time that we were rivalling Europe, if cot in the quantity at least in the quality of our iron. At Harlem in this city, there is an estab- lishment for making steel from iron by a short processmaking first good iron from the ore and then converting it into steel. It is said that steel is made cheaper theie than in En- gland. We hope this is true, and also that it is better, for it is a fact well known to our mechanics, that the English steel which now is imported here, is not so good as the kind that used to be imported a few years ago Mr. S. Broadmeadow is the gentleman who con- ducts, and that in a superior manner, the steel establishment at Harlem and he has lately discovered a superlative method of distilling zinc, which must be of great benefit to our country at large. Improvement In the Deflective Tele- graph. Mr. Holmes, of the Electric Telegraph Co. London, has made an improvement in that kind of Telegraph, which from its extraordi- nary simplicity connected with its results, is really deserving of notice. The improvement consists in the substitu- tion of a single small steel lozenge three quar- ters of an inch long for the two five inch as- tatic magnetic needles heretofore used and then placing the lozenge between two dia- mond coils. This form; says the Civil Engi- neer and Architects Journal, has the advan- tage of giving a signal free from the constant vibration of the needle, which is the great fault of the old needle telegraph, and at the same time the battery is reduced to one tenth the number of plates for a circuit of two hun- dred and fifty miles. Improved Water Faucet. George and William Gee, two very enter- prising young mechanics of this city have re- cently invented a Self stopping Faucet, which from its simplicity and cheapness will doubt- less come into general use. It can also be ap- plied to Hydrants and is so arranged that no water can remain in the discharge pipe there- by preventing alldanger of freezing. Appli- cation has been made for a Patent. THE HYDRAULATOR. This apparatus is for drawing water from upper part of a building. Although it look5 some distance out of a well and bringing it to to be a little complicated in this engraving, the dwellin,,. It is the invention of J. I. & S. yet it is very simple and we believe that after P. Cox, Shippinshurg, Pa., and its extreme reading the following description any one usefulness will warrant it yet a general em- of our readers will be enabled to make one ployment. By it water can be taken by a fe- himself, it can be made very cheap, all the male into a house without coming out of doors, out of the way waterials is three pullies, and and a-i apparatus of the same kind could as the rest is a few pieces of wood and some well be used for conveying water from he wire. Figure 1. placed in any convenientpartof the dwelling. Fig. 1 shows the Hydraulator in operation, and fig. 2 is an enlarged view of the moveable carrier parts. L, fig. 1, is a strong wire or rope, fasteued into a simple upright pulley frame at the one end and to the top of a post at the back of the well at the lower end. This rope or wire is the inclined rail on wh:ch the moveable apparatus travels up and down. K K, are two sprir~ cams, which may be made of wire or wood, to catch into notches J J, see fig. 2, on the top, so as to hold the car- rier at the top and at the end of L. P, fig. 1, is an upright rod, which throws the bucket catch (lot of geer with the bucket when the carrier reaches above tire ~ell, arid the buck- et then drops down and is filled with water. A A, is the frame of the carrier. It is made with two pulleys 0 0, seen by the dotted lines fig. 2. These pulleys run upon L. S, is another pulley for the bucket rope E, B is the bucket over the mouth of which s a slight wicker frame D. C, is a cross rod which moves up and down by the bucket, so as to throw K out of J J, and set the carrier free from the catches. All that is necessary to do this is to turn the pulley above. F, is the bucket catch. It is a prong shaped stick or wire to catch into D, and is fixed on a pi- vot G, on the frame. This holds the bucket in the carrier, and when it is ungeared by P, the bucket is let down into the well and the carrier held fast by K. When the bucket is lifted up to the bottom of the carrier, one turn more on the pulley lifts C C, throws K out of J, F catches, and away the bucket and carrier comes up the rail. The parts in this engra- ving are too large drawn in proportion to the size of the apparatus, which can be made slender and neat. The Hydraulatur has been used with great satisfaction, and it answers a purpose better than the hydraulic ram. Measures have beeii taken to secure a pa- tent. HYDES CURV.ED SPRING TRUCK. This is a new kind of Truck, invented by we may easily learn that while one of the Mr. H. T. 1-lyde, of the city of Tiny, N. bearings might be 8 feet long betote it was Y. It presents some new features in princi- curved, it may be made to be longitudinally ple and construction, well worthy of attention on the truck only 4 feet, thus condensing in a The principle of the invention, is to employ most simple manner the lateral strength of 8 double steel or good iron arch-formed side feet of iron or steel into 4 feet. A square bearings between the central transverse beam inch of malleable iron will bear without per- and the joui-nal boxes, so as to accommodate manent alteration a pressureof 17,800 pounds. the form of the car itselfthe whole body of while the direct cohesion of a bar of tilted itto the turning of narrow curves, steel one inch square is 59 tons, therefore a The above engraving is a side elevation. careful attention should be given to this new A A, are the wheels. B, is the central trans- truck of Mr. Hyde. The springs are broad in verse beam. C C C C, are the spring side comparison to their thickness, so that in the bearings, and E F, are the front transverse lateral straining when turning a curve they beams. may combine great strength with flexibility. It is well known that the form of the arch Measures were taken some time since to combines the greatest strength with the ap- secure a patent. parent slenderness of parts, yet from the above OFFIcE, For the ueek ending Oct. 31, 1848. To John Turner, of St. Albans, Me., for improvement in Shingle Machines. Patented Oct. 31, 1848. To W. W. Riley, of Columbus, Ohio, for improvement in Fastenings for Pantaloon Straps. Patented Oct. 31, 1848. To Isaac W. Ayres, of New York City, for Water Doors for Steam Boilers. Patented Oct. 31, 1848. To Livingston, Roggin & Adams, of Pitts- burg, Pa., for improvement in Insulating sup- ports for Telegraph Wires. Patented Oct. 31, 1848. To James Stevens, of Middletown, Md., for improvement in Cooking Utensils for cook- ing and steaming. Patented Oct. 31, 1848. To James and John Haworth, of Frankford, Pa, for improvement in Looms. Patented Oct 31, 1848. To Thomas Marquis, of New York City, for improvement in Fliers for roving, & c. Pa- tented Oct. 31, 1848. To Nathaniel Oakley, of Babylon, N. Y., for improvements in hanging running stones in Mills. Patented Oct. 31, 1848. To Stephen B. Cram, assignee of John John- son, Boston, Mass., for improved Hand Drill, Patented Oct. 31, 1848. To Timothy D Jackson, of Brooklyn, N, Y. for improvement in Alloys for Sheet Me- tals. Patented Oct. 31, 1848. To Joel Robinson, of Methuen, Mass., for improvement in Shoe Pegging Machines Patented Oct. 31, 1848. To Richard A. Tilghman, of Philadelphia, Pa., for improvement in the manufacture of Alkaline Chromates. Patented Oct. 31, 1848. To William Fink, of Williamsport, Md. for improvement in Saw Mills. Patented Oct. 31, 1848. To David Hinman, of Brunswick, Ohio, for improvement in apparatus for transmit- ting Power. Patented Oct. 31, 1848. To John Mills, of Pitt Township, Pa., for improvement in Wagons. Patented Oct. 31, 1848. INVJs~NTORS CLAIMS. Metalilc Grumanet. F. H. Penfield, Middletown, Conn. Im- proved metallic Grummet. Patented Sept. 19, 1848. Claims the making a Grummet of a me- tallic cylindrical tube or ferule, having a solid disk or rim on one edge aiid a similar shaped solid disk with a ferule made with teeth or points, which two together pass through the cloth and lock in such a manner that the teeth or points may turn over and press upon the cloth to prevent it being strained out and torn or injured by the strain on the sail. Steam Hainnier. Lewis Kirk, Reading, Pa., for Improved Steam Hammer. Patented Sept. 19, 1848. Claims combining a horizontal steam engine with the helve of a hammer, by means of an arm and jointed link, or its equivalent sub- stantially as herein described. Refrigerators. Thomas B. Smith, Philadelphia, Pa., for Improvement in Refrigerators. Patented Sept. 19,1848. Claims the application to refrigera. tors of the door-way and non conducting par- tition, to obtain entrance without affecting the temperature inside, as described, and in com- bination with said refrigerator, the employ- ment of pipes or valves, to admit cool air into the adjacent rooms. Railroad Cars. John F. Randolph, Troy, N. Y. for improve- ment in Railroad Cars. Patented Sept. 26, 1848. Claims supporting the tr~ckon jour- nals made each side of the wheels on the hubs or short axles, when this is combined with the long axle passing through the hula or short axles substantially as herein described and for the purpose specified. 60 LIST OF PATENTS I5SUEn FROM TilE UXITED STATES PATENT The principle of this invention is to send the bucket from the house on an inclined rail made of wire or a stout rope, and to have the bucket drop ilIto the well by a cam, and then the bucket to be drawn up to a catch on the sliding frame and the whole apparatus drawn up to the house again by the bucket cord being wound on a pulley. The laige pulley and han- dle to the right above are fixed on a frame NEW YORK, NOVEMBER 11, 1848. Railroad in Broadway. We perceive that this subject is again brought before the publicand perhaps in a a more tangible form than any heretofore con- templated. It is proposed to lay a double track of cast iron six feet in width, rails and track together, and to run a train up and down every ten minutes. The cars are to be very narrow, and the track is pronilsed not to im- pede the transit of other vehicles. We do not see the necessity of having the whole breadthmade of cast iron Broad rails would answer just as well, and could certainly be laid down at far less expence. It seems to us that there is a necessity for some plan of general conveyances to super- sede the continual increase of omnibusses which have now become almost a city nui- sance. The elevatert Railways of Randall and De Witt are objectionable but only on the ground of unnecessary expeiice and inconveni- ence in comparison with terra firma locomo- tion. What is the use it has been said of building a road above plain level ground as reasonable would it be to build a bridge over a level and a dry plainwhy not build the railway on the ground ? There is some force in these objections to the elevated rail- road, and we cannot perceive any just objec- tions to the laying of two tracks in the centre of Broadway. Carriages and carts would pass up and down on each side of the tracksthose going up on one side, and those coming down on the other. A few years would suffice, in the saving of street repairs alone, to pay for the laying of the tracks. By such a Railroad the public would be bet- ter accommodated and there would not be the jamming and cramming scenes of omnibusses, carts, cabs, and carriages which now so fre- quently happen in the imperial thoroughfare. The great difficulty will he in establishing branches. The cost of building a railway in Broadway would be small indeed in compa- rison with one extending from the Park up Chatham-st. and through the Bowery. The only way to remove this difficulty, would be to have a scale of prices. The main Broadway Road should charge no more than three cents from terminus to terminus, and the branch roads no more either. But we believe it would be about a fair price for the Broadway Line to charge only two cents from Whitehall slip to Canal st. and then the Eastern Lines might charge four cents. We see no great difficulty in the way of es- tablishing various branch lines of city Rail- roads connected with some Omnibus branch lines, that would entirely reform (for the be- nefit of all classes) the whole travelling sys- tem of oor city. it is certainly no great cre- dit to our city to exhibit the dirtiest streets and heaviest taxation of any other city in the Union. lts expenses for last year were ~2,709,452, which allowing our city to con- tain 400,000 inhabitants amounts to the extra- ordinary tax of nearly seven dollars per head for every man, woman, and child in Gotham.. It is no doulst easy to find fault,but a diffe- rent thing to apply a proper remedy, nex-er- theless it would be saying but little for our citys genius or the spirit of modern improve- ment, if we conclude to stkk in the mud or trudge along to the mill with the corn in one end of the bag and a stone at the other on the balance insurance system. But to our talelet us have a Railroad in Broadway. The Pianet Neptune. Two years ago it was announced to the un- lettered world that Le Verrier a French astro- nomer had by the dint of sagacity and calcu- lation alone, discovered a new Planet which was named Neptune. A new planet was dis- covered, but American astronomers declared that it was not that poisted out by Le Verrier. There has been a controversy on this subject among the astronomers of the two worlds, and I vai-ious reports have gone abroad which have shorn the French astronomer of no small amount of his sudden and high honors. But we perceive by a discussion that took place at the Paris Academy of Science on the 14th of Sept., that Le Verrier ably confounded Mr. Babinet, another astronomer, who held views opposite to the discoverer of Neptune. The controversy however, is not likely thus to end, but whatever may be the ultimate re- sult, these gentlemen will find that all the ~olling spheres are but harmonious instru- ments that move to praise the Great Architect. Astronomy is a soul elevating. Science. We learn that an effort is making to erect an ob- servatory at Princeton, N. J. ; this is a com- mendable enterprise, and it ought to shame our citizens to ad opt some measures to erect one here. The city of Cincinnati is far in advance of New York in this respectfor our own credit this should not be Prizes at Fairs.---Sclentifie Americaa. CAMBRIDGE, Ohio, Oct. 31st, 1848. MEssRs. MtTNN & Co.Among the pre- miums awarded by the Guernsey County ./lgricultural Society at itslast Annual Fair, were four copies of your valuable paper, the Seientefic .qmerican. You will address them to W. Maynard, James Davis, John Mehaffy and Cyrus Cook, Cambridge, Guernsey Co. Ohio. Enclosed you have ~8. Please send from the beginning of vol. 4. Yours respectfully, C. J. ALBRIGHT. We publish the above letter for the purpose of making a few remarks on the benefit of awarding such kind of prizes. A gold medal, a silver medal, a cup, a di- ploma, may be all very well as prizes in agri- cultural or mechanical exhibitions, but we confess that in many cases there is no appro- priateness in such awards. It is true that they are lasting testimonials of merit, hut in fitness they are often of no value. A good book, a periodical of practical and sound knowledge, as awarded in the cases mentioned in the above letter, is of far more real value to many than a medal possibly could be. We do not speak against the awards of medals and cups, by no means, but as our people are a reading people we think that our A~nicultural and Mechani- cal Institutions should at least drop the diplo- ma, and award a good book or standard peri- odical. Although the Scientific American costs only two dollars per annum, yet it is im- possible to suppose that among the variety of useful matter contained in our columns, eve- ry person who receives a copy will not find something of such personal interest, as will be of more value ten times than the price of the work itselfand beside it is of equal va- lue, yea more, the older it becomes, and we have no doubt hut the gentlemen to whom the Guernsey County Agricultural Society awarded copies of our paper, will agree with us in all that we have said. 1~1He a Minute Locomotive. In relation to the splendid Locomotive, the Camilla, recently built by Messrs. Hink- ley Drury & others, Boston, Mass.,and which runs 60 miles per hour with ease, we have learned since the notice we published, that the driving wheels are only 6 feet 2 inches in di- ameter. There is only one pair of them. The Camilla is the first of a new pattern for Lu- cotnotives, and it as said will perform still better after having been used br awhile. Weight with water 20 tons. The establish- ment of Messrs. Hinkley, Drury & others is on~ of the largest in the United States, and the work they produce challenges comparison with any in the world. 16 Horse Power Engine aad Boiler. Those of our readers who are in want of a first rate Engine and Boiler of the above pow- er, will do well to read the remarks we made in reference to them under the engraving last week. Barbers Grist Mill. In the article which accompanied the cut of this excellent mill illustrated in eur last number, we forgot to mention that the rxiill& are made also by the Empire Co. of Troy, and that Messrs. Mathews & Felton of that place, are the sole agents for all territory ex- cept the New England States. For the Scientific American. Crepe Shawls. The silks, satins and crapes of China are most beautiful ; but they are too costly, and too much prized in China, to form articles of any considerable trade with other countries. It is curious, that thou~h the silks and satins surpass the looms of Great Britain and France both for beauty of color and durability of tex- ture, yet the silk velvets are tar inferior to those produced in En0land. The Chinese silk velvets, althou,,h possessing much substance, have the peculiamly dead hue of an English cotton velvet, and are totally void of the silky lustre of those manufactured at Genoa and Lyons. The Canton Crape Shawls are very beau- tiful, but the real Chinese are not so plenty in our markets as some suppose. Plenty of shawls sold for real Canton crape, are made in Pus- by, Scotland, and they successfully rival the best productions of the Oniental loom. There are many who may not know how the Canton crape is made, and a shnrt sketch will not be out of place. When the crape shawl comes from the wea- vers loom, it is perfectly smooth and resem- bles gum silk cloth. But the threads of which this cloth is formed are made with one thread harder than the other, and for deeper craping the warp is harder twisted than the weft. The difference of twist in the warp and weft as the crapes are twilled, forms all the crimp- ing of the crape, but not until it undergoes the process of boiling. This is done by boil- ing the shawls in fine white soap for a consi- derable time, which removes the gum from the silk and by the warp swelling more than the weft, the shawls come out of the boiler with that fine crisp so much admired. All this crisp can be taken out again by stretch- ing the shawls on stentershence in the dres- sing operation care must be exercised not to stretch them too much. The embroidery of these shawls is perform- ed after the gum is removed. For this pur- pose the pattern is printed on the shawls with fugitive blue and the flowers are then wrought with the needle. After this the shawls are sent to the dyers to be dyed and dressed. Sometimes they are embroidered before the gum ia boiled oil, but this is not a good meth- od, as silk is deteriorated in lustre by boiling in soap any longer than merely to remove the gum, and to embroider with spun silk on the gummed fabric, would require the embroidery silk to receive too much boiling, and thus dim its lustre. Dr. Ure in his excellent work, says the shawls are dyed in the gummy or raw state. This is a mistakeexcept for a very few colors, it is imposfible to dye gum- med silk, and besides, the natural lustre of the silk is not exhibited till the gum is removed. More than this, suppose the color to be dyed on the silk in the raw state, the boiling to raise the crisp or crape would destroy all the color on the silk. The whole article in Dr. Ures Dictionary relating to the dyeing and dressing of Crape, is entirely erroneous. The use of soap to remove the gum of raw silk cannot be recommended, but it is the best and the cheapest with which we are acquain- ted. Many of our fair ones will no doubt be. surprised to be told, that their crape shawls have been boiled for two or three hours in soap. Many suppose that boiling in soap would utterly destroy any silk fabric. This in a measure is truethe operation is a nice one but there is not a silk d~ess worn in our ci- ty, that has not in the yarn been boiled in soap. The reason why the Chinese finished silks have a finer lustre than the English and French, is owing to the guns being removed by a tedious and expensive process of steep- ing the silks in a cold spirituous liquor. In the raw state, before the gum is removed, the crape is of a dirty yellow color, but the boil- ing in soap removes the yellow gum and the whitish silk appears. But still it is not yet white. It has to be dyed for this purpose. Some may think this strange, but it is a prac- tical fact. It takes red, blue and yellow rays of light to form a white raya tn-unity, like the great Author who created wlsat Milton terms Holy light, Offspring of Heavens first dawn. The dyer to mike his crape shawls white I uses in clean soap for that purpose a little ar 61 chil and floe indigo strained through a cloth. These colors mingling with the yellow of the shawl, forms a white, which is further clear- ed up by the shawls being washed out of the soap in cold water, and afterwards submit- ted to the fumes of sulphur in acbose room. Crape veils are very expensive, and contain- ing as they do, so little silkthis seems un- reasonablebut the fine crape manufacture is in the hands of a few foreign houses, and the art of dressing the crape is both a tedious and a troublesome process. In the last volume of the Scientific Ameri- can, a patent process for dressing fine crape shawls was described. It was to use a small quantity of dissolved gum copal and borax along with liquid glue to stiffen the crape. This composition, if rightly made and appli- ed, we have reason to know, is good, and is worthy the attention of those in this and other cities of our country whose business is to re- dress damaged crape. Americaa Steamers for Liverpool. There are building in this city at present five steamers of great size to ply between this port and Liverpool. They will all be about as large as the Great Britain and will measure about 3000 tons. It is calculated that two will be ready to commence their trips about the beginning of next summer. The engine for one of the ships no~v building, is to be made at the Novelty Works, and those for the others at the Allaire Works, and will each cost about $250,000. The cylinders will be 9~ inches diameter and have a stroke of 9 feet. The cost of these steamships Will exceed $500,000 each. Five steamers of similar dimensions to the above will ultimately complete the line, one being a reserve boat. The keels of the third and fourth will be laid upon the launching of the two now on the stocks. The whole line will belong to E. K. Col- lins, Esq. and they are to carry the U. S. Mail. The Old Cunard Liae of Steamers. It is reported that negotiations are pending for. the sale of the four old steamships of the Cunard line to the Austrian Government, and that if the sale be effected these noble ships, which a few years ago opened so important an era in the navigation of the Atlantic and have been so eminently successful in the trans- mission of the mails as well as thousiiads of passengers and millions of money between the two continents will be delivered, so soon as four new steamships can be built their places. to supply Machinery for Mexico. The entire machinery for two extensive paper mills, one to be located at the city of Mexico and the other at Gaudalaxara, is about to be shipped from Norwich, Ct. A lot of cotton machinery intended for the Gaudalax- ara Spinning and Weaving Company is to be sent at the sanie time. Back Volumes of Scientific American. We are constantly receiving orders for the First and Secomid volumes of the Scientific American, and as we have no complete sets of either on hand we feel it our duty to make a statement to the public, informing them what orders we can fill, and what we cannot, thereby saving them the trouble of ordering what we cannot furnish. Of the first volume we cannot furnish even a single number. Of the second Vol. we can furnish all the numbers except 1, 10, 16, and 17 neatly bound for $2,00 or the volume in sheets minus those 4 Nos. for $l,fiO. Vol. 3 we are yet able to furnish complete, either in sheets or boundPrice $2,75 bound or $2 in sheetsaccompanied with an index. THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, Persons wishing to subscribe for this paper have only to enclose the amount in a letter di rected (post paid) to MUNN & COMPANY, Publishers of the Scientific American, Ne~ York City TERMs.$2 a year; ONE DOLLAR IN ADVANCEthe remainder in 6 aenths Postmasters are respectfally requested to receive subscriptions for this Paper, to whom a discount of 25 per cent will be alloeved. Any person sending us 4 suhicribers kor 8 months, shall receive a copy of the paper for the same length of time. ~cientit~c ~merirnn. Planing Machines. (Continued from our last.) To make, in any piece, a cut of a given depth, which shall not go through, and which I call a score, you have only to adjust to the depth required, the height to which the saw, through its slit, projects above the bench; which is done by making either the bench or the spindle so as to raiae or lower at pleasure. If, after having given any such cut, which does not go throu0h the piece, you turn the piece, so as to give it another cut, meeting and making an angle with the former cut, you may thus cut out a portion of the piece alto- gether, leaving in it the sort of channel which is called a rabbet: by cutting out, on different sides, two such rabhets, you may leave be- tween them a projecting part, such as is cal- led a tongue; and a tenon is, at the end of a piece, the same thing as a tongue on the side. To cut a parallel sliding groove or chan- nel, you have only to make the circular saw, or (to use the name I call the tool by, wher- ever its effect depends upon a degree ot thick- aess greater than necessary to give it strength) the circular cutter, of the thickness requisite to form the breadth of the groove ; the depth being determined, as before, by the height of so much of the cutter as projects above the bench. If the groove is to be dovetailed, the cutter must be conical at its circumference, that is, the cutter, instead of being square at its edge, must bevel according to the angle of the dovetail; and the bench, or the spindle, must be inclined; or the piece so supported, as that its under surface shall be parallel to the outer edge or circumference of the cutter. If the piece he now advanced against the cut- ter, one side of the dovetail groove will be formed; to form the other, the piece must be reversed, end for end, and shoved along as be- fore. Another mode of cutting out dovetail gooves may be made by a mandril, turning in a collar, and at the end of it furnished with a conical cutter, the diameter of which, at the farthest end, shall be equal to the breadth of the dovetail, and the sides bevelling according to the angle of the dovetail; suppose the mm- dril to be placed perpendicularly for example, in which case the cutter itselt will be hori- zontal, with its base parallel to the bench; let that end of the mandril at which the cutter is to be uppermost~ the mandril being let through, and the cutter projecting above the bench, and raised to such a height above it as the depth of, the dovetail channel to be made requires the piece now lying flat on the bench, advance it against the cutter, and a dovetail channel will be cut at one operation. It is evident that in this way, whatever be the breadth and length of the groove or channel to he cut in a piece, so much of the stuff by the removal of which the channel is formed is consumed; and the broader the channel, the breater the resistence the cutter meets with, and the greater the force which is re- quired to make it act. To save as much as may he of thisforce, will be an objectin every case; and so it will be to the stuff, where it is of a dear sort, and the breadth of the requi- red channel considerable. To effect both these savings, instead of a thick conical cutter, put on the same mandril a thin saw, forming the base only of the cone. To this thin saw there must of course be a mandril for it to turn upon; which mandril must have Eome means of making its way through the piece, along with the saw itself, which is mounted on it. This passage may be made by either of two expedients: one is, to give to so much of the length of the mandril as enters the wood, a power of making its way through, for instance, l~y fluting or forming it into sharp leaves, and thus caking it into a cutter in that part; the other expedient is, by a previous operation to form, for the reception of the mandril a pre- paratory groove or channel, the greater the saving will be in point of stuff, and in point of force; on the other hand, the narrower it is, the weaker the mandril and the greater the danger of its not being strong and stiff enough to support the saw which turns on it. To obviate this danger, the mandril may be sup- ported by a bar of metal, which by a perfora- tion, transverse in respect to the length of the bar, enclo~s the mandril up to the very saw, and thus forms a continuation of the collar: this bar may be of any length provided only that its thickness and direction admit of its being received into the preparatory groove, as the piece is advanced against the saw. The bottom of the groove or channel thus being cut, the saw-kerf forming the sides of it may now be made according to the angle required, and two bars or slips will have been cut out entire, one on each side of the preparatory groove; or these two side cuts might have been made at the same time with the middle or preparatory one. A saw or cutter working in this manner, at the end of a mandril, with- in the substance of a piece, may be called a root-cutter: by a root-cutter of this sort, a T shaped channel, used in some cases, particu- larily in metal, instead of the dovettiil groove, may in this manner be formed at once. Cutting of mouldingsIf the circumference of a circular cutter be formed to the shape of any moulding and projecting above the bench no more than necessary, the piece, by being shoved over the cutter will thus be cut to a moulding corresponding to that of the cut- ter ; that is, the reverse of it, just as a plane iron cuts its reverse; accordingly, teeth of such cutters may be considered as so many plane irons. If a plane cutter, such as that above spoken of for cutting a groove in the breadth of a piece, be made so thick, or, as we might be apt now to say, so broad, or so long, as to cover the whole breadth of the piece, it will present the idea of a roller; I accordingly call it, in this case, a cutting rol- ler: it may be employed, and in many cases with great advantage, to perform the office of a plane. The recollection of what has been said of the manner of producing a waving, or winding surface, by a rectilineal reciprocating saw, may be sufficient to suggest the means by which similar effects may be produced, in much greater variety, by a rotary cutter, broad or narrow, plain or formed to a moulding. I shall speak only of the cutting-roller; it will he easy to apply the observations to the other cases. If a roller of this sort be placed with jt~ axis horizo~ital, aud the bench underneath itbe made to rise and lower, the bench may be very readily adjusted, so as to determine the thickness to which a piece may be redu- ced by being passed under the roller. It is to be observed, that where the track of the piece is under the roller, the influence of the rotation, on the advancement of the piece, is the reverse of what it is where the track of the piece is above the roller: therefore if you choose that the advancement of the piece should instead of being performed in a direction the same with that of the rotation, be performed in the opposite direction, the direction of the rotation must be reversed. Whether the axis be horizontal,perpendicular or oblique, the piece, by being passed against it, so as to perceive its figure, may be made to receive not only a flat and even surface, hut any longitudinal curvature or waving, by a compound motion; the bench, during the ad- vancement of the piece, approaching and re- ceding from the cutter ; and, by giving at the same time a tilt to the bench, or to the roller, any degree of winding may be given to the surface of the piece. To gain time, cutters may be applied to different sides of a piece at Once; ano such of them as make parallel cuts, may be mounted on the same spindle; if the cuts meet, a piece of given depth may be slit by cutters of but half the diameter that would otherwise be necessary. (To be continued.) Mines of Cinnabar in Upper California. Rev. C. S. Lyman communicated to the last number of Sillimans Journal a letter dated Paeblo de San Jose, in March last, wherein an account is given of a Cinnabar Mine, situ- ated a few miles from the coast, about midway between San Francisco and Monterey, and in one of the ridges of Sierra Azul Mountain~ The mouth of the mine is a few yards down from the summit of the highest hill that has yet been found to contain quicksiUer, and is 1,200 feet above the neighbouring plain, and not much more above the ocean. This mine, known to the aborigines from time immemorial as a cave of red earth, from which they obtained paint for their bodies, was first discovered to contain quick- silver about four years since, during experi- ments made by some Mexicans to smelt the ore for the purpose of obtaining gold, which they Dragons Blood. supposed it to contain. [Several attempts This is a resinous juice obtained by mci- since, to work the mine, have proved futile, sion from several different plants found be- until recently.] Mr. Forbes, of the firm of tween the tropics. It is obtained, in com- Barron, Forbes & Co, having the present merce, in three principal partsin that of charge of the entire operations, wished to dii- oval masses, of the size of a pigeon egg, en- vise some way of extracting the metal without veloped with leaves of the pandanus; in cy- mixing lime with the ore in the roasting, but linders covered with palm leaves; and in ir- was unsuccessful. At length a kiln of lime, regular masses, marked with impressions of which occurs in the immediate vicinity, was leaves: that in oval masses is the most esteem- burned, and mingled with this, the ores yield ed. It is often very much adulterated, aiA a vastly larger per centage of metal. In other substances are substituted; particularly the last three weeks (says Mr. L.) about 10,- Arabic and gum Senegal, colored with log. 000 pounds of metal have been extracted with wood, & c. Several of these substances may the same apparatus, being a yield of over fifty be detected by their dissolving in water, per cent. Between 15,000 and 20,000 pounds while dragons blood is nearly insoluble have been extracted in about two months, others require to be submitted to seine chum- only six miners have been employed in dig- ical tests. Madagascar furnishes this resin of ging the ore, and the hands of the establish- a good quality, but so much fixed with foreign mint all told, miners, furnace-men, wood, substances as te be little used. Dragons blood choppers, & c. & c. numbering only a score, is opaque, of a deep nedish-brown color, brit- The mine is probably yielding a net profit of tle, and has a smooth and shining conchoidal $100,000 a year, even with its present crude fracture ; when in thin laminue, it is some- apparatus. With suitable furnaces and iron times transparent; when burnt, it gives out cylinders or retorts, the mine would easily an odor somewhat analogous to benzion ; its yield $1,000,000 and upward. The other taste is a little astringent; it is soluble in alco- mines opened in the vicinity have not yet hol, and the solution will permanently stain been sufficiently developed to decide upon heated marble, for which purpose it is often their character, used, as well as for staining leather and wood. SCIENTIFIC MEMORANDA, It is slso soluble in oil, and enters into the FiRE APPARATUS, composition of a very brilliant varnish, which A Mr. Phillips, lately exhibited in London is much esteemed by artists. Its quality may in the Yaisxhall Gas Companys grounds a be proved by making marks on paper: the best gaseous vapor to annihilate fire. A model leaves a fine red ttace, and commands a pretty house and a reservoir of tar were ignited and high price. It was formerly in high repute soon extinguished. A n~w fire escape was as a medicine, but at the present time is very also exhibited whereby a fireman ascended a little used. ladder standing away from a wall, secured the TO CORRESPONDENTS hook of the hose to the topmost rouiid, and C. C. of Conn.you have not stated the then directed a stream of water in any dinec- question correctly, water will not move tion freely in a canal without a fall or incline APPARATUS TO MANUFACTURE GAS FROM this should be knownbut allowing water to WATEN. run 160 feet and calculating the perpendieu. At a recent lecture before the London Po. lam fall 1 foot, it would take 80 seconds, but lytechtiic Institution, a small gas apparatus if the perpendicular fall was 16 feet, it would was exhibited (a patented machine by a Mr. only take 10 seconds. You must take the S. White,) for making gas from water and tar square roots from 16 to Iand use 16 as a or rosin. The invention is considered to be a centrethus, if a body fills through a space valuable one. The apparatus consists of three of 16 feet in one second, how long will it retorts placed in a stove two of which are ff1- take to fall one foot, allowing the velocities led with charcoal and thin pieces of iron, and to decrease with the squares of the distance, the other with iron chains hanging from a then divide 160 by the same time of root 1. centre bar. The first two retorts are for the W. M. of N. Y.You would perceive decomposition of water which is regularly that we meiitioned the crucibles of Mr. J. supplied by means 01 a syphon-pipe passing Dixon, Jersey City. You can get them by wri- through and into the centre of the retort; the ting to the manufacturer. water, in passing through the heated material J. W. of Ky.We have received yours becomes converted to pure hydrogen and per- and will give it attention. oxide of carbon. It then passes into the third M. W. P. of N. Y.We know of no hec- retort to receive its dose of bi-carbunet of hy- tune or course of lectures that was delivered drogen which is prepared from common tar, before the N. Y. Mechanics Institute last win- or melted rosin or similar substances passing ter and since published. The lectures deli- ordropping on the red hot chain from a syph- vered last season were not published. on tube which regulates its supply. This A. B. of Ohio.Isinglass is made only causes the tar, or melted rosin to throw off an from fish. We will in a few weeks endeavour abundance of bi-carburet of hydrogen gas. to give you the information. The gases being mixed in this manner are E. H. Z. of Pa.We shall endeavour to immediately conveyed into the gasometer for publish in the course of a few weeks some arti- use without any purifying vessels whatever, cliii containing our views upon the subject none being required, you mention. It was stated to the Institute, that gas could R. L. T.We shall send the iiiformation be made much cheaper by this apparatus than you desire in a few days. We are trying to by the common plans, and we may yet live to find out the best, $5, all right. see Sir Humphrey Davys prophecy fulfilled, H. H. T. of Mass.The Picket machine that at some future time gas would be ge- is sold. We could not give yoia the name of nerated from water for general purposes, sur- the correspondent to whom you refer passing coal gas in brilliancy and purity. E. G. of Ala.We intend publishing be- NEW ELECTRIC LIGHT. for long a series of articles of the construc. The Electric Light of Mr. Staite, which has ion of machinery for grinding grain, & c. already been noticed in the Scientific Amen- which will embrace the information you dii- can, is beginning to come into use in England. sire. Our foreign exchanges say that a common P. 5. H. of N. C.We should have an- apparatus will only cost about $100, and it swened your letter before this but have bees will illuminate the largest and smallest buil- unable to give you as exact an answer as we dings at one-twelfth the price of gas. desire. You will have a letter from us soon. This we think must be a favorable calciila- D. W. of La.We procured a copy of tion. We should like to see this apparatus Daviss Munual for you in Boston and sent it brought over and tested here. If it is no to your address by mail list Saturday. cheaper than English gas, it would be a great B. & R. of Mass.Your letter containing benefit to our citizens The project, howev- dollars came safely to hand. We will at. er, may be like many others which have come tend to your request in two weeks. and gone. Experience is the only true judge D. Wright, Hull Prairie, Perrysburg, of value and usefulness. Ohio.Your Scientific American has been An elder chap,~ says the New Orleans Pi- sent regularly to Perrysbung. They must be cayune, speaking of his great knowledge of inthe P. 0. Tell the Postmaster to look them the Western country, the other day, said be up7 back numbers. Glad to hear of your had known the Mississippi river ever since welfare. it was a small creek. D. R. Jr.We will do what we can for you though during these hard times you must not expect much. Your inventions seem to be useful, and would be profitable to any one who would engage in their manufacture. J F. H. of Ct.We do not remember what eirg hatching machine you refer to. There were several here awhile ago, but none now. There is rio question as to the practi- cability of hatching eggs by heat. It was ve- ry extensively practised by the Egyptians 3000 years ago. We believe the machines you re- fer to were warranted, but it took some time for a person to become accustomed to them besides much attention. We like the old plan of brick ovens best, as the bricks retain heat a long time. At Hoboken, near New York, there is a chicken establishment where chicks are hatched by steam at the rate of 300 per day. H. W. C. of Mass.The price you ask is more than we should wish to give for the invention unless the payments could be arranged to suit ourselves. Would you as- sign one half the whole right for the conside- ration of having the patent taken out and the prospect of their general iiitroduction. M. P. of Mass We have an excellent two horse engine and boiler all complete for running, price-$210. The amount must be paid down, however. We do not know of any which could be obtained on the terms you mention. A. P. F. of N. Y.Do not think we have forgotten you. Your cuts shall appear very soonperhaps next week. J. G. J. of Me.We dont know the size wanted. Please send us prices for different sizes as soon as possible. To Patent Correspondents. 0. K. of MassYour model will answer as well soldered as if fastened with rods. They will give you a Patent for only what is new, but this does not prevent you using old parts with it. Send the model by Express. A. H. of N. J.When you were in New York a while since to affirm to the Patent pa- pers we made out for you, you will remember you left rough diagrams of three inventions with us. We have since examined them. We like the Blower better than either of the others, though the valve is good. You would not gain much with the engine either in sim- plicity or cheapness. We should advise you to Patent the Blower. M. C. of Pa.You have no idea how many inventions are lost or rendered valueless by the wrong preparation of the Patent papers. The mere insertion of a single word in the wrong place is sufficient to ruin or so injure an invention as to destruy its worth. Notwith- standing the great number of Patents which we are constantly securing, and with all the experience we have had for years among in- ventions and machinery, we still make it a point never to hurry or slight the p atent pa- pers of an invention, no matter how simple ivery invention secured by our establishment receives the most deliberate examination. and not until we are thoiou0hly satisfied that all is right do we allow it to go. The result is that inventors have no further trouble and they sell their rights without difficulty. L. M. F. of N. Y. Your contrivance for fastening doors is most useful and convenient. It is better than any thing invented for the same purpose as it occupies less room, is sim- ple and costs but a trifle. We are sorry to say, however, that you cannot Patent it, as a simi- lar thumb screw has long been known. We think a great many could be sold; we have no doubt that we could ourselves dispose of a large quantity. Suppose you make up a gross and try them. They will answer for use about dwellings as for travellers. If our go- vernment granted a Patent for an old inven- tion it was through ignorance of its previous discovery. J. C. of Pa.A patent was granted to the person yoi.s name in 1841. We can send you a copy of his claims for $4. We cams ob- tain for you a copy of his Patent from the Patent Office for about $12, perhaps a little less. This would include copies of the draw- ings accompanying it. We did not find any description of your invention. You stated in the letter that it was enclosed, but we did not receive it. B. B. Y., G. & W. G., C. E. G. and A. N. M.Your specifications, drawings and models were all sent to the Patent Office last Monday. S. G. W of N. Y.Both of your speci- fications and drawings were finished last Sa~ turday and on Monday were sent to your ad- dress by Wells & Co.s Express. Please make oath to the documents and after signing them as prescribed in the directions sent you; re- turn them to this office as soon as possible. G. W. H. of N Y.Your letter and drawing were duly received. We can do no- thing until you send the model. Send $30, the U. S. fee, at the same time. B. A. of R. I.You may expect your papers next week. Machine for Mortising Hubs. We have enquiries from a Southern gentle- man in regard to a machine for the above purpose. Any one having such machines for sale are requested to send us their prices. Letters should be Post Paid. Engravings on our Front Page. The angle of the wheels in figure 1, shows the manner in which the wheels can be moved, but whde the car is moving on a curve, the front and hind wheels describe (a known ma- ~hematical theorum) different angles. This we mention to prevent mistaking the idea of its operation. ~jq THIS paper circulates in every State in the Union, and is seen principally by meonanics and manufacturers. Hence it may be considered the best medium of advertising, for those who import or man- ufacture machinery, mechanics tools, or such wares and materials as are generally used by those classes. The few advertisements in this paper are regarded with much more attention than those in closely printed dailies. Advertisements are inserted in this paper at the following rates: One square, ol eight lines one insertion, two do. three do., one month; three do., six do., twelve do., TERMS :CASH IN ADVANCE. $ 0 60 76 1 00 1 26 3 76 760 1600 GENERAL AGENTS FOE THE SUSENTIFIc AMEKICAN. New york City, - G~o. ~ Boston, - . . Messrs. HeTCHK2SS & Ce. Philadelphia, - - STOKES & BROTHER. LOCAL AGENTS. Albany, - - . - PETER COOK. Andover, Itass. . . L.A. RUSSELL. Baltimore, Md., - . - S. S~sns. Bermuda Islands - WASHINGTON & fte. Bridgeport, Ct. . . SANFORO & CORNWALL Cabotville, Mass., E. F. BROWN. Concord, N. H. RUFUS MERRELL. Cincinnati, 0. - STRATTOR & BARNARD. Dover. N. H. - - D. L. NORRIS. Fall River, Mass. . POPE & CHACE ttartford, Ct., - - - E. H. Boweas. Houston. Texas, . J. W. COPES & Co Halifax, Nova Scotia, H. G. FULLER. Jamestown, N. Y. - E. BISHOP. Lynn, Mass, - - J. E. F. MARSH. Middletown, Ct., - WM. WoonwARo Norwich, Ct., - . . S~s~oso & FAKES. New haven, Ct., . . H. DOWNES. Newburg, N. Y. . S. A. WHITE. Newark, N. J., - - J. L AGENS. Newark, N. J - - Robert Kashaw. New Orleans. La. . J. C. MOROAR. Paterson, N. J. . . A. H. DOUGLASS. Providence, R. I., - . H. & J. S. ROWE. Rochester, N. Y. . B. M. DEWEY. Springfield, Mass., -- Was B. BROCKET. M.BESOr, Salem, Mass., - . . L. CHANDLER. Saco, Me., . . . . ISAAC CROOKER. Savannah, Geo - JOHN CARUTHERS. Syracuse, N. Y. - . W. L. PALMER. Taunton, Mass., W. P. SEATER. Utica, N. Y. . . G. H. BEESELEY. Vickoburg, Miss. J. B. MAYES. Williamsburgh, - - J. C. GANDER. Webster, Mass. - . J. M. SHOSIWAy. CITY CARRIERS. CLARK SELLECK, SqUIRE SELLESIE. Persons residing in the city or Brooklyn, can have the paper left at their residences regularly bysend ing their address to the office, 128 Fulton st., 2d door Seventy five per cent Discount. F OR SALE at thu office a large lot of wood engra- vings, representing all kindi of Machinery and many New inventions. The cuts are in perfect or- der having only been used on the Scientific Amen. can for one edition each, and will be sold at less than one-fourth the original cost. To a country paper nothing would so greatly en- hance its value and increase. ito circulation as occa- sionally publishing a description with an engraving of some new and useful invention. Publishers can remit any amount of money they choose and select from inch engravings as we have published in the Scientific American from time to time stating the No. of the paper in which they ap- peared and their orders shall be Kapplied on terms as reasonable as though they were at the office to, select and bargain for themselves. Address nil MUNN & CO.. at this Office. ~J Ewill act as Agents for oIl that may wish to in- TV troduce improvements into this State, and all letters post paid enclosing one dollar will receive prompt attention. GEORGE JOHNSON & CO. Reference :Gov. Drew; Ex-Goy. Adamsboth of Little Rock, Arkansas. Little Rock, Arkansas, Oct. 17, 1848. nil 3t~ The Best Patent Agency In the Vnlted States. 7.I~ HE subscribe rs would respectfully give notice .L that they still continue to attend to Patent Office business as usual. The long experience they have bad in securing patents, together with their unri- valled facilities, enables shem to say that THE BEST PATENT AGENCY, in the United States, IS AT THE OFFICE OF THE SCIENTIFIC AMERI- CAN, New York. It is not necessary, as commonly supposed, for an iiaventor to make ajourlsey to Wash- ington in person, ira order to secure a Patent, as he caiinot in any manner haoten the Patent or make his invention more secure. Any business connected with the Patent Office may be done by letter, through the Sc, ETIFIC AMERICAN OFFICE, with the same facility and certainty as though the inventor came in person. From a want of knowledge on this point, applicants for patents are often obliged no submit to great vexation, with loss ot rissocla money and time. They also frequently fall into the hands of designing persons, and lose thoir inventions as well as money. Those who wish to take out Pat- ents or enter Caveats, should by all means have the business transacted through the SCIENTIFIC ArIERI- CAN OFFICE, as they may then RELY upon its being done in a straight forward and prompt manner, on the very lowest terms. All letters must be PosT PAIn and directed to tsIUNN & CO., Publishers of the Scientific American, sO 128 Fulton street. New York. Portable Saw Mill, ~OR SALE CHEAP.A first rate up and down ~ saw, for boards, planks and heavy work, already fitted up with frame, table, fly wheel, & c. Length of saw 4 feet 6 inches. Price for the svholo $60. Curve Saw. Also for sale, a first rate up and down saw for saw- ing out curves. It is in complete order, already set in frame, with table, fly wheel, band pulley, & c. Length of saw 2 ft. 6 in. Price for the whole $25. They can be sent with perfect safety to any part of the country. Any one wanting either or both the above has only to enclose the amount named and the saws shall at once be forwarded MUNN & CO. Scientific American Office, 54 New York. Johnsons Improved Shingle Machine. THE Subscriber having received Letteass Patent for an improvement in the Shingle Machine, is now readyto furnish them at short notic e, and he would request all those who want a goo t machine for sawing shingles, to call on him and xamine the improvements he has made, as one eight 0 more shin- gles can be sawed in the same givei time than by any other machine now in use. Manufactured at Augusta, Me. and AlbanyN. Y. J. G. JOHNSON. Augusta, Maine, Oct. 25, 1848. o28 ly The largest, best and eheapest Dietionary In the ldnglish longuage, is confessedly WEBSTERS, the entire work, unabridged, in 1 vol. Crown Quar- ts, 1452 pp. with portrait of the author, revised by Professor Goodrich, of Yale College. Price, $6. The most COMPLETE, ACCURATE, and RELIAsLE Dictionary of the Language, is the recent testimo- ny given to this work by many Presidents of Col- leges, and otoer distinguished literary men through- out the country. Containing three times the amount of matter of soy other English Dictionary compiled in this coun- try, or any Abridgment of this work, yet Its definitions are models of condensation and pu- rity. The most complete work of the kind that any nation can boast ofHON. Was. B. CALHOUN. We rejoice that it bids fair to become the stan- dard Dictionary to be used by the numerous mil- lions of people who are to inhabit the United States. Signed by 104 members of Congress. Published by G. & C MERRIAM, Springfield, Mass., and for sale by all booksellers. s21 2m To Mill Owners. AVILAND & TUTTLES Patent Centre Vent H Pressure XV ater WheelThese wheels are now in successful operation in many towns in Maine, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island, and are found to surpass in power and facility of adaptation any wa- ter wheel now in use. This wh el was awarded tho silver medal at the Fair of the American Institute recently held in New York and a diploma Et the Mechanics Fair in Boston. The wheels are manufactured and for sale by the FULTON IRON FOUNDRY CO., Sossth Boston Masswhere the wheels can be sean and an infor matson concerning them had. y Patent Rights for different States, Counties, & c. for sale as above. 014 tIm5 WATERPROOF FELT FOR ROOFS. THE patent Asphalte ROOFING FELT hasbeen exten- sively used in England for many years, and is an artscle that for strength, durability, and FITNESS for all kinIs of buildingsdw oIling houses, sheds, barns Consorvatories & c. cannot fail to recommend itself. Cheaper than ohinglesLIGHTEss than slate, SUPE- RIOR to zinc for FLAT ROOFS (as it is not affected by heat or frost) it makes a neat and elegant roof whe- ther covered by FAINT, or Tar-composition and sand. 11 yards wide Cover- 10 feet squareit comes in rolls 12 inches wide, and a perooss of ordinary inge- nuity can complete a large roof in a few hours. Samples and information respecting it will be for- warded on application (post paid) to SAMUEL RITCHIE & Co., Agents, n4 4t East Bostqn, Mass. LAWS STAVE DRESSING AND JOINT- ING MACHINE. THIS Machine is now in operation at Mr. William Burdons, 102 Front ot., Brooklyn, every work- ing day, between 9 and 12 A. M. It dresses and joints properly, and with facility, the rived, or other stave, of ALL shapes and dimen- sions, without assorting and without waste of stock. lt needs only to be seen fo be approved. n4 8w0 THE WEST STREETFOUNDRY corner of XVeot furnish at the shortest notice, Steam Engines and Boilers in all their varieties, and on the most reasonable terms, together with castings of brass or iron, and machi- nery in general. Orders attended to with dispatch, ans particular attention given to repairing. JOSEPH H. COFFEE, AGENT. Steam Boats, Engines, Machinery, Ito. bought and sold on Oommiseionapply as above. s23 Imo 63 GENERAL PATENT AGENCY. REMOVED. THE SUBSCRIBER has removed his Patent Agent cy from 189 Water to 41 Fulton street The object of this Agency is to enable Inventors to realize something for their inventions, either by the sale of Patent Goods or Patent Rights. Charges moderate, and no charge willbe maste on tilthe inventor realizes something from his invention. Letters Patent will be secured upon moderate terms. Applications can be made to the undersign ed, personally or by letter postpaid. uS SAMUEL C. HILLS, Patent Agent Johnson & Robbins, Cons~siting Engineers and Cousaseliors for Patentees. Office or. F street, opposite Patent Office, Washing - ton,D.C. jl7tf Saws. EAVITT & MDANIEL, Concord, N. H., make of ---a the best cast steel the following Saws Circular, Mill, Tennon, Cross-cut, Fellow and Ve- neering Saws. Also, Turning and Billet Webs, snd Butchers Bow Saws. No saws ever made equalto. their cast steel Mill Saws. The trade supplied on liberal terms. s2I 2m0 U& IVERsAi~ CHUCKS FOR TURNiNG LATHES For sale by the Massu- facturers Agents, QUINCY & DEALA PIERRE, 51 John street New York. s2 1m5 PREMIUM SLIDE LATHE. P ~i HE subscriber is constantly building hisimprov. ed Lathes of all sizes, from 7 to 30 oct long, and can execute orders at short notice. JAMsS T. PERKINS, Hudson Machine Shop and Iron Works, mll Hudson, N. V.. Machinery. pER~ONSresiding in any part of the United States w o are in want of Machines Engines, Lathes, OR ANY DESCRIPTION OF MACHINERY, can have their orders promptly executed by addressing the Pub lishers of this paper. From an extensive acquain- tance among the principal machinists and a long se perience in mechanical matters they have uncom- mon facilities for the selection of the best msschiaery and will faithfsslly attend to any business entrusted totheircare MUNN & CO. alS fjrjThe above so prepared to execute all ordersat the shortest notice asd on the most reasonable terms. TALBOTS PATENT BLIND HINGE. THE undersigned having become interested i manufacture and sale of the above article, would state that their facilities are such, that they can supply any demand at short notice. This hinge, haviIsg stood the test of two years trial, has fully established itself as a useful and important in- vention, being all that can be desired for blind trimmings, as the blind is managed entirely from the inside of the house without raising the sash, COMPLETELY locks it, and prevents all unpleasant noise of the blind by wind. American Window Trimming Company, Taunton, Mass. Address GEO. GODFREY, Agent A. W. T. Co. 521 Im PECKS PATENT VISE WiTH FOOT LEVER. HIS Vise is worked entirely by the foot and is admitted by all who have used them to be the beet and, strength, saving of time and convessience considered, the cheapest Vise in use. For sale by QUINCY & DELAPIERE, 71 John st. New York; Ges. H. Gray & Co. Boston Curtis & Hand, Phila- delphia ; Way & Brothers, Ilariford ; and by the proprietor, J. S. GRIFFING, o7 2m New Haven, Ct. Those Hats NOX of 128 Fulton street, is on hand with his -s-- Autumn style of Hats, and as usual furnishes a little prettier shape, made of a little better material and for a much less price than many of his broad- way friends who boast of the suporiority of their productions. The public wont swallow that gammon, gentle- men. and you had better put your prices down to Knoxs standard price, before he detracts ALL those regular customers from Broadway into Fulton at. 07 Lap welded WroughtIron Tubes FOR TUBULAh BOILERS, From 1 1-4 to 6 inches diameter, and any length, not exceeding 17 feet. VP HESE Tubes are of the same quality and manual .Lfacture as those exteuasively used in England, Scotland, France and Germany, for Locomotive, Ma vine and other Steam Engine Boilers. THOMAS PROSSER, Patentee, d26 28 Plati street, New York POWER TO LET RARE CHANCE. ~fl HREE rooms, 40 feet square, one room SO by 40 ---feet, 2nd door, power from engine, 25 in. cylin- der, 4 1-2 feet stroke. Let together or in parts. Ap- ply at West street Foundry, corner of Beach and West streets. s25 Im Agricultural Implements. fjt5~lnventors and Msnufacturers of superior Ag ricultural Implements may find customers for their goods by applying at the Agricultural Warehouse of S. C. HILLS It CO. 41 Fulton St. nS STEAM BOILER. BENTLEYIS Patent Tubular and other Boilers of any size, shape or power, made to order, by SAMUEL C. HILLS & CO. uS 411 Fulton it. ~cicntifw 2mctif an. ~ci~ntific l2tmerican. For the Scientific American. New Chemical Law. No. 8. It is evident to any one, that if we attempt to classify the elements, by the extension of this law, we must proceed in the same man- ner that we would to obtain the substances composing an aggregated series in any of the actual examples which we have previously given, admitting that we did not know their composition by analysis, that is, we must ar- range into separate classes all substances pos- sessing similar chemical properties, whether they be compounds or not, and then examine the classes, and we will fir1d that they are ei- ther aggregated series or their compounds with other substances. In the examples previous- ly given, it may be seen that we have pro- ceeded from the composition of a substance to its chemical properties. Now in order to show the, composition of the elements we must proceed exactly the reverse from this, that is, from the properties of substances to their composition. The first thing therefore in order to find the composition of the ele- ments, is to arrange them into classes by the similarity of their chemical properties, and then to take the classes thus arranged and as- certain if their compounds witli other sub- stances also possess similar chemical proper- ties. If they do, then the class is complete; but if they do not, then these substances which form the dissimilar compounds must be rejected. After the classes are arranged by this method, we must arrange them in the order of their atomic weights. Tneir speci- fic gravities, boiling points and all the numer- ous other conditions required by the law, should then appear in order. In casting a glance over the list of elemen- tary substances, there are perhaps none whose similarity of chemical properties are more ap- parent than chlorine, bromine and iodine, which is a fact that no chemist whatever will dispute. In fact there are no substances be- longing to the list of elements which possess a closer similarity than these. They must therefore according to the conditions of the law, belong to an aggregated series. Upon examining their oxygen acids, however, ano- ther substance will be found belonging to the same series, which is nitrogen ; this must evidently belong to the same aggregated se- ries, as every chemist is well aware of the close similarity of chemical properties be- tween the nitric, chloric, bromic and iodic acids. Oxygen in its manner of combination, closely resembles chlorine, bromine and iodine but upon the examination of their similar compounds the similarity is not perfect; but it strongly resembles their hydrogen acids in its combinations. By this method of proceeding we obtain for an aggregated series, the follow- ing substances, viz, nitrogen, chlorine, bro- mine and iodine. If we arrange them there- fore in the order of their atomic weights we shall obtain the order of the series. The fol- lowing example shows them arranged after this order, and also gives their specific gra- vities, & c. showing that they actually con- form to the condition of an aggregated series. At. wt. Sp. G. B. Pt. Sp. G. Vap. Nitrogen 14.12 .976 gas. Chlorine 35.42 1.33 2 470 gas. Bromine 78.40 2.97 1160 5.393 fluid. Iodine 126.60 4.94 3470 8.707 solid. What a perfect example of an aggregated series is the one above given! agreeing in every particular with the numerous conditions required by the law. The specific gravities, boiling points, and the specific gravities of their vapors are in a regular increase. By calculation it may be seen that the specific gravities of their vapors are directly propor- tional to their atomic weights. They also in- crease in density, the first two being gases the third a fluid, and the fourth a solid, which is according to the requirements of the law; and all this complete classification derived merely by the similarity of their chemical properties. We know, therefore, that they must all be derived from the aggregation of one radical. By comparing the atomic weights with each other, a simple ratio is found to ex- ist between them ; thus the ratio between nitrogen and chlorine is, as 2 is to S ; between nitrogen and bromine as 2 to 11; and between nitrogen and iodine as 1 to 9 ; by taking there- fore the atomic weight of the radical 7.00, we will have the following close agreement be- tween the atomic weights of these substances, the one column calculated by this law, and the others by actual experiment. By Experiment. By Calculation. Kane. Turner. Nitrogen 7X2 = 14.00 14.00 14.15 Chlorine 7X5 35 00 3~.47 35.42 Bromine 7X11= 77.00 78.39 78.40 Iodine 7X18=126.00 126.60 126 30 Thus by proceeding with the elements in exactly an opposite method to the manner of illustrating a series of known composition, we arrive at these results. Thus in organic chemistry we form a series by their analyti- cal composition and which consists of sub- stances possessing properties ; but with the elements we infer their composition by a knowledge of the chemical properties which an aggregated series should possess. S. N. Bridgeport, Conn. Art of Lackering. We have seen many receipts for making lackers but the two following are the cheapest and answer all the purposes necessary for brass goods; particularly as they can be used when necessary along with any of the co- louring liquids, directions for making which we shall also give. We shall first give a re- ceipt for making. COMMON LAcKER FOR BRASs. And in order to prepare this properly, it is necessary to select the best seed lac which can be procured, which must be washed in water and then dried and beat in a mortar to a coarse powder. Dissolve six ounces of this pow- der in two English pints of spirit of wine. They must he both put into a tin or glass bot- tle, which will hold nearly double the quan- tity meant to be prepared. Shake the bottle well, and then place it in a warm situation, near a fire or stove, which will hasten the solution. Shake the mixture occasionly, say every three or four hours, for the first and second day ; allow it to stand still for twenty- four hours more, when the insoluble portion of the lac will have fallen to the bottom, then gently pour off the pure part into a clean bot- tle, and it is fit for use. This lacker will an- swer for all kinds of common brass work, tin plate, block tin, & c. It has a redish yellow colour, which may be heightened at pleasure by laying on two or more coatings. Its colour may likewise be easily varied by the use of the colouring solution to be afterwards des- cribed. When this lacker is used as a varnish to bronzed work It gives it a brownish colour- ed ground. The only other lacker we mean to describe, is a FINE PALE LAcKER, which is prepared with shell lac, instead of seed lac, and with highly rectified spirit of wine. The most transparent part of the shell lac must be selected, and it must be washed in clean water. It is then allowed to dry, and afterwards pounded into a coarse powder. Of which let ten ounces be taken and mixed with two English pints of highly concentrated spirit of wine or alcohol. The mixture is put into a glass bottle, capable of holding as in the former case. about twice the quantity wished to be made. The bottle must then be stop- ped up, and placed in a warm situation, and shaken, ~s in the former instance. When the solution is completed the clear part is to be gently poured off, and the remainder filtered through a sheet of strong blotting paper. This must then be added to the portion first pour. ed off, and the residium which remains in the paper is then tobe thrown away. Both lackers must be preserved in a close bottle; and if properly made, and kept from the air, ~ither of them will keep for years, and still be as good as ever. The last descri- bed lacker, when used without colouring, is scarcely seen upon varnish or dipped brass, but it will preserve it for many years, and prevent it tarnishing. History of the Rotary Engine. Prepared expressly for fire Scientific Ame- rican. FIG. 15. CARTWRiGHTs ENGINE. This is a most ingenious engine invented by the Rev. E. Cartwright, in 1797. His object was to nrocure a tight piston and a condenser in which the steam was exposed to a large surface of water. The condensation is effected by two metal cylinders, placed one within the other, and having cold water flowing through the inner one, and enclosing the other one, and thus the steam is exposed to the greatest possible sur- face in a thin sheet. Mr. Cartwright likewise has a valve in the piston, by which a constant communication is kept up between the cylin- der and condenser, on either side of the pis- ton, so that the condensation is always taking place, whether in the ascending or descending stroke. By this contrivance, steam that may escape past the piston will be immediately condensed, and the vacuum thereby preserved. This was considered to be a decided advantage over the general mode of arran,ing the valves, which does not always provide for the resto- ration of a vacuum destroyed by the imper- fection of the packing. The piston B moving in the cylinder A, has its rod prolonged downwards; another piston D is attached to it, moving in the cylin- der B, and which may be also considered as a prolongation of the steam cylinder. The steam cylinder is attached by the pipe G to the condenser by coming in contact with the cold side of the condensing vessel. The water of condensation falls into the pipe E. To the bottom of the cylinder I,a pipe M is car- ried into a box N having a tloat-bail 0, which opens and shuts the valve P, communicating with the atmosphere a pipe Q is also fitted to the box. There is a valve placed at I, open- ning into the cylinder C ; another at N, also opening, upwards. The pipe S conveys steam from the boiler into the cylinder, which may be shut by the fall clack R. K is a valve made in the piston B. In the figure the piston B is shewn as de- scending by the elasticity of the steam flow- ing from the boiler through S the piston D being attached to the same rod is also descen- ding. When the piston B reaches the bottom of the cylinder A; the tail or spindle of the valve K being pressed upwards, opens the valve, and forms a communication between the upper side of the piston and the conden- ser ; at the same moment the valve R is pres- sed into its seat by the descent of the cross arm on the piston, which prevents the further admission of steam from the boiler; this al- lows the piston to be draWn up to the top of the cylinder, by the momentum of the fly- wheel Z, in the non-resisting medium. The piston D is also drawn up to the top of C, and the valve I is raised by the condensed water and the air which have accumulated in E, and in the condenser G. At the moment when the piston has reached the top of the cylinder, the valve K is pressed into its place by the pin or tail striking the cylinder or co- ver ; and at the same time the piston B strik- ing the tail of the valve R, opens it; a com- munication is again established between the boiler and the piston, and it is forced to the bottom as before. By the descent of the pis- ton D the water and air which were under it in the cylinder C,being prevented from retur- ning into the condensed cylinder by the valve under I, are driven up by the pipe M, in the box N, and are conveyed into the boiler again through the pipe Q. The air rises above the water in A; and, when by its accumula- tion its pressure is increased, it presses the float 0 downwards ; this opens the valve P, and allows it to escape into the atmosphere. This machine exhibits much ingenuity and it gave considerable satisfaction when it was tried at Horsleydown, England, but the mode of condensation is not half so good as in the common way of bringing the steam in direct contact with cold water. Gold in Canada. Professor B. Silliman, Jr. has published a brief account of his examinations of masses of gold found in the Valley of the Chaudiere, Canada. The lumps are worn smooth, as is usual in alluvial gold, but fragments of quart. zisse gangue could still be detected in some of them. They were firmly imbedded in what appeared to be slate, but which is probably a concrete of detritus cemented by oxide of iron. Chromic iron, titaniferous iron, serpentine, spinel, rutile, and talcose rocks remind us very strongly of the mineralogical characters of the Russian gold regions, and their occur- rence with the gold in Canada certainly af- fords favorable grounds for the hope that this may become a rich auriferous region. A few tons of gravel has been washed in a rude way with the Berks rocker, which have yielded about $4 of gold to the ton of gravel. Cholera. For the cholera and cramp in the stomach, take a piece of saleratus about the size of a large hazelnut, moisten it a little with water, pour upon it a wine glass full of the best vin- egar, and drink it while in a state of efferves- cence. This simple draught it is said cured many violent-cases of cholera during its last visit to this country, and recommends itself as being within the reach of all. Mechanical Paper IN THE WORLD! FOURTH YEAR OF THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN! 416 Pages of most valuable information, illastrate with upwards of 500 l~1ECRAN1CAL ENGRAVINGS: l~~yThe Scientific American differs entirely from the magazines and papers which flood ins country as it is a Weekly Journal of Art, Science and Me. clianics, having for its object the advancement of the INTERESTS OF MECHANICS, MANUFAC- TURERS and INVENTORS Each number is il- lustrated with from five to TEN original ENGRA. VINGS OF NEW MECHANICAL INVENTIONS, nearly all of the best inventions which are patented at Washington being illu,trated in the Scientific American. It also contains a Weekly List of Amer- ican Patents; noticea of the progress of all Mechan- ical and Scientific Improvements; practical direc tiona on the construction, management and use ot all kinds of MACHINERY, TOOLS, & C.; Essays upon Mechanics, Chemistry and Architecture; ac- counts of Foreign Inventions; advice to Inventors Rail Road lntelligence,together with a vast amount of other interesting, valuable and useful information. The SCIENTIFIC AMERiCAN is the most popular journal of the kind ever published, and of more im- portance to the interests of MECHANICS and IN- VENTORS than lay thing they could possibly ob- tain To Farmers it is also particularly useful, as it will apprise them of all Agricultural Improve. monte, instruct them in various mechanical trades, & c. & c. It is printed with clear type on beautiful paper, and being adapted to binding, the subscriber is possessed, at the end of the year, of a large vol- ume of 416 pages. illustrated with upwards of 100 mechanical engravings. TERMS Single subscription, $2 a year in ad- vance; $1 for six month,. Those who wish to sub- scribe have only to enclose the amount in a letter, directed to MUNN & CO. Publishers of the Scientific American, 128 Fulton street, New York. All Lettters must be Post Paid. iNDUCEMENTS FOR CLUBBING. 8 copies for 6 month.~ $4 00 a 12 $soo 10 6 $780 10 12 $1800 20 6 $1800 20 12 $a000 Southern and Western Money taken at par for sub. scriptions. Post Office Stamps taken at their full value. A SPLENDID PRESENT! To any person who will send us Three Subacri. bers, we will present a copy of the PATENT LAWS Os- THE UNTRo STATES, together with all the infotma. tion relative to PATENT OFFICE BUSiNEsS, including full directions for taking out Patents, method of ma- king the Specifications, Claims, Drawings, Models, buying, selling, and transfering Patent Rights, & c. This is a present of GREAT VALUE, yet may be obtain- ed for nothing, by the reader of this prospectus, iC his will take the trouble to get Three Subscribers to the Scientific American. It will be an easy matter to obtain two names besides his own. MUNN & CO., Scientific Amerisasa Office, N. Y 64

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Scientific American. / Volume 4, Issue 9 65-72

Zdeutifk 2tnur iran. THE ADVOCATE OF INDUSTRY, AND JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC, MECHANICAL AND OTHER IMPROVEMENT$. bol. 2i. Ncu~ pork, Noucxnbtt b9, 1~iS. NO, ~1. THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN: CiRCULATION 11,500. PUBLISHED WEEKLY. At 128 Fulton Street, New York (Sun Building,) and 13 Court Street, Boston, Mass. By Mumi & Company. The Principal Office being at New York. TERMS$~ a yearP In advance, and the remainder In 6 months. fJc~See advertisement on last page. ii3oett~i. TIlE TRUE ORNASIENT. I ask not for the glittering wreath, Of Indias sparkling diamonds rare, To deck my brow; while oft beneath, There throbs a heart with heaviest care. I ask not for the gilded chain, Of perishing and worthless gold, To clasp my neck, while oft in vain The hearts best sympathies unfold. Oh! give me not the worthless dust, For which vain, anxious mortals toil, To treasure up where moth and rust, Doth soon corrupt the hoarded pile. I covet not the gay attire, In which vain beauty oft appears, Oft that which wondering crowds admire, Needeth far more their heartfelt tear.. But theres an ornament I crave ; To grant, vain world, it is not thine, It floateth not oer yon proud wave. Nor yields it me earths richest mine, Oh, may it be a guileless heart! In heavens own sight of priceless worth! Where nought corrupting ere hath part, Pure, as the source which gave it birth. A spirit meek and pure within; May this, alone, my life adorn, Unsullied by the touch of sin, Though subject to the proud worlds scorn. WALKING BEAM ENGINE. companied by a strong and substantial boiler capable of sustaining a very heavy pressure. There are many uses to which such an en- gine and boiler could be applied with great advantage. For grinding coffee, spices, paint, for driving lathes in a turning shop, for mor- tice and tenoning machines in a carpenters, cabinet makers or wheel wrights shop, for blower in a foundry, for the bellows in a black. smiths shop, for driving light saws, for cutting wood for Locomotives and other purposes, in short for almost any business where a small mechahical power is desired they will be found exceedingly useful. The boiler will also answer as a stove for heating a shop, while it is equally as safe, the smoke pipe be- ing turned into the chimney. Both engine and boiler are very coifipact, can be easily The above is a representation of a beautifu1 little one horse power steam engine which we have for sale, and the novelty of its construc- tion, together with a desire to bring it to the notice of any one who may be in want of a cheap, substantial and convenient power for machinery, has induced us to illustrate it with an engravihg. In No. 7 of this yol. of the Sci- entific American we published an engravtng of a Horizontal Engine. The one we now preselit is what is called a Walking Beam En- gine, and is a perfect miniature of the large engines now used in all the Hudson River steamboats. A, is the frame, which is very neat; B, are the walking beam standards ; C, is the wtdk- ing beam ; D, is the cylinder ; E, the steajis chest; F, the pump ; G, the piston working in guides ; H, the connecting crank rod; I, is moved, and require no brickwork whatever. a band wheel on the main shaft outside of the We will ship them with the pipes and every fly wheel. thing complete for running, for the low sum of The engine is complete in every respect, 175. The purchaser on receiving them will with fly wheel, band wheel, force pump pipe, oniy have to screw on two pipes and they will & c. ; it is now in excellent running order, be ready for use. They can be sent with per. works beautifully ar.d is so easily managed that fect safety to any part of the United States. any one however unaccustomed to steam pow. Letters may be directed to Munn & Co., Sci- er, can use it with the utmost ease It is ac- entific American Office, New York. bacco to be cut has to be pressed down to a very solid bed., two cross bars extend under the nuts of the screw bolts across the box D, on the top of the cover E, and there are not- ches in the sides of the box to allow these bars to descend with the cover on the top of the tobacco as it is screwed down. H, is a cog wheel on the screw L. The screw passes through it and as there is a thread in the inte- rior of the wheel, the screw will be moved forward or backward by the motion of the wheel. On the end of the screw in the box. there is a square block pressing behind the tobacco to move it gradually toward the knife. This is the office of the screw. There- fore as the knife cuts up the tobacco under E, at the right end of the box, the screw push- es up the compressed tobacco to present al- ternately a new layer of tobacco to the knife at every revolution of the revolving cotter wheels B B. N, is a fly wheel on the cutter shaft, and the pulley on the left of the cutter is for a band to drive the shaft. The cog wheel F, at the left end of the box, is driven by a ~vorm wheel J, (scarcely seen) under the bottom of the box. K, is a set of pulleys on the shaft of J, to drive the said shaft, so that the screw may receive a forward or backward motion by the changing of the band. The handle on the end of the screw is merely to show the manner in which it may be turned. The machine is to be seen at the store of the Company mentioned above, and those who are in need of Ach a machine will find this oneto be both cheap andgood. RAIL ROAD NEWS. New York and Erie Railroad. The New York and Erie Railroad Compa- ny are said to have completed an arrangemesit for uniting their road, by way of Elmira and Seneca Lake, with the Central line of Rail- ways between Albany and Buffalo. The Erie Railroad route will have the advantage of be- ing eight hours shorter in time than the Alba- ny route Old Colony Railroad. The~second track on the Old Colony Rail- road to South Braintree, Mass. is nearly in- ished. It will add to the facilities of the Fall This ornament, 0 God of Love! River line, which is already doing a large Tis Thine, and Thine alone, to give; share of New York business. On t1his line a Oh, may I its rich beauties prove, custom prevails which recommends itself to And in its full possession, live __________ ____ ladies travelling alone. The same conductor SIMPLE APSINITY. goes through from city to city. Some Water and Oil Worcester and Nashua Railroad. One day had a boil, The Worcester and Nashua railroad has As down in a glass they were dropping, been completed to the crossing of the Fitch- And would not unite burgh road, 27 miles from Worcester; thus But continued to fight, TOBACCO CUTTING MACHINE. bringing New York in direct connection with Without any prospect of stopping. M a large area of country which has formerly only been in railroad connection with Boston, Some Pearlash oerheard and the trade of which has been monopolized And quick as a word, by that city. New York will now share that He jumped in the midst of the clashing. trade, and the extension of this road to Nashua When all three agreed in December next will still farther increase the And united with speed, area of country brought into connection with And SOAP was created for washing. this city. Passengers from all the country BRiGHTER DAYS. North, West or East of Nashua can then visit Let us hope for brighter days! New York without passing through Boston. We have struggled long together, _______ Raliroad Extravagance. Hoping that the summer rays The London Times remarks, that a hun- Might succeed the winter weather; dred million pounds sterling have been lost in England in the building of Railroads. Hoping till the summer came, That to us seemed winter still, There has of course, been a serious check to Summer, winter, all the same that enterprise in that country. And proba- To our hearts so cold and chill. I bly the interests of this country would not sufler, if this branch of our enterprize were Let us hope for brighter days conducted with a little more moderation. Surely they must come at last This is a superior constructed Tobacco Cnt- and there can be no question of its qoalities. ting Machine, the invention of A. P. Finch, A, is the frame. B B, are twol wheels on There is said to be a sweet potato in ~t. As we see the solar rays, Re When the storm has hurried past. d Falls, Greene Co. N. Y., and is now for which is fixed the cutting knife C, across the Louis four feet four inches long. That beats sale at Soydam, Reed & Co.s, No. 108 West end of the box D. E, is the lid of the box, New Jersey. We should like to see that About 8,000 sheep have been slaughtered street, this city. Its workmanship is of a ye- under which is pressed down the tobacco to sweet this fall at Cincinnati, for their tallow. fry superior kind, strong, correct and simple, be cut, by four screws F F F F. As the to- ing. potato very much. Seeing is believ ~cientiftc 2~metican. No. 6. PREMIUMS AWARDED. SILVER MEDALS. Utica Globe Mills, Utica, N. Y. Lawrence, Trimble & Co. Agents, 35 Broad-st. for 2d best Black Broadcloth from American wool. Seneca Woolen Mills, Seneca Falls, N. Y. Fisher, Howe & Hamilton. 21 Broad.st for 2d best Black Cassimeres made from American wool. Platner & Smith, Lee,Mass. Lord & Snel. ling, Agents, 12 Exchange-place, for 2d best Fancy Cassimeres. Gilbert & Stevens, Ware, Mass. Thomas & Dale, Agents, 53 Exchange-place, for White Flannels. Conestoga Steam Mills, Lancaster, Pa. Lord Warren & Salter, agents, 41 Broad.st, for the best Brown Sheetings. Portsmouth Manufacturing Co. Portsmouth, N. H. Stone, Swan & Co. Agents, 48 Exchange place, for Prided Lawns New-York Mills, Whitestown, N. Y. Fish. er, Howe & Hamilton, agents, 21 Broad st for Cottonades. W. H. Plommer, Paterson, N. J. for Black and White Prints. B. Marshall, Troy, N.Y. for Superior Ging- hams. Lancaster Quilt Co. Lancaster, Mass., for Lancaster Quilts. W. B. Leonard, New-Windsor, N. Y. for Satinet Warp. 0 H. H. Stevens & Co. Webster, Mass, for Linen Diaper and Crash. Miss Mary Train, New-Lebanon, N. Y. for Home-made Diaper. Phoinix Mills, Paterson, N. J. for best Hemp Duck. Rockport Steam Mills, Rockport, Mass., for best Cotton Duck. G. W. Billings, N. Y. for the best Hemp. James Maull, Philadelphia, for Patent Seam Canvas for Sails. John Frees, Marbletown, N. Y. for Ladies Sole Leather. E. Thorne, 18 Ferry-st for Hemlock-tanned Sole Leather. George Kellogg, Winsted, Ct. best Ameri- can Sheep and Lamb Skins. Luman Foote, Canaan, Ct., for the best Ba- sils and Skivers. David Hubble, Glastenbery, Ct. for Hog Skins. American Hemp and Flax Co for superior Flax. H. P. Graves, 156 W. Seventeenth-st. for Goat and Kid Morocco. Schoonover & Klein, Mystic, Ct. for Fin- ished Calf-skins. J. H. Grovesteen, 117 Grand-st, for 2d best Piano-Fortes. J. W. S. Smith, 146 Wooster-st. for best Silver Plating. John Locke, 47 Ann-st, for best Chamber Bath. Stillwell & Montrofs, 112 Fulton, for best clothing. J. D. Cromwell, 247 Grand-st for best Boys and Childrens Clothing. Benedict & Burnham, Waterbury, Conn. for Gilt Buttons. T. Oliver, 157 Broadway, for a Tailors Philosophical Transfer. Eoff& Phyfe, S Dey.st. for a Silver Pitcher. S. W. Shaw, Ga. best Oil Painting (Portrait from life of Gen. Taylor.) J. A. McDougall, 251 Broadway, for best Miniatures. J, Whitfield, 3lljBroadway, for best Cameo Cutting. H. W. Herbert, Newark, N. J., for Pen and Ink Sketches. S. Ellis, Broadway, for best Medallion Like- nesses. C. C. Wright, 80 Nassau-st., for a medal of the Art Union. Speed of the Locomotive. Depression of Manufactures. Twenty three years ago the utility and use- There are at the present time, says the fulnes~ of this invention were doubted by the Pawtucket, (R. I.) Gazette, more spindles most practical and scientific men of the age. stopped, and more operatives out of employ- In 1814 the speed of George Stephensons ment, in our town, than we have known at Kilinsworth Engine was 4 miles per hour. In 1825, only twenty-three years ago, Mr. Wood in his treatise on the railway system takes the standard speed at six miles per drawing on a level a load of 40 tons. Within the last seven years the directors of the London and Birmingham Railroad in Eng- land, considered that the speed of twenty miles an hour was enough, and if they had been free from competition they no doubt would have adhered to that rate, from a con- scientious conviction that a higher speed was incompatible with economy and safety. The vigor of the broad guage advocates, and the necessity of proving the capabilities of that system, have led to pushing the narrow guage lineswhich have been forced to follow. Thus, the enterprise of directors and the ingenuity of engineers have been kept on a stretch to carry on the rivalry. The result has been that it has trebled the power of locomotives, and the speed of sixty miles per hour is common. In 1829 the high- est speed attained was 29 miles per hour working speed 10. In 1848 the highest speed attained is 75 milesworking speed 55. How striking the contrast. In 1829 the maximum load of the Locomotive Engine was nine tons in 1848, less than 20 years, it is 1200 ; the highest speed then 15 miles, now 75, and in one instance 84 miles per hour. American Lard. The quantity of lard made in this country, makes one feel greasy just to think of it. In no part of the world is this business reduced to such perfection as at Cincinnati. As a sample of its magnitude, we would state that one house last year tried out thirty thousand hogs. To carry on this immense business, it has seven large circular tanks of sufficient capa- city to hold fifteen thousand gallons eacb. These receive the entire carcase, with the ex- ception of the hams, and the mass is subjec- ted to steam process under a pressure of seven- ty pounds to the square inch, the effect of which operation is to reduce the whole to one consistence, and every bone to powder. The fat is drawn off by cocks, and the residum, a mere earthy substance, as far as made use of, is taken away for manure. Besides the. hogs which reach this factory in entire carcasses, the great mass of heads, ribs, back bones, tail pieces, feet, and other trimmings of the hogs, cut up at different pork houses, are subjected to the same process, in. order to extract every particle of grease. This concern alone will turn out this season three million six thousand pounds of lard, five-sixths of which is No. 1. Nothing can surpass the purity and beauty of this lard, which as reflued as well as made under steam processes. Six hundred hogs per day pass through these tanks one day with an- other. Subterranean Lake Recovered. On the Michigan Railway it became neces- sary to carry a grading or embankment of fif- teen feet high across a low piece of ground, containing about 100 acres, nearly dry enough for plowland. When they had progressed with the grading for some distance, it became too heavy for the soil to support, the crust of the earth broke in, and the embankment sunk down into seventy nine feet of water It ap- pears that the piece of ground had been a lake, but had collected a soil of roots, peat, muck, & c., on its surface, apparently from ten to fifteen feet thick, which had become har- dened and dry enough for farm purposes. Mr. Brooks thought it would have supported the road, and the fact might never have been disco- vered that it had rested on the bosom of a lake. Cunard Steamers. The new steamer Canada is advertised to leave Liverpool for New York, November 25th In the winter arrangement of the line we perceive the old vesselsthe Caledonia, Acadia, Britania and Hibernia, are withdrawn. In December the semi-monthly arrangement commences with the departure of the Niagara for Boston on the 3d December, after which day a vessel will sail from Liverpool every second Saturday, alternately for New York and Boston. any time since 1829. Our manufacturers have been disposed to keep their wheels moving as long as they could without heavy losses to themselves. As to profit, one of our citizens said to us a few days sinceThe only ac- count I have been able to keep without any degree of certainty, for some time past, is on the loss side of the book. The mills which have been stopped, are in most cases owned by men perfectly solvent, and who are now able to discharge any liabilities resting upon them, but who were perhaps doubtful as to their continuing able, if they continued to manufacture goods and sell them at ruinious prices, or lock them up in a store-house. What the final result of this stagaation will be we are not able to predict. When we take into consideration that the British Factories, have been almost on hale time during the past year, and a number of our own factories not working full time, we may conclude that there are at present enough of factories to make enough of clothing in one year, to supply the world for two, for at pre- sent the markets are still glutted. The Great Sea Serpent. When the D~edelus frigate, Capt. MQu~, arrived at Portsmouth, England, was on hei passage home between the Cape of Good Hope ai,d St. Helena, her Captain and most of her officers and crew, at 3 oclock one afternoon, saw a seaserpent. The creature was twen- ty minutes in sight of the frigate, and passed under her quarter. Its head appeared to be about four feet out of water, and there was about 60 feet of its body in a straight line on the surface. It is calculated that there must have been under water a length of 30 or 40 feet more. The diameter of the exposed part of the body was about 16 inches, and when it extended its jaws, which were full of large jagged teeth, they seemed sufficiently capacious to admit of a tall man standing up- right between them. Singutar ?renk of the Ocean. Letters from Bonavista, (Newfoundland,) state that on the 24th Sept. the water in the harbor suddenly ebbed 10 or 12 feet, leaving the fishing boats high and dry in some places. In about ten minutes it ran in again, and rose much above the ordinary level. This pheno- menon was repeated at short intervals nearly all the afternoon. It was also ebserved, in a less degree, at Halifax and other eastern ports. This sudden rising and falling of the ocean has sometimes taken place during the occur- rence of disastrous earthquakes in distant coun- tries, as in the great convulsion which destroy- ed Lisbon, in 1755. ln the present instansce, however, we have no intelligence of any such occurrence to account for the phenomenon. Rich Mine. We learn says the Corpus Christi Star, from one of the traders who recently arrived from beyond Laredo, that a mining company with a capital of $400,000, were making ar- rangements to work the mines between that place and Monclova, and that some of the machinery had already arrived. The mine is said to be a very rich one, and has not been worked since the expulsion of the Spaniards. ~-we presume owing to the proximity of the Indian ranges. For years many of the poorer people have washed out the metal in small parc.els, and more than $100,000 thus pro- cured has been brought to Corpus Christi, in exchange for goods. Now that the Indians will be kept in check by our soldiers, the company can pursue its labors uninterrupted. Compliment to an American Artist. Mr. John Banvai-d, with his panorama of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, arrived at Liverpool in the steamship Europa on the 7th ultimo. We have seen a letter dated Liverpool, Oct. 12th, which says that the custom house authorities remitted the duties (C48) on his panoramacharging merely a nominal sum, one penny per roll. This act of the authorities was regarded in Liverpool as a high compliment to the artist and to the country which has produced the largest pic- ture in the world. Pictormni Directory of New York. published by Jones and Newman, Lithogra- phers No. 128 Fulton st. N. Y. The object of No. 2 ef this unique work has just been this work is to exhibit in a continued se- ries of colored engravings, all the dwellings~. stores and public buildings fronting on the principal streets beginning with Broadway. On every page, there is a view of the build- ings on both sides of the street, with the names & c. of the Hotels and stores. Price 25 cents. Pictorial National Library. We take pleasure in again calling the atten- tion of our readers to this valuable Periodical. The November number is before us and ful- ly sustains the reputation which the former numbers have given the workPublished monthly at $2 per annum, by Simmons & Co. No. 12 School st Boston. Boston Museum. We never like to notice one paper at ano- thers expense, but we must admit that the Boston Museum does excel all other lite- rary papers with which we are acquainted It. is printed weekly on beautiful fine paper and in a suitable form for biiiding. One years num- bers will make a book of 416 pages and will contain as choice matter as ca~ be found in any of our leading Magaxines of the day. Putnam & Mellen Publishers, Boston, Mass. The Scientific American. This excellent publication is Progressing well into its Fourth Volume. As a weekly chroni- cler of the latest inventions of Genius and the triumphs of mechanic skill, the American is widely known, and is as extensively patron- ized as its merits well deserve. We hope its high character and ifs large and hearty support will he fully and undiminishedly continued. (Published in this city at 128 Ful- ton-st.)JVew York Tribune .Mov. 11, 1848. Size of New York in 1698. Some idea may be formed of the Empire City a century and a half ago from the fol- lowing extract from the ordinances of the city fathers published In Common Councle Nov. 23d. 1698. On the 20th of November the Board Re- solved. That four sober honest men, be ap- pointed to keep a watch in this city every night until the 2Sf h of March next, and that they hourly go through the several wards of the city during the said time to prevent irreg- ularities. Husk Beds. An exchange says the husking season is the time to secure the best and most durable sort of under-beds. All the inner husks of the ccrn should be saved for this purpose. True it takes a great many to make a bed, but when once the sack is filled it is a bed for life~ and is the lightest and softest thing ofthe kind that any one could desire. The husks curl up as they dry, and never mat down afterwards. Moreover, no insects ever lodge in them, as vermin do in straw. They are perfectly clean and being of strong and tough texture, they will not wear out for years. Enormous Chain. Probably the largest chain ever sent out of Storbridge, England, was manufactured by Messrs. Bailey, chain manufacturers, from whose warehouse it was removed on Tuesday week, to the wharf, consigned to a firm in Liverpool. It was a link chain, and inten- ded for the use of an incline its length was 2400 yards, or rather more than one and one-third of a mile, and ins weight about 14 tons. It was removed to the wharf in a wag- on drawn by eight horses. A Distinction. In a cigar shop in Parliament street, Lon- don, the following notice is posted Credit given to gentlemen, but cash expected from members of Parliament. The coal mines in Illinois, opposite St. Louis have been purchased for $20,000, by a company of miners, who can hardly fail to make a large fortune out of the specula- tion. The Mary Somerville arrived in the Thames from Calcutta, has brought 800 sacks of East Indian flour, rather a novel importation from that part of the world. 66 The Fair of the American Institute, ~cicxttiftc 2~4metican. An OJd Patent and an (lid Inventor. The inventor who has received a patent subscribed with the handwriting of Washing- ton, must feel proud indeed in the posses- sion of such an instrument. Such a man is John J. Staples of the city of New York, who is the oldest living inventor holding a patent in the United States, and perhaps the oldest living patentee in the world. We publish the following patent from respect to the me- Inory of the departed great, and the worth and genius of the honored living. Many of our readers will esteem this a great curiosity and valuable relic, and will desire to know samething of the inventor hiroselt, whose in- ventions are associated with the name of the Father of his Country Mr. Staples is now about 80 years ot age and his head is whiten- ed with the snows of many winters. His eye is still bright and his mental faculties clear. His step to be sure is less firm than of yore but his body is still erect and stately. Mr. Staples is an inventor who has had the honor of securing a patent from every President of the United States, except the lamented Harri- son. He has a patent which we have seen, given under the handwriting of President Thomas Jefferson, for a Tidal Wheel to pro- pel machinery, and the first invented in the United States. This patent is for a Locomotive, but not a steam one, and in comparison with the mode in which specifications have now to be made out, it presents a very great contrast. THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. To all to whom these Letters Patent shall come Whereas John J. Staples, Junior, a citizen of the State of New York, in the United States, has alleged that he has invented a new and useful improvement in the construc- tion of a Carriage to be propelled by the me- chanical Powers, which improvement has not been known or used before his applica- tion; has made oath that he does verily be- lieve that he is the true inventor and discov- erer of the said improvement; has paid into the Treasury of the United States the sum of thirty dollars, delivered a receipt for the same and presented a petition to the Secretary of State, signifying a desire of obtaining an ex- clusive property in the said improvement, and praying that a patent may be granted for that purpose: These are therefore to grant, accor- ding to law, to the said John J. Staples, Ju- nior, his heirs, administrators or assi~ns, for the term of fourteen years, from the twenty second day of the present month of A pril, ex- cluive right and liberty of making, construc- ting, using, and vending to others to be used the said improvement, a description whereof is given in the words of the said John J. Sta- ples, Junior himself, in the schedule hereun- to annexed, and is made a part of these pre- sents. IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF, I have caused ~ these Letters to be made Patent, and L.S. the Seal of the United States to be ~~ hereunto affixed. Given under my hand, at the City of Phila- delphia, this twenty-fifth day of April, in the Year of our Lord, one thousand seven hun- dred and ninety four, and of the Independence of the United States of America the eighteenth Go. WASHINGTON. By the President, EOM. RANDOLPH. Cita, of Philadelphia, ~ro WIT: I DO HEREBY CERTIFY: That the foregoing Letters Patent, were delivered to me on the 25th day of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and ninety four, to be examined; that I have examined the same and find them conformable to law. And I do hereby return the same to the Secretary of State within fifteen days from the date afore- said, to wit : On the same 25th day of April in the year aforesaid. WM. BRADFORD. The Schedule referred to in these Letters Patent, and making part of the same, contain- ing a description in the words of the said John J. Staples, Junior, himself of an improve- anent in the construction of a Carriage to be propelled by the mechanical powers General description of a travelling Carri- age, which is to move without the power of Horses, carrying from 2 to 4 persons, requir- ing the labor of one of which to regulate its moveuientwilI ascend any hill that is ac cessible to common carriages, moving with great rapidity, and as in every respect as ma- nageable as those drawn by horses, its velo- city being increased or lessened at pleasure by the application of the five following powers as occasion may require. The first power, which is the greatest, is the weight of the whole carriage ~vith whatever is contained therein, which is raised up by the oval wheels in turning round, and when descending acts on the shortest lever. 2d Power is the weight of the top frame which supports the carriage body with its contents, which being likewise wound up by the said oval wheels at the same or a different time acts in descending on the two next size levers and is the next greatest power. 3d Power is the carriage body which being fixed on 4 friction rollers vibrates as a pendulum acting on the two longest levers. 4th. Is the weight of the person who regu- lates the motion acting likewise on the ends of the said 2 long levers and is the first mo- tion the carriage receives. 5th. Is an occasi- onal power which is gained when descending a hill by winding up two springs placed un- der the carriage which also acts with great force on the ends of the aforesaid two long levers when rising a hill. JNO. J. STAPLES, JR. WitnessesSAML. FOLWELL, GEO. TAYLOR. SCIENTIFIC SlEMORANDA. india Rubber. The India Rubber Factory at Harlem, this city, is making daily about 700 pounds of india rubber springs for railroad cars. In combina- tion with the india rubber a portion of white or blaok lead is used which must make a su- perior composition, to what is called curing, alone. Vulcanized india rubber is simply sul- phur combined with the india rubber at a great temperature. Sulphurous gasses we be- lieve answers neerly the same purpose. Gutta percha is vulcanized by the same process. Electric Light Again. By late foreign papers we learn that expe- riments have been made in France for throw- ing an electric light upon the railroad in front of the cars. The experiments have been par- tiaLly successful. The Bosphorus. From the late extensive observations o f M. Hommaire de Heil, it appears that there is no appreciable difference of level between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmora; and consequently there is no real current flowing out of the Black Sea through the Bosphorus. He attributes all apparent currents to the winds, which being mostly from the North, produces generally a flow from the South. This is compensated for by the strong currents flowing to the North during the Southerly winds. A Reform in Locomotive Pues Wanted. It has been stated that the Reading Railroad Penn., during the year 1847 consumed by its locomotives 90,746 cords of wood. The con- sumption of wood on all our railroads is enor- mous and must soon thin our country, Woody though it be, of its vast primeval forests. Hi- therto, the motion, by shaking the coals into a solid mass, has prevented the use of coal. Why do they not use coke made of bitumi- nous coal? No wood is used on the English Railways. Emery in Asia Minor. M. Tchihatcheff, in his recent explorations in Asia Minor, says Sihhimans Journal, has brought ro light extensive beds of Emery in the Western portions of this country, particu- larly between the ruins of Stratonicea in Caria and Smyrna. This substance is indispensible in polishing minerals and all hard stones, as well as for the lapidarys use generally, and by these new discoveries, it is evident the ne- cessary supply will suffer no diminution. Height of the Atmosphere. Sir John W. Lubbock, according to the hy- pothesis, adopted by him in his Treatise on Heat of Vapors, shows the density and tempe- rature for a giver, height above the earths surface. According to the hypothesis, at a height of fifteen miles the temperature is2400 Far, below zero ; the density is .03573; and the atmosphere ceases altogether at a height of 22.35 miles. M. Biot has verified a calcu- lation of Lambert, who found, from the phe- nornena of twilight, the altitude of the atroos- phere to be about eighteen miles. The con- dition of the higher regions of the atmosphere, according to the hypothesis adopted by Ivory, is very different, and extends to a much great- er height. The Sufferings, Perseverance, and Tri- umph of Genius. There is at present in England an Ame- rican who went to that country to endeavor to interest the capitalists in a new bridge which he has constructed. His name is Rem- ington, a native of Virginia. An account of his progress is given by himself in a letter to Dixon H. Lewis, and published in Hunts illerchants Magazine. When he arrived in England in January 1847, he was without money, and spent the first five months vainly looking for somebody with enterprise enough to encourage his plan, living all the time on less than three pence per day. He slept upon straw, for which he paid a half penny per night. His limbs became distorted v~ith rheu- matism, and he was literally covered with rags and vermin, consorting as he had to do, with the lowest beggars in London. Still he did not despair. His sufferings were so great that his head turned grey. He had to pay to usurers 10 fer admittance to the Royal Zoological Gardens, where he succeeded, af- ter mueh mortification an getting a model made of the bridge. The model although a bad one astonished every body. Every engineer of celebrity in London was called in to decide whether it was practicable to throw it across the lake. Four or five of them at the final de- cision declared that the model before them was passing strange, but that it could not be carried to a much greater length than the length of the model. This was the point of life or death with the inventor. He says ; I was standing amidst men of the supposed greatest talent as civil engineers that the world could produce, and the point decided against me. This one time alone were my whole energies ever arsused. I never talked before I was haggard and faint for want of food my spirit sunk in sorrow in view of my mournful prospectsclothes I had noneyet, standing over this model did I battle with those men. Every word I uttered came from my inmost soul and was big with truthevery argument carried conviction. The eflect on these men was like magicindeed, they must have been devils not to have believed un- der the circumstances. I succeeded. My agree. ment with the proprietor was that I should superintend the construction of the bridge without any pay whatever, but during the time of the building I might sleep in the Gar- dens, and if the bridge should succeed, it should be called Remingtons Bridge. I lod- ged in an old lions cage not strong enough for a lion, but by putting some straw on the floor, held me very well, and indeed was a greater luxury than I had for many months. The carpenters that worked on the bridge sometimes gave me part of their dinner. On this I lived and was comparatively happy. It was a little novel however, to see a man in rags directing gentlemanly looking head carpenters. The bridge triumphed, and it cost 8, and was the greatest hit ever made in London. The money made by it was as- tonishingly great, thousands and tens of thou- sands crossing it paying toll, besides being the great attraction to the Gardens. Not a pub- lication in London but what has writtea large- ly upon it, although I have never received a penny nor ever will for building the bridge. The success of his invention gave him, however, celebrity, and he says it also gave him credit with a tailor. I got a suit of clothes and some shirtsa clean shirt. Any shirt was great, but a clean shirtO God, what a luxury! Thousands of cards were left for me at the Gardens, and men came to the bridge from all parts of the king- dom. I first built the mill, which is the most popular patent ever taken in England. The coffee pot and many other small patents take exceedingly well. The drainage of Tixall Meadows is the greatest triumph I have yet had in England. The carriage bridge for Earl Talbot is a moat majestic arid wonderful- ly beautiful thiiig. Dukes, marquisses, earls, lords, & c., and their ladies are coining to see it from all pal ts. I have amow more orders for bridges from the aristocracy than I can exe- cute in ten years, if I would do them. Indeed, I have been so much among the aristocracy of late that what with high living, being so sudden a transition from starving, I have been compelled to go through a course of medicine and am just now convalescent. Of course anything once built precludes the possibility of taking a patent in England, but its merits and value are beyond all calculation. A per- manent, beautiful and steady bridge may be thrown across a river half a mile wide out of the reach of floods, and without anything touching the water, at a rrost inconsiderable expense. The American patent is well secu- red at home I know. I shall continue to build a few more bridges of larger and larger spans and one of them a railroad bridge, in order that I Irmay perfect myself iii them so as to com- mence fair when I reach America. I have a great many more accounts of my exploits since I came to Stafford, but must defer send- ing them until next time. I beg you will write me, for now, since a correspondence is opened, I shall be able to tell you something about Eunland. I know itwell. I have din. ed with earls, and from that downdown down to where the knives, forks and plates are chained to the table for fear they should be stolen. Jeffery the able Editor of the Edinburg Re- view once said. Offer a prize of a thousand 1)ounds for the best Essay on Greek and ten chances to one if a yankee dont win it, and some fellow who could not read a word of it before he saw the offer of the prize. The case of Mr. Remington exhibits a heroism of a far more eleva~d and ennobling character than the triumph of valor on the battle field. Respect for Art. A nobleman having called on Holbeirs while he was engaged in drawing a figure from life, was told that he could not see him but must call another day. Foolishly taking this an- swer as an affront, he very rudely rushed up stairs to the painters studio. Hearing a noise Holbein opened his door; feeling enraged at his loidships assumption and intrusion he pushed him backwards from the top of the stairs to the bottom. However, reflecting im- mediately on what he had done he repaired to the king. The nobleman, who pretended to be very much hurt, was there soon after him and having stated his complaint, would be satisfied with nothing less than the artists life : upon which the king firmly replied My lord, you have not now to do with Hol- hem, but with me ; whatever punishment you may contrive by way of revenge against hint shall assuredly be inflicted upon yourself. Remember, pray, my lord, that I can, when- ever I please, make seven lords of seven ploughmen, but I cannot make one Holbeiia of even seven lords. The Atrican Rhinoceros. The Black Rhinoceros, whose domains we seem now to have invaded, resembles in gen- eral appearance an immense hog; 12k feet long, 6kfeet high, girth eight feet and a half, and of the weight of half a dozen bullocks ; its body smooth, and there is no hair seen ex- cept at the tips of the ears and the extremity of the tail. The horns of concreted hair, the foremost curved like a sabre, and the second resembling a flattened cone, stand on the nose and above the eyes; in the young animals the foremost horn is the longest, whilst in the old ones they are of an equal length, name- ly, a foot and a half or more; though the old- er the rhinoceros the shorter are its horns, as they wear them by sharpening them against the trees, and by rooting up the ground with them when in a passion. When the rhinoceros is quietly pursuing his way in glades of Mimosa bushes, (which his hooked upper lip enables him readily toseP~e, and his powerful grinders to masticate,) his horns, fixed loosely in his skin make a clap- ping noise by striking one against the other, but on the approach of danger, if his quick ear or keen scent make him aware of the vi- cinity of a hunter, the head is quickly raised, and the horns stand stiff and ready for combat on his terrible front. The rhinoceros is often accompanied by a sentinel to give him warn- ing, a beautiful green backed, aiid blue wing- ed bird, about the size of a jay, which sits on one of its horns. 67 ~cientitic 2~4meric~rn. To Prevent Railway Collisions. A new kind of brake has been exhibiting lately before the London Polytechnic Insti- tute which has been very favorably noticed by the Mining Journal and which is so very like one invented last year by a mechanic in this State, (and might have been successful) that we consider it of some interest to give a des- cription of it. It was proved by experiment years ago that a train moving at a velocity of twenty miles per hour might be stopped in a space of 20 feet, so said Sir Geo. Cayley, but for all this it has never practically been performed. As the majority of collisions take place from the inability of engineers to stop the train in a given time and space, it would tend to make railway travelling more safe were a perfect and immediately effective brake invented. The model exhibited as mentioned above, in- vented and patented by a Mr. Bishop, seems to be one grand move to accomplish this ob- ject. Perhaps, the following brief explanation will give some idea of the advantages of the contrivance :Let it be understood, in the first case, that every carriage has the brakes attached to it ; and that, by means of a bar, placed under the carriages, the brakes may be thrown in or out of action at pleasure; and that, when the train is made up, these bars could be connected from carriage to carriage so that the engineer, by acting upon this bar at one end of the train, has the power of applying the brakes to every carriage simul- taneously, converting, as it were, the whole train into a sledge. Let it also be understood, that the conductor has the same power over these brakes as the engineer, rendering the one independant of the other ; but what is still more important it gives the conductor as well as the engineer, full and efficient power to check the velocity of the train, or to stop it altogetherfor it can be shown that the brakes being applied to every wheel, in a train the power of any locomotive engine would not be sufficient to move it forward; and that, when the train has been shut off, and the brakes applied, the train may be stopped with- thin an incredible short space. All these mat- ters were fully demonstrated by the models exhibited. Daniels Patent Pianing Machine. We are con~ldent that it is not generally known among our mechanics who are enga- ged in the various branches of wood work, that good planing Machines can be had for a very small sum, which would be a great sav- ing to them both in time and money. There have been so many law suits and difficulties about machines for planing wood, that there seems to be a general fear of using them, though evidently at a great sacrifice of interest There is one Patent for a planing machine, however, which we know to be free from all these troubles. We allude to Daniels iaven- tion, and we would recommend its general use throughout the co~intry, for it is one of the greatest labor saving inventions in exis- tence. We are the more certain that our re- marks in this particular are correct because we have one of these machines in our posses- sion for sale, and have tested it by themost thorough trial and a minute examination of its parts. The machine we have for sale is a no- ble one and will last many years. Attached to a saw mill, or in a carpenters shop. a lum- ber yard or wherever planing is required it can be used, to great advantage. We will dispose of it for $250, its cost being so small that if it only saved the labor of one man it would pay for itself in less than a year, but itperforms a days labor of one man in 20 minutes For dimensions see advertising page. New Crane at Baltimore. ference. Independent of that, there is anoth- Messrs. Hopper and Cheesborough, of Balti- er fall, nine and a half inches in circum- more, have jw,t completed a large Crane made ference, to be used for what is termed tl~elong for their wharf in the city of Baltimore which f purchase. The crane is capable of lifting is made after the patent of J. P. Bishop, of j with facility sixty or seventy tons weight, and this city. Itis the largest arid most powerful all is done by the agency of one horse, with crane perhaps in the world. It stands eighty- j the aid of the complication of mechanical six feet in height from the water, and the powers in the machine. It is designed for arms sweep a base of one hundred and twenty lifting heavy weights, such as boilers out of feet. The main fall or rope, for a single stearsiboats, steamboat shafting, masts out of purchase, measures twelve inches in circum- vessels, heavy timber & c. & c. NEW STEAMBOAT PADDLES. Figure 1. This as a representation of a nov,~ ~ wheel forwarded to us by the inventors, Messrs. Ripley & Neale, Lynn, Mass., to whom all communications, for further infor- mation may be directed. The object of the invention is to rfiake the paddle enter and leave the water vertical- ly instead of entering the water obliquely and leaving it at ~uch an angle as to lift a great weight of water, as is now the case with all the paddles in use, which can readily he eb- served by any person who looks upon a steam boat in motion where behind the paddle is seen only a thick cloud of broken water frequently thrown upwards far above the mid- dle of the wheel. FIG. 2. Fig. 1, is a side elevation, and fig. 2, is a front view exhibiting the paddles. Corresponding letters repres nt lik~ parts in both figures. A, is the wheel, B represents the paddles, and C, fig. 2, is the shaft. The nature of this invention consists in making the paddles self actingus- ing no cog wheels, cranks or extra shafts for that purpose. Each paddle is constructed with an axis in the middle, which passes through both sides of the wheel at the circumference and di- vides the paddle into two parts, the upper part being made lighter than the lower The upper part is therefore constructed of wood and the lower of iron, and coupled or fastened together by transverse bars, as seen in the figures. It is plain that if these paddles are hung in the periphery of the wheel so as to move on their respective axis, by the gravity of the lower part of the paddles, they will maintain a ver- tical position when they enter the water, when they are in the water and when they leave the water. There have been many objections ur- ged against vertical paddles and practically speaking, none ot our steam boats use them. We are not aware of any paddle wheels, (the same in all respects as represented in these en- gravings), having ever been used. The inven- tors consider that there can be no practical ob- jection urged against either the simplicity or correctness 01 the principle of their invention. Although great improvements have been made within the past ten years to increase (and successfully too) the speed of steamboats, still there is room for improvement, therefore every invention to improve the speed of steam boats shnuld be carefully tested, before it is condemned. We must riot be content with the speed of our steamboats, till they accom- plish thirty miles per hour. Screw Cutting. The Rochester Democrat says that Mr. Ar- nold has for exhibition in that city a machine recently invented for cutting screws. By a simple process costing but a childs strength a bolt is formed into a perfect screw. The blocks into which the dies are inserted, are operated by means of a screw worked from right to left so that it is impossible for them to be thrown out of their proper centre. This self-centreing process is described as one of the chief improvements in the machine. Me- chanics who have seen it concur in saying that it is greatly superior to those now in use, doing work at infinitely less expense and trouble. These machines are afforded at from $20 to $50 for the various sizes, while the cost of those generally in use is about $100. The water rates proposed for Bostoii, are much lower than those which are adopted in New York. OFFICE, For tire week ending .Vov. 7, 1848. To Cadet Crousillac, of New Orleans, La., for improvement in machinery for raising, sawing and splitting wood. Patented Nov. 7, 1848. To W. Z. W. Chapman and J. W. Chap- man, of Philadelphia, Pa., for Universal In- strument Sharpener. Patented Nov. 7, 1848. To Lewis J. Cohen, of New York City, for improvement in composition of Slate Pencils. Patented Nov. 7, 1848. To H. H. Day, joint inventor with and as- signee of F. D. Haywood, of New Brunswick, N. J , for improvements in Suspenders and Shoulder Braces. Patented Nov. 7, 1848. To George Pratt, of Boston, Mass., for im- provement in Extension Tables. Patented Nov. 7, 1848. To J. & E. Baldwin, assignee of Cyrus Baldwin, Goffstown, N. H., for improvement in Machine for cutting and stamping Crack- ers. Patented Nov. 7, 1848. To B. Bowman and A. Kaufiman, of Oris- town, Pa., for improvement in filling barrels with Flour. Patented Nov. 7, 1848. To Richard Solis, of New York City, for improvement in the manufacture of Elastic Cloth. Patented Nov. 7, 1848. To Haywood Cox, of Peach Bottom, Va., for improvement in Side Hill Ploughs. Pa- tented Nov. 7, 1848. To Nathaniel C. Sandford, of Meriden, Ct., for combined convex and concave Augur. Pa- tented Nov. 7, 1848. To George Seibert, of Hagerstown. Md. for improved Ducks Foot Propeller. Patented Nov. 7, 1848. To R Carleton Overton, of New York City, for improvement in tubes for raising Lamp Wicks. Patented Nov. 7, 1848. To George Bartlett, of Smithfield, R. I., for improvement in Hinged Ploughs. Patented Nov. 7, 1848 INVENTORS CLAIMS. Printing Presses. JGs. M. Marsh, New York City, for im- provement in printing presses. Patented Oct. 3, 1848. I claim the method of obtaining a re- ciprocating motion from a continuous rotary motion by combining with a cogged rack two cogged wheels composed each of the segments of different diameters. I also claim the method of sustaining the bed of the press as it recipro- cates against the pressure of the cylinder by combining with the bed one or more ways. I also claim the method of elevation and depres- sing the inking rollers And, finally, I claim operating the finger bar by means of spring- jointed arms at the end thereof. Sheet Lead. John Robertson, Brooklyn, N. Y., for im- proved method of manufacturing sheet lead. Patented Oct. 3, 1848. I claim as my inven- tion the mode of manufacturing such hollow cylindrical forms of lead and other soft metals and compounds into sheets by first placing them around a roller whose axis may be in a horizontal plane or in one of any inclination and then rolling it. I claim the construction of the carrying roller, and the manufacturing therewith ef hollow cylindrical formed pie- ces of lead or other soft metal or compounds into sheets by rolling, combined with the moveable bearings. harness Saddles. A. D. Brown, New York, City, for im- provement in harness saddles. Patented Oct. 3, 1848. 1st. The peculiar form of the sheet metal housing plate, caused by the addition of the lower flanches or ledges. 2nd, I also claim the securing the pieces of leather forming the under side of the pads, with the housing plate forming the upper side of the same by means of the fastening plates with notched or plain edges. 68 ~cw ~uucntion~. LIST OF PATENTS t55Uz~ FROM TIlE UNITED STATEs PATENT ~cientif~c 2tmetican. 69 rrogress 01 science. When we look back upon the dark days of sciencethe time when the false philosophy of Greece reigned supreme in college and cloisterwhen truth was trampled beneath the iron footsteps of spiritual tyranny and pride, and compare the state in which the civilized world was then, with its present state, we will be struck with astonishment by the contrast. Thenand it is not long since the art of printing was unknown. Then both nobles and people of universal Europe, with but a few exceptions, could neither read nor write. Darkness covered the land, and gross darkness the people. And when Gal- lileo arose to unseal the book of philosophi- cal truth, alas, he had at the fire and altarto sacrifice the princely price of his conscience to ignorance and bigotry. Then chemistry was confined to a few tricks of legerdemain, and the science of practical mechanicsin comparison to what it now iswas as the rude image of the South Sea Islander, to the finest group that ever came forth fror# the inspired chisel of Caoova. Then the power of every monarch in Europe was a unitnow it is, in the majority of cases, merely nominal. Then a Henry, and a Louis had but to say, rebel- lious subject thy head shall roll from the scaffold, and it was done. But now the scene has changed, the once serfs of Europe have become men, and kings have been made to experience the trite saying ot Boswells fa- ther to Dr. Johnson in reference to the fate of Charles I., he was taught that the neck of a king had a joint, as well as that of a subject. To what, it may be asked, are we to ascribe the great changes which have been made in the social condition of Christendom, during the last two hundred years ? One thing we know, under the feudal system the Baron covered himself in his coat of mail and with his iron cased lictors ruled his peasantry as lord supreme. What was it which broke that feudal power ? Allisoa says, it was the (liscovery of gunpowder. On the field of Marstoo, the heart of the mail clad cava- lierinvincible betore to the shaft or the spear of the peasant, was pierced by the ball of the marksman, and the monarch made to feel the might that slumbered in a peasants arm War we deprecate in almost every sense of the term, but there is much truth in the as- sertion of the great historian. We may justly attribute the great social ad- vancement made in the world since the art of printing was discovered, to the art of print- ing itself. An educated people may be led by reason, not driven by brute force, and as the art of printing has advanced and knowledge been disseminated among the masses, so in proportion, have freedom and correct ideas of justice been restored to their birthright in the human mind. Mechanical Books. We have now made such arrangements as will hereafter enable us to supply our friends and subscribers with any books of the Mecha- nical and Scientific kind which they may de- sire, and we trust they will not be backward in making their wants known. In another part of our paper will be found the commence- ment of a catalogue of works which we can furnish, with. the prices also given It has required much time, labor and expense to make up this catalogue because the works em- braced in it are most of them rare and of a peculiar chaiacter. We trust that our exer- tions will be appreciated. Machinery for Sale. There is a good chance now for the purchase of a splendid wood Planing Machine, a Porta- ble Saw Mill and other machinery, at prices far below their coat. Any one who can com- mand a trifling capital can easily double the amount by embracing this opportunity. See advertising page. Cholera. At this momentous crisis, when both the public and professional minds are so wholly engrossed with the anticipated ravages of so terrible a scourge to the human race, as Cho- lerashould it reach our shoresand especi- ally when multitudes of opinions are being expressed in almost every possible form of publication, we feel it incumbent on us to take a brief survey of the malady. Various theoretical and hypothetical dis. quisitions have been entered into by eminent physicians, attempting to explain the pheno- mena, nature, cause, prevention and treatment of Cholera ; but without any practical utility: some ascribing its pestilential approach to a fungous originothers its connection with impuritysome attributing it to its epidemic characterothers to a volcaic origin, and so on. Differing as doctors generally do, it is, nevertheless, curious, however, to observe how often in the treatment of Cholera, where the views entertained of the nature, origin and mode of propagation of the malady are at variance, that the plans of treatment recom- mended are nearly identical : some advoca- ting Venesectionuthers preferring as cu- rative measures stimulating emeticsartificial heat, calomel with opium and the saline treatment. Again, hydropathy and hommpathy have not been without their advocates : cold strong coffee and cold water with cold decoctions of Peruvian bark are recommended. The pre- ventitives to Cholera, according to hommpa- thists are a ~ lobule or drop of camphorated spirit, or a plate of brig/it copper next the skin ! But doctors likewise differ among ho- mmpathists as well as allopathists. There is no sIzcw!c for Cholera, where- with, on all occasions, to avert its fatal pro- gress, any more than for another disease. Such pretensions may be safely left to empi- rics and to charlatans. On the other hand the differences of opinion and the proposed re- medies prove highly beneficial ; for it pro- vokes discussion and eliminates truth. It is by a difference of opinion alone that we can arrive at just and correct conclusions. All experience attests that Cholera must be com- batted according to the symptoms which pro- sent themselves. The results arrived at by the consideration of the greatest number of opinions is that the preliminary diarrhma is best to be treated by astringeots. The profes- sional man may choose, according to the age and temperament of his patient and the seve- rity of the symptoms between the simple chalk mixture and added astringentsno doubt a multiplicity of agents of the same class are advantageous. However it is one of the most positive results of multiplied experience that the use of much opium retards, if it does not impede recovery in the after stagesand in cases where coniumn and hyoscyamus with mercurial preparations are employed, it is evi - dently the safest as it fulfils two indications to allay diarrhcea and restore the functions of the liver. Where the malady begins with vomiting or with purging combined the best treatment, should the constitution admit it, would be emetics of salt and water or of mustard to give toriicity to the stomach, which may be follow- ed up by the administration of quinine in combination with iron, and alkaline efferves- cing draughts. Should such treatment com- bined with mustard poultices fail to combat the severity of the attack ; then carbonate of ammoniacamphor with brandy and water and calomel and opium or calomel in large doses may be had recourse to. Strong stimu- lants internally and externally are likewise beneficialsuch as naptha, assafmtida, & c. If calomel fail in its action, Croton oil must be tried. Plans of treatment, as above enumerated, varied according to symptoms and the slight differences of formula, favored by individual practitioners, appear to meet at once the va- rious opinions entertained as to the nature and origin of the malady and the slight differences of treatment pursued by the profession. A few words as regards preventitive mea- sures from the increments of Cholera The City of New York from its position being so adjacent to the seasurrounded by water and built comparatively on high ground ought to escape from the ravages of Cholera. This War against Labor Saving Machinery. can only be done by adopting such measures To shake off the yoke of the oppressor, we as shall be best fit to ameliorate the FILTHY behold the Germans of Europe grasping the condition of the city. Let a competent Mcdi- musket and bayonet, and shouting aloud for cal Committee be appointed. The Corpora- Liberty and Faderland. finn need the utmost vigilance Clean streets In the midst of sangu iriary strugglesstrug thorough ventillationcleanliness of per- gles against home oppression, very different son and temperance of diet, we feel assured scenes are enacted, in comparison with bat- will secure our citizens from the blasting thing against a foreign foe, and like the bigo- in fluence of Cholera. try which the Christians displayed in destroy. ing pagan temples, and the Reformers in des troying the ancient cathedrals, so are an exci- ted people always apt to vent their vengeance blindly. By late accounts from Europe, we learn that the populace in Berlinenlighten- ed and educated Berlin, have displayed the most remarkable hostility against a machine having been employed to do some work there and a nurriber of laborers having been dismis- sed who were previously engaged at work when crowds of them proceeded to destroy the machine and demand employment. Two battalions of the Burgher Guard, which had been ordered out, could not restore order, but were compelled to use firearms on their being attacked by the laborers. Towards afternoon1 the whole city was thrown into alarm, and the affray had become a regular fight between the laborers and the Burgher Guards. The latter were using their arms freely, and when they had finally succeeded in suppressing the row, five laborers had been killed, and many wounded. In the evening the fighting be- tween the workmen and the Burgher Guards recommenced. Barricades had been construc- ted in the streets near the Copoickerfield, and attempts were made by the Burgher Guards to take them by storm, which at last they ac- complished, but not without a fierce and san- guinary st~ggle. We point to this event as a dark spot in the history of modern improvements, and as we are the advocate of improvements in the useful arts, and of honest industry also, we instance this circumstance as a beacon to warn and exhort both people and men of capital in our own land. The causes of revolt among the intelligent people of Berlin by the intro- duction of new labor saving machinery must have been great indeed. To the credit of America be it spoken, our people have en- couraged, never destroyed machinery to lessen labor, but then our people know not (may they never know it) the depth of that misery in the European working classes of Begging a brother of the earth, To give theni leave to toil. iron Carriages. The tendency of the last few years to sub- stitute iron for wood has been shown in ships, ploughs, and other machines. It his even been attempted in houses; but here, we be- lie~e, ~,ithout that success, which is shown in extensive use or practice. A gentleman of the north of Scotland, says Chambers Edin- burg Journal, is now experimenting, with good ground of hope, on the introduction of iron carriages. He proposes that the bodies of such vehicles should be formed entirely of iron frame, the panels of plates of galvanized iron, and the axles of iron tubes filled with wood ; the wheels to have for spokes double rods pyramidally arranged,or on what is cal- led the suspension principle. The advantages proposed arefirst, a lightness as about two to three ; second, a saving of cost in about the same proportion. Thus, a pony-carriage, which, of the usual materials, would weigh five hundred weight, is only about three when constructed of iron; an omnibus, which, of the ordinary construction, would be twenty to twenty-four hundred weight, can be formed of iron at about eleven. The same in respect of external decorations and internal comfort. A carriage of this kind effects an important saving in the motive power. If successful as an invention, it must be of no small impor- tance to humanity, both in sparing the mus- cles of individual horses, and allowing of a greater share of the fruits of the earth going to the use of human beings. For use in tro- pical countries, there is a farther advantage in the non-liability to cracking and shrinking, and the nusuitableness of an iron frame for becoming a nest of noxious insects. Apart from the mere substitution of one material for another, which is the leading feature of the invention, much is claimed for it on the ground of the superior springs employed in these car- riages. They are spiral, and vertically arran- ged, working in a case, with an apparatus which precludes their falling from their per. pendicular. Suspension carriage wheels have been long in use in America, and within a short period a valuable improvement has been made on hollow carriage axles and the manner in which the wheels are connected to the same, by W. L. Lewis of Clarendon, Orleans Coun- ty, N. Y. and for which he has made applica- tion for letters patentEn. Inventors and Pairs. Many inventors who had articles exhibited at the Fair of the American Institute, that were original and new, have felt disappointed to see prizes awarded for old and well known articles, while the new articles were passed over in silence. New inventions certainly present prior claims to all others and we know that no attention has been paid to new inventions, any more than old ones. There certainly should be a distinction. The Frank- lin Institute has been somewhat blamed also, but we cannot speak confidently on this point. On the catalogue of prizes, No. 1 class should always be for new inventions. The Robbery at Washington$1500 Re- ward. An advertisement will be found in another column, from the Commissioner of Patents, offering a reward of fifteen hundred dollars for the recovery of the property stolen, and the detection of the robbers who broke into the United States Patent Office, at Washington, on Wednesday night last week. Ishams Patent Sand Paper. We believe that the Sand Paper made by R. H. & 3. G. Isham of this city is found to be much superior to any in use. It is made in a peculiar manner, for which they have obtain- ed a Patent, and is sold as cheap as the cheap. cit. They have a large manufactory at 71 Fulton st. New York. The Law of Libel. A very important decision for printers has been made by the tribunal at Senlis, France. A certain Mr. Zellanger wishing to have a letter, written by him to the Minister of War, put into print, was refused by sundry printers in Paris, Rouen and Senlis, on the ground that the letter contained some strong language which might compromise them ; Mr. Zellan- ger appealed to the court at Senlis, which de- cided that if the author chooses to assume the responsibility expressly, the printers can in no- wise become answerable for the expressions ofthe former. Counting Room Almanac. Messrs. Oliver & Brother have favored us with a beautiful Counting Room Almanac for 1849, and request us to inform our subscri- bers that they are for gratuitous circulation in this city, Brooklyn and Jersey City, and may be had free of expense by applying at their office corner of Nassau and Fulton sts. The article on the Telegraph is deferred to next ~ eekwhen we shall publish a cut of the first Alphabetic Printing Telegraph. THE SCmIITIFIc AMERICALV. Persons wishing to subscribe for this paper have only to enclose the amount in a letter di rected (post paid) to MUNN & COMPANY, Publishers of the Scientific American, Ne~ York City. TERMs.$2 a year; ONE DOLLAR IN ADVANCEthe remainder in 6 months Postmasters are respectfully requested to receive subscriptions for this Paper, to whom a discount of 2~5 per cent will be allowed. Any person sending us 4 subscribers for 6 months, shall receive a copy of the paper for the samelength of time. NEW YORK, NOVEMBER 18, 1848. ~cicntific 2~incric an. Pianaing Machines. (Concluded from our last.) Fonr~ation of saws and other cutters, to wouk with a rotative motion. The most ob- vious mode is, the making the cutter of one piece, consisting of steel, or iron with steel welded on to it, as far as is necessary for strength and sharpness. In some instances, however, t here may be an advantage in ma- king it in pieces, for instance, in annular seg- ments, fastened to an included cylinder: the larger it is, the greater will be the advantage in thus composing it and, if a part only is worn out, or damaged, that part may bereplac- ed, without injury to the rest. Another mode of composition is, to make the teeth distinct from each other, as well as from the cylin- der from which they are to project: they will thus be separately bedded in the cylinder, ta- king on and off, as occasion may require. This is a mode 1 have practised with particu- lar advantages, in the instance of the moulding cutter, and the planing roller, above spoken of. For the construction of borers, see the article of boring. p. 293 to 305. How to present the same determinate parts of a number of pieces successfully to the ac- tion of a tool. First, Where the intended sta- tions are disposed along the length of a piece. In this case, fix the piece on a sliding bed, in such a manner as to be moveable in the di - rection of its length : let the sliding bed be furnished with a stop, in the form of a pin or bolt, projecting, for example, from the side, to be inserted, or to drop of itself, into holes or notches in the bench, one for each of the po- sitions required. Or, instead of neing made in the bench itself, these holes or notches may be made in a piece of wood or metal, moveable in agroove, or otherwise, along the course which the sliding-bed is to take. In this way, Si- milar pieces may, at equi.distant or other- wise correspondent points of their respective lengths, be exposed to the action of a borer, for example, a saw, a file, or any other tool adapted to the hole, incission, or mark, which they may be intended to receive. pp 375, 376. Advancement, viz, of the piece to the tool, or of the tool to the piece. For the case where the motion by which the work is performed is of the reciprocating kind, instructions have, under the head of Sawing by a reciprocating I motion, being given by reference to present practice. When the motion is of the rotative kind, though the advancement may be perfor- med by hand, yet regularity may be more ef- fectually insured by the aid of mechanism. For this purpose, one expedient is the con- necting, for instance, by cogged wheels, the advancing motion of the piece with the rota. tive motion of the tool: another expedient is, employing a power so as to gain purchase; in which case, the facility of insurir, g regular- ity ~vili be according to the quality of purchase gained. For short distances, this may be done commodiously enough by a lever or screw; but, where the advancement is to have a long range, the~ rack and pinion is more conveni- ent; the rack, for example, being fixed to the sliding bed, in a direction parallel to that of its motion, and the pinion which moves it tur- ned by a winch. Or, instead of the action of the hand, a weight may be employed; or, for a very short space,~a s