Scientific American. / Volume 4, Issue 4
THE ADVOCATE OF INDUSTRY, AND JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC, MECHANICAL AND OTHER IMPROVEMFI~flS.
)~Jo1, ~i. Nw~ I~otk, 0i~dobev 1~i, ~ ~o. lii.
At 128 Fulton Street, New York (Sun Building,) and
13 Court Street, Boston, Mass.
By lYIunn & Company.
The rrincipal Office being at New York.
WMRMS4~ a yearil in advance, and
the remainder in 6 months.
wy-See advertisement on last page.
LiGhTS OF GENiUS.
EY MISS ALICE CAREY.
Upheaving pillars, on whose tops
The white stars rest like capitals,
Whence every living spark that drops
Kindles and blazes as it falls
And if the arch.fiend rise to pluck,
Or stoop to crush their beauty down,
A thousand other sparks are struck,
That Glory settles in her crown!
The huge ship, with its brassy share,
Ploughs the blue sea to speed their course,
And veins of iron cleave the air,
To waft them from their burning source
All, from the insects tiny wings,
And the small drop of morning dew,
To the wide universe of things,
The light is shining, burning through.
Too deep for our poor thoughts to gauge
Lie their clear sources bright as truth,
Whence flows upon the locks of age
The beauty of eternal youth.
Think, 0 my flattering brother, think,
If thou wilt try, if thou hast tried,
By all the lights thou hast, to sink
The shaft of an immortal tide I
GIRL OF THE BLUE EIE BRiGHT AND
Oh, for the time of the Summers dawn,
To hear the lark his carol singing;
Oh, for a walk on the dew-clad lawn,
When health from every breeze is springing.
Oh, for the shade of the hawthorn tree,
With the mid-day sun above it gleaming;
Oh, for such hours to spend with thee,
Girl of the blue eye bright and beaming!
Oh, for the time of the evenings close,
With not a breath its peace destroying;
Oh, for a share of its sweet repose,
But not alone the bliss enjoying;
Oh, for the hearth and the winter drear,
When joyous hearts with love are teeming;
Oh for such hours with thee to share,
Girl of the blue eye bright and beaming!
Oh, for a life mid scenes like this,
Unclogged by worldly wealth or splendor
Oh, tsivere a life of radiant bliss,
Shared with a feeling of heart so tender;
Oh, what a fairy scene might be,
In a land where freedoms flag is streaming;
Twere heaven on earth to be there with thee
Girl of the blue eye bright and beaming!
The proud throne shall crumble,
The diadem shall wane
The tribes of earth shall humble
The pride of those who reign.
And war shall lay
His pomp away
The fame that heroes cherish,
The glory earned in deadly tray,
Like flowers that fade and perish.
Honor wafts, oer all the earth,
Through endless generations,
The art that calls the harvest forth,
And feeds expectant nations.
The invention of Locomotives for common
roads is not new to a few, but we presume
that it is to many. Of this we were convinc-
ed a short time since, by a very respectable
gentleman, who called upon us, with such a
carriage, a new invention to him, but not so
to us. We have also had many enquiries
lately respecting such kinds of carriages, espe-
cially since we recommended the use of steam
carriages for our plank roads. To throw
some light on the subject we present this
week a aide and ~round plan of the Loonmo-
tive described by Barlow, and invented by
Mr. Gurny, an Englishman, and which on a
common road went at the rate of 8j miles
per hour. We hope that these engravings
will draw the attention of our mechanics to the
subject, as we think some of our engineers
could so improve on this, as to make it run at
the rate of 12 miles an hour on our plank roads.
A, is the position of the boiler without show
ing the smoke pipe. B, is a steam pipe which
leads from the boiler down by N, to the valve
boxes of the cylinder D, (there is a cylinder
on each side, inside of the travelling wheels.)
There is a small wheel attached to the piston
rod which runs between two parallel bars G.
Attached to this wheel by a spindle is a dou-
ble connecting rod and during every revolu-
tion ot the crank the parallel bars are inside of
h e rod. The fuel and water are kept in R and
T C. is a handle on ths~ steam pipe to regu-
late the supply. M, is the frame. L, is a lever
which the conductor by pulling up, reverses
the motion of the carriages or propels them
backwards, if necessary. P, is a driving arm.
5, is the seat. I, is a lever connected with a
pinion K, for turning the carriage, but these
will be be better understood by fig 2.
F F, is the framing I, is the pinion, work, and for that purpose it might be useful on our
ing into the rack Q, for turning the carriage plank roads. When the carriage is to be star-
by the handle, seen in fig. I. P P, are dii- ted, the steam having been up, the conductor
ving arms, by means of which power is con- opens the steam cock by the handre at his
veyed from the crank shaft to the circumfer- side. The steam then passes through B B, to
ence of the hind wheels, so that one or both the cylinders and the action of the engine
wheels may be used. One or both wheels commences urging forward the carriage on its
may be used thus it required, as it is obvious, journey.
that if the bolt of the driving arm be with-
drawn the driving arm will revolve without
propelling the wheel. S S, represent the car-
riage springs between which and the wheels
are the driving arms. K K, are the crank
shafts. C C, are the valve boxes of the cyl-
inders. G G, are the parallel l~ars, seen bet-
ter in fig. 1. The valve rods will be easily
distinguished at the extreme ends of the
crank shafts, one of them represented by I.
This form of locomotive for common roads
was used only for dragging other carriages,
It must be known to many ot our readers
that the ingenious Oliver Evans proposed to
drive steam wagons over the roads in Pensyl-
vania. As yet however, no practical test of
this kind of Locomotion has been made in our
country ; in England it has, and weuld have
been successful only it met with such op-
position from the Turnpike trustees and
from one unluckly accident that occurred
on the road between Paisley and Glasgow in
1834, whereby a number of lives were lost.
The experiments made on the Paisley road in
Scotland, were mechanically successfulthe
carriages went through the streets as if drawn
by horses and up and down the hills likewise
On the road between Cheltenham and Glou-
cester, England, they were also successful, me-
chanically speaking. Now as we have no
road-trust aristocracy here, we hope to see
them permanently successful.
RAIL ROAD NEWS.
The Peansyivanla Raiiroad.
This company has published a report of the
chief engineer, upon the progress of the work,
and contains an estimate of the cost. It states
that to secure the objects of the company,
the trade of the west, the subscriptions must
now be filled up. In May 1850, it will be
opened to Holidaysburg, and in connection
with the Portage, there will be a continuous
line of railway, extending from Philadelphia
two hundred and eighty-seven miles, out of
three hundfed and fifty. The western side
will he finished the same year as the eastern.
The report says:
The absolute necessity of this road to the
trade of Philadelphia, is universally acknowl-
edged. The completion of the Cincinnati
and Sandusky road, brings that city within
three days ride of New York for eight months
in the year.
The trade of the Ohio river, which once
belonged exclusively to Philadelphia, is now
diverted to New York by this new channel
of the Lakes. Hundreds of passengers daily
pass over that road to New York; where the
travel goes, there goes the trade.
The Harrisburg and Lancaster Railroad
From the annual report of this company,
its affairs are in a most prosperous condition.
The whole unfunded debt, amounting to up-
wards of $47,000, has been paid off out of the
net surplus receipts of the road ; and after
paying the interest of the funded debt, and
the current expenses of the year,~there will
be a balance in the hands of the Treasurer of
$12,413 11, which, added to the amount paid
off, shows that the profits derived from the
business of the road are more than nine pei~
cent, on the capital stock of the company.
The Board of directors flatter themselves that
the Company us now in such a condition that
the nett profits of the road will be amply
adequate (after payment of interest on the
loans) to pay regular dividends to the Stock-
holders, besides making ajipropriations to-
wards a contingent fund, to liquidate the fun-
ded debt of the Company.
The Injunction applied for by the stock-
holders of the Niagara Bridge against Mr. El-
let, the engineer and contractor, has been re-
fused. This is just as we predicted.
The Arctic Expedition.
The log-book of the cutter Bee, Captain
Weldon, has the following intelligence
July 16. Spoke the schr. Mayflower, Smith
master, who had seen the American whaler
MLellan, of New London, Jacksos, master,
with forty tons of oil. The American reports
her Majestys ships, under Sir J. C. Ross, as
having reached Lievely, Disco Island, on the
2d inst., all well; and Captain Ross had left
despatches for the Admiralty, to be forward-
ed by the first Danish vessel for Europe, and
that Captain Ross immediately proceeded in
search of his friend Sir Jehn Franklin. The
crews were all well. Disco Island lies on
I the west coast of Greenland, at the entrance
to Baffins Bay, near 70 degrees of latitude.
A voyage five or six degrees farther north will
lead to Barrows Straits, and those regions
where intelligence of Sir John Franklin is
most likely to be procured.
STEAM CARRIAGES FOR COMMON ROADS,
The Fair of the American Institute.
The 21st Annual Fair of the Institute open
ed up last week, after storms and rains, into
clear aiid sunny weather inviting a~l who
pleased to visit the Castle. We promised last
week tc say something about the articles ex-
posed for show and observation, and will
therefore say nothing about the appearance of
the Hall, & c., as a description of it one year
might suit, like an almanac, for a first edition
of twenty in succession.
GUYO~ 5 COTTON PRESS.
This press of Mr. H. Guyon, No. 95 Thomp-
son st., this city, appears at the Fair this year
with an entire new and useful improvement.
The long horizontal levers are superseded by
the curved progressive kind and it is thereby
rendered far more compact and portable. Not
a single cog wheel is used,the great objec-
tion to all such kinds of presses. The power
is now applied in a most direct manner, and
we have no doubt but it is now the most per-
fect press of the kind as its works are of the
the most simple and effective order.
FULTON S STEAM PUMP.
Among the novelties in the machine line
is G. W. Fultons Steam Pumpa Baltimure
invention and worthy of no small share of at.
tention. It cannot be better explained than to
say, that the power of the steam is as directly
applied to the pumping of water as in Nas.
myths steam hammer, which was in operation
close beside it, and which is now generally
known and understood.
The most conspicuous water wheel at the
Fair is the centre vent pressure of Havilend
and Tuttle, manufactured at the Fulton Iron
Foundry, South Boston. It runs in a glass
vase along side of Fultons steam pump and
attracts great attention. It has many strong
certificates of very respectable gentlemen as
to its practical qualities. One of five feet in
diameter, with one pair of Burr stones, 5 feet
diameter, ground 40 bushels of corn into mer-
chantable meal in one hour under a head of 7
feet. One experiment gave 2,500 pounds of
merchantable meal in 57 minutes under a head
of 6 feet 2 inches of water (no back water.)
The stones made 144 revolutions per minute.
Under a head ot 4 feet the stones terned out
25 bushels ot good meal per hour.
There ai~e a number of these at the Fair,
the most novel of which is Trempers Ro-
tary already described in our columns. Mr.
Burdon, of 100 Front st, Brooklyn, has two
beauties, which were generally and justly ad-
mired. Mr. Burdon is a very extensive and
excellent builder of portable engines.
The Mattewan Company, N. Y. exhibited a
very fine double cylinder engine, which proves
that Company to excel in Machinery of ev-
ery description, s-ach as shaftingplaning
machines, and machinery for the cotton man-
The Lathes are more numerous this year
than last, and in the forenRst was Mr. Hart-
sons of Gold at., N. Y. There are so many
little odds and ends about the difleretit lathes,
that it is impossible to particularize. We al-
ways look to the correctness and solidity of
the work and material, being convinced that
these characteristics are of the most practical
A very neat and simple elastic metalic
packing was that of Dolliver Johnson, engi-
neer, of Charlestown, Mass. In fact it is the
most simple packing that we have ever seen
and will no doubt come in general use. Messrs.
Allen and Noyes, of Greenbush, N. Y., also
exhibited their metalic packing, but
kind has been made known to our readers be-
fore through our columns.
A great variety of paddle wheels are to be
seen, and some of them sad retrogade move-
ments in the history and theory of propulsion.
The paddle wheel has been a kind of perpe-
tual indion enigma to hundreds, and curious
solutions have been given of the problem. We
will not advert to the absurdities of the ques-
tion, but simply state that all have planetarily
struck for a vertical dip and lift of the paddle
arid many funny plans have been tried to effect
this object. One model at the Fair to accom-
plish this is a good one it is named the Eccen-
tric Paddle, made by a mechanic in this city.
It is the same as Morgans celebrated one and
is new here we believe, although the inven-
tion is somewhat old. We should like to see
some of our river boats try it, as it is the
most simple one of the kind ever brought be-
fore the public.
COTTON GIN CyLINDER.
This invention ~f S. R. Parkhurst is inten-
ded to supersede the present Gin Saws. It is
simply an iron cylinder with angular cut teeth
which appear something like a card, but the
teeth are so many sharp blades, whereby in
the operation the cotton fibres are drawn be-
low the outer surface of the teeth a~d the
seeds are left to fall from the cylinder when it
is cleaned of cotton which is done by the or-
We have neverseen so many beautiful Saws,
as those exhibited by Messrs. Hoe of this city.
Each is ground by a new patent process; and
bright as mirrors. A decided improvement
is observable in these American manufactu-
red Saws of Messrs Hoe from the saws that
used to be exhibited a few years ago.
A number of columns, table tops, & c. of
Scagliola is exhibited by Mr. Farelly, of Ca-
nal st., this city. We have seen many Speci-
mens of this substitute for granite and mar-
ble, but never to our recollection have we
seen any that could compare to the specimens
of Mr. Farelly. They imitate every kind of
fancy marble while the surface is smooth and
brilliant as glass. For ornamental work, in
the interior of dwellings, Scagliola is certain-
ly superior to marble, at least this much can
be said about it, that it can be made of every
variety of color, to carry out the deeorative
design ot any apartment.
ARTIFICIAL SLATE -
Mr. Blake, of Akron, Ohio, exhibits his ar-
tificial slate. This is made from a substance
found in a natural state at Sharon, Ohio. It
is found of the consistence of tallow but by a
few days exposure it becomes perfectly hard.
By grinding the substance and mixing it with
oil, it is said to be an excellent and fire proof
paint. A patent was granted to Mr. Blake
for the application (a singular circumstance,
we think,) and it has been successfully used
both for paint and covering roofs. It really
is an excellent slate. It is lighter and not so
brittle as the Welsh kind. In appearance it
resembles gutta percha.
Mr Derby, of 56 Ann it., this city, also
exhibits fire and water proof paint. All
paint should be water proof, but the fireproof
is an additional quality. This paint is cheap
and should be used extensively for outhouses.
We would heartily recommend it for this pur-
In the Furniture department there are many
improvements, among which we noticed the
Portable Divan Bedstead of G. Clayton, No.
221 Pearl it., this city. Its principal feature
is economy in room, answering both for sofa
and ciuch and so portable that it can be car-
ried about like a trunk. This is an ingenious
and useful invention. There are a number of
other improved pieces of furniture, and useful
machines, which we shall notice next week.
There are about 2000 articles entered, and we
must say that we can only notice but a limited
share of what is new, most of the articles be-
ing exposed more for advertising show than
any thing else. We therefore have and will
confine ourselves to notice only the new and
useful, and for that purpose, we will devote
next week more space to the subject than we
have done this, as articles require a careful
examination from us before we speak of them
confidently, and it is our purpose to speak
only of what is interesting to the mechanical
and scientific world.
fee one night last week while at muster in
Littleton. The coffee was made in a vessel
with a copper bottom, and had stood in it for
several hours. It was partaken af by most of
the company through the evening, and du-
ring the night every one who had partaken of
it was more or less sicksome of them vio-
lently. The surgeon and assistant surgeon
were fortunately there, and attended to their
relief with much success. The number poi-
soried was over forty. Three of the company
who did not drink ot the coffee were not affec-
ted with any of the symptons under which
the others suffered.
The poison, however, could not have been
the effect of the coffee upon the pure metal,
but there must have been an oxide in the
kettle before the coffee was put into it.
Preserves are made in clean copper vessels and
no evil results therefrom.
Quadrature of the Circle.
It is reported that Mr. Seba Smith deliver-
ed a lecture lately at Portland, Maine, on the
Quadrature of the Circle, in the course of
which he claimed that this problem, the solu-
tion of which has from time immemorial set
at defiance ~the ablest m.uuthematicians, and
been demonstrated to be impossible, has at
length been accurately solved by John A.
Parker, formerly of Portland, and now of New
York. Mr. Smith farther stated that several
important astronomical calculations have al-
ready resulted in consequence. The pro.
cesses which led to this solution are in pre-
paration for the press, and will soon be pub.
Whoiesaie Poisoning. An Ancient Press.
Nearly the entire company of the Lowell The Leonardtown, Beacon (Md.) says that
City Guards were poisoned by drinking cof- but few of our readers are aware, we expect,
that the press upon which our little sheet is
printed, is the oldestnow in use in the United
States, and probably in the world. Yet such
is the fact. The press n owin use by us has
been in almost constant service for moi-e than
a hundred years! Upon it was first printed
the Maryland Gazette, the earliest paper
published in the Province of Maryland, and
one among the very first in America. Upon
it, also, was printed the first volume of the
Laws of Maryland that ever appeared. It is
constructed somewhat on the Rammage prin-
ciple, and requires three pulls, though two
were originally sufficient to produce a good
impression. It is truly a venerable object,
and has afforded us matter fQr many an hours
pleasant reflection, and we shall be sorry,
indeed, when the time arrives for it to be re-
moved from the place it has so long occupied
______________________ in our office.
The Matagorda (Texas) Tribune, contains
an account of an oily, yellowish green scorn
which has recently appeared upon the pe-
ninsula and bay shore in that vicinity. It
has an offensive smell, like putrid flesh.
The account says, In Uncle Moses Bayou,
which is some twenty yards wide, and about
four hundred yards long, the matter, whatever
it is, appeared toissue from a particular spot.
It emitted a strong phosphorescent light
when agitated. Great numbers of fish. have
died in the waters by this scum.
Hours of Labor.
The French Assembly having passed the
law fixing the days labor at 12 hours, the
Sturgeon Flesh in Europe. master masons at Paris have attempted to
The flesh is fat, very palatable, and much compel their workmen to labor for that length
better in the Summer, after the fish have been of time, although the days work for that trade
some time in fresh water. That which is has been only 10 hours from time immemo-
not eaten fresh is cut into large slices, salted, rial, and the decree of the Provisional Govern-
peppered, broiled, and put in barrels, where ment, superseded by the law, introduced no
it is preserved in vinegar, and fit for transport. change in it. In consequence of the attempt
A considerable quantity of their flesh is smo- of the employers, the workman have struck.
ked. The wholesale price of pickled Stur- They prefer to suffer the serious inconveni-
geon is from $6 to $12 a hundred weight. The ence of being out of employment to the im-
Caviar is prepared in three different manners Dosition which the masters have sought to
1. 2 lbs of salt are added to 40 lbs of roe and put upon them. In this case the Republie
dried upon mats in the sun. The price of 40 is worse than the monarchy.
lbs. is $1. 2. 8-10 lb. salt is mixed with 4Olbs -
of roe, then dried upon nets or sieves, and Religious Manufacturing Association.
The tendency of large manufacturing estab-
pressed into barrels. This is sold for a little lishments to irreligion, has led to to the
more. 3. The best Caviar is that when the
starting of one in West Springfield, Massa-
roe is put into sacks made of tow cloth, and chusetts, on a new plan. The directors and
left for some time in strong pickle. These agents are to be religious men, and no person
sacks are then suspended in order to let the will be employed who uses profane language,
salt, watery sub-stance run off, and finally violates the Sabbath, drinks intoxicating
squeezed, after which the roe is dried during liquors, or is in any way known to be immo-
12 hours and pressed into barrels. This roe, ral. The board~g-houses will be kept by pi~
of which 40 lbs. are sold for $1 50 at the place, ous persons, and a church opened when the
is that which is sent all over Asia and Europe factory commences, for the use of those em-
as a considerable article of commerce, and ployed. It is intended as an establishment
known by the name of Caviar, and is eaten where christian parents may safely place their
with bread like cheese.
sons and daughters.
Importance of Punctuaiity. We hope that with the profession of piety
Method is the very Hinge of Business ; and they will also mingle the practicewhich
that there is no method without punctuality does not consist in working 14 hours per day
is evident, because it subserves the peace and for. potatoes and salt.
good temper of a family; the want of it not In the city of Boston the increas& of crime
only infringes on necessary duty, but some-
times excludes this duty. The calmness of since 1832, as shown by police cases, has been
over one hundred and fitty per centof this it
mind which it produces fs another advantage said that the increase the past year alone is
of punctuality ; a disorderly man is always one hundred per cent ! The city of Pilgrims
in a hurry ; he has no time to speak to you and the city of Quakers, are outfleeting New
because he is going elsewhere ; and when he York in criminality. What is the remedy
gets there he is too late for his business ; or
he must hurry away before he can finish it. There is now in bloom, in the garden of
Punctuality gives weight to character. Such Drummond Castle, Perthshire, Scotland, a
a man has made an appointment ; then I splendid American aloe, with a stem thirty
know he will keep it. And this generates feet high, supporting 2800 flowers.
punctuality in you ; for like other virtues it
propagates itself. Servants and children must Four thousand paupers boys and girls, will
be punctual where their leader is so. Ap. this year be sent to Australia from Ireland
pointments, indeed, become debts. I owe and 10,000 from England.
you~ punctuality, if I have made an appoint- In his Letters from the United States in
ment with you and I have no right to throw the Manchester Times, Mr. Prentice says:
away your time if I do my Own. I saw more cheerful faces in Connecticut,
than in all the other States put together,
A fish came through the hydrant of a hotel
in Cincinnati lately alive aiid in good condi- The Watertown and Rome Railroad has
tion, and delivered himself up to the autho- been let to a New England company of rail.
rities in the kitchen. It was no doubt a very road builders, who begin operations forthwith.
accommodating fish but scarcely polite enough The cost of grading will amount to nearly
to jump into the Aldermans pot. half a million of dollars.
American Scieinti~c Association.
THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER.
The lands in the Miasissippi Valley are so
subject to the increase of exposure, that we
may hazard the assertion with safety, that
there is not by twenty or twenty-five per cent
as much water now passes down the Missis-
sippi annually as there was twenty-five years
ago. This conclusion is not arrived at hasti-
ly, but by patient observation of the circum-
stances in connection therewith during all
that lengthy period, at whose beginning there
were annual inundations of almost all the low-
er bottom lands and for very lengthy periods
of submergence of almost all the bottom lands,
from the Bluffs or Highlands on one side of
the river botLom to those on the other side,
and in such a degree that but little or no hopes
were entertained of the practicability of their
redemption by any artificial means, that is, on
any scale. But such has been the diminu-
tion in the annual quantity of water discharg-
ed from the Valley, that those lands have been
progressively and rapidly redeemed from over-
110w, until very great portions of them are
iow in the highest state of cultivation, and
with but comparatively slight assistance from
art, in the way of embankments, and these
such as would not have been at all available
against the overwhelming effects of former
floods, and the length of time of their conti-
nuance; then there were lengthy and annual
inundations; both deep and expansive, of the
Waters over almost all the bottom-lands; but
now the River seldom rises in the same eleva-
tion as formerly, and when it does it is of much
shorter duration, and the waters are almost
exclusively confined to the channel of the
River, in place of being spread over almost
all the bottom-lands the whole Spring and
early part of Summer. All the advantages
are progressively but as rapidly extending
themselves, while the causes remain unsus-
pected or overlooked, but none the lees secure.
As a farther evidence of the altered condition
of this River, we may mention the circum-
stance, that in former times the steamboats
ascending or descending the River were de-
tained about half their time by dense fogs,
now hardly any such obstructions prevail
so that packets succeed in making their trips
to an hour with no fears of such retardatiois.
Assuming that the diminution of the water
will continue in somewhat the same ratio
they have recently done, the time cannot be
very far distant when all apprehension from
inundation will have in a great measure pas-
sed away. We will farther remark, as an
evident change, that the quantity of floating
timber or drift wood passing annually down
the river has diminished in a far greater ratio
than that of the water, so that the aggregate
quantity casinot now be over 50 per cent. of
that which formerly passed down.
We will now give you the quantity of soily
matter with which the waters of the Missis-
sippi are annually charged, together with its
effects in the formation of lands or filling up
of depressions. In order to arrive at these
requiied facts, the following methods were
adopted: first, a series of glass vessels of cyl-
indrical form were procured, to one end of
which was attached a tin tube of the same
cylindrical diameter as that of the glass yes-
sels to which it was attached in the tin tube
immediately above its junction with the glass
cylinder there was inserted a small brass
cock, by which the tin tube could be conve-
niently discharged of its contents at pleasure
without causing disturbance to the contents
of the glass vessels belowthis tin tube was
in length 48 inches. This tube was charged
with water from the Mississippi River, and
this water allowed time to deposit its contents
into the glass vessel below; that being ac-
complished, the water was drawn off, and the
tube recharged by water from the river, each
particular charge being noted This wds suc-
cessively repeated from the ditlerent condi-
tions and stages of the rivers heightand velo-
city, which very materially affects the quan
tity of suspension, this by a succession of such
changings and disckiargings of the tin tube,
amounting in all to 484 times, or, in the
aggregate, to a column of water of 1,936 feet
from which column of water there was deposi
ted a column of sediment inclosed in three
tubes of 44 inches. Assuming that, therefore,
to be the true quantity and the true product
of a column of river water of 23,232 inches,
it necessarily follows that as 44 is to 23,232,
sois the quantity of sedimentary matter con-
tained in the water to the volume of the river
or, in other figures and words, the mean pro-
- portional quantity of sediment to the river is
as 1 to 528.
We have already ascertained the quantity
of water annually discharged by the Missis-
sippi River to be, 14,883,360,636,880 cubic
feet, there must then be deposited from that
quantity of water, 28,188,083,892,1-6 cubic
feet of solid matter. -
Being in possession of the data by which
may be computed with some approximation
to certainty, the efiects of the Mississippi
deposits in the formation of land, or in filling
up the Gulf into which it is emptied, we will
avail ourselves of such data, and endeavor to
present the quantites deducible therefi-om. In
estimating the Delta of the Mississippi, we
have adopted for it the superfices assumed by
Dr. Lyell, in his investigation of this subject,
and will say with that gentleman that the
Delta of the Mississippi River comprehends
all that great alluvial plain which lies below
or to the south of what until recently, was the
first branching off or highest arm of the
river called the Achafalaya. This Delta is
computed to contain a superficial area of 13,-
600 square miles.
In deciding on the depth of this quantity
we will adopt that which was assumed by
Prof. Riddell on this subject, and say that it
is of the average depth of one fifth of a mile
or 1,055 feet, inferred from that being the
average depth of the Gulf ot Mexico, from
the Balize to the point of Florida.
We find by computation, agreeable to the
above data that it would require a quantity
not less than 400,318,429,440,000 cubic feet,
or 2,720 cubic miles solid matter to constitute
this Delta, having ascertained the quantity
of solid matter annually brought down by
the Mississippi river to be 28,188,083,892 cu-
bic feet, which would be equal to one square
mile of the depth of 1,056 leet in 381 1-5 days
or one cubic mile in 5 years and 81 daysit
therefore- follows that it would require a series
of 14,2uci 4-~ years for the river to effect the
final formation of the preeent delta.
We are not disposed to consider that great
alluviar plain, stretching with the river from
the above designated Delta, as far up as -
Cape Gerardian in Missouri, as any other
part of the delta proper, nor can it ever have
been any continuation of the Gulf of Mexico.
The evidences are vastly against any such eon-
clusion, inasmuch as the deltavial which -con-
stitutes the highlands bordering on each side of
this alluvial plain, by its general distribution
would have been equally deposited in such
gulfs or arms of the sea, which in reality
could not have been the case, for the river has
excavated through this diluvial and exposed
it in many places, resting on what is evidently
of another formation; and such is not only
found to be the case at the base of the diluvi.
at hilts, but the same formation is found
also to constitute the bed of the river at many
other points detached for very considerable
distances from any highlands.
This bed of the river is a substance of en-
tirely different character from the corfiposi-
tion of any part of the diluvial bluffs, and
possesses all the characteristics of a well
formed rock, which requires a pick to effect
its reduction. - The superficial area of the
valley has been found to be about 16,000
square miles, bounded by highlands on either
side, ranging from 50 to 250 feet high above
the level of the plain. Should this space
therefore have been reduced or excavated
by the i-iver as we assumed, it must have
transported the diluvial matter, and caused it
to form part of its delta. Now assuming the
average height of th~. highlands above the
plains to be 150 feet, we would ther& fore ob-
tain 454k cubic miles, or 66,908,160,000,000
cubic feet of matter, as its proportionable
contribution in the formation of the Delta
the balance required being 332,470,269,440,
000 cubic feet to be derived from the reduc-
tion of other lands; the two sources being
to each other as I to ~.98, or by giving an-
other expression to the same quantities, there
is in the Delta 2,720 cubic mites of matter;
454k of which would be derived from the
diluviaia iii the excavation of this valley, the
other portion would consist of 2,265k cubic
miles to be derived from other sources or the
reduction of other lands.
also by the heat of boiling water, applied
along with skillful pressure. But in whatever
way this process is attempted, the surfaces to
be united should be made very smooth, level,
and clean: the least foulness even the touch
of the finger, or breathing upon them, would
prevent their coalescence.
We have now traced this great river through Gypsum Mounds in Western New York.
a period of 14,204 years, but how it was cc Throughout the Onondago Salt Group it is
cupied before that time or what was the con- known that in the limestone beds of this forma-
dition of the country over which its waters tion, dome-shaped masses of gypsum occur,
passed, is mote than we can safely venture to
saybut on particular examination of the which have raised up the superior strata,
bluiTh. which bound its present plain, it 11 fracturing them, while a large portion of the
rock has disappeared. These masses vary
be very difficult to resist the conviction that from small lumps one or two feet in diameter,
the river has great agency in depositing the to hillocks of 200 feet base and 50 height; the
upper and loamy stratum which varies from
- testimony of the residents in this portion of
a few feet to upwards of fifty in thickness, 10 the country unites in proving that these are
all of which stratum there is abundance of yet in progress of formation, several isistances
land and pluriatile shells, such as those now having occurred where a gradual elevation
found in thc present deposit from the river, of the earth has fractured walls and raised
We have found the age of that deposit to the foundations of houses, where an ezamina-
be not less than 14,204 years, through all of tion has disclosed one of these gypsum
which time the waters have been actively mounds, a few feet below the surface.
engaged in changing the face of the country The Acid Springs, which belong to these
and transporting 2,720 cubic miles of its mat- rocks are peculiar as containing a large amount
ter to a far distant location. The above may
be said to comprehend all the required par-
ticulars with respect to the waters of the
Mississippi River or its deposits.
Gunpowder and Greek Pare.
M. R~naud has lately discovered an Ara-
bian MS. of the thirteenth century, which
proves that compositions identically with
gunpowder in all but the granulations, were
and had been for a long time pr~viously, in
the possessinis of the Arabs; and that there is
every probability they had obtained them
from the Chinese, in. the ninth century.
Many of these were called Greek fire ; and
comparing the account of Joinville, of the
wars on the Nile in the time of St. Louis,
with the Arabic recip~s, there can be little
doubt that we are now in possession of what
was ther. termed Greek fire. Mr. Groves
F.R S., who has investigated the subject ex-
perimentally as well as historically, concludes
that the main element of Greek fire, as cot-
tradistinguished from other inflammable sub-
stances, was nitre, or a salt containing much
oxygen ; that Greek fire and gunpowder were
substantially the same thing; and that the
development of the invention had been very
slow and gradual, and had taken place long
antecedent to the date of Schwartz, the monk
of Cologne, A. D. 1320, to whom the inven-
tion of gunpowder is generally attributed;
thus adding to the innumerable it not un-
exceptionable cases, in which discoveries
commonly attributed to accident, and to a
single mind, are found upon investigation to
have been progressive, and the result of the
continually improving knowledge of succes-
Tortoise-shell, or rather scales, a horny
substance, that covers the hard strong cover-
ing of a bony cobtexture, which encloses the
Testudo imbricata, Linn. The lamelltri or
plates of this tortoise are 13 in number, and
may be readily separated from the bony parts
by placing fire beneath ~he shell, thereby they
start asunder. They vary in thickness from
one eight to one quarter of an inch, accordin,
to the age and size of the animal, and weight
from S to 2.i pounds. The larger the animal,
the better is the shell. This substance may
be softened by the heat of boiling water; and
if compressed in this state by screws in iron
or brass moulds, it may be bent into any shape
The moulds being then plunged in cold water,
the shell becomes fixed in the form imparted
by the mould. If the tornings or filings of
tortoise-shell be subjected skilfully to gradu-
ally increased compression between moul~fs
immersed in boiling water, compact objects
of any desired ornameiital figure or device
may be produced The soldering of two
pieces of scale is easily effected, by placing
their edges toaelher, after they are nicely fil-
ed to one bevel, and then squeezing them
bet weet, the long flat jiws of hot iron pinchers,
iiiade somewhat like a hair dressers curling-
tongs. The pinchers should be srroiig, thick,
and just hut enough to brown paper slightly
without burning it. They may be soldered
of free sulphric acid, besides portions of sul-
phates of lime, magnesia, iron and alumina.
They have been observed in the townships
of Byron, Elba, and Warren, N. Y. and also
near Brantford, in Western Canada. That
near Brantford contains, by analysis, about S
parts in 1,000 of sulphuric acid. The amount
of baser materials is very small,while an
examination of the same spring, three years
since, shows that although the water was less
acid it contained as large an amount ofsulphates
as at present, and vas a saturated solution of
gypsum. It evolved large quantities of car-
bonic acid gas. The spring was situated on a
small hillock, near the roots of a large pine
tree now in decaywhile the earth around
was barren for several rods. These fiucts show
that the spring has burst out, within a very
recent period, and that from some cause or
other it is rapidly changing. The decrease
in the amount of lime, while the amount of
free acid is increased, plainly indicates that
it no longer acts on the limestone rocks
which here underlie; and lead to the conclu-
sion, which must be regarded as at least very
probable, that by this action on the calcareous
rock it has formed a mass of gypsum, which
by its crystalization and expansion has raised
the mound and at length formed such a mass
as to protect the limestone from ifs farther ac-
On Some Properties of Alumina.
It has been observed by Wittstein that the
precipitate which is obtained from the per.
sulphate or per-chloride of iron, if kept for a
great length of time in water, loses almost
entirely the property of being soluble in ace-
tic acid. Mr Phillips noticed a similar phe-
nomenon with alumina, arising without doubt
from the action of the cohesive forces. Where-
as the sesquioxide of iron requires one, or
probably two years for the production of the
effect; alumina undergoes the change partially
ma very short time :the precipitated alum-
ma does not, however, assume a crystalline
appearance, stated to be the case with coher-
ing sesquioxide of iron, If the precipitated
alumina is kept for two days moist, and in the
solution from which it was precipitated, even
sulphuric acid does net immediately dissolve
It is to a monk that we are indebted for the
discovery of Antimony as a metal. Antimo-
ny, although known for a long time, had ex-
ercised the untiring patience and researches
of the most zealous and ardent alchemists,
who deceived by its lustre, had entertained
the hope of converting it into a niore perfect
metal, the ideal of ail their operations, that is
to say, silver or gold. Antimony was long
used in a most queer manner for certain dis-
eases in which this metal was thought benefi-
cial, by being administered only in small
doses. To obtain this result, small halls of
this metal were made and were known under
the name of perpetual pills, because of their
being transmitted from generation to gene-
ration, without having lost any of their pur~
gative p roperties.
New Boring Machine.
Mr. D. Mathews, superintendant of Messrs.
Murray & Co.s machine shop Baltimore, Md.
has invented a new Boring Machine which
our valuable exchange the Baltimore Sun, says
will doubtless be of great advantage to ma-
chinists, since its susceptibility of application
to boring generally is guarantied by the pe-
culiar principles contained in its construction.
Some idea of its advantages may be inferred
from the fact that it Wili accomplish the ex-
ecution of a work in one-sixth of the time
ordinarily required by the common process,
and will bore out more than fifteen hundred
pounds of heavy metal in twenty hours. An-
other great advantage derivable from its con-
struction is proven by the mode of operation,
creating the eyes by the extraction of the me-
tal in one piece, whereas the plan generally
used, chisels the substance in such a manner
as to produce shavings, thereby occasioning
New Piano Attachment.
Messrs. Boardman and Gray, Piano Forte
manufacturers, Albany, N. Y, have lately in-
vented a new attachment which is styled the
Dolce Compana, and produces, when attached
to the Piano, a sound not unlike the rich
music of the bells of the Swiss ringers,
lately among us.
Those who have heard it pronounce it to
be more beautiful and soft than what was
called Colemans Lolian Attachment, (but
which turned out to be Coopers of Savannah,
improvement in Pumps.
ThornasE. Shull, of Lewistown,has inven-
ted an improved Double acting force and lift
New process to Color Stone and to make
it hard and impermeable.
This is a recent French invention to make
porus stone impermeable to moisture and also
to color itany color. Whether this is the
stone used in Paris for printing on the com-
mon press, or not, we cannot tell, although it
is somewhat reasonable to suppose that if a
figure is drawn upon porous stone with a tal-
low crayon, and then the rest of the stone
bit down with sulphuric acid to leave the
lines clear, then hardened as follows, it would
print well on the common press.
When the stone is wanted a dark color, a
solution is made of 83 parts tar, 10 parts bitu-
men and 3 parts tallow with a small portion
of linseed oil. These ingredients are put in
a suitable vessel, and boiled; the patentee
prefers using a boiler with a cover, in which
a pipe is inserted, by which the spirit and
gases liberated in the boiling can be carried
off and condensed. When the solution boils,
the stone is placed on a suitable frame, and
lowered by a small crane into the boiling so-
lution. The stone is placed in a frame for
the greater convenience of removing it from
When the stone has~to be soaked through,
it will require to be left in the boiling solu-
tion for from 8 to 48 hours, according to the
size of the stone; but if it is required that the
solution should penetrate one inch, two hours
immersion will be sufficient; or for two in-
ches, four hours; or for four inches, eight
hours ; but the time required will vary with
different kinds of stonesome stone is of that
porous nature, that the pores at the surface
will not become filled up even after long con-
tinued boiling; in this case mix with a por-
tion of the above-mentioned solution, a mix-
ture of carbonate of lime, rust of iron, gra-
nite, and potters clay, in fine powder. The
stone is allowed to cool, and then this com-
pound is applied to the surface with a hot
iron or other convenient means.
When it is required that the stone should
be of a light color, instead of employing tar as
the base of the solution, employ resin of the
slightest color that can be obtained, together
with turpentine and other oils, and all kinds
of gum, in the proportion of 80 parts turpen-
tine, 1~ per cent. resin, and the proportions
of gums according to the nature; this solution
is applied to the stone in the same manner as
the above. When the stone is required to
have a clear white color, add to the above last
mentioned solution, white lead, and zinc, and
carbonate of lime. In all cases when the stone
is tq be colored, this last-mentioned compound
is always to be used as a ground, to which
may be added for a redred lead, oxide of
iron, Chinese red,-Chinese vermillion, dra-
gons blood; for greenacetate of copper,
We here present two views of a machine in-
vented by Messrs. Dowdy & Sweet, No. 33
Cross st. this city. Fig 1 is a side elevation
and fig, 2 a view of the cutter stock and cut-
ters. A, is a stout table. H, is a strong up-
right post in the middle of the table. To this
post the cutter shaft C, is secured by proper
bearings D D, to allow it to revolve. F, is a
screw which passes through a bearing G, into
an opening in the head of N. J, is an eleva-
ting bed or rest for the plank that is to be cut
into bungs. It is fixed on a treadle J, which is
by a foot spring K, which when pressed upon
towards L, the bong bed is elevated through
an opening in the middle of the table, and as
the foot presses K, so is the plank fed up to
the cutter till the hung is cut, when the foot
being released the hung is driven out by a
spiral spring which will be better understood
by fig, 2.
A, is the cutter stock. It is of a cylindri-
Prof. Ehrenberg has discovered that bog
iron ore, from which the beautiful Berlin
castings are made, originates from an animal-
cule that once had life, the whole mass being
composed of the bodies of myriads of these
animals; and that the Tripoli or polishing
powder, so extensively used in the arts and
in Berlin to form the castings of moulds in
the iron-foundries, is entirely con-iposed of
the shells of similar animalcule, capable o~
Brunswick green; for bluecobalt, Prussian
blue; for yellowochre.
This is the subject of a foreign pttent to
Francois Teychene, now of LondonED.
Yankee Music in London.
The London Atheneum for August announ-
ces the arrival at 142 Strand, of one of the
best specimens of pianofortes, manufactur-
ed by Chickering, of Boston ; price seventy
Aye, Mrs. Atheneum, Brother Jonathan is
not only bound to cool all the wine in Eng-
land with his icemake all the babies dance
with his jumper, but is bound to make all the
Dutchesses, Countesses and all the other ss
trip the light fantastic toe to Chickerings
cal form with an opening through the centre
and a thread a short distance at the upper end
to screv in the shaft C. In the centre of the
cutter stock is a spindle with a spiral spring
on it represented by D. The spring does not
reech to the ends of die spindle, The spin-
dle by an opening in C, the shaft, is allowed
to pass into it when the plank is fed into the
cutters, but when this bung is cut this spiral
spring in the centre of the cutter stock re-
coils as the feed table is lowered and throws
out the cut bong. This is the object and use
of the interior spiral spring and spindle. G
F H, are the cutters. Each is a distinct piece
and each performs a different office. They
are all set on to the cutter stock which is
turned on the outside, leaving them to sit
around it like a ring, where they are covered
with a snug collar B, and a screw E E, for
each cutter secures them to the cutter stock.
The inside of the cutters is like a cup and
they are arranged almost like screws of diffe-
rent pitch. F, has two little spurs on it one
on the inner side and the other on the outer.
These cut the cresses of the groove in the
plank for the bong, when H follows after
and scoops it out, cutting on the outside of
the hungboth of these cut straight without
any taperG, is the taper cutter. It is gradu-
ated in the edge to the bottom of the cutter
stock, therefore it gradually planes the taper
of the hung, after the other two cutters have
done the rough work. This makes the work
easy on the machine, which cuts out about 20
bungs per minute, hand fed, with great ease
On fhe bottc~n of the stock in the inside of the
cutters, there is a small knife that rims off the
edge of the hung. This machine has been
in operation successfully for some time, and
measures have been taken to secure a patent.
bearing a red heat without destroying their
outer casting or shells. Our inoulders are
practically acquainted with this fact already.
At a recent meeting of the Academy of
Medicine, Paris, M. Blandin argued that,
contrary to general opinion, in gunshot
wounds the ball caused a larger wound at
its point of entrance than it did at the point of
ISSUED FROM THE UNITED STATEs PATENT
For the week ending Oct. 3, 1848.
To James E. Ellen, of Granville Co. N. C.
for improvement in machines for cleaning To-
bacco leaves. Patented Oct. 3, 1848.
To Cornelius L Goodrich, of Ann Harbor,
Michigan, for improved machine for planish-
ing and hammering metal. Patented Oct. 3,
To Jos. M. Marsh, of New York City, for
improvement in Printing Presses. Patented
Oct. 3, 1848.
To John Robertson, of Brooklyn, N. Y.,
for improved method of manufacturing Sheet
Lead. Patented Oct. 3, 1848.
To E. C. Sherman, of Philadelphia, Pa.,
for improvement in Cream Freezers. Paten-
ted Oct. 3, 1848.
- To A. D. Brown, of New York City. for im-
provement in Harness Saddles. Patented Oct.
To E. J. Mallet, of New York City, for im-
proved Bell Telegraph. Patented Oct. 3,1846.
To Edwin Butterfield, joint inventor with
and assignee of G. W. Clark, of Lowell, Mass.
for improvement in Mills for Grinding. Pa-
tented Oct. 3, 1848.
To E. Sampson and C. S. Collier, of Wen-
thersfield, Vt., for improvement in Scales for
Weighing. Patented Oct. 3, 1848.
To Lewis Norton, of Madison, Conn., for
improvement in Mills for Grinding. Patented
Oct. 3, 1848.
To Marvin Smith, of Meriden, Conn, for
improved Table Cutlery. Patented Oct. 3,.
To J. W. Wilson, of Syracuse, N. Y., for
improvement in machines for Hoisting. Pa-
tented Oct. 3, 1848.
To Zachariah Griffin, of Montgomery, Ala.
for improvement in Mills for Grinding. Pa-
tented Oct. 3, 1848.
To Levi Hall, of Adrian, Michigan, for im-
proved Saddle Frame. Patented Oct. 3, 1848.
To William B. North, of Jersey City, N. J.
for improvement in Mills for Grinding. Pa-
tented Oct. 3, 1848.
To Edward Rouse, of Augusta, Maine, for
improved method of Steering Vessels. Paten-
ted Oct. 3, 1848.
To R. B. and A. C. Jennings, of Livermore,
Maine, for improvement in Horse Rakes. Pa-
tented Oct. 3, 1848.
To J. Yoder, J. Gillford, and E. Grover, of
Juniata, Pa., for improvement in Corn Plan-
ters. Patented Oct. 3, 1848.
To James Bogardus, of New York City, for
Sun and Planet Horse Power. Patented Au-
gust 29, 1848. ClaimWhat he claims is
making the central standard in which the
central shafts turns and on- which the main
sleeve of the travelling wing turns a part of,
and projecting upwards from the base frame
of which the master wheel makes part, when
this is combined with the wing, to which
the horse level or beam is attached, and
made with two sleeves, one fitting to and
turning on the central standard, and the other
forming the box for the arbor or shaft of the
To Frances Kelsey, of New York City, for
improvement in mill stones. Patented Aug.
29th, 1848. What he claims is the mode of
constructing mill stones by means of the face
plate, groove strips, and partition boards, and
the mode of arranging and securing the grind-
To Win. Eashy, of Washington, D. C., for
method of converting fine coal into solid
lumps. Patented Aug. 29th, 1848. What
he claims is the formation of small particles
of any variety of coal into solid lumps by
BUNG CUTTING MACHINE.---Flgure 1.
The Telegraphic System.
Tne subject of Telegraphs at the present
moment, is engaging deeply the hearts ami
minds of our people. From the east and the
west letters have poured in upon us respect-
ing the legitimate and true claims of telegra-
phic inventors. The late decision of Judge
Monroe of Kentucky, granting an absolute
injunction, against a system of telegraphing
use4 by H. OReilly, Esq. because it conflict-
ed with the claims of Professor Morse, has
been the subject of many bulky communica-
tionsto a great number of our newspapers.
We have already expressed our opinions up-
on that decision, so far as it touched one point
of the conflict, viz, the Electro Magnetic Te-
legraph. There is another point of that de-
cision on which we have not yet expressed
our opinion, viz. Electro Magnetism. From
the decision of Judge Monroe, unjust as it is
ridiculousthe exclusive monopoly of Elec-
tro Magnetism is held to be secured to Profes-
sor Morse, for telegraphic purposes. Now
Professor Morse has no right or title or claim
to any other mode but that of the Electro
Magneta mechanical use of the magnet in
combination with a galvanic current. This
we are prepared to show, awl will say no more
at present upon the subject, but will com-
mnence next week and publish a series of ar-
ticles on this subject, so as to set clearly be-
fore the minds of our readersthe distinctive
features of the different telegraphs, and the
claims of telegraphic inventors. We consi-
der it is our duty to do this, as there are ma-
ny conflicting opinions on the subject, and
there is too much partisan feeling exhibited
by the interested friends of opposing parties
to judge calmly of the matter.
As the Scientific American is happily al-
ways clear of party interest in conflicting
claims, we are thereby, not from superior at-
tainments but circumstantial and business du-
ty, enabled, perhaps, to give the subject a
more calm examination than any other paper.
The 1~1echaniC Arts.
The true value of the mechanic arts, is be-
coming more extensively known, and the
rights of the toilers more firmly and honestly
advocated. We are glad to see thisit is ev-
idence of a more divine spirit infused into
onr popular literature, than when priest and
poet held the working classes to be nothing
but appendages of the rich mans estate or
the titled nobles pompous train. The arti-
cle which follows this is selected from the
New York Sun of last week, and we justly
deem it tobe a clear and energetic exposition
of the value of the Industrial Artsand the
benefit of those arts to every country that en-
courages them. We poblish it for its real
worth and with the hope that more attention
and encouragement would be given to our in-
ventors and mechanics, for it is a stubborn
fact, that while huge tomes are printed for
the benefit of our agricultural interests, and
the information contained therein collected by
our Patent Office,a few pages only are devoted
to the mechanical interests of our country,
and the most important information in refer-
ence to last yee~s inventions, has not yet been
printed. The interests of our mechanical
classes are sacrificed in a great measure to those
of another class. Our inventors have justly
complained of this, and we hope that this
will call attention to the subject in the right
quarter. We seek no more than even-handed
Value of lanufactures to a Country.
Whoever enchances the v alue of a mate-
rial for use or trade, is as much a producer as
he who produces the material itself. Though
the soil is the basis of production, inasmuch
as its mines, forests and farm-fields yield the
raw material to labor, there are after-trans-
mutations and transformations which in car-
rying the raw material to its inal uses add to,
double, and often give a thousand fold value
to that material. The flax, hemp, cotton and
wool of the farmer owe more than fifty per
cent, of their glory to other hands, before
they arrive at their highest uses and value.
Thus communities may flourish in wealth
and production, without turning a furrow,
delving in a mine or hewing down a tree in a
forest. Manufacture is equally noble, useful
and productive as its basis, agriculture ; and
no nation can be rich and powerful in com-
merce that does not foster it. Few consider
how much manufacture adds to the wealth of
nations, by enhancing the value of its raw
materials. How much more the ship is
worth complete from the hands of art than
the timber, iron and hemp of which it is
composedor the broadcloth, than the wool
and dye-woods used in its fabricor the boots,
than the leather in the tanners vats.
A pound of cotton wool worth as raw mate-
rial ten cents, has been made worth twenty
five dollars by trie process of spinningwoven
into muslin and ornamented iii a tambour, its
value has been raised to seventy-five dollars.
An ounce of Flanders thread h~ss been sold
for twenty dollars, while, made into lace, the
same ounce has been sold for two hundred
dollars. Steel may by manufacture, be made
three hundred times dearer than standard
gold, weight for weight. Lead manufactured
into small printing type, is increased twenty
eight times in value. Iron made into needles
is increased in value seventy-five times
into the finest scissors, nearly five hundred
times ; as blades of pen knives, seven hun-
dred times; as sword handles, polished steel,
one thousand times.
Thus, manufacture is the best friend of that
labor which brings forth the raw material,
and the manufacturer from ten to a thousand
times a greater producer than the cotton
grower and the miner. The raw material is
the basis, but manufacture is the crown of
national wealth, and the chapter of political
economy which man should most study, is
that which relates to arts by which the value
of his raw material is increased ad-infinitum.
Those are the arts of manufacture
New Telegraphic Line.
A new line of Telegraph is about to be put
in operation between this city and Boston by
We have been informed that Bains electro
chemical telegraph (a cut of which appear-
ed in No. 35 vol. 3 of the Scientific American,)
is to be used on this line, and, for the trans-
mission of foreign news at least, it will dis-
tance all competition, as by it 1000 letters
can be transmitted from Boston to this city in
one minute. It will do all the business with
We last week visited the rooms of Mr. Bain
in Broadway, this city, and we must confess
that we believe him to be the first electric
engineer in the world. Perpetual motion may
be said to be achieved by his electric clock,
for it will go for 100 years without winding
up. His autograph telegraph is exceedingly
ingenious as by it the fac simile of any per-
son s handwriting may be sent from this city
to any other in the Union, and this too with-
out an operator touching the machine after it
is once set in motion. This is a wonderful
invention, and is as yet in its infancy.
We have no doubt but electric clocks will
yet supersede all other kinds. They are very
simple and require no attention whatever. A
battery composed of a few inches of zinc and
charcoal, will propel one for years, and one
battery will keep fifty clocks in motion as ea-
sily as one. One clock in this city will keep
fifty clocks in motion at all the different tele-
graph stations connected with the central one
Progress In Useful Art.
Mr. G. H. Backus, 44 Fulton-st. is now
manufacturing Paper Mache goods, such as
Japanned Tables, Chairs, & c. & c., heretofore
exclusively imported from Europe or from
China, and is determined to surpass the best
foreign articles in his line, at once in beau-
ty, durabillity and cheapness. His specimens
of inlaid ornamental Japanned work are
now ready for the pribhic, but they can
scarcely fail to win admiration and patronage;
and if he were but knavish enough to pass off
his fabrics as freshly impoited from Paris, he
might rapidly acquire a fortune.
The Camera Lucida,
This is the name given to a beautiful lit-
tle instrument designed as an assistant in the
art of drawing, by means of which any person,
without previous practice or instruction is
enabled to produce upon paper, with pen or
pencil a correct drawing of any desired object,
whether of landscape, portrait, building or
machine. The principle of the Camera Lu-
cida has long being known, being similar to
the Camera Obscura ; its present portable form
however, so as to be applicable to landscape
and other drawings, is a recent invention and
evi~leritly of great utility. By the simple ar-
rangementof a mirror and lenses in this in-
strument, a most perfect representation in mi-
niature of the object desired to be drawn, is
thrown down upon the paper in front of the
operator, and to trace with a pencil the out-
line and shading of this representation is the
only labor to produce a correct and elegant
drawing. The instrument is 14 inches long
by 10 inches wide at its base, about 12 inches
high, shaped as seen in the above cut. A is
a slide in the top of the instrument, within
which the mirror and lenses are placed. B
is a small knob or handle by which the slide
is raised or depressed in order to change the
focus to suit different eyesights. C is a shal-
low drawer at the bottom wherein the paper
is placed upon which the drawing is to be
made. The reflection of the objecr enters the
aperture in the slide, seen near A, and strik-
ing on a mirror inside, placed at an angle of
45 degrees, the rays are thus thrown down-
wards through the lenses within, and fall up-
on the white paper in the drawer below, form-
ing upon it a most brilliant and correct repre-
sentation of the object in front of the Camera.
D is an aperture through which the operator
looks down upon the image on the paper to
guide the hand while tracing. On each side
of the instrument is an arm hole or sleeve, E,
through which the hands are introduced
while drawing, sufficiently large to allow them
an easy and free movement. Those who have
used the Camera Lucida are at first surprised
at the elegance and correctness which the in-
strument enables them to execute drawings.
As a medium for useful amusement in families
it is unequalled; the portraits of all its mem-
eers can be taken by one of their own number
as well as pictures of the homestead and sur-
rounding scenery. Of-its great convenience
and utility to almost every person, it is unne-
cessary to speak, as it speaks for itself. For
the convenience of our subscribers and others,
we have lately had a large number of the
most approved kind constructed, and have
them now ready for sale at the very low sum
of $6 each. We can send them in boxes with
perfect safety to any part of the United States
and those who wish them have only to en-
close to us by mail the amount above named
and they shall be promptly supplied.
The Weather Strip.
This is a very useful and simple invention,
and no door that opens to the street especially,
should be without it. It costs but little, while
it saves much, both by keeping out rain in
wet weather and cold in the winter season
The Agent for it in this State, is Mr. Thomas
Judd, of Geneva, an upright dealer, who vis-
ited us last week and exhibited the Weather
Strip. He is now in Pennsylvania selling
rights and will be found for a few weeks in
This disease will perhaps reach us next
year, if not, so much the better, but it is al-
ways prudent to prepare for the worst. The
cholera appears to be carried by a poison in-
fused in the atmosphere, which acts with pe-
culiar intensity on the mucous membrane ef
the alimentary canal. The irritation set up
in the membrane, in most cases, is not vio-
lent at first, but if it be allowed to continue
many hours unchecked, it produces such a
change in the membrane, that the thin and
colorless portion of the blood is poured out
from it with the same rapidity as if a large
opening were made in the great vein of the
arm. Our care must therefore be directed
against the presence of an atmosphere which
is rendered impure by neglected drainage and
the want of proper ventillation and means of
promoting salubrity. Documents published
by the British Government show that chole-
raic poison has been freely propagated in all
those districts where drainage was neglected,
and filth allowed to accumulate, and also show
as clearly that places kept free from damp
and impurity, and where personal cleanliness
and the general health were attended to, were
scarcely ever visited with the malady. The
Dutch, the cleanest people in the world, es-
Florida Reef and Everglades,
At last the Senate of the United States has
been aroused from its lethargy on the subject
of the wrecks on the Florida Reefs and Keys,
by the mass of evidence submitted to that bo-
dy by the Hon. Mr. Westcott. His Report
shows that the average of a million of dollars
value is annually wrecked on the Florida Reef
and Keys, for the want of an accurate chart of
that coast. Not less than fifty three vessels
were wrecked in 1846, valued, with their car-
goes, at sixteen hundred and twenty four thou-
sand dollars. To prevent a renewal of such
disasters, he proposes that our merchants me-
morialize Congress, that the coast surveyors
be instructed to explore that part of Florida
without further delay. He also remarks, that
although Florida has been held by the United
States for twenty seven years yet no original
American Chart has ever been made of its
dangerous coast; that navigators have to de-
pend upon old Spanish charts, and those made
by the British from 1763 to 1784, and imita-
tions of them by Blunt and others. It is also
proposed to drain the Everglades, a work
which we hope will be executed. Central
Florida is perhaps the finest country in the
world, not even excepting the valley of Da-
Will our worthy exchange, the Albion,
St. John, N. B. examine page 176 of the Glas-
gow Practical Mechanic for 1847, and stand
somewhat corrected. The volume, we be-
lieve, is in the St. Johns Mechanics Library.
It is not original even with the excellent Ma-
gazine to which we refer, as the process was
in our possession before the date of its pub-
In the course of one or two weeks we will a-
gaincommence the publication of the specifica-
tions of Planing Machine PatentsBenthams
of 1793, Emmons, Muirs, & c. in succession.
Disease from Intemperance.
Dr. Darwin speaking of disease in London
says it is remarked that all the diseases aris-
ing from drinking spirituous or fomented
liquors are liable to become hereditary, even
to the third generation ; and gradually to in-
crease, if the cause be continued, till the fa-
mily becomes extinct.
Persons wishing to subscribe for this paper
have only to enclose the amount in a letter di
rected (post paid) to
MUNN & COMPANY,
Publishers of the Scientific American, Ne~
TERMs.$2 a year; ONE DOLLAR IN
ADVANCEthe remainder in 13 months
Postmasters are respectfully requested to
receive subscriptions for this Paper, to whom
a discount of 25 per cent will be allowed.
Any person sending us 4 subscribers for 6
months, shall receive a copy of the paper for
the samelength of time
NEW YORK, Oi.~aOBER 14, 1848.
30 ~citntit~t american.
For the Scientific American.
Pateiit Laws.SelIIrg before the issue privilege of notice of conflicting applica. Foreign Correspondence. man; and I have no doubt
if there is any per-
of a Patent. tions, (not conflicting Caveats.) Dear Scient~/lc.Trade in our city is still son living who can Construct a good
No 2. As the statute says nothing concerning sales enshrouded in gloomthe foreign market UP. gine, Mr. McDowall is the person. It
By ~I5 Act of 1S36, it is enacted that if a under Caveats, they must be governed by the on which our hive of working bees depend,
that he greatly assisted Malcom Muir in the
paterdee, or other person interested, sue for same rules as sales before applications. is at present, and has been for a long
time invention of his famous planing machine and
an infringement, the defendant shall obtain a These I have before set forth, and are all con- much depressed, consequently there is
much he has long been famous among us for many
judgment in his own favor with costs, if tamed in 7 of the Act 01 1S39 first recited, suffering among our working people, for
where useful inventions. it will take time however,
he prove the thing patented was in public It appears then, that sales of new inven- there is no work, there is no pay. All por-
to prove the superiority of his Parallelopiped
use or on sale with the consent and allowance tions may be made before a regular applica- tions of our community are suffering on
this You will perceive that in this city of me-
of the patentee, before his application for a tion for a patent is filed in the office, (for it is account, for there is less
consumed than when chanics, we are still doing something for the
patent. 6 of the same Act provides that a the filing of petition, specification, drawings trade was good, hence circulation is
curtail- benefit of Science and Art. Our engineers
patent may be issued to any inventor, for any and model, that constitutes the applica. ed and our farmers and merchants are alike
feel somewhat proud of the success of the
machine, & c. which, besides being new, is tion.) But every specific machine, s~ie- involved in the common distress. I trust
this new steamers built here for the Royal Mail
not at the time of his application for a pa- cimen or identical article sold, prejor to the may he a warning to them, and that
their line, but in no instance have I heard any vain
tent, in public use or on sale, with his con- application may at any time be resold hy the hearts and eyes will he opened (for
their own boasting or exulting at their success. As a
sent or allowance as the inventor or discove- purchaser, as well after as before the patent sakes) to the importance ofgood wages
and general thing, our engineers are well educa-
rer ; and 7 directs the Commissioner to is- issues : though any person who buys of him plenty of work, being a benefit to all.
ted and have perhaps the best opportunities
sue a patent for any thing which, among other after the patent is applied for, is entitled on- The cholera is expected to visit our
pent in the world to acquire a good education in
things, has not been in public use or on ly to use the purchase, which he may do up cit~, and there are some miserable lanes
drawing and mathematics. This is owing to
sale, with the applicants consent or allow without liability therefor to the patentee or and streets, such as the Vennels and
one cal an excellent Mechanics Institute being foun
ance. All these provisions, however, are any person interested. led Goose Dubbs, that will be swept of their ded for the very
purpose of instructing work
amended by 7 of the Act of 1839 before re One important fact must always be borne in I inhabitants as if a blast of the desert
swept ingmen and especially apprentices, by good
cited, although no words of . are mind. If the inventor does not apply for a I through them. , I would desire to warn
used, for that section covers the whole ground patent within two years after the first sale York against the coming pestilen~ as
- evening classes. T. M~C.
invention to in Glasgow, Sept. 20, 1848.
ofsales, and being in effect and operation con- of his any individual, he cannot j all likelihood it will reach you the coming
trary to the anterior provisions just mention- obtain a patent, provided that fact be made summer Let the poor in your city, be
ex For the Scientific Amemicaa.
ed, it must take their place. The term, pub- known at the office, or if he do obtain a pa- :horted, and if need be, compelled to
cleanli- TurnIng or Irregumar Forms.
tent it will fdr
lic use, as above used, is judicially interpre- hat reason be held void, ness and proper ventillation, and no undue During the
lasteighty years Lathes for turn-
ted to meannot a universal or extensive when ever the subject is brought before the fears need be entertained for the Seourge of
ing irregular forms from a model, have been
use, but a use by one or more persons than Courts upon a suit for infringement Asia, brought to great perfection. The machines
the inventor, in such an open manner that Rochester, .N F. w. F. LIDDELL. A new Tidal and Meteorological Clock has for turning
ships blocks and dead-eyes, as de-
the public or any person who desires may oh- ( To be continued.) been erected in the passenger waiting room scrihed in th,e
different Encyclopedias, and
tam a knowledge of the invention : and the at our Steamboat Quay, Broomielaw. It is an the Rose Lathe, are well known in Europe
F 05551 Footprints. instrument of a very ingenious and intricate and this country. In 1815, or earlier, Azari-
same interpretation is given to the expres. Dexter Marsh,
sions on sale, vending, & c. by which is Ma9e many years a mechanic of Greenfield, description, and one which will prove of
im- ab Woolworth, an ingenious mechanic of Con-
meant the exposing of any article or articles, ago, discovered on the flag. mense value to science. It may be described necticut,
invented a lathe for turning lasts,
ging stones with which he was laying a side as a self-acting and self.registering tide, wind, with the use of the revolving
cutters, a guide
in any shop, store, or other place, in any man- walk what appeared
ner, for 9ale to any person who is willing to
foot-prints of and weather guage. The instrument consists and a model ; these parts1 viz, the cutters,
buy. Whether the article be actually 501(1 r ced th of eight parts viz.
some strange bird. The geologists pronoun- - . guide and model, ~he did not claim as his, as
used is of no consequence : it is enough if the em to be such, and to belong to a period The Clock, which shows the hours and they
had been in use many years before, but
owner was willing or desirous to sell it, and
~ before the creation of man. This discovery minutes. his lathe enabled the mechanic to turn right
this fact were or might become known toany of Mr
so excited the curiosity and scientific ardor The Barometer, indicating at each hour the and left lasts from the same model, and by
others besides himself, who could purchase Marsh, that he has since made it his pressure of the atmosphere. happy adaptation of
its parts Irerformed the
if they would. amusement to look for such impressions, and The Tide Guage, exhibiting the time of work admirably. Woolworth after
In regard to sales made afterfiling a cave-
he has traversed the valley from the northern high and low water also the depth in feet. experiments applied for a patent and obtain-
at, the law is not fully settled, and, until the Massac o Wethersfield, Cono. , The Spate (freshet) Guage, showing the ed it in April
1820, and sold his right Tho-
subject comes before the Supreme Court, de- Sometimes spending weeks in quarrying rocks height to which spates in the river rise
above mas Blanchard also got up a lathe, after Wool-
with the sole view of discovering these ancient
cisions at the Circuits will, as heretofore, be the tide at high water. worths, but obtained a patent prior in date
as far as possible, it may be proper to . tracks. ~ In the last number of Sillimans The Anemometer, indicating the force of the
two lathes were necrly alike, the varia-
conflicting. But, to correct misapprehension Journal of Science, he gives a brief account the wind, expressed in lbs. tions were
more formal than aubstantial and
brace the subject of sales in a brief general
of his labors and successes, from which we The Thermometer,showingthetemperature Blanchard, as did lVoolworth, disclaimed the
. may understand that the Connecticut valley, of the air. cutter wheel, guide and model as his inven.
exposition of the whole doctrine concerning in by gone ages, was a favorite resort ofbirds. The Anoznoe~opo, ehowin~ the drrcotio~
of tion, os thcy trial treeu in use for many years,
By 12 Act of 1836, any person who has
that would have made no more of ~eutting a the wind. and as such a. claim would have made his pa-
not matured his invention, and yet has the man in their crops, than turkies do of swal- The Rain Guage, which indicates when the
tent void. These two conflicting rights led
same so far completed that it can be clearly lowing grasshoppers ~ rain commences, the time of its duration, and to litigation, but
it was settled by Blanchards
perceived to he a new invention though not a
Mr Marsh has in his Possession more than the amount of rain fallen, expressed in tenths buying his opponents patent. Woolworths
perfect one, may, by filing a description and
eight h ints of birds and quad- ofan inch. patent has expired, but Blanchards patent
drawing (where one can be made) and a peti- .
rupede besides having furnished many spec. All the changes in tides and weather are has been continued by Acts obtained from
tiora setting forth his desire for protection, (at others, in this and other countries. indicated by curved or sectional lines on a
Congress upon the mistaken assumption that
the same time paying $20,) have the same de- In sam ecasesthese specimens are so distinct large sheet of ruled paper, wrapped round
a his invention was prior to Woolworths.
posited in the confidential archives of the as not only to show the joints of the toes, but vertical cylinder, which revolves
once in a The lathes of Woolworth and Blanchard
Office. If within one ~,ear after thefil- fecf imnpressio
the per n of the skin. He has week. The fidelity of the pencils tracing could only turn a resemblance to the model,
perfect tracks of quadrupeds so small that a their reports is most wonderful. There they and also could add to the length without
ing, application for a patent is made by any half dim
other person for an invention which is similar . e will cover the whole foot and silent work day and night. ding to the breadth, and
vice versa. . A set of
are at their most
or in any way conflicts with the former, the again others of birds where the foot measures Every change of tide, the measurement of
its lasts, 14 in number, of differentsizes, requir-
person filingthe caveatis notified of that fact haifa yardtrom the toeto the heel, so that if height ; thechanges in the wind, its
force ; ed that number of models, and this was an
by the Commissioner, and must then within the birds which made them were proportion. the state of the atmosphere, with the hours at
expense of both time and material.
three months, file his specifleation, model and ed like those we now have, they must have which all these phenomena take place, are
About 1842, a new lathe for turning lasts
drawings, or, in other words, must mature his stood twenty feet high. 4 observed and noted with unerring accuracy. was invented by
Sylvester S. Chase, an inge-
invention and apply regularly for a patent, or He has sometimes followed the track of a This must elaborate and comprehensive in-
nious mechanic of PhiladNphia, which, by
the other inventor will receive a patent. If bird thirty or forty fdet in the rock, the track strument is the construction of the
Messrs. the ingenious combination ofits parts, enables
he apply in due form, then his right to a pa-
being at first faint as if on hard soil ; then Bryson at Edinburgh, and has been erected the mechanic to produce from a single
tent will be decided in the same manner as
more distinct, as if imprinted on the sand at by the Clyde Trustees at a cost of about 250. all sizes of lasts. Chase uses the
twoconflicting applications for a patent, that the waters edge, and finally sinking in the We do not know of any other such
instru- guide and model, with a combination of le-
is to say, proof as to which was the first ~ mud and disappearIng in the water. He has in existence. The only other attempt at such
vers working on the principle of the Pento-
ventor, which is by first ascertaining who first one slab four or five inches thick, upon which registrations was toade by the
Royal Society graph, and produces the work with rapidity
made a model or specimen of the invent ion, the track 5 appear as mere straight lines upon of Edinburgh. But, alas for the
interests of and the best degree of accuracy. Chase did
and communicated a knowledge of it to the tIre surface ; hut on Spliting it into five layers, science, after a year of unobserved
observa- not patent his invention, and it is therefore
public (viz. any other person beside himaclt,) they grow more and more distinct, till the tions the whole thing was given up,
because common property.
and if the Caveator prevail he obtains a pa-
lower slab shows where the foot rested, j ust the Royal Society could not afford to keep a The lathe of Chase has now superseded the
tent on the payment of $10. as if when the stone was in a state of mud, person to superintend the machine, and regis- ethers which
were constructed on the prin-
If however, no conflicting claims be made the bird trod down to the bottom of it, and or. ter its observations ! It is to be hoped,
how- ciple of Woolworths and Blanchards The
atthe office within one year, the Caveator is withdrawing the foot themud closed up. ever that no short
not entitled to any notice of anothers appli- Among these tracks are many very unlike will . .sighted policy of this kind lathes
now made by Blanchard are made upon
prevent our lruatees from maintain- Chases plan. Mr. Chase constructs lathes
cation subsequently ; and though he may at to those made by any known animals, but ing and registering all the results furnished
upon the principle he invented, and they
any time thereafter, obtain a patent on the still so marked as to leave nodoubt that ani by this heautifulinstrument have been found
so superior as to exclude
payment of $10, ($20 having been paid for mals made them. A sort of Kangaroo, for A new kind of steam engine called the Pa-
competition. Yours, & c.
the Caveat,) yet if a patent has in the mean- example, Thows very small fore feet, and very rallelopiped, has lately been invented
by Mr. Philadelphia. J. B. ELDRIDGE.
time been granted to another, which embra- large hind ones. Of this the Journal of John McDowall, of Johostone, a place about
ces the same invention or any part of it, he Science gives a striking cut. 12 miles from this city, and a short distance The
animalcules possess the most consid.
must take steps to set that aside, which are, ignorance and Crime, from the birth place of the immortal Wallace. erable generative
power in organic nature, a
by presenting facts and evidence before a spe- By the official return it appears that of the Tne engine of Mr. McDowall Las been
high- single individual being able in a few hours to
cial Board of Examiners to show that he was ~ prisoners in the Durham counv Goal, En ly praised by some, but in spite of its pom
produce several millions of beings like it
the first and true inventor. f gland who took their trials at the summer as t~~5 name, it is no more than a kind of semi selt.
The filing of a Caveat, then, it is evident, j sizes, 25 could neither read nor write, whilst rotary, but certainly a most
excellent one. The principal Railway companies in Eng
is n-t equivalent to an application for a pa J the remaining 21 could only read and write The inventor of it is a man of great
ingenu land have all declared reduced dividends for
tent, and the only protection it gives is the imperfectly. ity, and a thoroughly scientific and practical the first six months of
0. P. B. of Ill.Of the many machines
for making Brick now in use, Adams is the
best we know of. Nathanial Adams, Canter-
bury, Orange Co. N. Y. is the inventor, from
whom, by addressing him a kiter, you can
obtain e~ery particular you may desire. His
machines have been thoroughly tested. Much
obliged for your exertions in our behalf.
Hope to receive your drawing soon. $5, 0. K.
W. R. G. of N. Y.A locomotive boiler
combining all the requisites you desire will
cost, for a 4 horse engine $400 ; for a 6 horse
engine $600. Ordinary boilers can be had
i~uch less, but for the purpose you have in
view uncommon care will be required in the
V. P. K. of N. Y.At the lAace you
speak of, they keep their machinery as secret
as possible allowing no one to see it, No pre-
paration is required..that we are aware of be-
forehand, except the thorough drying of the
article. Keep trying and you will hit the
mark. You can get your Nos. bound and the
missing ones supplied, by sending to us.
E. J. C. of Miss.Of all the metals Cop-
per is the best conductor of Electricity and a
lightning rod formed of small copper wires
twisted together, forms the best protection for
buildings. A conductor of this kind is almost
as flexible as a rod ; some contrivance is
therefore necessary in order to make it stand
erect above the building. For this purpose
a common iron tube of a size sufficient to with-
stand the force of the wind is employed,
through which the conductor is drawn and
then soldered to a pointed cap of copper, the
base of its cap being a little longer than the
tube. The tube may be fastened up in any
convenient manner. The conductor should
be about three eights of an inch in diameter,
its lower end extending into the ground at
least 4 feet. Conductors should project as
high as possible fiom the chimnies. If a tree
taller than the building stands near, a conduc-
tor should be placed thereon.
N. S. of Boston.We have delayed wri-
ting to you because we were expecting daily
to ieceive the sample which you mention as
sending to us by Adams & Co. The money
was received and we have given you credit for
T. H. L. of Mass.It is very difficult to
give the desired information as iron is a very
sensitive metal. For wheels and such things,
we know not how the real purified malleable
iron can be dispensed with, yet we have been
told that a little manganese and chalk does
wonderstbk we could not positively recom-
mend, although on a small experiment it was
C. L. Y. of Ohio.Ear trumpets can be
made in this city. They are of great benefit.
We will endeavor to tell you more about them.
A. B. of Va.We expect to hear from
T. J. C. of Md.The letter is now out
of our possession and the name we cannot re-
member. It is a pity you did not write two
months ago. The place of residence, however,
is Niagara Falls.
A. B. of Ohio,The plan you describe
has been several times tried, hut as yet un-
successfully. For ourselves, we think it can-
not be made to operate.
i~. S. Mail Steamship..
The U. S. Mail Steamships of the New
York and Liverpool line, are in rapid progress
of construction. They are to be five in num-
ber, and the proprietors and agents of the
line, Messrs. Collins & Co., have selected
Occeanic names for their Ocean Steamers.
They are to be called the Atlantic the Pacific,
the Arctic, the Adriatic and the Baltic. The
first two will be launched about the 1st of De-
cember, and two otheis in time to keep up
the line. They are to be of about 2,900 tons
each, and built in the best manner and with
all the improvements which experience both
at home and abroad have suggested. We ex-
pect from these to compete successfully with
the Royal Mail Line.
Plctorlai National Society.
This cheap and popular Magazine conti-
nues to thrive and is one of the best Monthlies
with ~which we are acquainted. It is full of
splendid wood Engravings representing Ame-
rican views, and is composed of 48 pages of
interesting reading matter printed on fine pa-
per. Simonds and Co. Publishers, 12 School
st. Boston; price $2 per annum.
Paimers Business Mens Aissiassac.
This is the best Almanac for 1849, that we
have seen. Every working man and mer-
chant should have one. Price 12~ cents, at
the TribuneBuildings. There is a fund of
information in it, not amusing, but what is
The Union for October.
A splendid iiumber indeed is the October
of the Union Magazine, and we take pleasure
in calling the attention of our friends to it.
The better Morning by Sadd, is a fine pic-
ture and worth a dollar of itself, besides it has
five other plates that are but little inferior.
Published at 142 Nassau st.
In consequenceofthe non fulfilment of ma-
ny promises made by one W. H. Canifr, of
Utica, N. Y., Agent for the Scientific Ameri-
can, we hereby withdraw our Agency from,
him and request that no person will pay him
any monies on our account.
Wanteda local agent to fill the above sta-
tion who will act honorably both to his sub-
scribers and the publishers.
FOR THE SCIENTIFIC AIOKaZCAN.
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POPE & CHACK.
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J. E. F. MARsH.
SAFFOED & PARES.
S. A: WHITE.
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H. & J. S. RowE.
D. M. DEWEY.
Was B. BROCKET.
W. L. PALMER.
W. P. SEAVER.
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CLARK SELLECE, SquIRE SELLECK.
Persons residing in the city or Brooklyn, can have
the paper left at their residences reguilarlybysend
ing their address to the office, 128 Fulton at, 2d door
To Mill Owners.
liT AVILAND & TUTTLES Patent Centre Vent
i--- Pressure Water WheelThese wheels are now
in successful operation in many towns in Maine,
Massachusetts, and Rhode Island, and are found to
surpass in power and facility of adaptation any wa
ter wheei now io use. This wheel was awarded the
silver medal at the Fair of the American institute
recently held in New York and a diploma at the
Mechanics Fair in Boston.
The wheels are manufactured and for sale by the
FULTON IRON FOUNDRY CO., South Boston,
Masswhere the wheels can be seun and any infor
mation concerning them had.
Patent Rights for different States, Counties, & c. for
sale.as above. o14 3m~
KNOX of 125 Fulton street, is on hand with his
Autumn style of Hats, and as usual furnishes a
little prettier shape, made of a little better material
and for a much less price than many of his Broad-
way friends who boast of the superiority of their
The public wont swallow that gammon, gentle-
men, and you had better put your prices down to
Knoxs standard price, before he detracts ALL those
regular customers from Broadway into Fulton at. o7
PECKS PATENT VISE WITh FOOT
HIS Vise is worked entirely by the foot and is
admitted by all who have used them to be the
best and, strength, saving of time and convenience
considered, the cheapest Vise in use. For sale by
QUINCY & DELAPIERE, 71 John st. New York
Geo. H. Gray & Co. Boston Curtis & Hand, Phila-
delphia Way & Brothers, Hartford and by the
proprietor, J. S. GRIFFING,
o7 2m New Haven, Ct.
The Best Pateat Agency in the United
!f H B subscribers would respectfully give notice
-- thatthey still continue to attend to Patent Office
business as usual. The long experience they have
had in securing patents. together with their unri-
valled facilities, enabies them lo say that THE
B ~ST PATENT AGENCY, in the United States, IS
AT TH OFFICE OF TIlE SCIENTIFIC AMERI-
CAN, New York. Itis not necessary, as commonly
supposed, for an inventorto make ajoorney to Wash-
ington in person, in order to secure a Patent, as he
cannot in any manner hasten the Patent or. ake his
invention more secure. Any bnsineos coonected
with she Patent Office may be done by letter,
through the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN OFFICE, with the
same facility and certaiLty as though the inventor
came in person. From a want of knowledge on this
point, applicants for patents are often ohliged to
submit to great vexation, with loss of much money
and time. They also fseqrsently fall into the hands
of designing persons, and lose their Inventions as
well as money. Those who wish to take out Pat.
outs or enter Caveats, should by all means have the
business transacted through the SCIENTIFIC ASIERI-
CAN OFFICE, as they may thels RELY upon its being
done in a straight forward and prompt manner, on
the very lowest terms. All letters must be POsT
PAID and directed to MUNN & CO.,
Publishers of the Scientific American,
s9 128 Fulton street, New York.
Tue largest, best and cheapest Dictionary
in the Englssh language, is confessedly
the entire work, unabridged, in 1 vol. Crown Quar-
to, 1452 pp. with portrait of the author, revised by
Professor Goodrich, of Yale College. Price, $6.
The most COMPLETE, ACCURATE, and RELIABLE
Dictionary of the Language, is the recent testimo-
ny given to this work by many Presidents of Col-
leges, and oilier distinguished literary men through-
out the country.
Containing three times the amount of matter of
any other English Dictionary compiled in this coun-
try, or any Abridgment of this work, yet
~Its definitions are models of condensation and pu-
rity. The most complete work of the kind that any
nation can boast of.Horo. Was. B. CALHOUN.
We rejoice that it bids fair to become the stan-
dard Dictionary to be used by the numerous mil-
lions of people who are to inhabit the United States.
Signed by 104 members of Congress.
Published by G. & C MERRIAM, Springfield,
Mass. and for sale by all booksellers. s23 2m
Morses Air Distributor,
For Burning Saw Dust or Tan instead of
Wood for running Steam Engines.
STEAM SAW M1LLS are now running and have
all the heat they require, from the saw dust and
bark, saving the slabs and cord wood heretofore
used. Tanneries also by this air distributor, have
all the fuel they want by burning the tan. The sa-
ving is a great one, and the expence of the arrange-
ment trifling, compared to the advantages.
The undersigned has the exclusive right to vend,
use, and manufacture Morses Air Distributor, in
the state of New York, to whom application may
i~syInfringements on this patent will be prosecut-
ed, and the rights secured by the letters patent rig-
Lockport, 8th inn. 28, 1848. L. A. SPALDING.
LOCEPORT, N. Y. Sept. 15, 1845
I hereby cersify that 1 have one of Morse & Bro-
thers Air Distributors, in my Steam Saw Mill at this
place. My fire place is 11 feet by four feet 9 inches1
under 3 duo Boilers, 12 feet long by 40 inches dia-
meter. Ihave2engines, the cylinders are, one of id
and one of 10 inch diameter, and 2 feet stroke.
The sawdust, bark and clips from the oak plank I
am sawiug (without any cord wood or slabs) is all
sufficient for driving my two Gang saws for plank,
and five gang of Saws for sawing stone.
I have a superior chimney. The draft is perfect.
My engineer and Firemen say, they get up steam
in about half the time they formerly took. To me
the saving is greatany one can calculate for him-
self. GEO. REYNALE.
To L. A. SPALDINO.
We have been running a Steam Engine for some
years, to propel machinery for driving a tannery with
a large bark Mill, two sets heavy Hide Mills, four
Pumps, one Roller, two Last Machines for Turning
Lasts, two Machines for finishing Lasts, and one Cir-
cular Saw for sawing timberthe Engine supposed
to be fourteen horse powerin which we used two
cords of wood (hard) per day. Thirty-three days
ago to-day we were induced to try Morses Patent
Grates, or Air Distributor, and to our entire satisfac-
tion. We find a saving of at least 4 dollars per day
in using Tan. We find no trouble in raising all the
Steam we want, with Tan. Since we have put in
your Patent Burner, we have not used a stick of
wood, and we cheerfully recommend them to any,
and to all who wish to save wood, where Saw-dust,
Tan or coal maybe used. N. CASE & CO.
Buffalo, June 19, 1848 s21 4t
THE WEST STREET FOUNDRY, corner of
Beach and West streets, will furnish at the
ahortest notice, Steam Engines and Boilers in all
their varieties, and on the moat reasonable terms,
together with castings of brass or iron, and machi-
nery in general. Orders attended to with dispatch,
ace particular attention given to repairing.
JOSEPH B. COFFEE, AGENT.
Steam Boats, Engines, Machinery, Ec. bought and
sold on commissionapply as above. s23 Imo
TALI3OTS PATENT BLIND HINGE.
THE simlersigned having become interested in
ture and sale of the above article,
would state that their facilities are such, that they
can supply any demand at short notice. This hinge,
having stood the test of two years trial, has folly
established itself as a useful and important in-
vention, being all that can be desired for blind
trimmings, as the blind is managed entirely from
the inside of the house without raising the sash,
COMPLETELY locks it, and prevents all unpleassnt
noise of the blind by wind.
American Window Trimming Company,
Address GRO - GODFREY, AgentA. W. T. Co.
HOW TO OBTAIN THE PREMIUM.
THE Subscriber would respectsully inform all per-
sons having articles exhibiting at the FAIR, that __________________________________________
he is prepared to execute engravings on wood for
circulars, & c. sit the shortest notice, and on the most POWER TO LET RARE CHANCE.
reasonable terms 7~HREE rooms, 40 feet square, one room 60 by 40
Particular attention given to engravings of Machi- .5- feet 2ad don r, power from engine, 25 in. cylin.
nery, Stoves, Buildings, & c. der, 4 1-2 feet stroke. Let together or in arts. Ap.
WARREN G. BUTLER, ply at West street Foundry, corner of each and
07 113 Fulton street, cor. Cliff. West streetS. a23 3m
Judsons Stave Dressing~ Ma
THIS Machine, on which Letters PaWat were
granted May 1st, 1847, has been in suoceesful
operation for the past year, and hundreds of thou-
sands of staves have been dressed by it. It is war
ranted to dress the same quantity of staves with as
little power as any that can be started, also leave
the fuilthickness on thin edges and thin ends, and
conform as near to the crooks and twists of the tim-
ber as can be desired. The jointing of the machine
which accompanies it, has been subjected to the se-
verest test, and pronounced superior to that perfor-
med by hand. Application for a patent on the Joint-
er has been made.
Large quantities of Hogiheads and Shooks made
with staves dressed and jousted with t.isir machines
have been sold and used to the entire satisfaction
of the purchasers.
For rights and machines address the proprietors
at their Manufactory, Artizan street, New Haven,
Connecticut, where machines in full operation may
be seen. JUDSON & PARDEB.
New Haven, July 17, 1748. jy29 in5
GENERAL PATENT AGENCY.
HE SUBSCRIBER has removed his Patent Agent
-U- cy from 189 Water to 43 Fulton street.
The object of this Agency is to enable Inventors to
realize something for their inventions, either by tke
sale of Patent Goods or Patent Rights.
Charges moderate, and no charge wilibe made un
ilithe inventor realizes something frembis invention.
Letters Patent will he secured upon moderate
terms. Applications can be made to the undersign
ed, personsily or by letter post paid.
aDS SAMUEL C. HILLS, Patent Agent.
Johnson & Robbins,
Consalting Engineers and Cnunseiior.
Office on F street, opposite Patent Office, Washing-
I EAVITT & MDANIEL, Concorll, N. H., make of
--.J the best cast steel the following Saws
Circular, Mill, Tennon, Cross-cut, Fellow and Ve-
neering Saws. Also, Turning and Billet Webs, and
Butchers Bow Saws. No saws ever made equalto
their cast steel Mill Saws.
The trade supplied on liberal terms. s21 2m0
For sale by the Manu-
QUINCY & DEALA
PIERRE, 81 John street
New York. s2 3m0
r~j~ HE Subscriber has constantly for sale by the ear-
~gnorton all sizes of Coal for MANUFACTURERS
and FAress.sEs, from the best Schuylkill asid Lehigh
mines. Hazleton and Spring Mountain, lump and
steamboat Coal. Tamaqisa Chemnut for engines.
Peach Orchard and other red ash Coal. Mid lothian,
Virginia, a superior article for smiths use. Cum-
borland, Sidney and Liverpool Coal. For sale at the
LOWEST market prices. J. P. OSTROM,
au5 3m0 corner 10th Avenue and 26th at.
PREMIUM SLIDE LATHE.
criber is constantly building his improv-
of all sizes, from 7 to 30 feet long, and
caa execute orders at short notice.
JAME~S T. PERKINS,
Hudson Machisse Shop and iron Works,
mil Hudson, N. Y.
lJrJinventors and Manufacturers of superior Aj.
ricultural implements may find customers for their
goods by applying at the Agricultural Warehouse
of 5- C. HILLS & CO. 43 Fulton at. auS
p ERSONSresiding in any part of the United Statee
-who are in want of Machines Engines, Laffles5
OR ANY DESCRIPTION OF MACHINERY, can have their
orders promptly executed by addressing the Pub-
lishers of this paper. From at -extensive acqusia-
tRace among the principal machinists assd a long ac
perience in mechanical matters they have uncom-
mon facillties for the selection of the best mitchinery
and will faithfully attend to any business entrusted
totheircare MUNN & CO. all
eqThe above is prepared to execute all ordersat
the shortest notice and on the most reasonable terms.
Lap welded Wrought Iron Tubes
FOR TUBULAJ.\ BOiLERS,
From 1 1-4 to 6 inches diameter, and any
length, not exceeding 17 feet.
TJIHESE Tubes are of the same quality and mamul
J..facture as those extensively used in England,
Scotland, France and Germany, for Locomotive, Ma
rine and other Steam Engine Boilers.
THOI\IAS PROSSER, Patentee,
d25 25 Platt street, New York
TO IRON FOUNI)ERS.
P ulvarize d bituminous, or sea-coal Facing, an ap-
proved article for mixing with moulding sand
to make the sand leave the castings easi1y. Also
fine bolted 0charcoal and anthracite enal dust, soap-
stone, and black lead on hand in barrels, and for sale
by G. 0. ROBERTSON,
s21 4t~ Importer, 283 West 17th street, N. Y.
BENTL~YS Patent Tubular and other Boilers of
any siRe, shape or power, made to order, by
SAMUEL C. HILLS & CO.
sinS 45 Fulton st.
partly partakes, both of the nature of a gas
and a fluid, it being a gas at common tempe-
rature, but changes into the fluid state by the
abstraction of its heat. Tha rest are all fluids
and increase in their specific gravities as the
aggregation proceeds. The boiling points al-
so agree with the conditions required, for it
is well understood that if a substance exists
I as a gas at common temperatures, then must
For the Scientific American. its boiling point be far below common tempe-
New Chemical Law. ratures, consequently the first two substances,
No. 4 which exist at common temperatures in the
All the conditions required by this law can- state of a gas, possess boiling points far be-
not at present be given, because there are ma- low common temperatures. The third sub-
ny substances with which we are but little stance, Amilene, is fluid at common tempera-
acquainted. The result of future experiments tures, consequently its boiling point ~nust be
greater than that of Etheiene, and so we pass
on until we arrive at Cetene, which possesses
a boiling point as high as 5270. Upon exam-
ination, the specific gravities of their vapors
will be found nearly proportional to their ato-
mic weight. S. N.
I To a great number ot our readers, the es-
says we are now publishing on Chemistry,
will appear like lectures on Greek. This is
owing to a want of general knowledge res-
pecting the terms and symbols that are used
to designate this and that substance. We
must, however, coincide with the require-
inents of the law.
All those essential oils, which are consid-
ered as having the compositiorot CS, H4, I
consider as aggregated compounds produced
from one radial. By classifying them accord-
ing to the requirements of the law, that is,
by their specific gravities, boiling points, & c.
we should obtain their true composition. The
specific gravities of their vapors would be of
the utmost importance in the calculation.
would advise our readers to get an elementa-
ry work on Chemistry and master the terms
the first thing that should be done in the ac-
quirement of any science. We urge this up-
on our readers for we desire to see a more
general diffusion of chemical knowledge a-
mong our people. Kanes Chemistry is a good
work and will be found very instructive, and
it can be purchased at almost all the Book
The Solublilty of the Oxides of Iron, Cop-
per, and Cobalt, in Uaustlc Potash.
In making use of the apparatus invented by
M. Liebig, for the determination of carbonic
acid, M. Volkir of Berlin, Prussia, found that
the solution of caustic potash employed, was
at first quite clear, contained, after the pas-
sage through it of carbonic acid, a brown fib-
culent precipitate of oxide of iron. Some di-
rect experiments, made with a concentrated
solution of caustic potash and oxide of iron,
recently precipitated, confirmed the nature of
this substance consequently, M. Volkir re-
commends, for the separation of alumina and
oxide of iron, a solution of caustic potash,
and moderately concentrated (if the solution
be too diluted the alumina will be but parti-
ally dissolved.) The oxides of copper and
cobalt dissolve in large quantities in caustic
potash, so much so that we can even employ
the solution of this first named oxide to de-
termine small quantities of grape sugar. mix-
ed with cane sugar, which reduces the detox-
ide of copper to the state of protoxide. In
order to assure himself of the correctness of
the statement of M. Berzelius, that the solu-
bility of oxide of copper in caustic potash
waidue only to the presence of organic matters
M. Volkir acted with the greatest possible
precaution; lie states, however, he found his
experiments fully confirmed. The solution
This law shows the probable reason of the so-
lidity of caoutchouc, a substance possessing
the same empirical composition, as the above
named essential oils, but is probably a sub-
stance of the highest state of aggregation.
Chysene C12, H4, solid,
Idrialine, C21,H7, solid.
The radial of this series is probably C3, H.
Sp.Gr. B.Pt S.G.Vap
Napthaline ClO, H4, 1,048 4130 4,488.
Paranapthaline C20, H8,
Chemists have not yet decided on the true
formula of the above substance. The specific
gravities of their vapors would decide this
point precisely. The specific gravity and
boiling point of paranapthaline are not given
but they are greater than those of Napthaline
There is no doubt but many other substances
belong to this family which have have not yet
Chlorine is capable of being substituted for
the hydrogen in the above substances, accord-
ing to the Theory of Types and Substitation
by Dumas, which does not in the least inter-
fere with the operation of this law, but is ra
ther a help, as the conditions required by the
law remain the same.
The following gives an instance of the com-
pounds of an aggregiited series with hydrogen,
forming hydracids, although the substances
cou~posing the series have not been discover-
ed in their uncombined state. The conditions
required cf compounds by this law, should
therefore be existent here. Unfortunately the
specific gravities and boiling points of these
substances have not been given. Future ex-
periments are wanting to show the applica-
tion of the law to this example.
Mellitic Acid C4, 04-1-H.
Croconic Acid CS, 05+H.
Rhodizonic Acid C7, 07-4-H.
While the boiling points of the above class
of substances must iiicrease, their specific gra-
vities may decrease ; Whether they increase
or decrease however, it must be accompanied of the oxide of copper in caustic potash, may
be diluted with water, without a separation
by a constant regularity. The carbonic oxides
are the substances composing the aggregated
series, and are probably derived by the ag-
gregation of the radical C 0.
Many other instances can be given illustra-
ting the truth of the law, but I shall conclude
the example by the introduction of a class
highly important, as it is a class v~ith which
chemists are more particularly acquainted,
and of which the specific gravities, boiling
points, & c. have generally been previously
calculated. I have reference to the radical C
H, and the substances produced by its aggre-
Sp. Gr. B. Point.
Olefiant Gas 2C, H gas.
Etherene 4 C, H. ,627 fluid.
Amilene 10 C,H. fluid.
Cetene 32 C, H. 527~ fluid.
(No name) 33 C, H. fluid.
34 C, H. fluid.
All equicarb hydrogens may be included in
the above series. It may be observed that as
the radical aggregates, the general density of
the substances produced increase, thus the
first ot the list is a gas the next, however,
of t he oxide of copper. When a current of
chlorine is passed through a solution of the
oxide of copper, in caustic potash, the liquid
assumes a deep green; but the moment that
the alkali is completely saturated with chlor-
me, the combination which was formed is
decomposed, the oxide of copper is precipi-
tated, and chlorine disengaged.
Cure for Toothache.
Dr. Arnott, of Brighton, says in the London
Lancet. A degree of cold below the freezing
point ~sf water is, I believe, a new agent in
therapeutics, which would, probably, be use~
fully employed for various other important
purposes A solution of salt, of a very low
temperature, by acting on the exposed nerve,
might at once, and permanently, remove tooth-
Iron pipe compared with Wood.
A pipe of cast iron 14 inches diameter and
three quarters of an inch thick will sustain a
head of water of 600 feet. One of oak, 2 inches
thick and of the same diameter will sustain a
head of 180 feet.
Ristory of the Rotary Engine.
Prepared ezpressly for the Scientrfic ./Ime-
cooR 5 ROTARY ENGINE,
This drawing and description is taken from
the transactions of the Royal Irish Academy
for 1787, and was the invention of a Mr.
Cooke of Dublin, we believe.
On the circumference of a wheel eight vanes
or flaps are attached by joints, which are
formed to open somewhat more than half ef
their circumference. During the revolution
of the wheel the valves, which are on the
lower half of the circumference, hang in a
vertical direction by their ov~n gravity. C C
C, are the valves or flaps; B, is the tube
which admits steam from the boiler; A a tube
leading to the condenser. K K, is the case
in which the wheel H H, is enclosedthis
case is to be steam tight. The wheel being
supposed in the situation in the figure, the
valves prevent any communication between
the boiler and condenser. Steam is now ad-
mitted at B and, passing on C C, forces them
forward in its passage to the condenser and
produces movement. The condenser is work-
ed by a crank in its axis, and a rod D is ex-
tended from it which keeps a constant vacu-
um in that half of the steam case : by this
means a power is added to the steam equal
to the weight of the atmosphere; so that,
when the force of the steam is only equal to
the pressure of the atmosphere, and the valves
are six inches square, the wheel will be forc-
ed round by a power equal to 531 1-4 lbs.
placed on its circumference.
The construction of this machine is very poor
and its operation impracticable. The South of
Ireland has been singularly deficient in mecha-
nical invention and discovery, although she
has produced some splendid artists. The North
of Ireland which claims a different paternity
from the South, has on the other hand been
very greatly distinguished from mechanical
invention, but on the whole Ireland has done
nothing in inventions to the number of the
people and to their well known quickness of
learning when an opportunity of a proper edu-
cation is offered.
Attraction of Cohesion.
Particles of matter, when brought close to-
gether, or within insensible distances, have a
tendency to cohere or stick together. This
is termed the attraction of cohesion. Under
the influence .of this attraction particles of
floid matter, arrange themselves around a
centre and take a globular form. The dew
drop, suspended from the point of a thorn is a
familiar example of matter thus acting. If
two such drops are brought together they will
instantly unite, a new and conimon centre
will be established for both and they will re-
solve themselves into a new mass equally glo-
bular as before.
Attraction ,of Gravitation.
Particles of matter have a tendency to move
or be drawn towards each other, called the at-
traction of gravitation. If we take two frag-
- ments of-cork, no matter how small and set
them afloat in a cup of water, we see the ope-
ration of this law. If kept a considerable dis-
tance apart, the impediments to their mutual
attraction being too strong, they will not come
together. But if brought within a short dis-
tance of each other we shall observe them be-
gin mutually to exercise an influence over
each other, and immediately they will rush
together and so remain.
A Metal that expands most In Cooling.
Lead 9 parts, Bismuth 1 part, Antimony 2
To Remove Rust from Poiished Steel.
Rub the spots with any kind of soft animal
fat, and lay the articles by, wrapped up in
thick paper for two or three days; then af-
ter cleaning off the grease with a piece of soft
flannel, rub the spots well with powdered
rotten stone and sweet oil, after which the po-
lish may be restored by rubbing with powder-
ed emery on soft leather; and the process
may be finished with finely powdered chalk
or magnesia.E -
A better plan is to take soft soap and rub
the knives, & c. on a board with rotten-stone,
and afterwards polish up with Tripoli. Char-
coal ground to powder is one of the best
things ever discovered to clean knives. This
is a late and valuable discovery.
How to PlaflI Chesauts.
The plan of raising the chesnut is this: the
nuts must not be suffered to become stock dry.
Plant them in the spring of the year. The
first winter protect them from the frost, or
they are apt to be killed by the freezing. The
next spring transplant in the following man-
ner : Select a dry soil, dig a hole 18 inches
deep, 3 feet wide: fill it up with small loose
stones and clay to within six inches of the
surface; set your tree on that; take care of it
and it will grow well, and in four years bear
The chesnut should be more attended to,
than it isit is valuable food and very nou-
rishing. In Italy the chesnuts grow to the
size of small apples and are used as food by
The difference in the the time between
high water averages about 49 minutes each
Baked Apples are greatly improved by be-
jng baked in a bright tin or earthen plate,
with a little water in, and a small quantity
of sugar sprinkled over them.
IN THE WORLD!
/ - FOURTH YEAR OF THE
416 Pages of most valuable information, illustrate
with upwards of
500 MECHANiCAL ENQRAVINGS:
Orj.-The Scientific American differs entirely from
the magazines and papers which dood tue country,
as it is a Weekly Journal of Art, Science and Me.
chanics, having for its object the advancement ~:
the INTERESTS OF MECHANICS, MAN1JFA
TURERS and INVENTORS Each number is -.
lustrated with from five to TEN original ENGR ~-
VINGS OF NEW MECHANICAL INVENTION -.
nearly all of the best inventions which are pateutei
at Washington being illustrated in the Scientific
American. it also contains a Weekly Liet of Amer.
ican Patents; notices of the progress of all Mechan-
ical and Scientific Improvements; practical direc
tions on the construction, management and use of
all kinds of MACHINERY, TOOLS, & C.; Essays
upon Mechanics, Chemistry and Architecture; ac-
counts of Foreign Inventions; advice to inventors;
Rail Road Intelligence,together with a vast amount
of other interesting, valuable and useful information.
The SCIENTIFIC AMERiCAN is the most popular
journal of the kind ever published, and of more im-
portance to the interests of MECHANICS and IN-
VENTORS than any thing they could possibly ob -
tam! To Farmers it is also particularly useful, as
it will apprise them of all Agricultural Improve-
ments, instruct them in various mechanical trades,
& c. & c. It is printed with clear type on beautiful
paper, and being adapted to binding, the subscriber
is possessed, at the end of the year, of a large vol-
ume of 416 pages. illustrated with upwards of 500
TERMS: Single subscription, $2 a year in ad.
vance; $1 for six months. Those who wish to sub.
scribe have only to enclose the amount an a letter,
directed to MUNN & CO.
Publishers of the Scientific American,
128 Fulton street, New York.
All Lettters must be Post Paid.
INDUCEMENTS FOR CLUBBING.
S copies for 6 month~ $4 00
S 12 $800
10 6 $750
10 12 $1500
20 6 $1500
20 12 $3000
Southern and Western Money taken at par for sub-
scriptions. Post Office Stamps taken at their full
A SPLENDID PRESENT!
To any person whe will send us Three Subscri-
bers, we will present a copy of the PATENT LAWS OP
THE UNITED STATES, together with all the informa-
tion relative to PATENT OFFICE 5U51NE55, including
full directions for taking out Patents, method of ma-
king the Specifications, Claims, Drawings, Models,
buying, selling, and transfering Patent Rights, 5cc.
This is a present of GREAT vALUE, yet may be obtain-
ed for nothing, by the reader of this prospectus, if he
will take the trouble to get Three Subscribers to the
Scientific American. It will be an easy matter to
obtain two names besides his own.
MUNN & CO., Scientific American Office, N. I