Harper's new monthly magazine. / Volume 52, Note on Digital Production Creation of machine-readable edition. Cornell University Library 970 page images in volume Cornell University Library Ithaca, NY 1999 ABK4014-0052 /moa/harp/harp0052/

Restricted to authorized users at Cornell University and the University of Michigan. These materials may not be redistributed.

Harper's new monthly magazine. / Volume 52, Note on Digital Production 0052 000
Harper's new monthly magazine. / Volume 52, Note on Digital Production A-B

Harper's new monthly magazine. / Volume 52, Issue 307 [an electronic edition] Creation of machine-readable edition. Cornell University Library 970 page images in volume Cornell University Library Ithaca, NY 1999 ABK4014-0052 /moa/harp/harp0052/

Restricted to authorized users at Cornell University and the University of Michigan. These materials may not be redistributed.

Harper's new monthly magazine. / Volume 52, Issue 307 International monthly magazine Harper's monthly magazine Harper & Bros. New York December 1878 0052 307
Harper's new monthly magazine. / Volume 52, Issue 307, miscellaneous front pages i-viii

HARPERS $ NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. VOLUME LII. DECEMBER, 1875, TO MAY, 1876. NEW YORK: hARPER & BROThERS, PUBLISHERS, 327 to 335 PEARL STREET, FRANKLIN SQUARE. 1876. vi. CONTENTS OF VOLUME LII. DECEMBER, 1875, TO MAY, 1876. ABIGAIL TEMPEST, THE CRIME OF (with One Illustration) 490 ALIF-LAILA: AN EASTERN STORY Edward Ecerett Hale 892 ALMOST TOO LATE 533 AMERICAN LITERATURESee Literature 401, 514 ANSWER, THE 253 APRIL A.F. 769 ARCHITECTURE, GOTHIC.See Gothic Architecture 234 ARTS, FLNE, PROGRESS OF THE S. S. Conant 691 PORTRAITS. Paul Revere 691 Thomas Sully 697 John Singleton Copley 692 Professor Morse 697 Benjamin XVest 692 Henry Inman 698 Gilbert Stuart 693 Thomas Cole 599 Colonel John Trumbull 694 horatio Greenoogh 699 Alexander Anderson 695 Hiram Powers Wi Rembrandt Peale 696 Thomas Crawford 703 Washington Aliston 696 John F. Kenseft 704 AShLEY AND COOPER, UP THE Constance Fenimore Woolson. SLLIJ5TRATION5. The Oaks, near Goose Creek Church 1 Yeamans hall Goose Creek 16 View in CharlestonSt. Michaels Church 2 Landgrave Suiths Back River Residence 16 William henry Drayton 4 Landgrave Smiths Commission as Governor 17 iDrayton Hall, on the AshleyWestern Front 4 Tomb of Landgrave Smith 18 Drayton HallRiver Front 5 Old School-House, Back River Plautatiou iS Magnolia, on tile Ashley 6 Landgrave Smith the Second 19 AzaleasGarden at Magnolia 7 Mrs. Charles Glover 19 Live-Oaks 8 Monument to John Parker 20 Plan of the old Fort at Dorchester 10 Middleton Coat of Arms 20 The old White Meeting-house, Dorchester Ii Cottage The Oaks 21 Old Tower of St. Georges, Dorchester 12 Geological Strata, showing the Phosphate Interior of Goose Creek Church 14 Rock 22 The Ralph Izard Ilatchment, St Jamess, Phosphate Mine 23 Goose Creek 15 Phosphate RockNatural Size 24 AT LAST 11. H. Stoddard 65 AUNT HANNAH (with Two Ilinstratians) J. T. Trowbridge 486 BABY, THE Porte Crayon 539 Im.m.rsTRATIoNs. The Peerles~ 539 Making Use of a Friend 544 Le Rot Carotte 539 An exhausted Receiver 545 Every Crow, etc 540 As Nature has ordained 545 Our Johnny 541 The Madonna of Saint Sixtus 546 Ruled out 541 A~ artistic Fiction 546 Tile Stoics 542 Tile living Fact 546 Swaddled 542 Mornin~ 547 Rarly Lessons in Self-Government ssa Asseyez vous, mes Enfants 547 The Rattle 543 Night 548 Ride a Cock-Horse 544 The coming Mau 549 BAXTER, RICHARD lion. William W. Campbell 43 ILI.U5TRATIOX5. Statue of Richard Baxter 43 Baxters Pulpit 46 Lea Castle 44 Kiddermuinster Church 47 Specimen of Baxters Handwriting 40 BEFORE, AT, AND AFTER MEALS Robert Tomes 729 BELLSSee Steeples, The Poetry of 180 iv CONTENTS. CAMBRIDGE ON THE CHARLES Charles P. Richardson 191 ILLUSTRATIONS. The Washington Elm 191 Gore Hall 199 Governor Winthrop 192 Louis Agassiz 200 Harvard Monument 192 Museum of Comparative Zoology 200 Harvard College, 1720 193 Memorial hall 201 President Quincy 194 Christ Church 202 President Everett 194 Oliver Wendell Holmes 203 President Sparks 194 holmess House 203 President Walker 194 Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 204 President Felton 195 Longfellows Residence 204 President Eliot 195 Longfellow in his Study 205 Wadsworth House . 196 James Russell Lowell 206 General View of the University Buildings: 191 Elmwood 207 Evangelinus Apostolides Sophocles 199 William D. Ilowells 208 CANDIDATE, CONFESSIONS OF A Porte Crayon 329 ILLUSTRATIONS. The Heathen 329 Social Dignity v. Scholarship 338 Cincinnatus 331 The Widow Beun 339 Bully MCue 332 Captain Spavin 339 Guzzlehys . 332 Joh Barker 340 Candidates for public Favors ~.. 333 The Rivals 341 An Aristocrat 334 Committee on Tar Barrels 342 Grocery 335 Victory 343 Dry-Goods 336 Neighbor Bogucy 344 Ramshead 337 Bob-in for Eels 344 The School-Mistress 338 Political Philosophy 345 CARDLNAL MEPHISTO Janius Henri Brozcne 808 ILLUsTRATIoN.CIesar Borgia. CARICATURE IN THE UNITED STATES James Parton 25 ILLUSTRATIONS. Thomas Nast 25 Tweedledee and Sweedledum 35 Join or dieaNewspaper Heading in 1776 28 Who stole the Penpies Money ? 36 Boston Massacre Coffins 29 Wholesale and Retail 37 Lyon and Griswold Fight in Congress 30 The Brains of the Tammany Ring 38 Shin-Plaster Caricature 31 What are the wild Waves saying ? 39 Massachusetts Militia Drill 32 A Congregation disturbed by a Late-Coiner 40 Virginia pausing 33 Christmas-TimeWon at a Turkey Raffle 41 On to Richmond ! 1862 34 He cometh not, she said 42 CENTENNIAL PAPERS .See Progress of the Exact Sciences, Natural Science, American Literature, Progress of the Fine Arts 82, 209, 401, 514, 691 CHIMES.See Steeples, The Poetry of 180 CHORISTER, A COUNTRY ilLs Frattk APCarthy 266 CHRISTMAS-EVE, A QUAKERS Fannie B. Robinson 179 CHURCH OF ENGLAND, PARTIES AND PREACHERS OF THE... Charles Deshler 568 CHURCH OF THE WORLD, TIlE Lord Houghton 735 COLORADO.See Wheeler Expedition, etc 793 CONFEDERATE MAKE-SHIFTS Abs. Mi P. Handy 576 CORNWALL, BARRY, AND SOME OF HIS FRIENDS James I. Fields 57 COUNTRY CHORISTER, A Af,~s. Frank M6~arthy 266 CRIME OF ABIGAIL TEMPEST, THE ~Susan Archer Weiss 490 ILLUSTRATION. hhe grasped my Uncles hhand. CROSS, THE SIGN OF THE John Stciitton 137 DANIEL DERONDA George Eliot 425, 594, 753, 899 DESERT, A VOICE IN THE horatio N. Powers 208 DINING, THE ART OF Julie Fetplanck 134 DON JOAQUIN George (abla 281 DWELLINGS, MODERN: THEIR CONSTRUCTION, DECORATION, AND FURNI TURE Iii Hudson Holly 855 ILLUSTRATIONS. Design for Gateway 855 Ground Plan for Design No.4 863 Design No. 1.Small Cottage, or Lodge .... 857 Vignette, showing rear Porch 563 Ground Plan for Design No. 1 858 Design No. 5.Jacobite Style, Brick, Tile, Design No. 2.Stone Cottage 859 and Timber 864 Ground Plan for Design No. 2 859 Ground Plan for Design No.5 864 Vignette, showing two-story Bay-Window . 860 Vignette, showing the half-timber Gable 865 Design No. 3.Frame Cottage 861 Design No. 6.Irregular Roof 866 Ground Plan for Design No. 3 861 Ground Plan for Design No. 6 866 Vignette, showing Bay-Window and BuIlds. 861 Vignette, showing main Staircase 866 Design No. 4.Frame Cottage 862 Vignette, showing recessed Balcony 867 EDITORS DRAWER. DRAWER FOR DECEMBER 156 DRAWER FOR MARCh 628 DRAWER FOR JANUARY 308 DRAWER FOR APRIL 788 DRAWER FOR FEBRUARY ~468 DRAWER FOR MAY 948 CONTENTS. EDITORS EASY CHAIR. CHAIR FOR DECEMBER 139 CHAIR FOR JANUARY 290 CHAIR FOR FEBRUARY 461 EDITORS HISTORICAL RECORD. UNITED STvrzs.Congress: Assembling of the Forty-fonrth Congress, 466*; Re-assembling after Recess, 626; Election of Speaker Kerr, 466*; Stand- ing Committees, 466*; Third Term, Vote against the, 466*; Presidential Term, 786; Subsidies, Vote against, 466*; Constitutional Amendment against Sectarian Appropriations, 466*; President Grants Message, 466*; Department Reports, 467*; Amnesty Bill defeated in loose, 626; Pension Bill passed, 626; Centennial Appropriation Bill passed and si~ned, 626, 786; Centennial Recommendation, 947; Finance Bills, 626, 947; Postage Increase Bill repealed by House, 626; Eulogies on Andrew Johnson and Henry Wil- son, 627; Election of Senators Kirkwood, Beck, and Lamar, 627; Revision of Tariff, 786; Alabama Claims, 786; Repeal of Bankrupt Law by house, 786; Con- sislar and Diplomatic Appropriations reduced, 786; Harbor Defenses, 786; Pension Bill, 786; Judiciary Bill, 786, 947; Military Academy Appropriation, 947; Mississippi Levees, 947; Legislative and Executive Appropriations, 947; Impeachment of Secretary Bel- knap, 947; Insects and Agriculture, 947; New Mex- ico as a State, 947; Pincliback rejected, 947; Judge Taft as Secretary of War, and H. H. Dana, Jun., noin- mated for Minister to England,947. Elections: Ohio, Iowa, Nebraska, 185; Nesv York, New Jersey, Penn- sylvania, Maryland, Massachusetts, Wisconsin, Kan- sas, Minnesota, Mississippi, 307; Connecticut Consti- tutional Amendments carried, 185; New Hampshire, 947. Conventions: Massachusetts Republican, 155; North Carolina Constitutional Convention, 155; Na- tional Republican Committee to fix Convention 627~ New Hampshire State Republican and Demo~rati~ Conventions, 627; Texas Republican State Conven- tion, 627; Indiana Republican, 947; Iowa Republican, 947; Connecticut Republican, 947. Gray Nuns Act of 1875 repealed by New York State Legislature, 627. Tuveeds Flight from New York, 467*. President Grants Speech at Des Moines, Iowa,155. Ex-Senator Zachariab Chandler appointed Secretary of the In- terior, 15~. Gutbords Burial, Montreal, 307. Postal Treaty with Japan, 787. Abolition of Death Penalty ~n Maine, 787. EUROPEGreat Britain: English Admiralty on Surrender of Fugitive Slaves, 155; Purchase of Suez Canal Shares, 467*, 787; Lord Lytton appointed Vice- roy of India, 627; Parliament opened by the Queen, 787; Shipping Bill, 787. Prussia: Old Catholics and the Celibacy of the Priesthood, 155; German Par- liament opeIied, 507. Bavarian Chamber of I)epulies on the Ultramontane Address, 155. Spain: Spains Reply to the Vatican, 155; Jovellar appointed Cap- tain-General of Cuba, 467~ Castelar elected to thu Cortes, 787; End of Carlist Rebellion, 947. France: EDITORS LITERARY RECORD. Darwins Insectivorous Plants, 144. Macbeths Might and Mirth of Literature, 145. Cockers Time- istic Conceptioii of the World, 145. Life of the Greeks and Roinans, 146. Miss Braddons Ilostages to Fortune, 146. Roes From Jest to Earnest, 146. Miss Johnsons Catskill Fairies, 147. Ancient His- tory from the Monuments, 147. Miscellaneous, 147. India and its Native Princes, 295. Spain, 296. Old New York, 296. Michelets The Insect, 296. Mrs. Trimmers History of the Robins, 297. The Dresden Gallery, 297. Farm Lecends, 297. Whittiers Mabel Martin, 297. Havumes The Mouutain of time Lovers, 297. The Sunhi~ht of Song, 298. Miss Ingehows The Shepherd Lady, 298. Mrs. Shedds Fanious Painters and Paintings, 298. Rolfes Select Poems of Oliver Gohdsnuith, 298. Nexvnians Thrones and Palaces of Babylon and Nimueveb, 298. Family Rec- ords, 298. Butterworths Story of the Hymns, 298. John Todd: flue Story of his Life, 299. Miscellane- ous, 299. Conate de Pariss History of the Civil War iii America, 464. Forsters Life of Jonathama Swift, 464. Taylors Elijah flue Prophet, 465. Gilders The New Day, 465. Contemporary Art, 466. Engravings from Landseer, 466. Kellers Time Amazon and Ma- deira Rivers, 466. The Story of the Stick, 467. Jev- onss Money and the Mechanism of Exchange, 467. Doubledays Reminiscences of Foris Sumter and Moultrie, 467. Athena~oras, 467. Hollands The Story of Sevenoaks, 467. Victor and Vanquished, 467. Farjeons An Island Pearl, 467. Viohlet-he-Ducs Dis- courses on Architecture, 616. Stednaaus Victorian CHAIR FOR MAIICII 610 CHAIR FOR APRIL 769 CHAIR FOR MAY 933 French Assembly re-opemmed, 307; Electoral Bill adopted 467*; Eleclioms of Life-Senators, 467*; As- sembly bections, 787; Proclamation by President MMahon, 627; Press Bill passed, 627; Martial Law, 627; Statue of Napoleoma I. replaced on Vend6miae Column, 627; neuv Miuistry, 947. Turkey amid Da- nubian Principalities: Austrian Suggestions, 627, 787. Brazilian Exposition opened, 627. DiswTERs: 155, 307, 467*, 627,787, 947; Collision on Penmusylvamula Railroad, 155; Hurricane at St. Thom- as, 155; Sinking of Swedish Steamer King Oscar, 155; Railroad Collision in Canada, 155; Burning of Swedish Steamer L. J. Poager, 155; Virgimula City Fire, 307; Steam-ship Pacific foundered, 307; Steam- er City of Waco burmued, 307; Shipwrecks off Scot- tish Coast, 307; XVreck of Calcutta, 307; Explosion, Belgiama Colliery, 307; Ship Astrida wreciced, 307; Raihvay Disaster Denmark, 307; Sinking of Susnisy- side, 467*; Muse ~xplosions, England, 467*; Wreck of the Deutschlamsd, 467*; Dymmamite Explosion, Bremerbaven, 467*; Mine Explosion near Kingston, Peniusylvania, 627; Hurricane in Philippine Isiamuds, 627; Earthquake in Arecibo, 627; Collision of Lout- siane and Gironde, 627; Burning of the Gohiath, 627; School-house Floor, Fall of, Switzerland, 627; Sink- hug of Steamer Dante, 627; Railway Accidents, near Odessa, Russia, and Iluntingdon, England, 627; Rob- insons Opera-house, Cincinnati, 787; Fire on Broad- way, New York, 787; Explosion in Colliery, West Pittsburg, 787; Fire-danup Explosion, Belgium, 787; Collision, Framuconia and Strath-Clyde, 787; Harlem Railroad Accident, 947; Baltimore and 01mb Rail- road, 947; home for the Aged, Brooklyn, burmaed, 947; British Ship Enmuenides sunk, 947. OBITUARY: 155, 307, 467*, 627, 787, 947; Rev. George B. Porteorms, 155; Colomuel Thomas Jefferson Ran- dolph, 155; Frederic Ihmmdsomu, 155; Jean Baptiste Carpeauux, 155; Sir Charles XVheatstone, 155; Rev. Dr. William Arthur, 307; Hon. Amasa Walker, 307; lion. Thomas A. Jenckes, 307; William T. Blodgete, 307; lion. Orris S. Ferry, 307; Vice-Presidemut Henry Wilsoms, 307; Wihhiana B. Astor,467*; J. Ross Browne, 467*; Hon. B. P. Avery, 467*; Pauline Virginie De- jazet, 467*; Rev. Henry Boehm, 627; Ex-Governor J. H. Clifford, 627; Dr. S. G. Howe, 627; General Gor- don Granger, 627; Hon. Henry H. Starkweather, 627; Earl Stanhope, 627; Sir Anthouy Rothschild, 627; Frs~din3ric Lemaitre, 627; Frauds Deak, 627; Rear- Admiral Stringhuamua, 787; lion. Reverdy Johnson, 787; Rev. horace Bushnell, 787; Charlotte S. Cush- usuan, 787; Jolun Forster, 787; Charles E. Horshey, 947; Ambroise F. Didot, 947; ex-President Roberts, 947; Lady Augusta Stanley, 947. Poets, 616. Smithss Dictiomuary of Christian Antiqui- ties amid Biography, 616. Lomugfehlows Masque of Pandora, 617. Glimpses of the Supernatmural, 617. Holyoakes history of Co-operation, 618. Ahhibones Prose Qusotuitiommus, 618. Thrift, 618. Miscellaneous, 619. Memoirs of Rev. Charles G. Fiumney, 774. D. L. Moody and hits Work, 774. Coxs Why we Laugh, 774. Smiths The German Principia and The French Principia, 775. 1he Portfolio, 775. Swintons Bible Word-Book, 775. Lumudys Monunsemutal Christianity, 775. Castelars Lord Byron, 775. Zells Illustrated Family Bible, 776. Smithss Chmaldean Account of Gemuesis, 776. MChimutock and Strongs Cyclop~dia, Vol. VI., 776. Kneehands An American in Iceland, 776. Vincents Through and Tiuromughi the Tropics, 777. Bakers Carter Qumarterman, 777. Cecil Hays Time Squires Legacy, 777. Clarkes Ills Natural Life, 777. Jenkinss rho Devils Chain, 777. Hills The irmue Order of Studies, 777. Miscellaneous, 777. Wymuters Border-Lands of Insamuity, 938. Jarvess Art of Japami, 939. Rodeuuboughus From Everghade to Caooum, 939. Van Ilornes Army of the Cumber- land, 939. Charles Framucis Adamss Letters of John Adams amud his Wife, 940. Moodys How to Study thme Bible, 940. Meyers Comnuentary, 940. John- sons New Universal Cychopedia, 940. Trevehyans Macauhay, 941. Select Works of Tertuhhian, 941. Payns Halves, 941. Mrs. Oliphants Curate in Charge, 941. Mistress Judith, 941. Lord Lyttons Pausanias, 941. Mrs. Barrs Romances and Beau ties, 941. V vi CONTENTS. EDITORS SCIENTIFIC RECORD. Agriculture, 152, 305, 472, 623, 784, 945. Anthro- Geology, 620. Mechanical Novelties, 154. Meteorol pology, 304, 944. Astronomy, 14.8, 300, 468, 620, 778, ogy, 300, 468, 620, 779, 942. Microscopy, 151, 303, 470, 942. Botany, 152, 784. Chemistry, 151, 302, 470, 781, 622, 782, 944. Mineralogy, 470, 620, 782. Physics, 944. Deaths, 626. Encineering, 153, 306, 465*, 625, 149, 301, 469, 779, 943. Piscicnltnre, 624. Technol- 785, 946. Ethnology, 471, 621, 783. Geography, 621. ogy, 306, 946. Zoology, 305, 471, 622, 783, 945. FADED GLOVE, A Celia Thaxter 752 FAITH Zadel Barnes Buddinyton 424 FIRST CENTURYSee Progress of the Exact Sciences, Natural Science, Amer ican Literature, Progress of the Fine Arts 82, 209, 401, 514, 691 FLORIDA PIONEERS, THE Will Wallace Harney 289 GABRIELLO AND ADRIANA Barry Cornwall 897 GARTH Julian Hawthorne 100, 254, 362, 557, 682, 846 GHOSTLY VISITATION A . Mary Beach 129 GHOSTS ENTRY, THE John J. Piatt 271 GLOVE, A FADED Celia Thaxter 752 GOLD AVENUE, IN THE Virginia JV. Johnson 75 GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE (with Thirteen Illustrations) John J. Stegenson 234 HER IMPERIAL GUEST .Jaines~Fayn 48 ILOUSES.See Dwellings, etc 855 HOW MY SHIP CAME OVER THE SEA Mary B. Higharn 746 HUDSON, THE ROMANCE OF THE Benson J. Lossing 633, 822 ILT.USTRATION5. The Discovery of the Hudson 633 Bnrning the Ships 649 The first. great Tipple on New York Island.. 634 John Audni 822 Fight ~vith a Savage 635 Anna Seward 823 The Clermont 636 Honora Sneyd 824 The Elysian Fields and Castle Point 637 Fac-Simile of a Letter by Major Andr6 825 Monument where Hamilton fell 638 Fac-Sitnile of a Verse of the Cow Chase.. 826 The Palisades 639 Ihe Beverly Robinson House 827 Hall of the Jumel Mansion 640 Hall in the Beverly Robinson househead- Mouth of Spuyt den Duyvel Creek 641 quarters of Arnold 827 Castle Philipse 642 Smiths House 829 The Philipse Manor-House 642 John Paulding in Middle Life 830 Sunnyside 643 Capture of Andrti 831 The Van Tassel Honse 644 Benedict Arnold 832 The Headless Horseman 644 Arnolds Escape 833 The Van Cortlaudt Manor-House 645 Mrs. Arnold and Child 834 The Ponder Berg 646 Fec-Simile of a Sketch by Major Andr6 .... 835 Bloody Pond 647 Andrt~s Monument in Westminster Abbey. 836 Plan of Attack on Forts Clinton and Mont gomery 648 HUMORS, LEGISLATIVE Hon. S. S. Cox 119, 271 .J UST IN TIME Frank Lee Benedict 837 LAST DAYS OF ROYALTY IN NEW HAMPSHIRE, THE Anna C. Swazey 736 LATTER DAYS, THE A. F~ 118 LEGEND OF THE ORGAN-BUILDER, THE Julia C. B. Dorr 459 LEGISLATIVE HUMORS Hon. S. S. Cox 119, 271 LITERATURE, AMERICAN Edwin P. Whipple 401, 514 LOST Rose Terry Cooke 674 LOVE IS KING Yellie M. Hutchinson 538 LUCR~ZIA BORGIA (with Portrait from Medal) Professor T. F. 6rane 498 LYME Martha J. Lamb 313 ILLUSTRATIONs. Morrison II. Waite 313 Brewsters Writing-Desk 321 The Waite Mansion 314 Approach to Black hail 322 View of Lyme 315 Governor Griswolds House 323 The Lords Will he done 316 The Griswold Grave-Yard 325 Congregational Church 318 Lady Feuwicks Tomb 326 Charles Johnson MCurdy 319 The Acton Library, Saybrook 326 Table of the ex-Governors 319 The Hart Mansion 327 Judge MCurdys Home ... 320 Rogers Lake 328 MAPLES, TO MY William C. Richards 867 MARTYRS Margaret B. Sangster 811 MARY, QUEEN OF ENGLAND A. H. Gnernsey 106 MEALS, BEFORE, AT, AND AFTER Robert Tomes 729 MICROSCOPE, THE Professor Samuel Lockwood 505, 650, 812 II.LesTRATIoNB. The young Microscopist 505 Diagram of Perforated Card 508 Our first Microscope 506 Three Visual Angles 509 A Stick as seen in Water 506 The Magnified Arrow 510 The Coin in the Bowl 507 A Photographers Stop 510 Ray of Light passing through different Media 507 Leuwenhoeks Microscope 511 Dispersed Light 507 Wasps Sting and Point of Cambric Needle. 511 The Perforated Card 508 Lieberkbhns Microscope 512 CONTENTS. vii Micaoscopx, TuEContinued. Interior of a Lieberkiihns Microscope 512 A Students Microscope 512 What goes on Inside aCompoundMicroscope 518 A high-class Microscope 513 A Binocular Microscope 514 Coprolite and Fish Scales 650 Bats Hairs 652 Parts of a Hair of Vampire-Bat 653 The Larder Pest, and a Hair from Grub .... 653 Sections of Hairs 653 Ikirs of Cat, Mole, Sable 654 A Fibre of Sheeps Wool 654 Tea adulterated 654 Coffee adulterated 655 Cocoa adulterated 655 The Itch Mite 656 itch Mite Burrows 656 The Hair-sac Mite 656 Fungiferous hair from a Chignon 657 A Bur-like Cell of Chignon Fungus 658 Chignon Fungus fourteen Days old 658 Mycelia, or Threads of Chignon Fungus.... 658 Pelagia Cyanella 659 Transformations of a Medusa 659 Wheat Brand 660 Barberry Brand 661 Prying into Things 812 Mould on Stick 813 Grass Blight 813 Dactylium Dendroides 813 Polyactis Fasciculala 814 Dendryphium Fumosnm 814 Triposporium Elegans 814 Human Blood CellsLive Blood 815 Stellated Blood CellsDead Blood 815 Glass-rope Sponge 816 Spicules of Glass Sponge 816 Spicules of Glass Sponge 817 Trichites in Obsidian from Tokay.. . 819 Obsidians 819 Pearl-Stones from Telkibanya 820 Pearl-Stones from Arran 820 Tachylytes from Bobenhausen and Czerno schin 829 MNEMOSYNE: A SONNET Jokn U. Saxe 807 MY GEORGIE Ilenrietta H. Holdich 420 NAOMAN: A LEGEND OF THE HUDSON Bishop Cleveland (axe 583 ILLUCTnATIONS. Mouth of Moodna Creek 883 Again, again, his Carbine blazed 887 The Childrens Friend NASTS CARICATURES.See Caricature in the United States 25 NATURAL SELECTION JVilliant AL Baker 242 NEXV HAMPSHIRE, THE LAST DAYS OF ROYALTY IN Anna C. Swazey 736 NUMBER 13 Elizabeth Stuart Phelps 580 OKLAWAHA, THE Constance Fenimore Woolson 161 ILLUSTRATIONS. Palms on the St. Johns 161 Eureka Landing .. 170 Our Boat 162 A Florida Cabin 171 Vauderlyne Banyer 163 Cherubsan Okiawaha Art Study 172 On the Oklawaha 164 Lake Harris 174 Alligators 165 Greek Draperies..... .- 175 A lonely Landing 166 Fruit and Flowers 176 Palmetto Ihicket 168 Gathering Orasges 177 The General 169 Picking Figs 178 OLD GARDISTON ~.Can stance Ifenirnore Woolson 62 ORGAN-BUILDER, THE LEGEND OF THE 459 OUTSIDE Carl Spencer 233 PARTIES AND PREACHERS OF THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND . .. Charles Deshler 568 PHILADELPHIA, OLD Rebecca Harding Davis 705, 868 ILLUSTRATIONS. William Penn 756 Gustavus Adoiphus 706 Old Swedes Houses, Christian Street, bc tween Front and Water Streets 706 The first Church in Philadelphia 707 Old Swedes Church, Philadelphia 707 Alexander Wilson 708 Wilson School-House at Kingsessing 708 The Dunker Meeting-House, Germantown.. 709 The Penn Seal 709 Landing of William Penn at Philadelphia.. 710 Penn Relics 711 Penns Chair 712 James Logan 713 Deborah Logan 13 Christ Church, Philadelphia 714 William Keiths House 715 The Lntitia Cottage 716 A Bit of old Philadelphia 717 Ben Franklin 718 Birth-Place of Benjamin West 719 The Elopement .. - 720 Corridor of Independence Hall 868 Carted through the Streets 869 Independence Hall 870 Thomas MKean 872 The Morris Mansion 872 Opening Prayer of the Conlinental Congress. 873 Carpenters hail 874 Dr. Benjamin Rush 875 The Chew House, Germantown 876 Reception in Chew House a Century ago... 877 Hoisting the American Flag on the Alfred. 878 John Hancock 878 Liberty Bell 879 The Chew Coach 879 A Tory Belle of 1777 880 Ticket for the Meschianza 881 Lord Cathcart 881 The Philadelphia Library 882 POOR MARY ANN Rose Terry Gooke 394 PORTE CRAYON.See Candidate, and Baby 329, 539 PRAYERS AL G. Van Rensselaer 690 PRINCIPALITIES OF THE DANUBE, THE George AL Towle 473 ILlUSTRATIONS. Belgrade, the Capital of Servia 473 Christian Priest 481 Itap of the Danubian Principalities 474 Rural Scene near Bucharest 482 Mussulmaus and Christians 475 Wallachians 483 Servian Church Festival 477 Roninanian huts 484 Interior of a Servian Church 479 Bucharest, Capital of Roumania, in Walls- Mussulman Bey 480 chuia 485 viii CONTENTS. QUAKERS CHRISTMAS-EVE, A Junius B. Robinson 179 QUATRAINS T. B. Aldrich 328 RATS Harriet P. Spofford 888 SCIENCE, NATURAL Theodore Gill 224 SCIENCES, EXACT, THE PROGRESS OF THE 1~ A. P. Barnard, LL.D. 82, 209 SELECTION, NATURAL William AL Bak 242 SIGN OF THE CROSS, THE John Swinton 137 SIMPSON OF BUSSORA James Payn 502 SNOW, NORTHERN Will Wallace Harney 393 SOUTHERN INDUSTRIAL PROSPECT, THE General T. AL Logan 589 STEEPLES, THE POETRY OF Emily V. Battey 180 ILLrSTRATLONs. Head-Piece 180 Brother Gabriel 185 Old-time Bell-Ringers 181 The iylfot Cross 1S5 The Boatmen rested on their Oars to list- Decorations on old Bells 186 en 182 The Mechanical Carillon 181 The Carillon A Clavier 183 Richard Braysiers Mark 188 Listening to Trinity Christmas Chimes 184 Uncle Cresars Explanation 190 STEPHENS, ALEXANDER HAMILTON Henry W. Clerelaud 387 ILLUsTRATTOas. Alexander hamilton Stephens 381 Family Servants of Alexander II. Stephens. 392 Home of Alexander H. Stephens 389 ST. JOHNLAND Dr. Samuel Osgood 675 ILLUSTRATIONs. William A. Mnhlenherg 615 Young Boys 619 Old Mans Home, St. Johnland 676 Gymnastic Exercises 679 Family Mansion 611 Group of Youngest Girls 680 Chnrch of the Testimony of Jesus 618 Lame Childrens Donkey Carriage 68t THOUSAND YEARS FROM NOW, A Paul H. Hayne 24 TODD, DR. JOHN, PASSAGES FROM THE LIFE OF George Cary Eggleston 37~2 ILLUSTRATIONS. Portrait of Dr. Todd 371 The Church in the Wilderness 381 Camp on Jacksons Pond 380 TULIP MANIA, THE William B. IIo~pes 743 TURKISH PRINCIPALITIES.See Principalities of the Danube 473 UTRICULARIA, IS THE VALVE OF, SENSITIVE ~ Mary Treat 382 ILLUSTRATIONS. Flowering Stem of Utricularia Infiata 382 Section of Stem with curved hairs 384 Utricle of Utricularia Infiata 383 Magnified Utricle of Utricularia Purpurca.. 384 Early Stages of the Utriele, and the Glands Quad rifid Processes 385 on inner Surface of Utricularia Vulgaris 383 Urricle, with Mosquito Larva inclosed 386 End of growing Branch of the Utricularia Chironomus Larva 386 Purpurea 384 VASSAR COLLEGE Anna C. Braclcett 346 ILLUSTRATIONS. Matthew Vassar 346 The Museum 355 Vassar College 341 The Ohservatory 355 Main Entrance to Vassar College 348 Miss Maria Mitchell, Professor of Astronomy 356 The Lake-Side 349 The Bulletin-Board 351 Matthew Vassar, Jun 351 Study Hour 358 The Kitchen, on Slap-jack Morning 352 The Seniors Parlor 35~ The Lihrary 354 President John 11. Raymond 360 VIOLIN, TO A Celia Thaxter 882 VOICE IN THE DESERT, A Horatio N Powers 208 WANTED-A SOUL Mrs. Frank APCarIlmy 549 WHAT IS YOUR NAME? Arthur Hastings 721 WHEELER EXPED1TION IN SOUTHERN COLORADO William H. Bideing 793 ILLUSTRATIONS. Picking a Course 193 Beaver Lake, Conejos Caaon 800 Dave Mears 794 Sam and the Bear 801 Prospecting 195 Ute Indians of Southern Colorado 802 Near the Summit of the Sangre del Cristo.. 196 A mining Town near time San Juan Rammge.. 804 Roman Catholic Church, Guadaloupe 191 Near the Head Waters of time Navajo 805 Conejos 191 A rapid Descent sos Fort Garland and Sierra Blanca 798 George M. Wheeler 807 Alpine Lake on the Sierra Blanca 199 WINDSOR CASTLE AT 66 ILLUSTRATIONS. Northwest View of the Castle 66 Virginia Water 71 Interior of St. Georges Chapel 61 Long Walk, and Statue of George iii 11 The Quadrangle ~8 The Sovemeigus private Apartments 12 Round Tower 69 Qimeens Rooms in time Southeast Tower . 13 George 1V.s Gateway 70 Et 01) College 14

Constance Fenimore Woolson Woolson, Constance Fenimore Up the Ashley and Cooper 1-24

IIARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINES No. CCCYIL1)ECEMBIMI, 187~.YOL. III. UP THE ASHLEY AND COOPER. C HAPLESTON is the picturesque city of the Southern Atlantic coast. Not hid- den eighteen or twenty miles up some river, not stretching out a rag~ed fringe of strag- gling suburbs to the north and south, not new and glarin~, not young and legen less, the city has a character of its own, and is like nothing but itself. It never seems to he growing or racing ahead, like the North- ern towns; hut finished, complete, ~ith a background of co- lonial traditions, with history, with a peculiar architecture, with settled, mature ways and habits, it lives calmly on its narrow penin- sula, an sighs not for other niile~ to conquer. Under the full moon, we stood beneath the little archw~ y high up on St. Michaels histori spire. Below lay the city, closely itnilt, stretching from river to riv- er, an abruptly ending there, lilt no continuations on the far sides of the silvery stream~ toperplexyonwi b the thought tha you have not seen it all, but must per- force cross over an ride on horse- cars through dnst~ lies of suburbs. The near streets stretch systematic- ally east and west from si e to side; and from end to end, north and south, run, from the Battery to the green of the country, two long avenues that meet and shake hands three miles out, and then blen into lovely ~onntry road, shade ~ith moss-draped live- oaks, that leads out across the Neck to the rice and cotton lands of the outlying plan- tations. From our station in the spire we could see the whole of this and take it all inthe very beginning an the very end of Charleston. Lights ~ere twinkling from THE OAKS, NEAR GOSE CR EK CHU cii. Entered accordin~ to Act of Congress, in the year 1815, by harper and Brothers, in the Office of the Libra- rian of Con~r ~ss, at Washington. Voa. LII.Jo. 301.i 2 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. the windows of the old houses, built gener- ally with the narrow gable-end on the street, rising three stories high, with closed shut- ters and massive jealous garden walls, which had seemed to us like fortifications as we strolled by; but now, looking down in the 1)rilliant illoonlight, we could see the Ion~ side stretch of broad verandas adorning each story from ground to roof; and the mass of green in the hidden gardens, which, like Moorish court-yards, are for the dwellers within, and not for the passers-by. Turn- ing, we looked out to sea, down the broad harbor. On one side shone out the white cottages of Sullivans Island, with the earth- covered slopes of Fort Moultrie; on the oth- er we traced the long low tongue of Morris island lying on the water, with the old ridge of Battery Wagner faintly visible; and in the centre of the harbor, directly under the moon, rose Fort Sumter, round, dark, and little inova frownin the ble light - house, that mars its symmetry with its all too short tower, perched on its eastern parapet. The white sails of a vessel out on the ocean ,sev en miles distant, seemed near~ er than the Brooklyn shore- as seen from New York, for the harbor is wide, and there- fore seems near, the eastern. outlook is boundlessaway to the Bermudas if you like and water miles are short miles always, especially un- dci the moon. Then turaiu~ inland a0ain, with the minds eve full of this beautiful breezy harbor, we saw how it was formed. Two rivers come out from the land and dow into each other, their broad mingled tide sweeping down past the islands isito the ocean. These rivers, the Kiowah and the Etiwan of the Indians, are the Ashley and time Coop- er, by whose ti(les the citys sides are bound as with sil- very ribbons, that stretch in- land throngh the green coun- try, shimmering and fading away into the pearly haze of the moon-lit night. Below ns the chimes rang out, sweetly telling the hour. Nine oclock, and aalls w-ehl, chanted the watch- mann who keeps guard in the tower all night; and the re- turning cry answered him, chanted by the patrol from the street below. This is an ___ old custom which has been preserved in Charleston, like many other old things so long gone froum Northern cities that their very nienmory has faded. Visitors passing through, en route to and from Florida, seize upon this old spire with its chime and its watchman as something foreign, reminding them of quaint German towns they have seems abroad, and go away associating it with a. mixture of wood-carvings, flaxen- haired maidens, amid a ruined castle some- where near, rather than with the olden times in their own country, to which it in reality belongs. St. Michaels Church was built in 1752 on the site of a wooden struc- ture erected iii 1690, the first Episcopal church in South Carolina; its chime of bells, eight in number, was brought from England. When the British evacuated Charleston in 1782, they removed these bells amid sent them to New York, whence they were taken to England and sold. Res- cued by a merchaimt there, formerly a resi- dent of Charleston, they were returned to tIme city, where they hung in peace iii their sl)ire until 1861, when, as a matter of pre- cautiomi, they were removed to Columbia; VIE~ LI~ (IIIARI ESTON, SOUTLI UAROLINA, SLIOWINO ST. memmAms caummen. / UP THE ASHLEY AND COOPER. 3 there, passing through the great fire at the close of the war, they were so much injured that they were sent again to England, this time to be recast. On the 21st of March, 1867, they chimed again for the first time in their new garb from the old steeple, play- ing to the listening city the appropriate air, Home again. St. Michaels spire is one hundred and sixty-eight feet high. Early in the Revolutionary war Captain Whipple, of the schooner Defense, who fired the first gun against the British in South Carolina, knowing that it was conspicuous far out at sea, conceived the idea of painting it black, in order that it might not serve as a land- mark for the British fleet outside. This was done, but with another result than the one intended. Against the clear light South- ern sky the obstinate spire, now black, stood out more conspicuously than ever. The Americans, while they occupied Charleston, kept a watchman in the tower, who reported the movements of the British, encamped on James Island, opposite; and during the late war the Confederates also kept a look-out there, to note the movements of the block- ading fleet outside the bar and the position of the forces on Morris Island. This same spire was also the mark for the Federal ar- tillery-men during the long siege of Charles- ton; but it was never struck, although more than twenty thousand shells were thrown, as closely aimed as could be, the gnus being five miles distant. Other portions of the church were struck, but the injuries to the old walls were slight, and easily repaired. The Ashley and the Cooper, the two sil- very rivers we saw from this spire, were named after Ashley Cooper, afterward Earl of Shaftesbury, one of the lords proprietors to whom in 1693 Charles the Second grant- ed a tract of land in that fine New World of hisa tract embracing with easy liberality the present domains of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. Locke, the philoso- pher, prepared a code of laws modeled upon Platos republic for the infant colony, and among other things ordained a nobility, three orders, landgraves, cassiques, and bar- ons, graduated by landed estates granted with the titles, which were to be hered- itary, like the titles of the mother country. The titles and estates of landgrave were actually granted and enjoyed by several persons, forming the only bona fide United States nobility of which we have record. The peoples government having been se- lected, the lords proprietors began to look about for the people, and owing to the con- fusion at home consequent upon the Resto- ration, they obtained two classes, widely different and widely disagreeingclasses that were not safely fused into one homo- geneous mass until the Revolution came with its struggles and trials of fire: Round- head families praying to leave a profligate nation and a wicked king; Cavalier families impoverished by long loyalty to the royal cause, and illy repaid from an impoverished treasury by grants of land in the New World these met upon the banks of the Ashley and the Cooper, and kept the best peace they could. Later came Dutch from New York,when that city was captured by the English and after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes came colonies of Hugue- nots, whose names are still among the best known in CarolinaBonneau, Cordes, Du- pont, De Saussure, Grimk6, Huger, Horry, Legnr6, Le Jan, Laurens, Mazyck, Maui- gault, Marion, Neufville, Priolean, Porcher, Poyas, Ravenel, and others. The charter guaranteed liberty of conscience, and, gener- ally speaking, this was allowed to all. True, in the old records later stand several church laws, one of which empowered the church- warden, accompanied by two constables of Charles-town, once in the morning and once in the afternoon on Sunday, during the hours of service, to walk through the town and see if any persons were being unlawfully entertained at the vintners shops, permis- sion being accorded, if admittance was re- fused, to break down the door. This, how- ever, is mild compared to Virginia, where the law compelled every new settler to ap- pear before the rector of the parish for prop- er religious instruction; if he refused, he was to be admonished and whipped; if he refused a second time, he was to be admon- ished and whipped a second time; and if he refused a third time, he was to be whipped every day until he yielded, which must have brought him in a charming temper to the waiting rector. These laws, made to uphold Episcopal authority, smack of an intolerance not far behind that of the much-beratedPuri- tans of Massachusetts Bay. They were, how- ever, a dead letter, at least in Carolina, where the Dissenters were always a powerful body, and the Cavalier families, however influen- tial, in point of numbers a minority. In colonial times Charlhston was a favor- ite settlement of the mother country, owing to the value of its exportsindigo, rice, and naval stores. In 1731 forty thousaiid bar- rels of rice were exported, and, as it was said, London and Liverpool looked loving- ly on the brisk colony of the Ashley and Cooper. The sons of the wealthier plant- ers were almost universally sent to England to be educated, no other colony in the New World sending so many. Fashions were brought over for the wives and daughters; Madeira wine, punch, tea, coffee, aiid choc- olate were in common use; and four-horse coaches rolled lip to the doors of the little churches, now almost lost in a second growth of wild forest. Out-door sports were much affected by the planters, who kept fine horses and dogs, and hunted over the country in English style, although on a larger scale 4 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. than was possible in that well-bounded, well-meted-out island. They killed foxes, deer, and bears, and now and then an Indi- an, for the forests were still fnll of the red- skinned foes. In 1674 the first regular gov- ernment, other than military, was establish- ed in the province, in 1682 a Parliament was held, and in 1683 a landgrave was appoint- ed Governor, succeeding the military rule of Landgraves Yeamans and West. One of these Carolina landgraves we shall find in our journey up the Cooper River; for, leav- ing Charleston with its oft- told and well-known story, we are going up the two riv- ers to search out the old man- ors, with their legends and history, now almost forgot- ten, of colonial times and of the Revolution. The Ashley River, or up the Ashley, was once the scene of great magnificence, the residences and the ways of living being modeled upon those of the English nobili- ty, from whom, in many in- stances, the planters were de- scended. This style of living was even more liberal than its English prototype, owing to the warm climatewhich almost necessarily promoted indolence and consequent lavishnessto the rich lands, and especially to the numn- l)er of slaves owned and em- ploycd, making each estate patriarchal in its administration, government, and system of supplies. Drayton Hall, the only one of these 01(1 homes now remaining, was built in 1740 by Thomas Drayton, Esq., and named after the family residence, iDrayton Hall, Northamp- tonshire, England; its cost at that early period being ninety thousand dollars. It is built of brick, the columns of Portland mar- ble, and much of the finer material having been imported from England. Within, the stairway, the mantels, and the wainscot, I which extends in a quaint fashion from floor to ceiling, are of solid mahogany, pan- eled and elaborately carved, the wainscot at a later period having been painted over, probably on account of the daily oiling and polishing which old-time ideas of shining mahogany required. Over the mantels are frames set in the wainscot for pictures or coats of arms, the fire-places are adorned with colored tiles, and the size of the rooms, together with the great kitchens and ovens below, take one back to the old baronial days in England when size was a criterion of grandeur, and every thing belonging to great families was great also, from the lmreadtli of their apartments to the bulk of their four-horse coaches. In one of the cel- lars are to be seen a number of marble col- umns lying on the ground just as they came from England. These columns have given rise to the story that the old mansion was never entirely finished; but this is an error, the columns having been intended not for tIme house, but for a gateway outside. The Drayton family occupied the Hall for a num- nimAYroN HALL, 0-N rnz ASHLEY, WESTERN FHO~(T. UP THE ASHLEY AND COOPER. 5 her of years. Many persons in Charles- ton remember the stories told bytheir fathers and moth- ers of the dinner parties and oth- er entertainments given at Drayton Hall, when carpets were laid down over the broad flights of steps at both entrances and ont to the carriage- ways, that the la- dies might alight and enter without endangering the satin of their robes. Cornwallis occn- pied Drayton Hall as his head-qnar- ters dnring por- tions of the years 1780 and 1781, ap- pointing receivers for the estate, and doling ont rations of provisions daily to those of the family who had re- inained at home. The letters K.W. are still to be seen cut into one of the bricks by a German soldierhis way of spelling his corn- Inanders name. The Draytons are one of the oldest Carolina families; they came to the province in 1671 with Sir John Yeamans. William Henry Drayton, a grand- son of the first comer, was born at Drayton Hall in 1742. He was edncated in England, at Westminster School and Oxford; bnt in spite of his English habits and affiliations, on his return to Carolina he took np the cause of liberty, and wrote and published several powerful pamphlets upon the rights of the injured colony. In 1775 he was elect- ed a member of the Provincial Congress, and was afterward advanced to its presi- dency. It was while holding this office that he issued, on the 9th of November, 1775, the order for the first firing on the British, which was executed by Captain Whipple, of the schooner Defease, and open- ed hostilities in the South. This order, ad- dressed to Colonel William Moultrie, direct- ed him by every military operation to en- deavor to oppose the passage of any British naval armament that may attempt to pass Fort Johnson~ and as Congress had not at that time declared independence, it was a bold, self-reliant, and energetic measnre. Be- fore the Revolution Drayton had been one of the kings connselors and judge of the province, and after it he was made Chief Jnstice by his countrymen, who heaped hon- ors of all kinds npon him in recognition of his distinguished character and services, one ~f the latter being a mission to the dis- affected people of the back country, which, in connection with the Rev. William Ten- nant, he nndertook and carried out with snccess in 1775. He was the author of a history of the Revointion; he designed one side of the arms and great seal of South Carolina, the other side having been con- tributed by Arthur Middleton, a signer of the Declaration of Independence; and he was considered one of the ablest political writers and speakers of the dayall this in what we shonid call his youth, since he died in Philadelphia, while attending Congress in 1779, at the early age of thirty-seven years. At the close of the late war, when every other mansiomm in this parish was bnrned, DRAYTON nALLulymiR TRouT. 6 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. Drayton Hall was spared. It is sai that a negro declared that its owner was a Union man, which story h~ d so mnch foundation in fact as this: A Northern Drayton, a near relative of the South Carolin~ family, was actually ontside the bar with the ticet which had so long blockaded Charleston H rbor; this was Captain Percival Drayton, of the United States navy, who distinguished him- self in the engagements at Port Royal, Fort Sumter, and Mobile Bay, and died in 1865 at Washington, Chief of the Bureau of N v- igation. His tomb is in Trinity Church, New York city, and is annually adorned with flowers on Decoration-day. The Rev. William Tennant, who accom- p nied Mr. Drayton on his mission to the disaffected people of the back country, was born in New Jersey, and educafed at Prince- ton College; he became pastor of the Inde- pendent Church in Charleston in 1772, and although a clergyman, he ~ as so ardently zealous in the cause that he was electe a member of the Provincial Congress. It was said of him that his whole soul was in the Revointion; he spoke and wrote with vigor, and made his influence felt wherever be went. He died, like Drayton, at the early age of thirty-sev- en, at the High Hills of tbe Santee. And a word here about that locality, the High Hills of the Santeeahl in capitalsa title that stands out on the pagei of Charles- ton history with a breezy prominence that carries the reader in imagination up, up, to far blue mountain - tops. On the principle of large riv- ers for large cities, the Santee, melodiously and appropriate- ly formed by the Wateree and Congaree, is the river at whose mouth Charlesto onght to e stood. It did not get the city, for some reason or other, and goes towuless into the sea; but to make up for this, it has its hillsthose High Hills that rise abon two hundred feet above the plain, the favorite camping- groun of General Greene during the Revolutionary war, affectionately called by Gen- eral Lee the benign Hills of the Sa tee. Thither resort- ed many South Carolinian, apparently to die; at least one often reads of this or that distinguished man, He died at the High Hills of the San- tee. But, Carolina, we will not smile at the small height of these high hills of thine; keep them for the poetical name they bear (always in capitals), and for thc way they light up the story of thy poor foot-sore, weary little Revolutionary army. One is always so glad to re~ d that they went into camp at the High Hills of the Santeebrave, patriotic little band! Below Drayton Hall is Schievehin, an es- tate of the Izard family. Here was made one of the first treaties with the IndL ns of Carolina, and there is still to be seen here~ block-house, intended as a retreat for the family in case of a sudden attack by the red- skins. There was a dramatic scene at Sebi- evehin once. The young heir, having wooed and won a foreign bride, brought her home to Charleston, and thence one fine mornin~ the bridal party, with escort of friends, all on horseback, rode out to the manor-house on the Ashley. Just before they reached the lon~ avenue of live-oaks that led to th~ entrance, the young husband, eager to give his bride the first glimpse of her new home, urged her horse forward, and galloping with MACNOLIA, ON THE AShLEY. UP THE ASHLEY AND COOPER. 7 her into the arched roadway, called upon her to look. She did lookand saw notli- ing but flames. The house was burning, and the bride saw oniy its destruction. It is said that they went abroad again and never returned. Below Schievelin, nearer Charleston, is Ashley Ferry. Here, on the 9th of May, 1791, George Washington, President of the United States, accompanied by his wife and suit, took breakfast on his way to Savan- nah. He was escorted as far as the ferry by General Moultrie, General Piuckney, and other distin,uished citizens of Charleston. The young ladies of the last century were not unlike those of to-day, for we read that they sallied forth from all the houses round about, and crowned the Father of his Coun- try with flowers as he sat over his cup of teaor was it chocolate. Still nearer Charleston is the old Bull es- tate; also Accabee, with its fortified walls. Next above Drayton Hall is beautiful Magnolia, the residence of the Rev. J. Grimk6 Drayton. In the spring, when a little steam- er carries the returning Florida tourists up the Ashley to see old Drayton Hall, many of the visitors go no farther than this enchant- in0 garden, where they wander through the glowing aisles of azaleas, and forget the lapse of time, recalled from their trance of enjoy- ment only by the whistle of the boat, which carries them back to the city without 50 much as a glimpse of the old mansion the came to see. You went to Drayton Hall, of course. Well, no. We landed at Magnolia, and the garden is so beautiful, so bewitchingly lovely, that we did not even think of the Hall, which is half a mile distant, you know, until it was too late, is the common an- swer to the common question during the spring season in Charleston, when the great hotel with white columns is thronged witi returning tourists, all wearing palmetto hats and carrying sea-bean in their pocket . It is now understood that only a person of su- perior energy of character succeeds in pass- in0 through the beautiful garden and view- ing the old Hall in spite of the azaleas. AzALEASeARDEN AT MAGNOLLA. S HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. The garden, in its present beauty, has been in existence only ten or fifteen years, al- though Magnolia had, of course, the usual garden and live-oaks of the Ashley planta- tions; a pretty modern cottage has taken the place of the old house, which was de- stroyed. Seven persons, touching finger- tips, can just encircle the trunks of some of the live-oaks here; there are camellias eight- een and twenty feet high, and a beautiful sylphide rose seventeen feet in height by twenty feet wide. There are also many rare trees and shrubs, among them the sacred tree of the Graiid Lama, Cupressus lasitanica. But the glory of the garden is the gorgeous coloring of the azaleas, some of the bushes sixteen and seventeen feet through by twelve feet high, others nineteen and twen- ty feet through by thirteen feet highsolid masses of blossoms in all the shades of red, from palest pink to deepest crimson, and now and then a pure white bush, like a bride in her snowy lace, It is almost im- possible to give a Northerner a~i idea of the affluence of color in this garden when its flowers are in bloom, Imagine a long walk, with the moss-draped live-oaks overhead, a fairy lake and bridge in the distance, and on each side the great fluffy masses of rose and pink and crimson, reaching far above your head, thousands upon tens of thousands of blossoms packed close together, with no green to mar the intensity of their color, rounding out in swelling curves of bloom down to the turf below, not pausing a few inches above it and showing bare stems or trunk, but spreading over the velvet, and trailing out like the rich robes of an em- press. Stand on one side and look across the lawn; it is like a mad artists dream of hues; it is like the Arabian nights; eyes that have never had color enough find here a full feast, and go away satisfied at last. And with all their gorgeousness, the hues are delicately mingled; the magic effect is produced not by unbroken banks of crude reds, but by blended shades, like the rich Oriental patterns of India shawls, which the LIVE-OAKS. UP THE ASHLEY AND COOPER. European designers, with all their efforts, lant exploit, which gave him a frigate and can never imitate. Sometimes in Northern mn(le hini a commodore. gardens one sees, carefully tended, a little All these old places are on the south side l)e(l of scarlet geraniums all in bloom, or of the Ashley River, in St. Andrews Parish, else a monad of verbenas in various shades; which, withi St. Jamess, Goose Creek, and imagine these twelve or thirteen feet high Christ Church parishes, was laid off by act of extending in long vistas in all directions as Assembly as early as 1706. These were once far as the eye can reach, and you have a the wealthiest and most thickly settled par- faint idea of the beautiful spring garden of ishes in South Carolina. TIme old Church of Magnolia. St. Andrews still stands, about six miles from Although now thirteen miles from Charles- Draytoim Halla quaint little structure, in ton, the tide sets strongly up the river, and good hireservation. sweeps with force a niust the low blnff of The l)hanters of St. Andrews crossed the Magnolia; the Ashley seems narrow and Ashley by ferry-boat and drove into town in harmless, but it is deep, in some places sixty their carriages, there being no bridges be- feet, and, owing to the swift current, is not low; but some mniles above, where the river without its dangers. There is an old oak is narrow, there is a bridge, called Bacons, not far from the landing at Magnolia, which a well-known name in Revolutionary (lays. has acted as life-preserver at two ship- Over this bridge Cormuwalhis amid Greene, ~vrecks. In the old days, on the occasion Tarleton and Marion, Rawdon amid Sumter, of the marriage of a Miss Gadsden, of were continually chasing each other, umow Charleston, to a member of the Drayton back, now forth, now pursmming, now pmmrsmmed, fanmily, a large silver punch-bowl, chased like so many spectres of Tam o Simanter; at and emigraved, was borrowed from tIme Mid- least so it seemus to the superficial reader. dletomms to grace time festivities. This heir- Crossing tlmi~ historic bridge, we find on time loom was voyaging down time Asimley from other side of time river, about eighteen umiles Middleton Place on its way to Cimarleston, froum Cimarlestomi, two picturesque amid, iii time whmeum time schooner whichm bore it was wreck- Americaum semuse of time word, amiciemit ruimus ed directly umuder time 01(1 oak, time crew say- an old fort, bumilt in a horseshoe bend of the lug timemselves by climbing into its over- Ashley, and miot far from it a Gothic tower hmangimug branches; buit the pumnch-bowi went eighty feet in height, gracefumhhy draped in to the bottom, where it still remains. 1mm vines. These two sihemit menmemitoes of co- later years ammotimer shipwreck in time very lommial times amid the Revolution are little same place was witnessed by time presemut known outside of their inmnme(hiate neighbor- owner of Magnolia, time crew saving them- hood, and have never beemi I)hiOtographed an- selves in the same way, by cliumbing into til now. Timey stand like sentimmeis over the the tree hike so many squirrels. site of a town, the once-llomurishmimug town of A few amiles above Magumolia are the ruins Dorchester, where miow not omme imeartim-stomme of Middleton Place, once one of the most remains, not omme brick upomi another. A par- l)eantiful plantations in Somith Carolina. ty of patriots went omit muot long simice, with This was the home of Arthur Middletoum, speeches amid toasts all prepared, to celebrate the sigmier of the Declaration of Imidepend- time centennial of an old fort up omm Lake emice. Here he hived amid here he died. The George. Arrived at the spot, however, they old oaks, the hedges, time elaborate terraces comuld muot find eveum tIme site. But here omi and pomids, still remain, but time place is de- time Ashley is a well-preserved fortificatiomi, serted, and the spirit of melancholy broods deservimug remnembrammee and miotice miow, if over it. ever. Its walls are of concrete, from ei gut Next beyond is Ashley Hill, once the prop- to ten feet high; the inchosed ground within erty of the GIlloum family. Here can still be is covered with a thick growth of forest seen a heap of gravel which was broumghmt trees; in the centre is a mouumid, coverimug over from Holland to gravel the walks near- time debris of time muagazimue; cedars of vemi- hy two ceutmuries ago. General Greemme en- eralde aspect hue its omuter face, amid iii soame camnpe(l at Ashley Hill for some tinme previ- places have fallen across; but time old walls ous to the recapture of Charleston, but the stand firamly, amid tIme broad top is solid amid glory of the place is the story of its original even. It is kumowum that this fort was hilt owmier, Comumodore Gillon, of Revolutiommary huefore 1719, as a protectioum against time In- fame. During the years 1777 anal l775,Kwhien diamus, an(l probaluly it dmites even farthi2r the British were blockading Charlestomi Har- back. It was repaired iii 1775 as a place bor, three of their vessels were particularly of refuge iii case Chmarlestoum should be cap- troubiesomne, and Alexander Gihlon, then a tured ,and was mused as a gatherimug poimit for muerchamut of the city, volunteered to go out time nuihitia amid for coverimug tIme back coumi- in the ouily armed vessel possessed by the try. Momultrie, time hero of time glorioums lit- Anmericans and attack them. By means of the palumetto fortress on Suilhivaums Islamud, stratagem and the most darimug bravery he amid Marion, the brilhiamit, (laring wihl-o-thme- captuired all three, and came sailing back in wisp of time swamps, both comumunanded at triumph with his three prizes in towa brill- different times this little fort omi time Ash 10 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. icy. In Moultries memoirs there is the fol- lowino November, 1775.Information having been received that the Scoffol lights (Scoville light troops) vere coming down from the hack country in great force to carry off the ainmonition and pnhlic records that were lodged at Dorchester, I received orders to send a re-en- forcement immediately to that place. November 10, 1775. To 6epteia Frencis Merien: You are to proceed with all expedition, with yours and Captain Hugers companies, to Dorchester to re-en- force the troops there, and to take special care in guard- ing and defending the cannon, gunpovder, and public records at that place. You are to take command of the whole of the forces there until further orders. You are to apply to the committee at Dorchester for a suf- ficient number of negroes in the public service to re- move the cannon lying near the water-side to a spot more safe near the fort. (Signed) WILlIAM MOULTRIE. Later, in 1779, General Moultrie wrote to General Lincoln as follows: I have halted troops at Dorchester, where I intend to form my camp ready to support you. WIlLIAM MouLTanI. In May, 1780, Charleston was taken by the Britisla, and the next year, after tile fliglat of Cornwailis into Virginia, Marion and Siasaster kept the enemy in cheek iii the vicinity of Charleston by harassing their outposts, one of which was this old fort at Dorclaester. Oat one occasion General Wade Hampton, com- manding some troops under tisens, charged down the Dorchester road with a small body of dragoons to the xery walis of Cisarleston, while his associate, Colonel Lee, captured a heavily loaded wagon train belonging to the enemy, rode throngh the town of Dor- chester, drove the Brftisla garrison out of the fort, and then away like a meteor, rejoining Hampton at the designated point, when the two 1)01(1 raiders and tiacir small bands went back in tri- anapha with their spoil to the main body of the army. Another time Gemi- er~al Greene aph)roached Dorchester with two hun- dred horse and two hnn- dred foot, hoping to sur- prise the fort; but the ease- my, having received infor- mation of the movement, were prepared, and waited all night for the attack. In the morning they sent out fifty sconts, but Wade Hanspton and his dragoons met them, 1511(1 drove them helter-skelter back to thac fort, front whose sally-port there presently issued forth a body of cavalry to pur- sne the dragoons, who were riding back to camp. But Hampton tnrved and charged down to the walls of the fort again, driving them before him and so alarming the garrison that, thinking Greenes whole army was npon them, they destroyed their stores, tlsrew their cannon into the river, and abandoned the post by night, retreating withisa tue for- tifications of Charleston. General Greene could not pursue Ihem, as his whole force was less than half their number. There was a surprise of another kind at this 01(1 Dor- chester fort, which illustrates also the pre- viously mentloased depths and strong current of the apparently harmless little Ashley. An Macrican sentinel on the sosath side of the river, seeing a red coat through the trees oaa thse opposite bank, gave the alarm: The ems- easy! the enemy ! Imusediately all was com- niotion, a force was ordered to cross the riv- er and examine the ground. A captain in charge, who knew something of the current, sent after boats; bait at this momesat isp gal- loped Lienten ant-Colonel Laurens, and hear- imsg the cause of the delay, plunged into tise river, wavimmg Isis sword, and crying out, Ye who are brave naen, follow sue ! It is said that the captain, whso was also a brave sol- dier, isaimediately followed at the head of all the men, indignant at the impastation hut Isis fears were verified, for it was with thae greatest difhicualty, and only after a se- vere struggle, tlsat horses and riders reads- ed the opposite bank, where, in their ex- laasssted condition, they would infallibly have been captured if there haad been any thing to take tlsem save one old red soldiers coat accidentally heft Isanging in a tree. The guns of this old fort once com FLAIl OF TOE OLD FORT AT DORCIIESTEII. UP THE ASHLEY AND COOPER. 11 IflhIll(1C(1 the entire length of the prin- cipal street of Dor- chester, and the church, whose ra- med tower alone re- mains, stood at the forest end of the other, the two av- ennes crossing at right angles. In 1717 the town con- tamed - eighteen hundred inhahit- ants, and in 1723 it had a market, semi - animal fairs. and a free school. Now there is noth- ing left, not a trace of mans hahita- tion; one or two re- cently plowed fields al]da second ~rowtlm of wild forest cover the spot. The lit- tle lost town has its story. In 1696 there caine froum Dorcimes- ter, Massachusetts to Carolina a col- ony of Congregationalists, accompanied by their pastor; they selected a site on the Ashley River, and egtahlished themselves there, to encourage, they sai(l, time pro- motion of religion on the Southern planta- tions. They called their village Dorches- ter, after their Massachusetts home, and also after the town of Dorchester in Englaml, whence some of theta had originally emi- grated; and, with the industry and thrift of their race, they speedily built up a settle- ment of importance, and established a thriv- ing trade with the surrounding country. Their old church, built in 1696, the year of their arrival, and rebuilt in 1794, still stands, in thick woods, with scarcely a track lead- ing to its door. It was an Independent Congregational church, and is called in the neighborhood the Old White. It celebrated its one-hundred-and-fiftieth anni~-ersary in 1~46; but no services have heen held there for many years save those of the wind, the rain, and time birds. Long before the days when incorrect spell- ing had grown into a fine art a humorist dwelt at Dorchester, who seems to have surpassed our later wits by his native tal- ents in that line. Witness the followin letter, which, with the unconsciousness of genius, he l)robably never considered funny at all. It is addressed to a member of the committee to whom had been intrusted the rehuilding of the Old White: April 14th, 1794. Sma,Eye am in formed that you ar wanting abrick lare to do the work at the meeting-hors and if you do eye mviii do it as Cheap as it cau be dun in the country Ether by Mesmeut or imy the job likewise eye will ha my Might to words the meeting-hors You mviii be Kind enuf to Send me ananser Remain Yours & c. It is not every workman who will ha his Might toward rebuilding a meeting- house, and it is satisfactory to know that this man secured the jOl). In 1752 the little colommy of Congregation- mdists omi time Ashley renmoved in a body to Liberty County, Georgia, where they set- tled, amid built Dorchester number four, al)out five nmiles froam tIme town of Sunbuiry, from whose fort in time tiumes of the Revolu- tion Colommel MIntoslm semit omit the gallant reply to the British colmmnmarm(leT, Come and take it ! The trustees of Georgia were glad to get time thrifty Massachusetts settlers, who left time Ashley because they could not ohtaiu timere sufficient laud for their puir- poses; but they could not take their 01(1 church, which, smirromumided Imy graves, now stands alomme in time forest, still slmowiug, however, in the shape of time roof and imm every stmmr(ly squared timber, its plaimi Puri- tan origin. In striking contrast to time Old White stands the ruined Gothic tower, all tlmat re- umains of St. Georges Church, Dorchester. The lords proprietors hind troubled them- selves very little as to time religion of their new colony, in spite of tIme glowing hopes for time comiversioum of time mmatives which had giveim timemmi their liberal charter. So far, TuE OLO WhITE MEETINe-uousE, iORCIIESTEE. 12 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. l)nt one teacher had gone out among the retl nien, and it is but just to add that he was highly successful, much more so, in- (leed, than many who came after: a French (lancing - master took his courage in his hands and went boldly out into the woods, where he taught the young braves to dance politely, and to play upon the flute. His classes were held upon the banks of the Santee, and it is said that he retired at last with a handsome fortuue, derived from the willing fees of his eager pupils. In 1707, however, the lords proprietors awoke, di- rected the province to be divided into dis- tricts, and established religious worship ac- cording to the forms of the Church of En- gland; that is, they endeavored to do this, and for that purpose ordered churches to be erected, among them this of St. Georges, Dorchester. The church was built of brick seventy feet long by thirty feet wide, in shape cruciform, with Gothic windows; and the tower, which once held a ring of bells, shows how beautiful, complete, and church- like the little sanctuary must have been. Services were held here, with some periods of discontinu- ance, for more than one hun- dred years, the walls having been several times repaired during the century, the last time in 1823 by Mr. Henry Middleton, then United States minister to Russia. Soon aft- er this date Dorchester de- clined rapidly; it was discov- ered that the river - bottom rice lands were more produc- tive than the inland-swamp rice lands of this neighbor- hood, and gradually the plan- tations were neglected, irriga- tion, which had been carried on extensively, was aban- doned, and the country grew unhealthy. There is now nothing left of Dorchester save the old fort ali(l tower, the church itself having been pulled down by Vandal hands Pr the sake of the bricksa sake which has destroyed more than one beautiful ruin near Charleston, and which makes one loi)g to send down several shiploads of ue~v bricks, if only the thoughtless hands would spare the relics of an- tiquity which our Ne~v World can not afford to lose. Dur- ing the period when old St. _ Georges still stood, although deserted, it was discovered that a black boy who tended sheep in the neighborhood was in the habit of driving his flock into the church during rain-storms, and the scene was put into verse as follows: When all the consecrated ground, Nave, cliancel, choir, and aisle, Thronged by a bleating flock was found, Quite crowded was the pile; A stout black boy, with cord and crook, Within the pulpits chair Kept watch with very sleepy look Upon his fleecy care. In the overgrown church-yard of St. Georges are a number of old tombs, among them one covered with a horizontal slab upon which can be distinctly traced the marks of chopping-knives, the British sol- diers having used the stone as a meat-chop- ping board while they were encamped in the neighborhood. The fair dames of Revolutionary times stand out on the pages of the old chroni- cles, the very wor(ls that describe them seeming as stately as their manners and as rich as their brocades. One of these chron- icles describes Mistress Waring, of Tranquil Hall, Dorchester, setting forth on Sunday morning to attenti service at 01(1 St. Georres. O[~D TOWIIR OF 5T. 43EOROE5, ])OR(JIIC5TEiL. UP THE ASHLEY AND COOPER. 13 It may here be remarked, by-the-way, that the title Mrs. is to this day in the South ceremoniously pronounced Mistress al- ways. The two dames, Mistress Waring and her sister, went together in a broad chaise, the gentlemen riding ahead on horse- back, their swords by their sides; the dames wore musk-melon hats, and had large bon- quets pinned on their stomachers, the cur- tain of the chaise being carefully fastened across to keep the dust and damp from their flowered satin gowns. Thus arrayed, when St. George~s ring of bells sounded, forth they sallied from Tranquil Hall to at- tend the Sunday service. Within the past year the picturesque ruin of Newington, also in the neighborhood of Dorchester, has been torn down for the sake of the bricks. Newington was owned by the Blake family, descendants of Admiral Blake, who distinguished himself in engagements on the Medit~trranean in 1654, and die don board ship as his fleet was entering Plym- outh Harbor, homeward-bound, in 1657. Cromwell had his body interred with high honors in Westminster Abbey, but after the Restoration it was removed by the royalists, which so angered his children that they sold their estate and removed to this country. Newington is mentioned by a daughter of Lady Blake in her will, dated 1749, as My Dorchester Plantation, with all the build- ings and improvements thereon, the place having then been occupied about fifty years. The house was a large brick man- sion; on the broad steps, which alone re- main, grow old trees, and one can trace, in the thick forest beyond, the avenue of live- oaks that once swept up to the door; the remains of the terraces and fish ponds are still to be seen. It was here in this for- est that we found supple -jacks (Berche- mia volubili8) of extraordinary size, twining around each other, and every thing else they could reach, as tenaciGusly and closely as the strands of a new rope upon each other up they went, from the ground to the tops of the tallest trees, like coils of serpents, coming down again like Japanese acrobats, hand over hand, the original Jacks of the bean-stalk. At Dorchester we are near the head wa- ters of the Ashley. Crossing to the eastward, we find Goose Creek, a branch of the Coop- er, for these two Charleston rivers, in all their course, are not far apart. Goose Creek, seventeen miles from Charleston, is a classic region, in spite of its name. It was once the most wealthy and most thickly settled neighborhood in the province, and the fa- vorite residence of distinguished families, who owned plantations also in other locali- ties, but chose this for their home. The lit- tle stream which flows through the lovely land curves as a gooses neck curvesat least so they saidand they seeni to have been well contented with the name, for they gave it not only to the river, but to the church, the parish, and the whole neigh. borhood, the they meaning the old resi- dents, men of importance in Carolina. Old Goose Creek church (St. Jamess) is consid- ered by many persons the most interesting relic of colonial times in the South. It was built in 1711, and has not, like the other old churches we have described, been re- built; the walls and interior are just as the original designer left them. It is a deco- rous little woodland temple, situated now in the heart of a forest, a narrow overgrown track alone leading to the door where twelve four-horse coaches used to roll up every Sunday morning, filled with stately dames, their attendant cavaliers coining on horse- back. It stands in a church-yard which is fortified by a wall and ditch,not to keep out man, but the wild beasts that prowled by night; the gray old tombs, with their lichen-covered inscriptions, sadly need an Old Mortality to decipher their forgotten stories of the past. St. Jamess is built of brick, cherub-heads adorn the windows, and the high pulpit, marble tablets of the Coin- maudments, Creed, and Lords Prayer, are surmounted by the royal arms of Great Britain, tinted and in reliefa decoration which preserved the little temple from des- ecration and destruction during the Revo- lutionary war. The altar and the rails of the chaneel are gone, but on the walls hang some highly colored and fantastic memorial tablets, one of them bearing this inscrip- tion: Under this lyes the late Col. JOHN GIBBES, who deceased on the 7th of August, 1711. Aged 40. The floor of the church is of stone, seven- teen mahogany pews fill it, and there is a gallery across one end. In front of the pul- pit, set in the floor, is a tablet to the mem- ory of the Rev. Francis Le Jan, D.D., of Trinity College, Dublin, who was the first rector of the parish, and died in 1717. The name Gibbes, found on the most fan- tastic of the tablets in Goose Creek church, belongs to an old and well-known Cavalier family of Kent, England, who removed to Barbadoes at the time of the king~s im- prisonment, and thence came to Carolina. The name appears on the old paper money, among the governors of the province, and in the company of patriots who were sent as prisoners to St. Augustine, Florida, dur- ing the Revolutionary war. At a later date one of this family was noted for his wit, and many of his odd sayings and doings have come down to this day, among them the following: After the Revolution Mr. Gibbes found himself, like most others, in narrow circumstances, and cpened a count- ing-house as broker and auctioneer. A gang of negroes was sent to him for sale, and 14 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. about the same time an English trader call- (41 with an invoice of wigs to iu(lnire if there was any chance of se1lin~ them. He had l)eell deceived by some wag in England, who had told him that wigs (Whigs) were all the rage now in America. Mr. Gibbes, however, l)roInPtly undertook to (lispose of the wigs, and imme(liately a(lvertised to sell the negroes on a certain day, each hav- ing on a new and fashionable wig. Accord- il)gly on the day of sale a great company assembled, and the negroes were put upon the stand, each with a powdered wig over his black wool, the wigs to be paid for at a guinea each, let the negroes sell for what they would. The novelty and humor of the idea aroused the andicnce, the bids were lively, and the negroes, with their powder- ed head-gear of long queues and great rolls of curls, were all well sold. It was at Goose Creek church that the rector, after the capture of Charleston by the British and the extensiouin of their lines through the nei ~hl orhood read one Sunday morning, in conforraity with the English Prayer-book, the sentence in the litany, Tlmt it may l)lcase Thee to bless and preserve his Most Gracions Majesty, our sovereign lord, King George. Instead of the proper response, We beseech Thee to hear us, good Lord, there was a i~rotoiind silence. Theii one voice, l)erlmal)s that of Honest Ralph, groaned omit, Good Lord, deliver mis Honest Ralph, a name called Rafe in Carolina, was a member of the Izard finn- ily, who resi(led at the Elms, an 01(1 plan- tation in Goose Creek Parish. He olmtaimied iris title from Landgrave Smith, the infin- emintial Dissenter, who angrily writes it in a letter to England, dated Jane 3, 1703, tIme snlject being some obnoxious legislation which grew omit of an attempt to make all tire members of the Assemidy conform to the worship of the Church of England. It could hardly have been the first Rafe, how- ever, who groaned ont the reply; more prob- ably it was a descendantthe Rate whose marble tablet now adorns tIre walls of Goose Creek church, and whose qunimint ((1(1 hatch mnent, said to be the only hatelunent in this country, is still to be seen there. This hatch murent was borne before tIme body imito the (Iinlirclm at the time of tire funeral, amr(l re- mained there, hanging upoum the wall, ac cor(hing to tIre English cnstom, after the body was coninnritte(l to tIre gronmm(l. TIme Izar(ls, one of tIme wealthiest fiinnmilie~ of colonial times, caine to Carolina imin 1694. The Rafe of Revolutionary fame was (lele UP THE ASHLEY AND COOPER. 1 gate to Congress in 1781, and upon the formation of the United States gov- ernment serve as Senatorfrom South Carolina for six years. His wife, Mistress Izard, was the beautiful Miss Alice IDe Lancey, of Westchester County, New York. There is iu the old Manigault man- sion in Charleston lar0e painting, by Copley, repre-~ senting Mr. and Mrs. Ralph Izard, life-size, seated at table, the lady hol lug a sketch she has just made. This line work was executed in Rome in 1774, an is con- sidere one of the best of Copleys works. Mr. Izard agreed to pay one thousand dollars for it, but, o ~ing to the embarrassments of the Revolution, he was nuable to comply with the terms of the greement, and after the painting w~ s Ilnishe it was rolled up and put away in Copleys garret in Lon on, where it remained ~ntil 1825 (fifty years), when it was paid for and brought to Auser- ica by Mr. Izards grandson, the late Mr. Charles Manig~ nit, of Charleston. There is also a smaller portrait of Mistress Izard, which is very beautiful. When Lafayette revisited his country in 1824, Henry Iza d, Es ., then resi ing at the Elms, built especially for his reception lodge called Laf yette Hall,~ attached to the main body of the housean apart- ment which still bears the n~ me. Lafay- ettes vi it was the occasion of great festivi- ties in South Carolina; it was on her shores that he rst landed, nearly fifty years be- fore, rhen lie cause on his generons errand o assist the struggling colonists; it -as by a South Carolina gentleman, Major Huger, that he was receive there and sent by car- riage to Charleston, where arrangements were made for his journey northward. It was this Major Hugers son who afterwar released him from the prison at Oh iitz, an when Lafayette revisited Carolina the two had the pleasure of a long interview. Lord William Campbell, brother of the Duke of Argyle, the last of the royal gov- ernors of the province, married Miss Sarah Izard, a member of this fanilly. Another of the Camphells, a British officer, called by his companions Mad Archy, on account of the violence of his temper, made a great sensation once at Goose Creek during the time when the British were occupying Charleston. He drove up one morning to the door of the church, and called to the rector, ~vho happened to be within, Come out, worthy Sir. The rector appeared at the oor, an saw the soldier, whohadby his side a young lady, well known and beau- tiful, of goo family and position. Marry us immediately, sai Mad Archy. But the goo rector hesitated. Did the ladys friends give consent ? That makes no difference, said Mad Archy; and drawing out his pistols, he swore that the rector should marry them instantly, or lose his life on the spot. The poor minister, knowing well the violence of his temper, went through the service then and there, and the twain, made one, drove away. The young lady ha no idea, it seen~s, of marrying Ma Arch T, but ~ ~as terrified into silence. They ~en to England, but even e ger rumor does not say that they were unhappy to- gether, in spite of the summary ~ooing and wedding. In old Goose Creek church-yard lie many of the descendants of Landgrave Thomas Smith. This gentleman, one of Lockes Carolina nobility, was born in 1648, in the city of Exeter, Devonshire, England, and came to this country in 1671 vith his lovely 1/ P1 -~ K ra ALPH IZARD SSATUnMENT, Sr. JAMESS, GOOSE c ZEE. 16 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. fifty-seven in New Charles-town. His old town-honse, at the corner of East Bay and Longitude Lane, now, at the present writ- ing, being torn down at last, was an ele- gant mansion in its day, with walls and ceilings stuccoed in large panels. He re- sided, however, most of the year at Goose Creek, where he built on his Back River plantation the first brick house in Carolina, still standing. He afterward removed to Yeamans Hall, a mansion built by Sir John Yeamans prior to 1680; the exact date is not known. This old house, which has re- mained in the possession of the landgraves descendants ever since, was surrounded by an earth-work, and had port-holes in its walls as a defense against the In- dians; in the cel- lar was a deep well for supplying the garrison with water iu case of a siege, and a subterrane- ons passage, whose entrance can still be seen, led out un- der the garden to the creek, where boats were kept securely concealed. Within, the halls were painted in landscapes, little gilded cherubs spread their wings over the arches, the guest chamber was hung with Gobelin tapestry, the floors tessellated, and the apartments adorned LANDGRAVE SMIThS BACK RIVER ERSIORNCK. YEAMARS nALL, 0005K CREEK. young wife, a German baroness, whose por- trait is said to have been so beautiful that it was cut out of its frame and carried away by a British officer during the Revolution; the empty frame still hangs on the walls of the old Smith mansion, Yeamans Hall, Goose Creek. With the laudgrave came a brother, who went to Boston~ from him were (lescended Isaac Smith called the Deacon,~ and the father of the wife of John Adarus, President of the United States. Upon his arrival in Carolina Thom- as Smith received lots forty-one and UP THE ASHLEY AND COOPER. 17 with statues. There is in this 01(1 mansion a secret chamber, a small space between two walls, with a sliding panel leading into it; it was used as a hiding-place for valua- bles in times of danger, and during the Revolution the fanmily silver was safely se- creted there. The little cham- ber held a living occupant once, a boy named Paul, who secreted himself there for three weeks, only coming out at night, the mistress of the household supposing, mean- while, that he had been car- ried off by Indians. The lit- tle hiding-place, which is still / known as Pauls Hole, was called into service again dur- ing the late war, when it safe- ly concealed the famnily valu- ables while a party of soldiers ransacked the house in vain from garret to cellar. Old Yeamans Hall has its ghost story, as so old and dignified a mansion should have, of course. A lovely ancestral old lady, dressed in black silk, and with a white muslin handkerchief pinned across her breast arose from her grave and appeared be- fore a governess, who sat in I her room at Yeamans Hall - reading a novel on the Sab- bath-day. Probably the an- cestral old lady considered the education of her granddaughter endangered. Time means she used were efficacious, for we are assured that the governess immediately be- came pious. The story relates with care that time novel was called The Turkish Spy. There is a comfort in knowing just what it was. In 1691 Thomas Smith was made a land- grave, or, in the language of the old docu- ment, Thom ns Smith, a person of singular merit, very serviceable by his great pru- dence and industry, was constituted a landgrave of Carolina, together with four baronies of twelve thousand acres each, the said title and the four baronies to descend forever to his legal heirs. Three years later he was appointed to the highest office in the gift of the lords proprietors, that of Gov- ernor of the province. He was at that time a man highly esteemed by all, possessing clear, strong judgment and energy of char- acter, and removed above all petty ambi- tions by his position and wenith. But, as often happens in such cases, the duties of voa. LILNo. 301.2 ~VT17Z~ ~Ag7~kmag cr6? m anyzfIi~f~ S~*e/~Jttr& ~ f~t~LYfiyeA~ f~f I?cre~e, fig7//~7~ ~yea~rc~fou ~~U~J7x e~4AV~ office galled him; he found himself unable, in time perplexing a~md diverse quarrels of the colonists, to come out instantly for the right, or what he at least considered the right, and finally he frankly wrote to the lords proprietors and told them that they must send over one of their own number with full powers for emergencies, but as for himself, be could not and would not hold the office longer. This clear-headed, stern, faith-abiding Puritan died almost immuedi- utely afterward, and was buried on his Back River plantation by the side of his wife, the beautiful Baroness Barbary. The old stone, broken in twain, still marks the grave; it bears the following inscription: Here Lyet. ye Body of y Right Honorable THOMAS SMITH, Esquire, one of ye Landgraves of Carolina, who departed this life ye x6th November, 1694, Governor of ye Province, in ye 46th year of isis Age. To Landgrave Smith we owe, it is said, the law by which nauses of jurors are drawn ism- discriminately from a box. He also planted LANDOItAvE SMITH S COMMISSION AS GOVERNOR. 18 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. the first rice in Carolina, now the largest rice-producing State in the Union. (And here let it be said that the title Carolina,~~ as applied to South Carolina alone, is used with no forgetfulness of the Old North State, but simply to avoid the wearying repetition of the words North and South. It is time that North Carolina, which is utterly dif- ferent from South Carolina, both State and people having a strong, decided, and indi- vidual character of their own, should have a name also of its own equally strong, indi- vidual, and decided.) A vessel from Mada- gascar having anchored off Sullivans Island, the landgrave went on board to pay a visit to the captain, and the conversation turuin~, upon rice, a small bag of the seed grain was presented to him; a portion of this he plant- ed in his city garden, now the corner of East Bay and Longitude Lane, and the remainder was distributed among his friends. The crop was plentiful and excellent, and from was called the little Englishman ; accord- this small beginning rice soon became the in,, to the law of entail, he received both the principal food of the colony. Landgrave title and estates. In later years many of Smith left two sons; the eldest, landgrave the family became Episcopalians, through the second, having been horn in England, the influence of Church-nurtured wives, it is said, and their tombs are to be seen in old Goose Creek church-yard, bearing the names Smith, Coachman, Holmes, and Glover. It was a Glover, husband of the lady whose old-fashioned portrait we give, who was with Col- onel Hayne when he was cap- tured and carried to Charles- ton, there to meet his death at the hands of a man who wrote across one of the many petitionspresentedto him ask- ing that the life of the gallant soldier might be spared, only these two words, Major An- dr6. It is said that Hayne had a beautifulhorse, to which he was much attached and during the pursuit, coming to a high fence, rather than risk the life of the animal, he dis- mounted and took down the bars; this delay was fatal, and a few moments after he was taken. The same Mad Archy Campbell, the bold wooer of whom we have spoken, and who seems to have been a gallant fellow after all, was at the head of the party that captured Hayne. He openly regretted afterward that lie had not shot his prisoner on the spot, that he might at least have died the death of the gentle- man and brave soldier that he was. Charles Glover es TOil) OF LAN GRAVE SMiTH. OLI) 5)JIIOOL-IIOUSE ON Ti) IIAUK RIvER PLANTATION. UP THE ASHLEY AND COOPER. 19 caped, swam the Ashley River near Dorches- ter, and crossed safely to his hoate at Goose Creek. The faniily long preserved the sad- dle that bore him during this dangerous ride; it had a deep sabre cut across the leather, made by a British dragoon, which told a mute story of the narrow escape. Ingleside is another of the old residences of Goose Creek; the house was built more than a century and a half ago, and belonged to the Parker family. During the time when the British occupied Charleston a party of marauders appeared at Ingleside and attacked the house, firing through one of the windows, near which Mistress Parker, who was a Middleton by birth, sat with her sewing; the bullet-hole is to be seen in the wall at the present day. Mr. Parker pur- sued the men, one of whom lie killed; his grave is seen by the way-side now. He then setit word of what he had done to the British commander in Charleston ,re- ceiving this pithy answer: I am, Sir, very Irlad of it. The monument to the memory of this gen- tleman stands in the grounds at Ingleside; it bears the following inscription: JOHN PARKER. Born January 24th, 1749. Died April 20th, 1822. His wife, SUSANNAH MIDDLETON. Born June ~, 1754. Died August 20th, 1824. A Member of the old Congress that met froiu 1774 to 1739. Ingleside is now the residence of Professor Francis S. Holmes, a desceisdant of Land- grave Smith, and the discoverer of the 1)1105- phate rocks of Carolina. Behind the house is a lake of seventy acres, where grows in 1 LANI)GRAVF. SMITh TILE SECONI) TILE lITTLE ENOI.ISII- SIAN. FROM A IQETRAIT FAINTEn IN 1691. great profusion the sacred lily of the East, Aelambium luteurna beautiful blossom, re- sesubling a niagnolia., with golden tints in- side. This lily is said to have been intro- duced into this country from Europe by a member of the Gadsden family. It grows wild, however, in Florida; and the vicinity of the old garden of the French botanist, Andr6 Michaux, makes it probable that he introduced it at Goose Creek. Michaux was sent over to America by the French gov- ernment in 1756. He traveled extensively through the country, but resided for some time at Goose Creek, where he laid out a garden, and took pleasure in showing Isis neighabo rs rare exotics, as well as in intro- duciasg to them the more curious plants of their own country. It was Michsaux who brought the first four cainehhias to America; they were planted by him at Middleton Place, on the Ashley River, above Drayton Hall, and one of titeat is now thirty feet high. Michaux published a history of North Anierican oaks, and a North American flora. He died at Madagascar in 1503. There is no feature of these old estates around Charleston that stands out with greater beauty in Northern eyes thsau the venerable avenues of live-oaks that once swept from the borders of the plantation up to the front entrance, sometimes a long dis- tance. The house is gone, perhaps, but the magnificent trees remain, stretch lug their giant limbs over the deserted roadwaya grand approach to nieniories of the past. In many instances these avenues are choked with underbrush, or they stand in a forest wlLicli Isas grown isp around them so thickly that only by hooking aloft can you trace SIRS. OLIARLES CLOVER. 20 HARPEWS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. their routeancient sentinels against the blue of the sky that mark a way where no longer a way is. One magnificent vista, however, remains unharmed the avenue planted by Edward Middleton, Esq., in 1683, at his plantation, appropriately called The Oaks, near Goose Creek church. The sur- veyors certificate of the laud is still in ex- istence. This certificate is dated 1679, and reads as follows: By virtue of a Warrt under y hands of yis Exy Coil. Joseph West, Governo and Landgrave, and y Lords Proprietors deputys to mee directed bearing date this 23~ day of Feb. 1679, 1 have admesured and layed out unto Ed. Middleton, gent., one thousand acres of land scittu- ate and being all ye east of y1 Goose Creek, & c., & c. Certified By Mee, Surveyor Genrall. It is said that Marion often encamped at The Oaks, the owners, the Middletons, hay- ing been from the first devoted patriots. And this brings up again Marion and Mari- ons Men, a little band who probably never dreamed that they were to go down on the page of history, embalmed in poetry and ro- mance and song, figures strong in local South Carolina coloring, and yet known all over the country almost as widely as George Washington himself. General Francis Mar- ion~ who, as the angry and harassed Brit- ish officer complained, would not fight like a Christian and a gentleman, belonged to the Huguenot colony of the Santee, north of Charleston, the same Santee that owned those High Hills. On the formation of the Revolutionary army of Carolina, Marion was made a captain in the regiment commanded by Moultrie; he rose to a colonelcy before the evacuation of Charleston, and, escaping the fate of prisoner of war which fell to Moultrie and many other officers, he collect- ed the fragments of his regiment together in the recesses of the swamps, and from that moment became a dread to the whole British army in the South. Marion made war in his own way; now here; now there, now seen, now gone, he was like a meteor in the night, and the snccesses gained by his extraordi- nary swiftness and daring seemed marvel- ous alike to friend and to foe. He selected young men for his band, generally from his own neighbors of French descent ; he lived in the swamps; he swam rivers on horse- back; his favorite encaanpment was a cane- brake. He did not wait for all his troops, but sallied out frequently with only ten or twelve; he took saws from the mills, and turned them into swords; he frequently en- gaged when he had but three rounds to a maa. Scouts were kept out constantly, and when word was brought in of a small party of the eneusy any where, then forth went Marions Men, like lightning, after them. It is said that he was so secret in his plans that his own soldiers had no idea when they were to be called out, and that their only way of knowing was to watch the negro cook: wheit the old man was seen cooking a little store of the poor food which was their only fare, then they prepared for departure. Marions favorite time for starting was sunset, and Ihen the march lasted all night. Marions Menbrave, shoeless, ragged, blanketless, gallant little bandthe following is a verse MI]JDLETON COAT OF ARMS. MONUMENT TO JOHN PARKER. UP THE ASHLEY AND COOPER. 21 of one of the many songs that were made tlaur Middleton, Esquire, who came to this about you: country in 1679; it was destroyed by fire Our band is few, but true and tried, about fifty years a~o, but the remains of Our leader swift and bold; the elaborate garden are still to be seen. The British soldier trembles An indentnre, now in the possession of the When Marions name is told. Our fortress is the good greenwood, family, made in the sixth year of the reign Our tent the cypress-tree; of our Sovereign Lady, Anne, by Grace of We know the forest round ns God, of England, Scotland, and Ireland As seamen know the sea We know its walls of thorny vines, Qiacen, shows that the Middletons obtain- us glades of reedy grass, ed a ~rant of this estate in 1680 from Will- Its safe and silent islands mm, Earl of Craven, Palatine, and otber Within the dark morass.BRYANT. lords proprietois, paying therefor yearly It is saul that Coruwallis had an especial at the rate of one penny an acre. The fear of Marion, and never sat down in any Middletons, by birth, edncation, and record, strange house in the neighborhood of are one of the most highly distinguished Charleston, but always on a piazza or under faniilies in the South. They were Cavaliers a tree, that with his own eyes he could watch for tiac swift - darting foe. Poor Coruwallis! what joy swept over the coun- ny when lie was taken! Even the Diatch watch- men of Philadelphia called the news after inidniglat, East twelfe oglock, and Corawallis es dagen One mile and a half from Ingleside is Winsor Hill, the old residence of General Williana Moul- trie; here he died in 1805, and, with his wife, was i)uried on his plantation, according to the Carolina custom when the parish church was at some dis- tance. But it is not l)leasant to think that tlac very site of the grave of this old Revolutionary hero is lost. In 1850 a committee of gentlemen, wishing to rensove the remains to the beautiful cemetery at Charleston, and erect a monument over them, could not, with diligent search- ing and tlac certainty that he was buried at Winsor, fliad the spot. Tiac Oaks has been mentioned as a Mid- dleton plantation; biat the family had an- other estate in Goose Creek Parish, called Crowlield, wlaich was laid out with great magnificence in the old Dutch style of gar- dening, the same now seen at Hampton Courta style brought over from Holland by William the Third. Crowfield, which was named after the English estate of the family iu Suffolk, was four miles from Goose Creek churela, and seven miles from Dor- chester. it contained foiarteen hundred acres of land, and its gardens, fish ponds, hedges, terraces, and fountains surpassed any thing ~n the South. The house was built by Ar- and Episcopalians. Two brothers, Arthur and Edward, sons of Henry Middleton, Esq.. t)f Twickenham, Middlesex, England, came to Carolina in 1679. They were prominent in colonial times, one of them having headed the revolution against the lords proprie- tors in 1719, the same one who was after- ward royal Governor; another was mem- her of the Assembly in 1749, Speaker of the same in 1750, and afterward President of the Continental Congress. This was the fa- timer of the well-known Arthur Middleton, time signer of the Declaration of Independ- ence. Artlaur Middletons son was Governor of South Carolina from 1810 to 1812, and minister to Riassia from 1820 to 1830. Two youths, one killed at thae battle of Manassas in 1861, and the other in Virginia in 1864, / COTTACE Tar. OAKS. 22 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. bring down the line of names to a recent day. One of the Middletons, Sir Edward, grandson of the first comer, went back to England in 1754, having inherited the fam- ily estates in Suffolk. He was member of Parliament in 1784, and his descendants still occupy the manor; his mother, however, lived and died on her plantation at Goose Creek. Coming out on Cooper River, we find a number of places worthy of notice, among them the Palmettos, belonging to the Brown family, and Mulberry Castle, built by Gov- ernor Broughton in 1714; it has bastions and loop-holes, and persons now living remem- ber when a cannon was planted on an earth- work near the house. It was near Mulber- ry Castle that a singular character named Mitchell lived in 1815; this man, for some years previous to his death, kept his coffin, which was made of iron, by him, using it as a safe. He left directions in his will that his body should be burned on a funeral pyre twelve feet Jong, of alternate layers of hickory and light-wood, so that it should burn fiercely, and that his ashes should be collected and placed in the iron coffin, which was to be securely locked, and the key thrown into the middle of the Cooper River; the coffin was then to be deposited in the woods, above - ground, supported by brick l)iles. This strange wish was gratified; the iron coffin stands in the pine woods not far from the residence. On another Cooper River plantation, Wantoot, is the grave of Major Majori- banks, a British officer of great bravery and distinction, who died on the march to Charleston, after the battle of Eutaw, and was buried by the road-side where he died. This memorable battle was fought on the 8th of September, 1781. Ia Greenes army, on the American side, were Lee, Marion, Pickens, Sumter, and Colonel William Wash- ingtonthe Washington of the South; and on the British side Colonel Stewart and Major Majoribanks, the forces being about equal. All accounts agree in praising the brilliant gallantry of Majoribanks during the battle, and his bravery is adorned with the additional lustre of clemency, for, when a British soldier was about to transfix Col- onel Washington, wounded and lying help- less under his fallen horse, M ajoribanks rushed forward and seized his arm, crying out, Stop! It is Washington. In after- years, Mr. Daniel Ravenel, upon whose plan- tation the gallant officer lay buried, observ- ing that the little wooden head-board was falling into decay, wrote to the English gov- ernment on the subject, but received the re- ply that they had majors buried all over the world, and could not undertake to supply tombstones for them all. A marble monu- ment was then erected by the Ravenels themselves, all the family contributing. It now marks the gravea generous tribute to a gallant enemy. The old flag borne in the battle of Eutaw by the troop of this same Colonel Washington whose life was spared by Majoribanks is still in existence, a piece of faded damask silk, in size twenty by thir- ty inches; it has been strengthened by quilt- ing on to it another piece of strong silk of a similar color. This historic little banner was carried to the Bunker Hill celebration in Boston, June 17, 1875, by the Washington Light Infantry, of Charleston. But the half has not been told, nor can it be told here. The neighborhood of Charles- ton is rich in colonial memories and Revolu- tionary legends, verified antf emphasized by the old houses and gardens which still re- main, not having been swept away by the GEOLOGICAL STRATA, snowize THE PHOSPHATE ROCK. UP THE ASHLEY AND COOPER. 23 crowding population, the manufactories, the haste and bustle, of the busy North. Up the east branch of the Cooper, through the San- tee district, southward on Johns Island, are many localities rich in historic interest and in honored Carolina names, such as Pinek- ney, Rutledge, Shubrick, Bee, Hayne, Gads- den, Grimb all, Heyward, Rhett, Toomer, Lowndes, Wragg, and others. They do not belong, however, to our Ashley and Cooper rivers, to whose banks we have limited our story. But something else does belong there which is in itself so wonderful, as well as val- nable to South Carolina, that it may well find mention here. In November, 1837, in an old rice field on the Ashley River, Professor Francis S. Holmes, the same gentleman already mentioned as residing at Ingleside, Goose Creek, found a nnmber of rolled or water-worn nodules of a rocky material filled with the impressious or casts of marine shells (we use his own language). These nodules or rocks were scattered over the surface of the land, and in some places had been gathered into heaps, so that they should not interfere with the cultivation of the field. At that time Pro- fessor Holmes was a young student of geol- ogy and palebutology, and the beautifully preserved forms of shells, teeth, and bones, nsingled with the rocks filled with the casts of shells, corals, and corallines, attracted his attention, and in a short time he enriched his cabinet with thousands of speciulens. These, during a term of six years, he care- frilly studied and labeled as best he could. About this time the attention of South Car- olina planters was directed to marl, which had been successfully used by the farmers of Virginia as a fertilizer. In the search for snarl, which he, l)eing a planter hhnself, wished to use upon his own land, Professor Holmes discovered, in December, 1843, a stra- tuni of the same rolled nodules as those pre- viously found on the surface of the adjoin- ing field. This stratum was about a foot thick imbedded in clay; the yellow marl lay beneath it, five feet from the surface. The phosphate rock of Carolina had been discovered at last, in situ. Not long after this, stone arrow-heads and a stone hatchet were found under the roots of an oak which had been cut down to niake room for the marling operations; for they were still searching for marl, not knowing of the greater richness that lay nearer. The young student and his friends at first sup- posed these relics to be the same as those found in Indian mounds, the work of the aborigines. But when specimens were dis- covered under the oak and among the marl rocks, as phosphate rocks were then termed they were satisfied that the specimens be- longed to the same geological age to which the bones and teeth of the mastodon, ele- phant, and rhinoceros belong, and which are found associated with them in the same ma- trix or mother bed of clay, which is of the post-pliocene period, the prehistoric age of man. Human bones were afterward found in the same locality; and it has since been shown that the beds of the post-pliocene not only on the Ashley, but in Switzerland, France, and other European countries, con- tain human bones associated with the re- mains of extinct animals. As the European discoveries were not made until 1854, and those in South Carolina were known in 1849, to this country should be awarded the honor of determining the paleontological age of the post-phiocene beds. At the close of the late war the dormant discovery awoke to life again. Professor Holmes and Dr. N. A. Pratt, a distinguish- ed chemist of Georgia, united their energies for the development of these remarkable beds. It was found that the marl rocks contained nearly sixty per cent. of phos- phate of lime; and the two came North to make known their discovery to capitalists, PhOSPHATE MINE. 24 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. finding in Philadelphia two gentlemen of means who, impressed with the value of the offered investment, took the matter in hand, and in 1867 formed the first phosphate min- ing association. Phosphate rock is a mineral manure, a fertilizer. While the Peruvian guanos, im- ported at large expense, contain about twen- ty-three per cent. of phosphate of lime and the Pacific guanos about eighty-three per cent., the phosphate rock of Carolina, here in onr own country, at our own doors, con- tains from forty to sixty per cent. of phos- phatic strength. Every ton properly pre- pared is worth sixty dollars in the market as a fertilizer, and the deposit has been found extending along the entire coast of the State and up the beds of the rivers. Phosphates have become a staple article of commerce. Foreign vessels go out of Carolina harbors (laily loaded with the rock in its rough state. Six millions of dollars have been invested by Northern capitalists in the works on the Ashley and Cooper, and it is estimated that he rock actually sold has already brought in nearly five millions of dollars. The State holds thus upon her own soil an exhaustless treasure, which seems to have waited until it was sorely needed before it made itself known, just as petroleum was discovered when the discouraged whalemen were com- ing home with ships half empty, declaring that the useful whales were nearly extinct. Phosphate mines are near the surface, worked generally by means of long trench- es. Machinery has been invented and ap- plied that handles tile rock, crushes and washes it, with ease and rapidity. Phos- l)hate are sold in the raw state and also in the form of soluble superphosphates, and find their market not only at home, but all over tile world. In the mean time the various works are stretching tiacir long necks up the two riv- ers, and the trenches of the mines are in- vading the grounds of our old plantations. At Drayton Hall children run after the vis- itors to sell sharks teeth. One of these teeth weighed two pounds and a quarter, and measured six inches from tip to tip. The shark in whose terrible mouth it be- longed ataust have been one hundred feet in length. On the whole, what with these sharks, with zeuglodons, squalodons, huge alligator-like creatures of giant size, and lizards eighteen feet long, one is glad to have not lived in those days on the banks of the two beautiful rivers, the Ashley and the Cooper. A THOUSAND YEARS FROM NOW. Br PAUL H. HAYNE. I s~r within my tranqtuil room; The twilight shadows sank and rose With slowly flickering motions, waved Grotesquely through the dusk reposc. There carue a sudden ihought to me, Which thrilled the spirit, flushed the brow A dream of what our world ~vould be A thousand years from uo~v! If Science on her heavenward search, Rolling the stellar charts apart, Or delving hour l)y hour to win The secrets of Earths inmost heart, If that her Future apes her Past, To what new marvels men shall bow Marvels of land and air and sea A thousand years from now! If Emoires keep their ~vonted course, And hilud Republics will aut stay To count the cost of laws which lead, Unerring, to the states decay, What chan~es vast of rule and realm Tile low upraised, the proud laid low May greet the unborn ages still A thousand years from now! Our creeds may chauge with mellowed limes Of brightening truth and love increased, And some new Advent flood the world In glory from the haunted East; While souls on nobler heights of faith May mark Ihe mystic patluvay grow Clearer between their stand and Heavens A thousand years from now! Such thin~s mey be, but what perforce Must with the ruthless epochs pass? The millions hreath, the centuries pomp, Sure as the wane of flowers or grass: The earth so rich in tombs to-day, There scarce seems space for Death to sow Who, who shall count her church-yard wealth A thousand years from non? And we, poor waifs, whose life-term flies (When matched with AFTER and Bzroiut) Fleet as the aimless wind, or wave Breaking its frail heart on the shore We, human toys that Fate sets up To smite or spare, I marvel how These souls shall fare, in ~~hat strauge sphere, A thousand years from now? Too dim, too vague, for mortal ken That far phantasmal Future lies; But Love! one sacred truth I read Just kindling in your tear-dimmed eyes: That states may rise and states may set, With age Earths tottering pillars bow, But sinless Love can neer forget; And though we kuow not where nor how, Our conscious loves shall blossom yet A thousand years from now! FlIOSPIIATR ROOKNATURAL SIZE.

Paul H. Hayne Hayne, Paul H. A Thousand Years From Now 24-25

24 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. finding in Philadelphia two gentlemen of means who, impressed with the value of the offered investment, took the matter in hand, and in 1867 formed the first phosphate min- ing association. Phosphate rock is a mineral manure, a fertilizer. While the Peruvian guanos, im- ported at large expense, contain about twen- ty-three per cent. of phosphate of lime and the Pacific guanos about eighty-three per cent., the phosphate rock of Carolina, here in onr own country, at our own doors, con- tains from forty to sixty per cent. of phos- phatic strength. Every ton properly pre- pared is worth sixty dollars in the market as a fertilizer, and the deposit has been found extending along the entire coast of the State and up the beds of the rivers. Phosphates have become a staple article of commerce. Foreign vessels go out of Carolina harbors (laily loaded with the rock in its rough state. Six millions of dollars have been invested by Northern capitalists in the works on the Ashley and Cooper, and it is estimated that he rock actually sold has already brought in nearly five millions of dollars. The State holds thus upon her own soil an exhaustless treasure, which seems to have waited until it was sorely needed before it made itself known, just as petroleum was discovered when the discouraged whalemen were com- ing home with ships half empty, declaring that the useful whales were nearly extinct. Phosphate mines are near the surface, worked generally by means of long trench- es. Machinery has been invented and ap- plied that handles tile rock, crushes and washes it, with ease and rapidity. Phos- l)hate are sold in the raw state and also in the form of soluble superphosphates, and find their market not only at home, but all over tile world. In the mean time the various works are stretching tiacir long necks up the two riv- ers, and the trenches of the mines are in- vading the grounds of our old plantations. At Drayton Hall children run after the vis- itors to sell sharks teeth. One of these teeth weighed two pounds and a quarter, and measured six inches from tip to tip. The shark in whose terrible mouth it be- longed ataust have been one hundred feet in length. On the whole, what with these sharks, with zeuglodons, squalodons, huge alligator-like creatures of giant size, and lizards eighteen feet long, one is glad to have not lived in those days on the banks of the two beautiful rivers, the Ashley and the Cooper. A THOUSAND YEARS FROM NOW. Br PAUL H. HAYNE. I s~r within my tranqtuil room; The twilight shadows sank and rose With slowly flickering motions, waved Grotesquely through the dusk reposc. There carue a sudden ihought to me, Which thrilled the spirit, flushed the brow A dream of what our world ~vould be A thousand years from uo~v! If Science on her heavenward search, Rolling the stellar charts apart, Or delving hour l)y hour to win The secrets of Earths inmost heart, If that her Future apes her Past, To what new marvels men shall bow Marvels of land and air and sea A thousand years from now! If Emoires keep their ~vonted course, And hilud Republics will aut stay To count the cost of laws which lead, Unerring, to the states decay, What chan~es vast of rule and realm Tile low upraised, the proud laid low May greet the unborn ages still A thousand years from now! Our creeds may chauge with mellowed limes Of brightening truth and love increased, And some new Advent flood the world In glory from the haunted East; While souls on nobler heights of faith May mark Ihe mystic patluvay grow Clearer between their stand and Heavens A thousand years from now! Such thin~s mey be, but what perforce Must with the ruthless epochs pass? The millions hreath, the centuries pomp, Sure as the wane of flowers or grass: The earth so rich in tombs to-day, There scarce seems space for Death to sow Who, who shall count her church-yard wealth A thousand years from non? And we, poor waifs, whose life-term flies (When matched with AFTER and Bzroiut) Fleet as the aimless wind, or wave Breaking its frail heart on the shore We, human toys that Fate sets up To smite or spare, I marvel how These souls shall fare, in ~~hat strauge sphere, A thousand years from now? Too dim, too vague, for mortal ken That far phantasmal Future lies; But Love! one sacred truth I read Just kindling in your tear-dimmed eyes: That states may rise and states may set, With age Earths tottering pillars bow, But sinless Love can neer forget; And though we kuow not where nor how, Our conscious loves shall blossom yet A thousand years from now! FlIOSPIIATR ROOKNATURAL SIZE. CARICATURE IN THE UNITED STATES. 25 CARICATURE IN THE UNiTED STATES. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN was the first American caricaturist. That propen- sity of his to use pictures whenever he de- sired to aiThct strongly the public mind was an inheritance from the period when only a very small portion of the people could read any other than pictorial lan- guage. Among the relics of his race pre- served in Boston there is an illustrated handbill issued by his English uncle Ben- jamin, after whom he was named, which must have been a familiar object to him from the eighth year of his age. Uncle Benjamin, a London dyer when James II. lied from England, wishing to strengthen the impression made by his printed offer to dye into colors cloth, silk, and India cali- co, l)laced at the head of his bill a mdc wood-cut of an East Indian queen taking a walk, attended by two servants, one bear- ing her traiu, and the other holding over her an umbrella. At the door of his shop, too, in Princes Street, near Leicester Fields, a figure of an Indian queen appealed to the passer-by. Such was the custom of the time. The diffusion of knowledge lessened the impor- tance of pictorial representation ; but the mere date of Franklins birth, 1706, explains in some degree his habitual resort to it. Nearly all the ancient books were illustra- ted in some way, and nearly every ancient building appears to have had its sign. XYhen Franklia was a boy in Bostoa a gilt Bible would have directed him where to buy his books, if he had had any money to buy them with. A gilt sheaf probably notified him where to get those three historic rolls with which he made his entry into Phila- delphia. The figure of a mermaid invited the thirsty wayfarer to beer, and an anchor informed sailors where sea stores were to be had. The royal lion and unicorn, carved in wood or stone, marked public edifices. Over the door of his fathers shop, where soap and candles were sold, he saw a blue TuoMAs NAST.

James Parton Parton, James Caricature in the United States 25-43

CARICATURE IN THE UNITED STATES. 25 CARICATURE IN THE UNiTED STATES. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN was the first American caricaturist. That propen- sity of his to use pictures whenever he de- sired to aiThct strongly the public mind was an inheritance from the period when only a very small portion of the people could read any other than pictorial lan- guage. Among the relics of his race pre- served in Boston there is an illustrated handbill issued by his English uncle Ben- jamin, after whom he was named, which must have been a familiar object to him from the eighth year of his age. Uncle Benjamin, a London dyer when James II. lied from England, wishing to strengthen the impression made by his printed offer to dye into colors cloth, silk, and India cali- co, l)laced at the head of his bill a mdc wood-cut of an East Indian queen taking a walk, attended by two servants, one bear- ing her traiu, and the other holding over her an umbrella. At the door of his shop, too, in Princes Street, near Leicester Fields, a figure of an Indian queen appealed to the passer-by. Such was the custom of the time. The diffusion of knowledge lessened the impor- tance of pictorial representation ; but the mere date of Franklins birth, 1706, explains in some degree his habitual resort to it. Nearly all the ancient books were illustra- ted in some way, and nearly every ancient building appears to have had its sign. XYhen Franklia was a boy in Bostoa a gilt Bible would have directed him where to buy his books, if he had had any money to buy them with. A gilt sheaf probably notified him where to get those three historic rolls with which he made his entry into Phila- delphia. The figure of a mermaid invited the thirsty wayfarer to beer, and an anchor informed sailors where sea stores were to be had. The royal lion and unicorn, carved in wood or stone, marked public edifices. Over the door of his fathers shop, where soap and candles were sold, he saw a blue TuoMAs NAST. 26 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. ball, which still exists, bearing the legible date 1698. Why a blue ball? He was just the boy to ask the question. A lad who could not accept grace before meat without wishing to know why it were not better to say grace once for all over the barrel of pork, would be likely to inquire what a blue ball had in common with soap and candles. His excellent but not gifted sire probably informed him that the blue ball was a relic of the time when he had carried on the busi- ness of a dyer, and that he had continued to use it for his new vocation because he had it iu the house. Benjamin, the gift- ed, was the boy to be dissatisfied with this explanation, and to suggest devices more iu harmony with the industry carried on with- in, so that the very incongruity of his fa- thers sign may have quickened his sense of pictorial effect. Franklin lived long, figured in a great va- riety of scenes, accomplished many notable things, and exhibited versatility of talent: man of business, inventor, statesman, diplo- matist, philosopher; and in each of these characters he was a leader among leaders; but the ruling habit of his miud, his forte, the talent that he most loved to exercise and most relished in others, was humor. He began as a humorist and he ended as a hu- morist. The first piece of his ever printed and the last piece he ever wrote were both satirical: the first, the reckless satire of a saucy apprentice against the magnates of his town; the last, the good-tempered satire of a richly gifted, benevolent soul, cogni- zant of human weakness, but not despising it, aud intent only upon opening the public mind to unwelcome truthas a mother makes a child laugh before inserting the medicine spoon. So dominant was this pro- pensity in his youthful days that if he had lived in a place where it had been possible to subsist by its exercise, there had been danger of his becoming a professional hu- morist, merging all the powers of his incom- parable intellect in that one gift. Imagine Boston in 1722, when this re- markable apprentice began to laugh, and to make others laugh, at the oppressive so- lemnities around him and above him. It is not difficult to imagine it, for it has changed in nothing but magnitude. Then, as now, it was a population industrions and moral, extremely addicted to routine, habitually frugal, but capable of magnificent generos- ity, bold in business enterprises, valiant in battle, but in all the high matters averse to innovation. Then, as now, the clergy, a few important families, and Harvard Col- lege composed the ruling influence, against which it were martyrdom to contend. But then, as now, there were a few audacious spirits who rebelled against these united powers, and carried their opposition very far, sometimes to a wild excess, and thus kept this noblest of towns from sinking into an inane respectability. The good, frugal, steady-going, tax-paying citizen, who lays in his coal in June and buys a whole pig in December, would subdue the world to a vast monotonous prosperity, crushing, intolerable, if there were no one to keep him and the public in mind that, admirable as he is, he does not exhaust the possibilities of human nature. When we examine the portraits of the noted men of New England of the first century and a half after the settlement, we observe in them all a certain expression of acquiescence. There is no audacity in them. They look like men who could come home from fight- ing the French in Canada, or from chasing the whale among the icebergs of Labrador, to be scared by the menaces of a pontiff like Cotton Mather. They look like men who would take it seriously, and not laugh at all, when Cotton Mather denounced the Franklins, for poking fun at him in their newspaper, as guilty of wickedness without a paralleL Some good men, said he, are afraid it may provoke Heaven to deal with this place as never any place has yet been dealt withal. Never was a community in such sore need of caricature and burlesque as when James Franklin set up in Bostou in 1721 the first sensational newspaper of America, the Courant, to which his brother Benjamin and the other rebels and come-outers of Boston contributed. The Mathers, as human be- ings and citizens of New England, were estimable and even admirable; but the in- terests of human nature demand the sup- pression of pontiffs. These Mathers, though naturally benevolent, and not wanting in natural modesty, had attained to such a de- gree of ppntifical arrogance as to think Bo8- ton in deadly peril because a knot of young fellows in a printing-office aimed satirical paragraphs at them. Increase Mather call- ed upon the government to suppress such a cursed libel, lest some awful judgment should come upon the land, and the wrath of God should rise, and there should be no remedy. It is for such men that bur- lesque was made, and the Franklins sup- plied it in abundance. The Courant ridi- culed them even when they were gloriously in the right. They were enlightened enough and brave enough to recommend inocula- tion, then just brought from Turkey by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. The young doc- tors who wrote for the paper assailed the new system, apparently for no other reason than because Increase and Cotton Mather were its chief defenders. When Benjamin, at the age of sixteen, began to contribute to his brothers paper, he aimed at higher game even than the town pontiffs. He dared to lampoon Har- vard College itself, the temple of learning CARICATURE IN THE UNITED STATES. 27 where the clergy were formed, whose pre- cincts he had hoped to tread, his father having dedicated this tenth son to the church. He may have had his own father in mind when he wrote, in one of his early numbers, that every peasant who had the means proposed to send one of his children to this famous place, and as most of them consulted their purses rather than their childrens capacities, the greater number of those who went thither were little better than blockheads and dunces. When he came to speak of the theological department of the college, he drew a pen caricature, having then no skill with the pencil: The business of those who were employed in the temple of theology being laborious and painful, I wondered exceedingly to see so many go toward it; but while I was pon- dering this matter in my mind, I spied Pe- cunia behind a curtain, beckoning to them with her hand. He draws another when he says that the only remarkable thing he saw in this temple was one Plagius hard at work copying an eloquent passage from Tillotsons works to embellish his own. This saucy boy, who had his Hudibra8 at his tongues end, carried the satirical spirit with him to church on Sundays, and tried some of the brethren whom he saw there by the Hudibrastic standard. Even after his brother James had been in prison for his editorial conduct, Benjamin, who had b~en left in charge of the paper, drew with his sub-editorial pen a caricature of a Re- ligious Knave, of all Knaves 1~he worst : A most strict Sabbatarian, an exact observer not of the day only, but of the evening be- fore and the evening after it; at church conspicuously devout and attentive, even ridiculously so, with his distorted counte- nance and awkward gesticulation. But try and nail him to a bargain! He will dis- semble and lie, snuffle and whiffle, overreach and defraud, cut down a laborers wages, and keep the bargain in the letter while viola- ting its spirit. Dont tell me, he cries; a bargain is a bargain. You should have looked to that before. I cant help it now. Such was the religious knave invented by the author of Ihtdibra8, and borrowed by this Boston apprentice, who had, in all prob- ability, never seen a character that could have fairly suggested the burlesque. The authorities rose upon these two au- dacious brothers, and indicated how much need there was of such a sheet in Boston by ordering James Franklin to print it no more. They contrived to carry it on a while in Ben- jamins name; but that sagacious youth was not long in discovering that the Mathers and their adherents were too strong for him, and he took an early opportunity of removing to a place established on the principle of doing without pontiffs. But during his long, illus- trious career in Philadelphia as editor and public man he constantly acted in the spirit of one of the last passages he wrote before leaving Boston: Pieces of pleasantry and ( mirth have a secret charm in them to allay the heats and tumults of our spirits and to make a man forget his restless resentments. They have a strange power in them to hush disorders of the soul and reduce us to a se- rene and placid state of mind. He was the father of our humorous literature. If, at the present moment, America is contributing more to the innocent hilarity of mankind than other nations, it is greatly due to the happyinfluence of this benign andliberal hu- morist upon the national character. Poor Richard, be it observed, was the great comic almanac of the country for twenty-five years, and it was Franklin who infused the element of burlesque into American journalism. He could not advertise a stolen prayer-book without inserting a joke to give the adver- tisement wings: The person who took it is desired to open it and read the Eighth Commandment, and afterward return it into the eame pew again; upon which no further notice will be taken. This propensity was the more precious be- cause it was his destiny to take a leading part in many controversies which would have become bitter beyond endurance but for the strange power of his pieces of pleasantry and mirth to hush disorders of the soul. He employed both pen and pen- cil in bringing his excellent sense to bear upon the public mind. What but Frank- lins inexhaustible tact and good humor could have kept the peace in Pennsylvania between the non-combatant Quakers and the militant Christians during the long pe- riod when the province was threatened from the sea by hostile fleets and on land by sav- age Indians? Besides rousing the combat- ant citizens to action, he made them willing to fight for men who would n~t fight for themselves, and brought over to his side a large number of the younger and more pli- ant Quakers. Even in that early time (1747), while bears still swam the Delaware, he con- trived to get a picture drawn and engraved to enforce the lessons of his first pamphlet, calling on the Pennsylvanians to prepare for defense. He may have engraved it him- selI, for he had a dextrous hand, and had long before made little pictures out of type- metal to accompany advertisements. Her- cules sits upon a cloud, with one hand rest- ing upon his club. Three horses vainly strive to draw a heavy wagon from the mire. The wagoner kneels, lifts his hands, and implores the aid of Herculess mighty arm. In the background are trees and houses, and under the picture are Latin words signifying, Not by offerings nor by womanish prayers is the help of gods ob- tained. In the text, too, when he essays the difficult task of reconciling the combat- 28 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. ants to fighting for the non-combatants, he becomes pictorial, though he does not use the graver. What ! he cries, not defend your wives, your helpless children, your aged parents, because the Quakers have conscien- tious scruples about fighting! Then he adds the burlesque picture: Till of late I could scarce believe the story of him who refused to pump in a sinking ship because one on board whom he hated would be saved by it as well as himself. At the beginning of the contest which in Europe was the Seven Years War, but in America a ten years war, Franklins pen and pencil were both employed in urging a cordial union of the colonies against the foe. His device of a snake severed into as many pieces as there were colonies, with the motto, Join or Die, survived the occasion are one, and outside of these, United States. On the other side of the coin there is a noon- day sun blazing down upon a dial, with the motto, Mind your Business. He made the date say something more to the reader than the number of the year, by appending to it the word Fugio (I fly). Another cent has a central sun circled by thirteen stars and the words Nova Constellatio. He suggested Pay as you go for a coin motto. Some of his designs for the Continental paper mon- ey were ingenious and effective. Upon one dingy little note issued during the storm and stress of the Revolution we see a rough- ly executed picture of a shower of rain fall- ing upon a newly settled country, with a word of good cheer nuder it, Serenabit (It will clear). Upon another there is a pic- ture of a beaver gnawing a huge oak, and the word Perseve- rando. On another there is a crown rest- ing upon a pedestal, and the words Si recte facias (If you do uprightly). There is one which repre- sents a hawk and stork fighting, with the motto, Exitus in dubjo est (The event is in doubt); and an- other which shows a hand plucking branches from a tea- plant, withthe motto, Sustain or Abstain. The famous scalp hoax devised by Frank- A OOMMON NEWSPAPER HEADING IN 1776; DEVISED BY FRANKLIN IN MAY, 1754, AT BEGINNING OF FRENOB WAR. that called it forth, and became a common newspaper and handbill heading in 1776. It was he, also, as tradition reports, who exhib- ited to the unbelieving farmers of Pennsyl- vania the effect of gypsum, by writing with that fertilizer in large letters upon a field the words, This has been plastered. The brill- iant green of the grass which had been stim- ulated by the plaster soon made the words legible to the passer-by. During his first residence in London as the representative of Pennsylvania he became intimately ac- quainted with the great artist from whom excellence in the humorous art of England datesWilliam Hogarth. The last letter that the dying Hogarth received was from Benjamin Franklin. Receiving an agree- able letter, says Nichols, from the Amer- ican, Dr. Franklin, he drew up a rough (lraught of an answer to it. Three hours after, Hogarth was no more. A few of Franklins devices for the coins and paper money of the young republic have been preserved.~ He wished that every coin and every note should say something wise or cheerful to their endless succession of possessors and scrutinizers. Collectors show the Franklin cent of 1787, with its circle of thirteen links and its central words, We ha during the Revolutionary war, for the purpose of bringing the execration of civil- ized mankind upon the employment of In- dians by the English generals, was vividly pictorial. Upon his private printing-press in Paris he and his grandson struck off ti leaf of an imaginary newspaper, which he called a Supplement to the Boston Inde- pendent Chronicle. For this he wrote a let- ter purporting to be from Captain Gerrish, of the New England Militia, accompanying eight packages of scalps of our unhappy country folks, which he had captured on a raid into the Indian country. The captain sent with the scalps an inventory of them, supposed to be drawn up by one James Cranford, a trader, for the information of the Governor of Canada. Neither Swift nor De Foe ever surpassed the ingenious natural- ness of this fictitious inventory. It was in- deed too natural, for it was generally ac- cepted as a genuine document, and would even now deceive almost any one who should come upon it unawares. Who could suspect that these eight packs of scalps, cured, dried, hooped, and painted, with all the In- dian triumphal marks upon them, had nev- er existed except in the imagination of a JOIN or DIE CARICATURE IN THE UNITED STATES. 29 merry old plenipotentiary in Paris? There were forty-three scalps of Congress sol- diers, stretched on black hoops four inches diameter, the inside of the skin painted red, with a small black spot to denote their be- ing killed with bullets ; and there were sixty-two farmers, killed in their houses, marked with a hoe, a black circle all around to denote their being surprised in the night. Other farmers scalps were marked with a little red foot, to show that they stood upon their defense; and others with a lit- tle yellow flame, to show that they had been burned alive. To one scalp a band was fastened, supposed to be that of a rebel clergyman. Thea there were eighty- eight scalps of women, and some hundreds of boys and girls. The package last described was a box of birch bark containing twenty-nine little infants scalps of various sizes, small white hoops, white ground, no tears, and only a little black knife in the middle to show they were ripped out of their mothers bellies. The trader dwells upon the fact that most of the farmers were young or middle-aged, there being but sixty- seven very gray heads among them; which makes the service more essen- tial. Every detail of this supple- ment was worked out with infinite ingenuity, even to the editors post- script, which stated that the scalps had just reached Boston, where thousands of people were flocking to see them. Franklin was more than a humorist; he was an artist in humor. In other words, he not only had a lively sense of the absurd and the ludicrous, but he knew how to ex- hibit them to others with the utmost pow- er and finish. His grandson, who lived with him in Paris during the Revolutionary peri- od, a very good draughtsman, used to illus- trate his humorous papers, and between them they produced highly entertaining things, only a few of which have been gath- ered. The Abb6 Moreliet, one of the gay circle who enjoyed them, remarks that in his sportive moods Franklin was Socrates mounted on a stick, playing with his chil- dren. To this day, however, there are mill- ions who regard that vast and somewhat disorderly genius, who was one of the least sordid and most generous of all recorded men, as the mere type of penny prudence. Even so variously informed a person as the author of A Short History of the Engli8h Peo- ple, published in this very year, 1875, speaks of the close-fisted Franklin. It is in vain that we seek for specimens of colonial caricature outside of the Frank- lin circle. Satirical pictures were doubt- less produced in great numbers, and a few may have been published; but caricature is a thing of the moment, and usually perishes with the moment, unless it is incorporated with a periodical. Almost all the intellect- ual product of the colonial period that was not theological has some relation to the wise and jovial Franklin, the incomparablo American, the father of his countrys intel- lectual life, whether manifested in litera- ture, hurlesque, politics, invention, or sci- ence. The Boston massacre, as it was called, which was commemorated by the device of a row of coffins, often employed before and since, might have been more properly styled a street brawl, if the mere presence of Brit- ish trbops in Boston in 1774 had not been an outrage of international dimensions. The four victims, Samuel Gray, Samuel Mayer- ick, James Cauldwell, and Crispus Attucks, were borne to the grave by all that was most distinguished in the province, and the whole people seemed to have either follow- ed or witnessed the procession. Amidst the frenzy of the time these coffin lids served to express and relieve the popular feeling. The subsequent acquittal of the innocent soldiers, who had shown more forbearance than armed men usually do when taunte(l and assailed by an unarmed crowd, remains one of the most honorable of the early rec- ords of Boston. There were attempts at caricature during the later years of the Revolutionary war. From 1778, when inflated paper, French francs, British gold, and Hessian thalers had given the business centres of the country a short, fallacious prosperity, there was gay- ety enough in Philadelphia and Boston. There were balls and parties, and sending to France for articles of luxury, and profusion of all kindsas there was in the late war, and as there must be in all wars which are not paid for till the war is over. There are indications in the old books that the bur- lesquing pencil was a familiar instrument then among the merry lads of the cities and towns. But their efforts, after having an- swered their momentary purpose, perished. But the habit of burlesque survived the war. There are few persons, even among the zealous fraternity of collectors, who are BOSTON MASSACRE COFFINS; BOSTON, MARCH, l774.FROM AMERICAN HISTORICAL RECORD. 30 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. aware that a New York dramatist in the year 1788 endeavored to burlesque in a reg- ular five-act comedy the violent debates which distracted all circles while the ac- ceptance of the new constitution was the question of questions. A copy or two of this comedy, called The Politician Outwitted, have been preserved. In lieu of the lost pictures take this brief scene, which exhibits a vio- lent squabble between an inveterate oppo- nent of the constitution and a burning pa- triot who supports it. They enter, in proper comedy fashion, after they are in full quarrel. Enter old Loveyef and Trueman. Loveyet. I tell you, it is the most infernal scheme that ever was devised. Trueman. And I tell you, Sir, that your argument is heterodox, sophistical, and most preposterously illog- ical. Loveyet. I insist upon it, Sir, you know nothing at all about the matter! And give me leave to tell you, Sir Trueman. What! Give you leave to tell me I know nothing at all about the matter! I shall do no such thing, Sir. Im not to be governed by your ipse dixit.. Loveyef. I desire none of your musty Latin, for I dont understand it, not L Trueman. Oh, the ignorance of the age! To op- pose a plan of government like the new constitution! Like it, did I say? There never was one like It. Nei- ther Minos, Solon, Lycurgus, nor Romulus ever fabri- cated so wise a system. Why, it is a political phenom- enon, a prodigy of legislative wisdom, the fame of which will soon extend ultramundane, and astonish the nations of the world with its transcendent excellence. To what a sublime height will the superb edifice at- tain! Loveyet. Yourasplrlng edifice shall never be erected in this State, Sir. Trueman. Mr. Loveyet, you will not listen to rea- son. Only calmly attend one moment. [Reads.] We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, Insure domestic tranquillity, provide Leveyef. I tell you I wont hear it. Trueman. Mark all that. [Reeds.] Section the First. All legislative power herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. Very judicious and salutary, upon my erudition! Sec- tion the Second- Loveyet. Ill hear no more of your sections. They continue the debate until both dis- putants are in the white heat of passion. Old Mr. Loveyct rushes away at last to break off the match between his daughter and Truemans son, and Trueman retorts by calling his fiery antagonist a conceited sot. This comedy is poor stuff, but it suffices to reveal the existence of the spirit of carica- ture among us at that early day, when New York was a clean, cobble-stoned, Dutch-look- ing town of thirty thousand inhabitants, one of whom, a boy five years of age, was named Washington Irving. General Washington was inaugurated President at the same city in the following year. How often has the world been as- sured that no dissentient voice was heard on that occasion! The arrival of the gen- eral in New York was a pageant which the entire population is supposed to have most FLOUT IN conea~ss BETWEEN LYON AND eLu5WoLD, FEBRUARY 15, 1198. He in a trice struck Griswold thrice Upon his head, enraged, Sir; Who seized the tongs to ease his wrongs, And Griswold thus engaged, Sir. CARICATURE IN THE UNITED STATES. 31 heartily approved; and a very pleas- ing spectacle it must have been, as seen from the end of the island the vessels deck- ed with flags and streamers, and the Presidents stately barge, rowed by thirteen pilots in white uniforms, advancing toward ~ the city, surround- ~ ed and followed by ~ a cloud of small ~ boats, to the thun- a 0 der of great guns. ~ But even then, it seems, there were a few who looked ~ askance. At least one caricature ap- ~ peared. All the ~ world here, wrote ~ John Armstrong to ~ the unreconciled ~ General Gates, ~ are busy in col- z. lecting flowers and sweets of every ~ kind to amuse and o delight the Presi- dent. People were asking one anoth- ~ er, he adds, by what ~ awe - inspiring ti- ~ tle the President ~ should be called, ~ even plain Roger Sherman, of Con- ~ necticut,regarding ~ His Excellency ~ as beneath the grandeur of the office. Yet Armstrong, in the ~ midst of this ad- ~ miration there are skeptics who doubt ~ its propriety, and ~ wits who amuse ~ themselves at its extravagance .The first will grum- ble and the last will laugh, and the President should be prepared to meet the attacks of both with firm- ness and good na- ture. A caricature has already appear- ed, called The En- 32 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. try, full of very disloyal and pro- fane allusions. It was by no means a good-natured picture. General Washington was repre- sented riding upon an ass, an held in the arms of his favorite many Billy, once huntsman, then valet and factotnin; Colonel Da- vid Humphreys, the generals aid and secretary, led the ass, singing hosannas and birthday odes, one couplet of which was legible: The glorious time has come to pass When David shall conduct an ass. This effort was more ill-natured than brilliant; but the reader who exaulines the fugitive publications of that period will often feel that the adulation of the President was such as to provoke and justify se- vere caricature. That adulation was as excessive as it was ill executed; and part of the office of caricature is to remind Philip that he is a man. The number- less verses, odes, tributes, ~ ~ and sonnets addressed to President Washing- ton lie entombed in the dingy leaves of the old newspapers, but a few of the epigrams which they provoked have been disinterred, and even some of the caricatures are described in the letters of the time. Neither the verses nor the pictures are at all remarkable. Probably the best caricature that appeared during the administra- tion of General Washington was suggested by the removal of the national capital from New York to Philadelphia. Senator Robert Morris, bein~ a Philadelphian, and having large possessions in Phila- delphia, was popularly snpposed to have procured the passage of the measure, and accordin,ly the port- ly Senator is seen in thc picture carrying off upon his broad shoul- ders the Federal Hall, the windows of which are crowded with mem- bers of both Houses, some com- mending, others cursiug, this nov- ~l method of removal. In the dis- tance is seen the old Paulus Hook ferry-house, at what is now Jersey City, on the roof of which is the devil beckoning to the heavy- laden Morris, and crying to him, This way, Bobby. The removal of the c~ pital was a fruitful theme for the humorists of the day. Even then New York politicians had an ill name, and Congress was deemed well out of their reach. 1 K CARICATURE IN THE UNITED STATES. 33 A ~ 1I~t Al ~ inqWvoj~9 sh ftA~ePrc,erjeS ___ Sort VIRGINIA PAUSING. A rude but very curious specimen of the House, on the last day of the year 1798, in caricature of the early time is one, given on languid session, balloting. The two mem- pa ~ e30, of the collision on the floor of the bers were standing near one another out- House of Representatives between Matthew side the bar, when Griswold made taunting Lyon and Roger Griswold, both Representa- allusion to an old campaign story of tives from Connecticut. Lyon, a native of Matthew Lyons having been sentenced to Ireland, was an ardent Republican, who wear a wooden sword for cowardice in the played a consl)icuous part in politics during field. Lyon, in a fury, spat in Griswolds the final struggle between the Republicans face. Instantly the House was in an up- and the Federalists. Roger Griswold, on roar; and although the impetuous Lyon the contrary, a member of an old and dis- apologized to the House, he only escaped ex- tinguished Connecticut family, a graduate pulsion, after eleven days debate, through of its ancient college, and a member of its the constitutional requirement of a two- really illustrious bar, was a pronounced thirds vote. This affair called forth a car- Federalist. He was also a gentlensan who icature in which the Irish member was de- had no natural relish for a strong-minded, picted as a lion standing on his hind-legs unlettered emigrant who founded a town in wearing a wooden sword, while Griswold, Isis new country, built Inihls and foundries, handkerchief in hand, exclaims, What a invented processes, established a newspa- beastly action ! per, an(l was elected to Congress. If Ham- The vote for expulsion52 to 44did not ilton and Griswold and the other extreme satisfy Mr. Griswold. Four days after the Federalists had had their way in this coun- vote occurred the outrageous scene rudely try, there would have been no Matthew delineated in the picture already mentioned. Lyons among us to create a new world for Griswold, armed with what the Republican mankind, and begin the development of a editor called a stout hickory club, and better political system. Nor, indeed, was the Federalist editor a hickory stick, as- Matthew Lyon sufficiently tolerant of the saulted Lyon while he was sitting at his old and tried methods that had become in- desk, strikhug him on the head and shoul- adequate. He was not likely, eitherat the ders several times before he could extricate age of fifty-two, standing upon the summit himself. But at last Lyon got upon his of a very successful career, which was feet, and, seizing the tongs, rushed upon wholly Isis own workto regard as equal the enemy. This is the moment selected by to himself a man of thirty-six, who seemed the artist. They soon after closed and fell to owe his importance chiefly to his lineage, to the floor, where they enjoyed a good So here was a broad basis for an antipathy rough - and - tumble fight, until members which the strife of politics could easily ag- pulled them apart. A few minutes after gravate into an aversion extreme and fiery they chanced to meet again at tlse water fiery, at least, on the part of the Irislunan. table, near one of the doors. Lyon was Imagine this process complete, and the now provided with a stick, but Griswold had voL. LILNo. 3073 K 34 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. ameiruan. Barlow. Bdwoi I. AICiellan. You must coax him aloug: conciliate him. Force wout do. I dout imelieve in it; but dont let go. Keep his head to the rear. If he should get away he might go to Richumoud, and then my plans for couquering the Itehellion nih never he developed. Blret. hold fast, Brlw, or he will get to Richmond in spite of us; and then my capital for the European market is all lost. Brlw. Ive got him fast; theres no dancer. Hes only changing his base to the Gun-boats. Bloet. Look out for that letter to the President which you wrote for him. Pont lose that. B ci w No; I have it safe here in my pocket. When his change of hase is effected I will make him sign the letter, and send it to old Ahe. ON TO i~O5IMONB !Tne PENIN5ULAR CAMPAmeN, 1862. none. Their eyes no sooner met, says the Federalist reporter, than Mr. Lyon sprang to attack Mr. Griswold. A member hand- eti Griswold a stick, and there was a fair prospect of another fight, when the Speaker interfered with so much energy that the antagonists were again torn apart. The battle was not renewed on the floor of Congress. But it was continued elsewhere. Under that amazing sedition law of the Federal- ists, Lyon was tried a few months after for saying in his newspaper that President Adams had an unbounded thirst for ridic- ulous pomp, had tnrued men out of office for their opinions, and had written a bul- lying message upon the French imbroglio of 1798. He was found guilty, sentenced to pay a fine of a thousand dollars, besides the heavy costs of the prosecution, to be imprisoned four months, and to continue in confinement until the fine was paid. Of course the people of his district stood by him, and, while lie was in prison, reelected him to Congress by a great majority; and his fine was repaid to his heirs in 1840 by Congress, with forty - two years interest. These events made a prodigious stir in their time. Matthew Lyons presence in the House of Representatives, his demeanor there, and his triumphal return from prison to Congress, were the first distinct notifica- tion to parties interested that the sceptre was passing from the Few to the Many. The satire and burlesque of the Jefferso- nian l)eriod, from 1798 to 1809, were abun- dant in quantity, if not of shining excel- lence. To time reader of the present day all savors of burlesque iii time political utter- ances of that time, so preposterously violent were partisans on both sides. It is imupos- sible to take a serious view of the case of an editor who could make it a matter of boasting that he had opposed the Repub- lican measures for eight years without a single exception. The press, indeed, had then no independent life; it was the miss- ion and slave of party. it is only in our own day that the press begins to exist for its own sake, and descant with reasonable freedom on topics other than the Impor- tance of Early Rising and the Customs of the Chinese. The reader would neither ha edified nor amused by seeing Mr. Jefferson kneeling before a stumpy pillar labeled Altar of Gallic Despotism, upon which are Paines Age of Beamoa and the works of Rousseau, Yoltaire, and Helvetius, with time demon of the French Revolution crouching behind it, and the American eagle soaring CARICATURE IN THE UNITED STATES. 35 aloft, bearing in its talons the constitution and the independence of the United States. Pictnres of that nature, of great size, crowd- ed with objects and emblems and sentences, an elaborate blending of burlesque and enig- ma, were much valued by that generation. Some specimens have come down to us en- graved npon copper. The politicians of the Jefferson period, borrowing the idea from Catholic times, em- ployed stuffed figures and burlesque proces- sions in lieu of caricature. While the peo- ple were still in warm sympathy with the French Revolution, William Smith, a Rep- resentative in Congress from South Carolina, gave deep offense to many of his constitu- ents by opposing certain resolutions offered by Citizen Madison expressive of that sympathy. There was no burlesque artist then in South Carolina, but the Democrats of Charleston contrived, notwithstandin~, ~ K, to caricature the offender and his infernal junto. A platform was erected in an open place in Charleston, upon which was exhib- ited to a noisy crowd, from early in the morning until three in the afternoon, a rarc assemblage of figures: A woman represent- ing the Genius of Britain inviting the rec- reant Representatives to share the wages of her iniquity, William Smith advancing toward her with eager steps, his right hand stretched out to receive his portion, in his left holding a paper upon which was writ- ten Six per cents, and wearing upon his breast another with 40,000 in the Funds; Benedict Arnold with his hand full of checks and bills; Fisher Ames labeled 400,000 in the Funds ; the devil and Young Pitt goading on the reprobate Americans. In front of the stage was a gallows for the due hanging and burning of these figures when the crowd were tired of gazing upon them. TWEEDLEPEE AND SWEEDLEDUM. (A New Ghristmes Pantomime at the Tammany flail.) Clown (to Pantaloon). Lets Blind them with this, and then take some mere. TWEED S GIFT OF FIFTY THOUSAND DOLLARS TO THE POOR OF 1115 NATIVE WARD. HARPERS WEEKLY, JANUARY 14, 1811. n V II ~ Ii 36 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. Each of the characters was provided with a label exhibiting an appropriate sentiment. The odious Smith was made to confess that his sentence was just: The love of gold, a foreign education, and foreigu connections damn me. Young Pitt owned to having let loose the Algerines upon the Americans, and Fisher Ames confessed that from the time when he began life as a horse-jockey his Ames had been villainy. It is an objection to this kind of carica- tnre that the weather may interfere with its proper present tion. A shower of rain obliterated most of those labels, and left the figures themselves in a reduced and drag- gled condition. But, ace ording to the local historian, the exhibition was continued, to the great mirth and entertainment of the boys, who would not qnit the field until a total demolition of the figures took place,~~ nor before they had taken down the breeches of the effigy of the Representative of this State and given him repeated casti- gations. In the evening the colors of Great Britain were dipped in oil and French brandy, and burned at the same fire which had consumed the effigies. Later in the Jeffersonian period the bur- lesque processioncaricature viva tewas occasionally employed by the New England Federalists to excite popular disapproval of the embargo which suspended foreign commerce. Elderly gentlemen in Newbury- port remember hearing their fathers describe the battered old hulk of a vessel, withrot- ten rigging and tattered sails, mannedby ragged an cadaverous sailors, that was drawn in such a procession in 1808, the year of the Presidential election. There are even a few old people who remember seeing the procession, for in those healthy old coast towns the generations are linked together, and the whole history of New England is sometimes represented in the group round the post-office of a fine summer morning. The war of 1812 yields its quota of car- icature to the collectors portfolio. John Bull making a new batch of ships to send to the lakes is u obvious imitation of Gil- rays masterpiece of Bonaparte baking a new batch of kings. The contribution lev- ied upon Alexandria, and the retreat of party of English troops from Baltimore, fur- nish subjects to a draughtsman who had more patriotic feeling than artistic inven- tion. His Jobn Bull is a stout man, with a bulls head and a long sword, who utters pompous words. I must have all your flour, all your tobacco, all your ships, all your merchandiseevery thing except your Port and Perry. Keep them out of sight; I have had enough of them already. No doubt this was comforting to the patriotic mm while it was lamenting a Capitol burned and a President in flight. The era of good feeling which followed the war of 1812, and which exhausted the high, benign spirit infused into public af- fairs by Mr. Jefferson, could not be expecte to call forth satirical pictures of remarkable quality. The irruption of the positive and uncontrollable Jackson into politics made amends. Once more the mind of the coun- try was astir, and again nearly the whole WHO STOL~THE?EOIVE~S MoJIEY? ~. DO TELL .IEv.TJMES. T WA$ HIM. THOMAS MAST, IN HAr.LEILS WEEKLY, AUGUST 19, 1871. CARICATURE IN THE UNITED STATES. 37 of the educated class was arrayed against own class an advantage; the poor naturally the masses of the people. The two politic- object; and this is the underlying, ever-oper- al parties in every country, call them by ating cause of political strife iu all coun- whatever disguising names we may, are the tries that enjoy a degree of freedom; and Rich and the Poor. The rich are naturally this is the reason why, in times of political inclined to use their power to give their crisis, the instructed class is frequently in WHOI r~ALE, ruiuIsuxn IN HANPJ~ s WEnKLY, s PTEMIJEE 16, 1811. 7N1~ 38 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. the wrong. Interest blinds its judgment. In Jacksons day the distinction between the right and the wrong politics was not so clear as in Jeffersons time; but it was, upon the whole, the same struggle disguised and degraded by personal ambitions and antipa- thies. It certainly called forth as many par- odies~ burlesques, caricatures, and lampoons as any similar strife since the invention of politics. The coffin handbills repeated the device employed after the Boston massacre of 1774 in order to keep it in memory that General Jackson had ordered six militia-men to be shot for desertion. The hickory poles that pierced the sky at so many cross-roads were a retort to these, admitting but eulo- gizing the hardness of the man. The sud- (len break-up of the cabinet in 1831 called forth a caricature which dear Mrs. Trollope described as the only tolerable one she ever saw in the country. It represented the President seated in his room trying hard to detain one of four escaping rats by put- ting his foot on its tail. The rat thus held wore the familiar countenance of the Secre- tary of State, Martin Van Buren, who had been requested to remain till his successor had arrived. It was this picture that gave occasion for one of John Van Burens noted sayings that were once a circulating medi- um in the lawyers offices of New York. When will your father be in New York ? asked some one. The reply was, When the President takes off his foot. Then we have Van Buren as a baby in the arms of General Jackson, receiving pap from a spoon in the generals hand; Jack- son and Clay as jockeys riding a race to- ward the Presidential house, Clay ahead; Jackson receiving a crown from Van Bu- ren and a sceptre from the devil; Jackson, Benton, Blair, Kendall, and others, in the guise of robbers, directing a great batter- ing-ram at the front-door of the United States Bank; Jackson, as Don Quixote, breaking a very slender lance against one of the marble pillars of the same edifice Jackson and Louis Philippe as pugilists in a ring, the king having just received a blow that makes his crown topple over his face. Burlesque processions were also much in vogue in 1832 during, the weeks pre- ceding the Presidential election. To the oratory of Webster, Preston, Hoffman, and Everett the Democracy replied by massive hickory poles, fifty feet long, drawn by eight, twelve, or sixteen horses, and rid- den by as many young Democrats as could get astride of the emblematic log, waving flags and shouting,. Hurrah for Jackson ! Live eagles were borne aloft upon poles, banners were carried exhibit- ing Nicholas Biddle as Old Nick, and end- less ranks of Democrats marched past, each Democrat wearing in his hat a sprig of the sacred tree. And again the cul- tured orators were wrong, and the untu- tored Democrats were substantially in the right. Ambition and interest prevented those brilliant men from seeing that in put- ting down the bank, as in other measures of his stormy administration, the worst that could be truly said of General Jackson was that he did right things in a wrong way. The shin-plaster caricature given on page 31 is itself a record of the bad con- sequences that followed his violent method in the matter of the bank. The inflation of 1835 produced the wild land speculation of 1836, which ended in the woful collapse of 1837, the year of bankruptcy and shin- plaster. To this period belongs the picture which caricatures the old militia system by pre- senting at one view many of the possible mishaps of training-day. The receipt which John Adams gave for making a free com- monwealth enumerated four ingredients town-meetings, training-days, town schools, and ministers. But in the time of Jackson the old militia system had been outgrown, and it was laughed out of existence. Most of the faces in this picture were intended to be portraits. Mr. Hudson, in his entertaining History of Journalism, speaks of a lithographer named Robinson, who used to line the fences and even the curb-stones of New York with rude caricatures of the persons prominent in pub- lie life during the administrations of Jack- son and Van Buren. Several of these have THE isi6AiI~S OF THE TAMMANY BING.~ HARPERS WEEKLY, OCTOBER 21, 1871. CARICATURE IN THE UNITED STATES. 39 been preserved, with others of the same period; but few of them are tolerable, now that the feeling which suggested them no longer exists; and as to the greater number, we can only agree with the New York Mirror, then in the height of its celebrity and influence, in l)ronouncing them so dull and so pointless that it were a waste of powder to blow them up. The publication of Mrs. Trol- lopes work upon the Domestic Manner8 of the Americans called forth many inanities, to say nothing of a volume of two hundred and sixteen pages, entitled, Travels in America, by George Tibbleton, Esq., ex-Barber to his Majesty the King of Great Britain. In this work Mrs. Trollopes bur- lesque was burlesqued suffi- ciently well, perhaps, to amuse people at the moment, though it reads flat- ly enough now. The rise and progress of phrenology was caricatured as badly as Spurzheim himself could have desired, and the agitation in behalf of the rights of wom- en evoked all that the pencil can achieve of the crude and the silly. On the other hand, the burning of the Ursuline convent in Boston was effectively rebuked by a pair of sketches, one exhibiting the destruction of the convent by an infuriate mob, and the other a room in which Sisters of Charity are waiting upon the sick. Over the whole was written, Look on this picture, and on this. The thirty years word war that preceded the four years conflict in arms between North and South produced nothing in the way of burlesque art that is likely to be revived or remembered. If the war itself was not prolific of caricature, it was be- cause drawing as a part of school, training was still neglected among us to a degree un- known in any other civilized country. That the propensity to caricature existed is shown by the pictures on envelopes used during the first weeks of the war. The practice of il- lustrating envelopes in this way began on both sides in April, 1861, at the time when all eyes were directed upon Charleston Har- bor. The flag of the Union, printed in col- ors, and covering the whole envelope, was the first device. This was instantly imi- tated by the Confederates, who filled their mails with envelope -flags showing seven stars and three broad stripes, the middle (white) one serving as a place for the direc- tion of the letter. Very soon the flags be- gan to exhibit mottoes and patriotic lines, such as, Liberty and Union, The Flag of the Free, and Forever float that Stand- ard Sheet. The national arms speedily appeared, with various mottoes annexed. General Dixs inspiration, If any one at- tempts to haul down the American flag, shoot him on the spot, was the most pop- ular of all for several weeks. Portraits of favorite generals and other public men were soon addedScott, Fremont, Dix, Lincoln, Seward, and others. Before long the satir- ical and burlesque spirit began to manifest itself in such devices as a black flag and deaths-head, with the words, Jeff Davis his mark ; a gallows, with a man hanging; a large pig, with Whole Hog or None ; a bull-dog with his foot on a great piece of beef marked Washington, with the words, Why dont you take it ? The portrait of General Butler figured on thousands of let- ters during the months of April and May, with his patriotic sentence, Whatever our politics, the government must be sustain- ed; and, a little later, his happy application of the words contraband of war to the case of the fugitive negroes was repeated upon letters without number. Come back here, you old black rascal ! cries a master to his escaping slave. Cant come back nohow, replies the colored brother; dis chile contraban. On many envelopes print- ed as early as May, 1861, we may still read a prophecy under the flag of the Union that has been fulfilled, I shall wave again over Sumter. Such things as these usually perish with the feeling that called them forth. Mr. William B. Taylor, then the postmaster of New York, struck with the peculiar appear- ance of the post-office, all gay and brilliant with heaps of colored pictures, conceived WHAT ARK TilE WILD WAVES SAYING? HARPERS WEEKLY, JULY 9, iSTO. 40 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. the fancy of saving one or two envelopes of each kind, selected from the letters address- ed to himself. These he hastily pasted in a scrap-book, which he afterward gave to swell the invaluable collection of curiosities belonging to the New York Historical So- ciety. We should not naturally have looked for caricature in Richmond in April, 1861, while the convention was sitting that passed the ordinance of secession. But the reader will perceive on page 33 that the pencil lent its aid to those who were putting the native land of Washington and Jefferson on the wrong side of the great controversy. This specimen appeared on the morning of the decisive day, and was bronght away by a lady who then left Richmond for her home in New York. The rats are arranged so as to show the order in which the States se- ceded: South Carolina first, Mississippi sec- ond, Alabama and Florida on the same day, and Virginia still held by the negotiations with Mr. Lincoln. This picture may stand as the contribution of the Confederacy to the satiric art of the world. Few readers need to be informed that it was the war which developed and brought to light the caricaturist of the United States, Thomas Nast. When the war began he was a boyish-looking youth of eighteen, who had already been employed as a draughts- man upon the illustrated press of New York and London for two years. He had ridden in Garibaldis train dnring the campaign of 1860 which freed Sicily and Naples, and sent sketches of the leading events home to New York and to the London Illustrated News. But it was the secession war that changed im from a roving lad with a swift pencil for sale into a patriot artist burning with the enthusiasm of the time. Harpers Weekly, circulating in every town, army, camp, fort, and ship, placed the whole conntry within his reach, and he gave forth from time to time those powerful emblem- atic pictnres that roused the citizen and cheered the soldier. In these early works, produced amidst the harrowing anxieties of the war, the serions element was of ne- cessity dominant, and it was this quality that gave them so much influence. They were as much the expression of heart-felt conviction as Mr. Curtiss must impassion- ed editorials, or Mr. Lincolns GeLtysbnrg speech. This I know, because I sat by his side many a time while he was drawing them, and was with him often at those elec- tric moments when the idea of a picture was conceived. It was not till the war was over, and President Andrew Johnson began to swing round the circle, that Mr. Nasts pictures became caricatures. But they were none the less the utterance of convic- tion. Whether he is wrong or right in the view presented of a subject, his pictures are always as much the prodnct of his mind as they are of his hand. Concerning the justice of many of his po- litical caricatures there must be, of course, two opinions; but happily his greatest achievement is one which the honest por- tion of the people all approve. Caricature, since the earliest known period of its ex- istence, far back in the dawn of Egyptian history, has accomplished nothing else equal A COUaTRY cOaGREGATIoNmSTuRBED BY A LATE-OOMICR.FR0M A SKETCH BY MARY a. MBOBALD. HARPERS WEEKLY, JUNE 13, 1512. CARICATURE IN THE UNITED STATES. 41 to the series of about forty-five pictures contributed by Thomas Nast to Harpers Weekly for the explosisn of the Tammany Rin~,. These are the utmost that satiric art has done in that kind. The fertility of in- vention displayed by the artist, week after week, for months at a time, was so extraor- dinary that people concluded, as a matter of course, the ideas were furnished him by others. 0 the contrary, he can not draw from the suggestions of other minds. His more celebrated pictures have been drawn in quiet country places, several miles from the city in which they were published. The presence in New York of seventy or eighty thousand voters, born and reared in Europe, and left by European systems of government and religion totally i0norant of all that the citizens of a free state are most concerned to know, gave a chance here to the political thief such as has seldom ex- isted, except within the circle of a court and aristocracy. The stealing, which was begun forty years before in the old corpora- tion tea-room, had at last become a system, which was worke by a few coarse, cunning men with such effect as to endanger the solvency of the city. They stole more like kings and emperors than like common thieves, and the annual festival given by them at the Academy of Music calle to mind the reckless profusion of Louis XIV. when he entertained the French nobles at Versailles at the expense of the laborious and economical people of France. Their chief was almost as ignorant and vulgar, though not as mean and pig-like, as George IV. of England. In many particulars they resembled the gang of low conspirators who seized the supreme power in France in 1851, and in the course of twenty years brought that powerful and illustrious nation so near ruin that it is even now a matter of doubt whether it exists by strength or by suffer- ance. What an escape we had! But, also, what immeasurable harm was done! From being a city where every one wished to live, or, at least, often to remain, they allowed New York to become a place from which all es- caped who could. Nothing saved its busi- ness predominance but certain facts of ge- ology and geography which Rings can not alter. Two generations of wise and putri- otic exertion will not undo the mischief done by that knot of scoundrels in about six years. The press caught them at the full tide of their success, ~ hen the Tam- many Ring, in fell alliance with a rail- road ring, was confident of placing a pup- pet of its own in the Presidential chair. The history of this melancholy lapse, from the hour when an alderman first pockete a quire of note-paper, or carried from the tea-room a bundle of cigars, to the moment of Tweeds rescue from a felons cell through the imperfection of the law, were a subject worthier far of a great American writer in in- dependent circumstances than any he could find in the records of the world beyond the sea. The interests of human nature, not less than the special interests of this country, ckLmusTMAs-TL KWON AT A TURKEY RAFFLE.1MmAWN BY SOL EYTINGE, JUN.~ nAmERs WEEKLY, JANUARY 3, 1814. Dc Breed am Small, but de Flavor am Delicious. 42 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. demand that it should be written; for all the nations are now in substantially the same moral and political condition. Old methods have become every where inadequate before new ones are evolved; and meanwhile the Scoundrel has all the new forces and imple- ments at his command. If ever this story should be written for the instruction of mankind, the historian will probably tell us that two young men of the New York press did more than any others to create the feel- ing that broke the Ring. Both of them naturally loathed a public thief. One of these young men in the columns of an im- portant daily paper, and the other on the broad pages of Harpers Weekly, waged brill- iant and effective warfare against the com- bination of spoilers. They made mad the guilty and appalled the free. They gave, also, moral support to the able and patriotic gentlemen who, in more quiet, unconspien- ous ways, were accumulating evidence that finally consigned some of the conspirators to felons cells, and made the rest harmless wanderers over the earth. Comic art is now well established among us. In the illustrated papers there are con- tinually appearing pictures which are high- ly amusing, without having the incisive, ag- gressive force of Mr. Nasts caricatures. The old favorites of the public, Bellew, Eytinge, Reinhart, Beard, are known and admired by all the readers of this Magazine, and the catalogue continually lengthens by the ad- dition of other names. Interesting sketch- es, more or less satirical, bear the names of Brackmere, C. G. Parker, M. Woolf, G. Bull, S. Fox, Paul Frenzeny, Frost, Wust, Hop- kins, Thomas Worth, and others. Among such names it is delightful to find those of two ladies, Mary MDonald and Jennie Browscombe. The old towns of New En- gland abound in undeveloped and hialf-de- veloped female talent, for which there seems at present no career. There will never be a career for talent undeveloped or half de- veloped. Give the schools in those fine old towns one lesson a week in object-drawing from a teacher that knows his business, keep it up for one generation, and New En- gland girls will cheer all homes by genial sketches and amusing glimpses of life, to say nothing of more important and serious artistic work. The talent exists; the taste exists. Nothing is wanting but for us all to cast away from us the ridiculous notion that the only thing in human nature that requires educating is the brain. We must awake to the vast absurdity of bringing up girls upon algebra and Latin, and sending them out into a world which they were born to cheer and decorate unable to walk, dance, sing, or draw; their minds over- wrought, but not well nourished, and their bodies devoid of the rudiments of education. There is no country on earth where the humorous aspects of human life are more relished than in the United States, and none where there is less power to exhibit them by the pencil. There are to-day a thousand paragraphs afloat in the press which ought to have been pictures. Here is one from a newspaper in the interior of Georgia: A sorry sight it is to see a spike team, consist- ~0 LIE COMETH NOT, SLIE SAID. M. WOOLF, IN DARPEIIS IJAZAR, JULY 31, 1875. RICHARD BAXTER. 43 ing of a skeleton steer and a skinky blind scant, attire by day and linn~ry sleeping by mule, with rope harness, and a squint-eyed nigl~t. The man who penned those graphic driver, hauling a barrel of new whisky over lines needed, perhaps, hilt an educated hand poor roads, on a hermaphrodite wagon, into to reproduce the scene, and make it as vivid a farming district where the people are in to all minds as it was to his own. The debt, and the children are forced to practice country contains many such possible artists. RICHARD BAXTER. TALKS, WALKS, AND DRIVES IN AND AROUND LEA CASTLE, NEAR KIDDERMINSTER, ENGLAND, IN THE SUMMER OF 1872 By TUE HoN. WILLIAM W. CAMPBELL STATUE OF RIChARD BAXTER, TIlE PURITAN l)IVINE~ AT KII)DERMINSTER. Castle Lea, my memory carries All thy scenes of peace around; Still thy mossy dingle tarries, Still I see the upland mound. There the belt of gloomy larches, Here the valley deep and green, Leading to the emerald arches Where the June sun neer is seen. Joyous creatures, furred and feathered, Feed and play in fearless glee, And I see them tamely gathered Round the walls of Castle Lea. ELIZA COOK. AS I stepped from the railroad car at the station of Kidderminster. a young man very civilly addressed me, asking if I was going to Lea Castle, and adding that the carriage was waiting for me on the other side of the d6p6t. In a few minutes we were out of the old city, and rolling rapidly along the avenue lined with be~ches lending to the castle. It was just a quarter of a century since I was driven up the avenue by my friend, then as now the owner, J. P. Brown Westhead, M.P. Twenty-five years had come and gonea large portion of a human life, however long that life may be. For many of those years Mr. W. had been a member of Parliament for old York. There was a cordial reception, as anticipated. As my visit was to extend to weeks, it was ar- ranged that a portion of each long summer day when the weather was pleasant was to be spent in walks and drives to places of interest in the vicinity. When Charles II., in 1651, fled from the, to him, fatal field o~ Worcester, he skirted Kidderminster by Chester Lane to Kinver Edge, and thence to Boscobel, a lone house on the borders of Staffordshire, and where he was concealed in the famous Royal Oak. The lane ran on the north side of the castle and is still re- garded with interest, and the tale is still re- peated of the flight of the young king along the lane and down to the valley below. Early in the morning we walk along a por- tion of this lane, stopping to look in upon friends in Lion House, where the celebrated printer John Baskerville was born in 1706. We are in the town, and look up at the Church of St. Mary, said to have been found- ed in 1315, the ancient Chi Dwr minster, the minster or church on the hill overlooking the water giving the name of Chiderminster, changed to Kidderminster. The church would thus seem to have antedated the town or city. The church still looks down on the river Stour, flowing along below the rocky edge to the left of the view. The waters of the river, impregnated with iron and fullers-earth, are said to be of great value to the extensive carpet manufactories for which Kidderminster is celebrated. To this Chi Dwr minster, this church on the hill overlooking the waters, there came as a preacher of the Gospel in March, 1640, a young man then scarcely twenty-five years of age, who was to labor there for the great- er part of twenty years, whose name was to

Hon. William W. Campbell Campbell, William W., Hon. Richard Baxter 43-48

RICHARD BAXTER. 43 ing of a skeleton steer and a skinky blind scant, attire by day and linn~ry sleeping by mule, with rope harness, and a squint-eyed nigl~t. The man who penned those graphic driver, hauling a barrel of new whisky over lines needed, perhaps, hilt an educated hand poor roads, on a hermaphrodite wagon, into to reproduce the scene, and make it as vivid a farming district where the people are in to all minds as it was to his own. The debt, and the children are forced to practice country contains many such possible artists. RICHARD BAXTER. TALKS, WALKS, AND DRIVES IN AND AROUND LEA CASTLE, NEAR KIDDERMINSTER, ENGLAND, IN THE SUMMER OF 1872 By TUE HoN. WILLIAM W. CAMPBELL STATUE OF RIChARD BAXTER, TIlE PURITAN l)IVINE~ AT KII)DERMINSTER. Castle Lea, my memory carries All thy scenes of peace around; Still thy mossy dingle tarries, Still I see the upland mound. There the belt of gloomy larches, Here the valley deep and green, Leading to the emerald arches Where the June sun neer is seen. Joyous creatures, furred and feathered, Feed and play in fearless glee, And I see them tamely gathered Round the walls of Castle Lea. ELIZA COOK. AS I stepped from the railroad car at the station of Kidderminster. a young man very civilly addressed me, asking if I was going to Lea Castle, and adding that the carriage was waiting for me on the other side of the d6p6t. In a few minutes we were out of the old city, and rolling rapidly along the avenue lined with be~ches lending to the castle. It was just a quarter of a century since I was driven up the avenue by my friend, then as now the owner, J. P. Brown Westhead, M.P. Twenty-five years had come and gonea large portion of a human life, however long that life may be. For many of those years Mr. W. had been a member of Parliament for old York. There was a cordial reception, as anticipated. As my visit was to extend to weeks, it was ar- ranged that a portion of each long summer day when the weather was pleasant was to be spent in walks and drives to places of interest in the vicinity. When Charles II., in 1651, fled from the, to him, fatal field o~ Worcester, he skirted Kidderminster by Chester Lane to Kinver Edge, and thence to Boscobel, a lone house on the borders of Staffordshire, and where he was concealed in the famous Royal Oak. The lane ran on the north side of the castle and is still re- garded with interest, and the tale is still re- peated of the flight of the young king along the lane and down to the valley below. Early in the morning we walk along a por- tion of this lane, stopping to look in upon friends in Lion House, where the celebrated printer John Baskerville was born in 1706. We are in the town, and look up at the Church of St. Mary, said to have been found- ed in 1315, the ancient Chi Dwr minster, the minster or church on the hill overlooking the water giving the name of Chiderminster, changed to Kidderminster. The church would thus seem to have antedated the town or city. The church still looks down on the river Stour, flowing along below the rocky edge to the left of the view. The waters of the river, impregnated with iron and fullers-earth, are said to be of great value to the extensive carpet manufactories for which Kidderminster is celebrated. To this Chi Dwr minster, this church on the hill overlooking the waters, there came as a preacher of the Gospel in March, 1640, a young man then scarcely twenty-five years of age, who was to labor there for the great- er part of twenty years, whose name was to 44 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. be thereafter spoken with reverence, and whose works were to be read and studied wherever Protestant Christianity should find a home in any portion of the four quar- ters of the globe. Though of a feeble con- stitution, he was destined to live on for more than fifty years thereafter; to outlive all the four kings of the house of Stuart; to suffer exile, persecution, fine, and imprison- ment during the reigns of the last two mon- archs; and finally to die in a hood old age and in peaceful times, when the Protestant religion had been restored to power after the Revolution, with William and Mary on the throne of England. This young and zealous preacher of the Gospel was Richard Baxter. He was born in the neighboring county of Shropshire, the son of respectable parents, but not in afiluent circumstances. Fond of learning, he early gave promise of scholarship, and by the aid and influence of partial friends he was sent up to London at the age of seventeen to make his way to in- fluence at the court of Charles the First. But he was then of a religions temper and thought, and found no pleasure in the frivol- ities and surroun ings of a court, and aft- er a tarry of a few weeks returned home. DevotiBg himself to study, by economy he was prepared and entered the university. He did not complete a full university course. Leaving the university, he became tutor and school-teacher, and, pursuing theo- logical studies, was admitted to orders in the Established Church of England. His first settlement was at Bridgenorth, a few mile from Kidderminster, among, as he said, a hardened people. Baxter says he found the church a most convenient temple, ye capacious, and the most commodious and convenient that ever I was in. The con- gregation increased nnder his preaching to such an extent that five galleries were built to hold the hearers. In 1787 the spirit of renovation seems to have possessed the church wardens and au- thorities. The veneration for Baxters mem- ory was no longer cherished. His pulpit was taken down, and that, with his communion- table, was sold at auction to the highest bidder. The pulpit and the carved seats found resting-places in the Independent chapels. Not far from St. Marys Church an alley-way leads up to the old meeting- house (Independent). Here in the session- room we found the pulpit, not used by the preacher, but placed near the corner of the room, and flanked on each side by the large folio volumes containing the writings of Baxter. The pulpit, as will be seen, is elab- orately carved, and appears, by an inscrip- tion on it, to have been the gift of a widow, probably an admiring member of his congre- gation. Baxter found his hearers at Kidder- minster not sermon-proof as at Bridgenorth, and he said, Also it is but the least part of a ministers work which is done in the pub pit; Paul taught them lso from house to house, day and night, with tears. But the great labor which he performed is witness- ed by his numerous works, amounting to no less than one hundred and sixty, several of them quarto volumes. What books of Baxters should I read V LEA cAsTLE. RICHARD BAXTER. 45 said Boswell to Dr. Johnson. Read any of them; they are all good, was the em- phatic reply. In a very recent lecture by the Bishop of Peterborough, he says, Those were precious things that Baxter had given to Christendom ; and looking back to those stormy times in which he lived, we might see rising above the dust and tumult of the conflict that ensign of truth which men still carry forth in their wars of good against bad, right against wrong, righteousness against sin and misery. The best known of his works is The Saints Everlasting Rest amplifying and illustrating that consoling utterance of St. Paul, There remaineth therefore a rest to the people of God. The Saints l?est, he says, was conceived by him in his chamber in a friends house in Derbyshire, when sentenced to death by the physicians. He survived, and finished the work at his own house in Kidderminster, and it was published in 1649. He was then thirty-four years of age. A second edition was published in 1651. A copy of this second edition was pre- sented to the bailiff of Kidderminster, with this inscription on the fly-leaf in his own handwriting: This book has been carefully preserved by the successive bailiffs, and it is said has only twice been out of their custody, and then only for inspection and some tempora- ry purpose, such as tracing or photograph- ing the inscription on the fly-leaf. In the spring of 1640 Baxter commenced his labors at Kidderminster, and in Novem- ber of that year was assembled that Parlia- ment known familiarly as the Long Parlia- ment, and whose actions were to have much to do with the future events of his life: that renowned Parliament which, in spite of many errors and disasters, is justly en- titled to the reverence and gratitude of all who in any part of the world enjoy the blessings of constitutional government. Baxter was a monarchist and a Churchman, but he was opposed to the arbitrary rule of Charles the First, and he did not hold to all the doctrines of the Established Church. Nor was he a Ronudhead; but his strong religious convictions doubtless led bun to sympathize with the majority of the Par- liament. The times were turbulent, and in a few years we find him a chaplain in the Parliamentary army, preaching the Gospel as earnestly to the soldiers as he had done to his congregation at Kidderminster. In that memorable document, the death - war- rant which consigned Charles the First to the block, will be seen, directly under the name of Cromwell, the name of Edward Whalleythat Colonel Whalley who, after the Restoration, fled to North America, and who, after long years of exile and hiding, found, at a good old age, a quiet and almost unknown grave in one of the grave-yards of New Haven. It may be to us an interesting fact that Baxter filled the office of chaplain in the regiment of Colonel Whalley. From 1640 to 1660 Baxter continued his residence at Kidderminster, though during that time he was absent in all some four ~9~2 4m~ years. Charles the Second arrived in Lon- don in May, 1660, and was received with great favor, and the restoration of the inon- archy was coInl)lete. The Commonwealth had come and gone. The regicides were called to a strict account. But Baxter, in- stead of being marked out for punishment, was an object of royal favor. Clarendon, who had followed the fortunes of Charles, was now at the head of affairs. The vacant see of Hereford was tendered to Baxter, but he did not desire the office of a bishop, and he declined the offer. He was appointed chaplain to the king, and preached once or twice before his majesty. He found the dissolute monarch probably as sermon-proof 46 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. as his first congregation at Bridgenorth. His desire was to return and minister to his own flock at Kidderminster. But he en- countered a severe and successful opposi- tion to his return in the person of Sir Ralph Clare. This old Cavalier, whose residence, Cald- well Castle, was near Kidderminster, who had followed the fortunes of Charles I. and Charles II., and had been with the latter in his banishment, made a persistent resist- ance, though a very large portion of the people favored Baxters continuance. The principal objection of the knight was that Baxter administered the sacrament to the members of the church sitting around the communion-table, instead of giving it to theni kneeling. He says: All the disturb- ance I had in my own parish was by Sir Ralph Clare refusing to communicate with us, unless I would give it to him kneeling on a distinct day, and not with those that received it standino And he adds, Ihad no mind to be the author of such a s~hism, and to make, as it were, two churches of one. B:~xter went out, never to return as preacher at his pleasant home at Kidder- minster. He said that when he went there first there were whole streets where a pray- ing family could not be found, and when he left there were few streets where prayer and praise did not ascend daily from almost every dwelling. He was succeeded by the sequestered vicar Rev. George Dance, a man of peculiarly unsavory and unclerical mode of life. The doughty old knight Sir Ralph Clare died a few years after at an advanced age, and was buried in the south aisle of the nave of the old church. For many years, owing to alterations, his grave was covered, but recent changes have ngain brought it to view, and the visitor can read the inscription on the stone which covers his ashes, telling how he had attended at the coronation of Charles I., and served him through all his glorious misfortunes, and was servant to Charles II. in his banish- ment and return. Caldwell Castle, on the outskirts of Kidderminster, has mostly been torn down, one tower alone remaining, and the name of Sir Ralph Clare comes down to us with unenviable notoriety as the man who drove out Richard Baxter from his home and his successful labors at Kidder- minster. Baxter was comparatively a young manforty-five years of agewhen lie left Kidderminster. His after-years, more than thirty, were spent in London and vicinity, preaching as occasion offered, and continu- ing his labor of writing. Indeed, he said writing was his labor, and preaching his recreation. Among his other writings was a commentary on the New Testament, in which he wrote with some severity of the persecutions suffered by the Dissenters, com- plaining that for not using the Prayer-book men were driven from their homes and lock- ed up in dungeons. For this he was pro- ceeded against, and brought to trial before Jeffreys, and then occurred one of those dis- graceful scenes which marked the judicial life of that infamous judge. Learned and distinguished counsel appeared in Baxters defense, and nunierons influential friends gathered around him. But Jeff~eys would not listen to argument or entreaty; counsel were stopped in their addresses, and niade the objects of vile abuse. At length Baxter atteumpted to speak, commencing as follows: My lord, I have been much blanmed by Dis- senters for speaking respectfully of bish- ops Baxter for bishops ! roared out Jeffreys; thats a merry conceit, indeed. I know what you mean by bishopsvassals like yourself; Kidderniluster bishops; fac- tious, sniveling Presbyterians. Richard, dost thou think we will let thee poison the court? Richard, thou art an old knave. Thou hast written books enough to load a cart, an(l every book as full of sedition as an egg is full of meat. Resistance was of no avail, aimd Baxter was convicted, and sentenced to imprisonment and to pay a heavy fine. Such was the treatment of a man of whom Macauhay says: No eminent chief of a party has ever passed through many years of civil and religious dissension with more innocence than Richard Baxter. He belonged to the mildest and most tem- perate section of the Puritan body. And thus it happened that two men of BAXTERS PULPIT. RICHARD BAXTER. 47 England of that age, whose names are held he died in London in 1691, at the age of sev- in most reverence, and whose works are to enty-Iive. During many of the last years this day most extensively rea throughout of his life he ha realized in his own person Protestant Christendom, were snifering per- the truths which he had so earnestly tanght, secution at the same time and for the same that the saints rest is not to be expected on causefreedom to worship God according earth. to the dictates of their own consciences and Nearly a quarter of a centnry ago William of their own naderstanding of the Holy Hancoks, Esq., of Blakeshahl House, a pions Scriptnres. For while the anthor of Saints and enlightene gentleman, erected on his est was a condemned prisoner in the Kings own grounds in the parish of Wolverley, Bench Prison in London, John Bunyan, the about four miles from Kidderminster, an antho of that immortal ~llegory, The Pu- obelisk fifty feet high, hearing the follow- grims Progress, was immured in the common ing inscription: To commemorate that de- jail of Bedford. Baxter lay iu prison eight- voted man, Richard Baxter, minister of the cen months, when he was released through Old Chnrch, Kidderminster, about the year the intercession of influential friends. After 1650, whose unwearied labors we e so great- the Revolution and the accessionof William ly blessed to that town and neighborhood. and Mary to the throne, and when the Tol- Read his Saints Everlasting Best, and Cell to eration Act was passed, Baxter gave in his the Unconverted. A few months before the adhesion, and qnalilied under the act. But writer of this article was in Kiddermi - before doin~ so he pnt on record an expla- ster, in 1872, looking at the interesting Bax- nation of the sense in ~hich he nnderstood ter relics, a public meeting ha been held in those propositions which might admit of the town, and measures adopte and funds misconstruction. He declared that his ap- raised to erect a statue in honor and re- probation of the Athanasian Creed was con- menibrance of him. All religious enomina- fined to that part which was properly a tions unite . The vicar said: There were creed, and that he did not nican to express many in that town to revered and honor- ny assent to the dainnatory clauses. He ed that beloved man, and who believed that also declared that he did not, by signing to be baptized into the spirit of Baxter would the article which anathematized all who be one of the greatest privileges that could maintain that there is any other salvation be conferred upon them. The Non-conform- than through Christ, mean to condemn those ist minister said: During the whole course who entertain a hope that sincere and vir- of his ministry in Kid erminster, Baxter was tuous unbelievers may be admitted to par- in conformity with the Established Church; take in the be efits of redemption. This and though in after-years, for very pGwerful was among the last of his public acts, for reason, he had to cast in his lot with the zu)DE MINSTEE cucadil, WhERE BAXTER PREACH D. 48 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. Non-conformists, yet he never gave himself as much money as that historical personage up wholly to any party, and that it would ever had, and is, in his way, as powerful. be impossible either for Conformist or Nou- With a stamp (not of his foothe makes conformist to claim him wholly. Baxters not the least noise about it) he can raise great aspiration was that Englishmen should legions. Don Carlos would kiss him on be able to unite in one Christian national both cheeks to-morrow and give him all Church; his great aim was for comprehen- sorts of titles merely for his autograph; sion; and there never was among British even the Comte de Chambord might think theologians a more Catholic-minded man. it worth while to give him his forefinger, in The statue, of which an illustration is given token of a legitimate friendship, in return at the head of this paper, was unveiled dur- for the same favor; and I dont think the lug the summer just passed. It rises to Pope himself would hesitate to say a good view on the high land near the Old Church word for him in certain quarters in return looking down on the Stour, on the town for his heretical assistance. Indeed, for as- and extensive manufactories, and on the sisting some struggling sovereignor half spot where once arose the home of Sir sovereignMr. Patterini did once acquire a Ralph Clare, Caldwell Castle; and many patent of nobility, which he has been known a stranger, many a passing traveler, will to exhibit to confidential friends in his smok- turn aside to view the places and scenes ing-room, and is entitled, he has assnred of the labor, and to look upon the marble them, to write himself Baron. Baron and effigy, of him of whom the Bishop of Peter- Baroness Patterini! can any thing have a borough, Dr. Magee, in a recent lecture so finer or more harmonious sound? And yet, eloquently and truthfully said: A great for the life of her, Mrs. P. dare not call her- and good man; a man long since canonized self Baroness. People are 80 ill - natured by consent of all Protestant Christians; a that they will be sure to say dear Anthony man whom Churchmen and Non-conformists, the good mans name is Anthonypro- Episcopalians and anti-Episcopalians, have cured it in some infamous manner; took long since agreed in delighting to honor; a ten per cent. off his commission upon the man whose virtues lay on the surface of his Monaco loan, perhaps; whereas, as every character; a man with a love for disputa- body knows, a real nobleman is constructed tion, and a desire to resolve others rather in quite a different manner. He must be a than be resolved himself; yet patient, gen- gentleman first (though this is not absolute- erous, brave, forgiving; foremost as a divine; ly indispensable); then he must have an unequaled, save by Jeremy Thylor, as a casu- estate in some county, and represent it in ist; a man who, fearing his Master, feared Parliament after a coimtested election; and no other man: this was Richard Baxter. even then, unless he rats at a political crisis, when the thing is often done at once, HER IMPERIAL GUEST: it is a tedious affair to get ennobled. It was the more to be regretted that such A MAYFAIR MYSTERY. steps should be necessary, for the name of Patterini seemed to its female owner singu- I.INvITATIoN. larly adapted for a noble prefix; the word THERE are great people and great people Mrs. in connection with it appeared to her in London. If any honest folks from a waste, a bathos, like a handle of bone pre- the country should chance to pass Mrs. fixed to a silk parasol; it had a certain Nor- Patterinis door in Evelyn Lodge on any man ring about it, and even if it was Greek afternoon in the season, when that ladys (as was the fact), the modern Greeks, as splendid equipage is stopping the way there, Cyril Clarke assured her, resemble in their and through the open portal should behold predatory habits the ancient Normans. Mrs. the powdered footmen who await her com- Patterini did not know what predatory ing, they Would doubtless think Mrs. Pat- meant, and she was quite satisfied with the terini a very great personage indeed; much assertion. She had the utmost confidence greater than Mrs. Marmaduke Eyre next in Mr. Cyril Clarke as a gentleman and a door, for example, whose neat little unpre- gentile; for both those classes, to say the tentious brougham is cast into the shade by truth, were, among her immediate acquaint- Mrs. P.s magnificent vehicle, and whose ances, rather scarce. He was a barrister, a footman wears not even a shoulder-knot. rising one he called himself, but upon Yet Mrs. P. would give her earsor at least cross-examination would admit frankly that her diamond ear-ringsto get an inclina- he only meant a young barristerrising tion of the head from the other lady, who twenty-six. He was handsome, intelligent, unhappily has no inclination for her. There and sprightly, but the attorneys had not is nothing whatever against the character fallen in love with him, nor had he fallen in of Mrs. Patterini; she is fit to be Ca~sars love with an attorneys daughter. He had wife, so far as any breath of personal scan- fallen in love with Miss Myra Patterini, who dal is concerned; and if she is not Ca,sars, by rights should have been a Baroness like she is the wife of a man who has probably her mother, for one of the great charms

James Payn Payn, James Her Imperial Guest 48-57

48 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. Non-conformists, yet he never gave himself as much money as that historical personage up wholly to any party, and that it would ever had, and is, in his way, as powerful. be impossible either for Conformist or Nou- With a stamp (not of his foothe makes conformist to claim him wholly. Baxters not the least noise about it) he can raise great aspiration was that Englishmen should legions. Don Carlos would kiss him on be able to unite in one Christian national both cheeks to-morrow and give him all Church; his great aim was for comprehen- sorts of titles merely for his autograph; sion; and there never was among British even the Comte de Chambord might think theologians a more Catholic-minded man. it worth while to give him his forefinger, in The statue, of which an illustration is given token of a legitimate friendship, in return at the head of this paper, was unveiled dur- for the same favor; and I dont think the lug the summer just passed. It rises to Pope himself would hesitate to say a good view on the high land near the Old Church word for him in certain quarters in return looking down on the Stour, on the town for his heretical assistance. Indeed, for as- and extensive manufactories, and on the sisting some struggling sovereignor half spot where once arose the home of Sir sovereignMr. Patterini did once acquire a Ralph Clare, Caldwell Castle; and many patent of nobility, which he has been known a stranger, many a passing traveler, will to exhibit to confidential friends in his smok- turn aside to view the places and scenes ing-room, and is entitled, he has assnred of the labor, and to look upon the marble them, to write himself Baron. Baron and effigy, of him of whom the Bishop of Peter- Baroness Patterini! can any thing have a borough, Dr. Magee, in a recent lecture so finer or more harmonious sound? And yet, eloquently and truthfully said: A great for the life of her, Mrs. P. dare not call her- and good man; a man long since canonized self Baroness. People are 80 ill - natured by consent of all Protestant Christians; a that they will be sure to say dear Anthony man whom Churchmen and Non-conformists, the good mans name is Anthonypro- Episcopalians and anti-Episcopalians, have cured it in some infamous manner; took long since agreed in delighting to honor; a ten per cent. off his commission upon the man whose virtues lay on the surface of his Monaco loan, perhaps; whereas, as every character; a man with a love for disputa- body knows, a real nobleman is constructed tion, and a desire to resolve others rather in quite a different manner. He must be a than be resolved himself; yet patient, gen- gentleman first (though this is not absolute- erous, brave, forgiving; foremost as a divine; ly indispensable); then he must have an unequaled, save by Jeremy Thylor, as a casu- estate in some county, and represent it in ist; a man who, fearing his Master, feared Parliament after a coimtested election; and no other man: this was Richard Baxter. even then, unless he rats at a political crisis, when the thing is often done at once, HER IMPERIAL GUEST: it is a tedious affair to get ennobled. It was the more to be regretted that such A MAYFAIR MYSTERY. steps should be necessary, for the name of Patterini seemed to its female owner singu- I.INvITATIoN. larly adapted for a noble prefix; the word THERE are great people and great people Mrs. in connection with it appeared to her in London. If any honest folks from a waste, a bathos, like a handle of bone pre- the country should chance to pass Mrs. fixed to a silk parasol; it had a certain Nor- Patterinis door in Evelyn Lodge on any man ring about it, and even if it was Greek afternoon in the season, when that ladys (as was the fact), the modern Greeks, as splendid equipage is stopping the way there, Cyril Clarke assured her, resemble in their and through the open portal should behold predatory habits the ancient Normans. Mrs. the powdered footmen who await her com- Patterini did not know what predatory ing, they Would doubtless think Mrs. Pat- meant, and she was quite satisfied with the terini a very great personage indeed; much assertion. She had the utmost confidence greater than Mrs. Marmaduke Eyre next in Mr. Cyril Clarke as a gentleman and a door, for example, whose neat little unpre- gentile; for both those classes, to say the tentious brougham is cast into the shade by truth, were, among her immediate acquaint- Mrs. P.s magnificent vehicle, and whose ances, rather scarce. He was a barrister, a footman wears not even a shoulder-knot. rising one he called himself, but upon Yet Mrs. P. would give her earsor at least cross-examination would admit frankly that her diamond ear-ringsto get an inclina- he only meant a young barristerrising tion of the head from the other lady, who twenty-six. He was handsome, intelligent, unhappily has no inclination for her. There and sprightly, but the attorneys had not is nothing whatever against the character fallen in love with him, nor had he fallen in of Mrs. Patterini; she is fit to be Ca~sars love with an attorneys daughter. He had wife, so far as any breath of personal scan- fallen in love with Miss Myra Patterini, who dal is concerned; and if she is not Ca,sars, by rights should have been a Baroness like she is the wife of a man who has probably her mother, for one of the great charms HER IMPERIAL GUEST. 49 of a foreign title is that it descends and spreads, so that ones whole stock is glori- fled, and one begets, not boys and girls, like the common herd of parents, but Barons and Baronesses. Any thing more ludicrons than Mr. Cyril Clarkes pretensions to this yonng ladys hand it would have been difficult to conceive. His family, though respectable enonghhis father was a minor canon of some cathedral or another, and had a living in the Pens were by no means Norman; he had not a shilling in the worldthat is to say, judged by an Evelyn Lodge standard; he had in reality an allowance of 250 a year, paid quarterly by his papa, and how he managed to clothe himself in the way lie did, and smoke such excellent cigars, was a marvel except to those who knew that he paid no- body except the bankers of his club on the 1st of January. He was not a poet nor a novelist; he had discovered no new religion nor any flaws in the old ones. He had no distinction of any kind which could be sup- posed by the most charitable to bridge over the great gulf that lay between him and Miss Myra. And yet he dared to love her, and one of her parents knew it. Of course it was the female one. Patterini p~re knew nothing except the share list, British and foreign, and which of the great City houses was shakya piece of intelligence he al- ways managed to acquire in time to prevent it shaking him. One thing more he knew -that under no circumstances whatsoever was he to interfere with the plans of Mrs. Patterini; his privilege was confined to paying for their execution. To look at him you would say he was the honestest man, I dont say in Greece, but in England. And far be it from me to hint that he was not honest. He looked like a highly respect- able grazier, whose talk should have been of beeves when it was not of repairing his parish church, situated in a pastoral dis- trict. He had not only the air of a church- warden, but of the parsons own church- warden. The keys which he was wont to rattle in his pocket when taking his wifes orders might have belong~l to the vestry, instead of fitting desks full of mysterious documents, with seals and stamps upon them mostly foreignthat represented tens of thousands of pounds. He rather liked Cyril Clarke, and was pleasurably surprised that the young man had never asked him to lend him money. His calling was that of a lender, and noth- ing had yet occurred to him in the sem- blance of friendship with needy men that had not sooner or later taken that profes- sional turn. He had done several smart thingsa term used in the City for benevo- lent actionsto such persons during his commercial career, and would have been very willing to have given Cyril Clarke a Yo,. LILKo. 3OT.4 hundred or two for the asking. If he had asked for his daughter, he would not have been angry, but would prohably have offer- ed to provide for him for life in a first-class lunatic asylum. The Baroness,as lam afraid the young barrister was wont to call his hostess in the family circle, had even a higher ambition with re4ect to the disposal of her daugh- ters hand than her husband, and yet she permitted this young man to pay her Myra marked attentions. Nothing serious could possibly come of it, and Cyril was extreme- ly useful to her~ and could be retained by no other sort of fee. He was a pleasant, agreeable young fellow, and knew every body. He brought peoplechiefly males, howeverto Evelyn Lodge who would nev- er have come thither of their own accord, and he relieved the otherwise insufferable tedium of her dinner parties. There are three classes of society in Lon- don each of whom entertain in a magnif- icent fashion: the aristocracy, whose reun- ions are sometimes lively, but more generally dull; the Bohemian rich (a small body, who despise convention, a~~d gather around them all those who have talent to recommend them, though it is essential that their lady guests, at least, should be of good character); and the millionaires. These last, of course, can give you every thing that money can buy; but good company not being in the market, is rarely found under their roof. The table groans with delicacies, but the guest, if he likes to be amused as well as fed, groans also. When you have been told in a stage whisper that your next neighhor has four hundred thousand pounds, and that the man opposite has made a hundred thousand by an operation upon Turks (by which is indicated the Turkish Loan), there is little else to learn. The old gentlemen are mere walking money-bags; they chink, but can not converse. The young ones are hateful imitations of the real gilt youth of the ar- istocracy, and disgust as well as bore one. The ladieswell, the ladies are not nice. They are mostly very fine women. I have an idea that their husbands buy them by weight. But they are not good-natured, as all fat people are bound to be. To dine, in short, at Evelyn Lodge was a social martyr- dom. The glare of the womens diamonds and of the mens studs; the glare of the gold plate; the enormous length of the entertain- ment, and the extreme tenuity of the small- talk; the stoutness of the people; their large noses; the absence of the letter h, and the substitution of the letter b for the let- ter pthe moral and material oppression caused by all this splendid vulgarity was overwhelming. Now the Baroness was sa- gacious enough to perceive this; she re- marked that when Cyril Clarke was present, the heavy atmosphere lifted a little, that 50 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. where he sat there was an oasis in this des- ert of dullness where laughter rippled. In time he grew to be indispensable. She had wit enough to see that he didnt like it, that rich wines and a fine feast were not suffi- cient attractions to a man of his stamp, that he came, in short, after Myra; and yet the Baroness encouraged him. If she discarded him, the men he had brought to the Lodge, and who leavened her parties so pleasantly, would in all likelihood go away, and every thing would be as it used to beas dull as ditch-water. Moreover, she did not give up all hope of getting into societyreal society through Cyrils good offices. He had pro- cured invitations for Myra fora ball or two at houses of undoubted fashion, and the girl had attended them under the escort of a great lady, whose foQtman had left her card at the Lodge. But these fashionable doors had never been opened for the Baroness her- self, and to her they were the gates of par- adise. To have had a square card from the Duch- ess of Doldrum, requesting the pleasure of Mr., Mrs., and Miss Patterinis company at Doldrum House, she would have sacrificed half her fortune; to have procured her Graces presence under her own roof she would almost have bartered her hopes of heaven. She had left no stone unturned to get into society ; she had taken a house at As- cot every season, and thrown it open during the race week; she had actually ventured upon having outriders to her carriagea dis- tinction reserved by tacit consent for royal- ty and Lady Blanche Mildewbut had only got laughed at for her pains. Once she had been upon the very brink of bliss. Cyril Clarke had somehow arranged for her to be presented at court; it was to cost a thou- sand pounds in fees, etc., none of which, it is fair to say, was to go into his pocket. She would have been quite content to pay the money had it been twice as much. But at the very last moment the affair broke down, and ended in a very ill-natured para- graph in the Court Intelligencer. Myra was not very pretty nor very distin- guished-looking, but she was a good-look- ing, intelligent girlevidently a well-to-do graziers daughterand would have found no difficulty in getting a fitting mate, had she not had 25,000 of her own, and been heiress to as much per annum. This made it very difficult. No one who was in a so- cial position to merit such a prize made any advances; the score or two of young gentle- men who did were not to be thought of:, as her mother said. I am afraid, how ever, Myra did think of one of them. If I could only get my mothers consent, Cyril, I would marry you to-morrow, she had told the young barrister; but you know that that is impossible. I will never marry you without it, so you had much bet- ter cease your visits to the Lodge, which only give me unnecessary pain. She was a very sensible girl, who saw through her mothers weakness for fashion- able life, and despised it; but she had hon- est scruples. I am afraid Mr. Cyril Clarke did not share them. He thoroughly under- stood his position at the Lodge, and resent- ed the Baronesss treatment of him, as any man of spirit would have done; but he loved Myra quite independently of her for- tunealthough he was not one to despise fortuneand he persevered in his atten- tions. I shall make no apologies for what he afterward did, for it was indefensible; but I must say that there were excuses for him. A few years ago it was noised abroad that a great Eastern potentate, the Shah of Per- sia, was about to visit England. Cyril Clarke brought the news, twenty-four hours before it was published in the papers, to Evelyn Lodge: one of his missions was to bring the Baroness early intelligence of all fashionable movements, and he was very skilled in acquiring it. But these particular tidings he had learned from a friend of his in the Foreign Office under peculiar circum- stances. This gentleman had at one time resided in Persia, and could speak its tongue, and he had been sounded by the chief of his department that very morning as to wheth- er, in case his Imperial Majesty the Shah should come, he would be attached to his sacred person while in England. News of this kind was meat, drink, and clothing to the Baroness. My dear Cyril, said she, you are in- valuable, and you will find Myra in the con- servatory. She knew that a squeeze of her daughters hand would repay him for all his trouble in pumping the Foreign Office clerk, as indeed. it did. Her twenty-four hours start of the news- papers gave the Baroness quite a reputation, and would have made her very happy had the public she enlightened by it been other than of her own olass; but she was already one of its chiefs, and little cared for such supremacy. As time went on, and the ti- dings came to be common property, she en- vied Baron Renter, at whose instance the Shah was said to have determined upon his Western journey, above every body. If she could only get his Imperial Highness to take any notice of her, that would be bliss indeed, and Mr. Cyril Clarke actually gave her hopes of it. He thought it not impossi- ble that through his friend in the Fore.ign Office the Shah might be induced to believe that Evelyn Lodge was one of the centres of financial greatness, and, as such, worth his while to visit it; the Persian Loan would certainly be all the better for the backing HER IMPERIAL GUEST. 51 of Patterini and Company, while at Patte- rinis mansion his Imperial Majesty would have the opportunity of beholding a type of social life in financial circles. Cyril broke this gorgeous project to his patroness with extreme caution, lest the vision of greatness thus disclosed should be iOO much for her, and his prudence was not misplaced. She didnt, however, faint, but she cried like a child, and wobbled all over like a jelly. If you do it, Cyril, gasped she if you bring his Imperial Highness the Shah of Persia beneath my humble roof:, there is nothingnothing that I can deny you. You have only to name your reward. Myra, said Cyril, with his usual pres- ence of mind. The Baroness turned pale and swallowed something in her throat; but she was not one to go back from her word. If the Shah comes here, said she, you shall have Myra. 11.DUBITATION. The excitement caused in London by the arrival of the Shah of Persia was greater than that produced by any other event since the visit of the allied monarchs after Water- loo. Indeed, in some respects it exceeded that, for the element of wonder and romance was wanting in the latter case. Moreover, the personal appearance of the Eastern des- pot was itself attractive. A king in mili- tary uniform looks, after all, but like any other general officer; but his Majesty of Persia was, in his apparel, at least, all that could be expected of such a potentate. His frame and face, it is true, reminded our In- dian officers so strongly of a low-caste na- tive servant that it is said they felt scruples in paying him due honor; but he gleamed with diamonds and precious stones, rode a horse with a painted tail, and was evidently a person of distinction. The way the little wretch was worshiped in my native land is a subject I must decline to dwell upon; it was humiliating to human nature. He was dirty, I have no doubt, but he looked much worse than what is implied by that mod- erate adjective; he ate like a savage and spilled his food like a baby; and wherever a young person of title (and he saw few others) took his fancy, he generally made an offer, if single, to her father, if married, to her husband, to buy her. But he was the rage for all that, and ladies of fash- ion were dying to make him their guest even for half an hour. The Lord Chamber- lain (through whom alone he was accessi- ble) was importuned as he had never been before to grant a share of his company to my Lady This and my Lady That. If his Imperial Majesty could not come to dine with her, could he not come to lunch? and if not to lunch, could he not come to five- oclock tea? The Lord Chamberlain con- signed him to this great house and that, and very proud was the consignee when the precious article came to hand on loan. I think the happiest day of Mrs. Patterinis existence was that on which the Morning Post announced that his Majesty the Shah of Persia would honor her reception at Eve- lyn Lodge on Tuesday next with his Impe- rial presence. From her point of view she well might be so, for his promised visit had broken down the barriers between herself and the high- est in the land. I dont know how much she paid to procure the honor, or in what proportions the bribe was divided between the gentlemen in. the Foreign Office and the ministers of the Shah,butlhaveheardthat the expenses of the entertainment itself were as nothing compared with what the accept- ance of the invitation cost. The ball~ how- ever, must have cost something; for in the first place the Baroness threw out the drawing-room so as to extend half over the garden, and in the second she drove arch- ways through all the partition walls, so that the whole floor should be en suite. But what were a few trifling alterations in Evelyn Lodge when taken in connection with the alteration in the feelings of good society as respected its mistress? It is scarcely too much to say that for a whole week there was no woman in London more sought after than the Baroness Patterini. She adopted her rightful title on the instant, and issued her cards of invitation with a barons coronet embossed upon them in blue and silver. So far from there being any doubt of filling her largely increased ball- room, her only difficulty was to say No to those of her own personal acquaint- ances whose hs were too pronounced (or unpronounced), and whose ps were too ob- viously bs. The whole fashionable world was at her feet. Ladies of title (English) intrigued for an invitation; the Duchess of Doldrum signified through a certain lady, herself of distinction, that she would come if she were asked. Her future hostess talked of her from that moment as her dear Duch- ess~a term which had more truth in it than her friends imagined who had not seen Mr. Patterinis check (drawn to bearer, you may be sure), which Cyril Clarke had dis- posed of in the proper quarters. Not a shil- ling of it had soiled his hands, though if trouble be worth payment, he deserved all that could have been given him. He work- ed like a slave (Persian), and passed his days between Buckingham Palace, where HIM. was located, and the Lord Chamberlains office. For the fact is that the august sov- ereign of Persia was every bit as slippery as he looked. His word was never to be de- pended on, though at that time there were 52 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. some people who believed in his bonds; and swered the lady, in the tone of NI. Auguste he did not know his own mindand no won- Comte when addressing his disciples: it was der: it was unrecognizable except through the whole science of positivism in a single a microscopefor two hours together. It sentence. was true, he had promised, or his chief min- ister and chibouk-carrier had promised for him, that he would be at Evelyn Lodge on Tuesday; but rumors were flying about that he proposed to quit England earlier than he had intended, and indeed on that very day. The mere report caused tortures to the Bar- oness, and (what was very rare) made her lose her temper. Cyril, have you seen this 7 cried she, pointing to the paragraph in the morning paper, which stated that in consequence of a special dispatch from Ispahan it was more than probable his Imperial Majesty would be compelled to leave the shores of England on the ensuing Tuesday. Is it possible it can be true l Of course it is possible, Baroness; but I do not believe it. I have done every thing I dont care ithat you have done, cried the infuriated woman; but if this villain so she spoke of her expected Imperial guest should break his word to me, after all, mind,I break mine to you. You, pen- niless adventurer that you are, shall never marry Myra. If it was possible for such a very hand- some young fellow as Mr. Cyril Clarke to look ugly, such was the expression of his countenance at this speech; but he instant- ly recovered his good looks, and bowed pro- foundly. It is a very foolish thing in a vulgar person to take advantage of a gen- tlemans necessities to insult him. The suc- cessful Black should be careful not to make the White man dangerous. I didnt mean to say any thing offensive, Cyril, continued the Baroness, whose na- tive sagacity had returned to her; but the fact is, I scarcely know what I say. The bare idea of that odious monster throwing us over at the last moment almost deprives me of my senses. I positively believe ev- ery thing that has been said against him about his smothering people in blankets a.nd sawing them asunderand about his nine hundred and ninety-nine wives. Ibelieve them all said Cyril, coolly. I hope you wont let him have Myra for the thousandth, if he should happen to ask you. Upon my word, I wont, said the Bar- oness, earnestly, yet in a manner that con- vinced him that the idea was not a novelty to her. She is of age, and, of course, there- fore her own mistress; but you know on which side my influence would be exerted, Cyril. Indeed, I look upon her, if all goes well, as engaged to yourself. And the Baron ? demanded Cyril. The Barons views are my views, an- On the day before the ball Cyril received formal news, while breakfasting at Evelyn Lodge, that the Shahs appointment would be kept, and in her ecstasy the Baroness kissed him. You are a duck and a darling, exclaim- ed she; and I dont wonder that our Myra is devoted to you. I look upon you from this moment as our son-in-law. Under these circumstances I think Mr. Cyril Clarke was justified in ratifying the agreement by kissing Myra. It was the first time he had ventured upon itin pub- licand the young lady playfully remon- strated with him. Remember, Sir, the Shah has not come yet. Pshaw ! answered Cyril; he is as safe as the bank. I dont quite agree with you there, said the Baron, looking up from the newspaper in which he was studying the prospects of the Persian Loan. Cyril means he is safe to come to-mor- row night, observed the Baroness, in ex- planation. To tell you the honest truth, my dear, continued she, with frankness, if he had not come, I think it would have been the death of me. When he has once been, I dont care what happens. Persia may burst up, and the Shah be bowstringed on Wednesday morning; but lie will, so to speak, have consecrated Evelyn Lodge for- ever, and the Duchess must ask us back again to Doldram House. The preparations for the ball, which in- cluded a fete in so much of the garden as the throwing out of the ball - room had spared, were completed in ample time. A whole army of work-people had occupied the house for days, aiid absolutely nothing was omitted which could insure the success of an entertainment which the fashionable papers had described beforehand as of unique magnificence ; and yet the Baron- ess was consumed with anxiety lest there should be a screw loose, the least screw any where. The greatness of the occasion was too supreme for positive enjoyment. She wished in her heartas a hostess gen- erally does in similar circumstancesthat the whole thing was over, and that she might begin to talk about it. Would it were supper-time and all were well ! is an aspiration that most persons in her posi- tion are prone to echo; only in her case the supper itself was a difficulty, because no one could give her any certain information as to what his Imperial Majesty liked in the way of food, or how he chose to eat it, ex- cept that he used his Imperial fingers in- stead of a fork. A little table was put HER IMPERIAL GUEST. 53 apart for him, as is placed for conjurers at juvenile entertainments, and every thing rich and rare that earth and air could fur- nish was provided to tempt his Imperial palate. Some wicked wags (friends, I am ~orry to say, of Cyrils) had suggested that nautch girls were indispensable to dance before him as he sat at table; and the Bar- oness would have taken the matter into her serious consideration, and had the whole corps de ballet froni the Italian Opera, had it not been for Cyril. There was also a ques- tion whetber he did sit at table; and a pile of Persian carpets was kept in readiness in case it should be found that he could not be comfortable in a chair. Cant sit in a chair ! exclaimed the Baron, to whom this piece of information was vouchsafed on that eventful morning. Ab, that comes of putting him on horse- back at the review, I snppose. My dear Baron, you are ridiculously ig- norant, said the lady. Dont you know that Persians never sit down at homethat is, except cross-legged ? Bless my soul ! said the Baron. For the first time he had begun to entertain a ray of interest in their expected guest. Fancy a fellow with his legs crossedlike a check ! At that moment a telegramhe used to have one about every half hourarrived for Cyril. What is it about ? asked the Baroness, excitedly. You look annoyed. Nothing has happened, I do hope ; and she held out her hand for the missive. But Cyril had already torn it up into small pieces. It seems, said he, that chibouks must be provided for the Shah and all his suit. What does that matter? What are chibouks? Do you mean to say they cant be got ? The Baroness had dreadful suspicions that they were animals peculiar to Persia, sacred to the sovereign, and without which he never moved, like white elephants in Bur- mah. They are only Eastern pipes, laughed Cyril. Then send for five-and-forty of the best that can be procured, said the Baroness. Why on earth. should that annoy you, Cyril? Upon my word, you looked so queer that it gave me quite a turn. Well, these Persian fellows are a dirty lot, you know, as Jack remarks (Jack was Jack Delayne, in the Foreign Office, who had sent the telegram), and I was think- ing that theyd spoil your new carpet. Carpet ! echoed the Baroness, scornful- ly; what signifies about the carpet ? I suppose I had better not come home to dinner to-day, my dear, remarked the Baron, mildly, as he rose from his chair. Dinner! repeated she, with even greater scorn. The idea of a man thinking of his dinner who has got the Shah of Persia com- ing to sup with him ! A few minutes afterward Cyril and his beloved object were left alone in the con- servatory together. Cyril, said she, you have not deceived me; you would never have changed color if that telegram had been only about the chibouks. What was it about ? He whispered something in her ear which made her turn as pale as the camellias among which they stood; she tottered and would have fallen; and as there was nowhere for her to fall except upon the tessellated pave- ment, Cyril considerately opened his arms, and she fell into tbem. Oh, my gracious goodness ! were her first words. It would be a breach of confi- dence to repeat the conversation further, which was carried on in tender murmurs. Suffice it to record its conclusion. You are quite, quite sure, Cyril darling, that the man will come 1 I will lay my life upon it, sweetest. Your dear mother shall not be disappointed so far. IIL~~DELECTATION. The day of our Baronesss delight only began to dawn after it had been long over for the majority of her fellow - creatures. The Shah was not expected at Evelyn Lodge till eleven oclock P.M., and his movements were so erratic that he might not make his appearance till even a yet later hour. Long before eleven oclock, however, and indeed immediately after the time named in the invitation for the ball, Evelyn Lodge was thronged with rank and fashion. The Baron and Baroness stood to receive their company on either side of the ball-room door which opened upon the great hall; the former be- haved like a well-constructed automaton; his head inclined, his lips parted with a smile, he put out his hand and arm like a pump-handle, at every arrival. The lady, on the other hand, had, it was evident, her heart in the matter; she had a gracious look and a pleasant word (pretty much the same look and the same word, it must be owned, however) for every body; but when any body very magnificent was announcedon the arrival of the Duchess of Doldrum, for example she advanced a step over the threshold, beckoning with an imperious gesture her lord and master to do the like. This latter mamuuvre was repeated about twenty times; the ordinary welcome mo- tions about eight hundred. So the papers had not been far wrong in predicting that there would be a thousand persons of rank and fashion at Evelyn Lodge that night, in- cluding many of very eminent distinction; there were even rumors of the presence of a royal duke (the circulation of which, be- 54 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. tween ourselves, cost the Baroness a pretty penny), but that was merely a little garnish to the affair. Her Imperial guest, as she de- lighted to call him, was an attraction that could afford to be independent of all others. In the mean time Cyril Clarke and some of his trusty friends did their very best to set things going; the music struck up, and a few languid dances were got through; but there was a sense of expectation upon all the company that dulled it and forbade enjoyment. They could dance and eat and drink and go to a garden fdte any day of the week, but they had come to Evelyn Lodge to meet the Shah of Persia. At a quarter past eleven the last guest of the Pat- tennis had arrived, except the one for whom all eyes were straining, all ears upon the stretch. The Baroness sent for Cyril, and suggested that a messenger should be dis- patched to Buckingham Palace to inquire the cause of the delay. That would be madness, was his reply; to be hurried would be intolerable to his Imperial Majesty. He would probably cut the messengers head off. The Baroness would not have minded that if he would only have started for Eve- lyn Lodge immediately afterward, and it was with some difficulty that she refrained from saying so. However, she had not much longer to wait. There was a clatter of hoofs at the house door greater than any that had pre- ceded it, and a wild cheer broke forth from the crowd assembled without. At last the Shah had come. Through the long hall of marble, between the banks of flowers and the rows of statues, the Baroness could perceive his dusky Maj- esty coming slowly toward her, followed by the officers of his household. On one side of him, but a little behind, walked Jack De- layne, the supernumerary, or flying inter- preter, as he called himself. The presence of this gentleman gave the Baroness almost as much pleasure as that of her Imperial guest himself; for she knew about as much French as the Shah did, and could never have made herself intelligible to him with- out assistance. It had cost her days to make up her mind what to say to him, for dreadful tales had been told her of his quickness to take offense; how somebody, for example, had observed to him that the sun was very bright; to which he had replied that that was more his (the Shahs) look- out than that of the person making the ob- servation, inasmuch as the sun was his ob- ject of worship. She had resolved, after much cogitation, to say, Welcome to our humble roof, your Imperial Majesty, and then leave him to choose his own topics of conversation. I dont think much of his suit, observed the Baron, beneath his breath. He meant his suitewhich was certainly smaller than might have been expectedbut he pro- nounced the word like a suit of clothes. What would you have ~ replied the Bar- oness, angrily. Look at his fez cap; look at his sabre; he is one blaze of diamonds, and every diamond worth a million at the very least. The Baron shook his head; he very sel- dom dared to do so at any thing his wife observed, but upon a question of moneys worth he considered he had some right to an opinion. He thought within his breast that if his distinguished guest should be driven to raise money upon his personal ap- parel, a million would be a long price for the whole of it. The general style of progression of the Shah of Persia when put in motion was, as every body knew by that time, a species of imbecile shamble that at once distinguished him from the common herd; but on the present occasion it was remarked that he moved with a certain dignityill-natured persons said because he was aware that he was performing an act of unusual conde- scension in coming to Evelyn Lodge at all. This dignity, combined with the splendor of his garments, which glistened like a suit of mail with precious stones, made his prog- ress up the hall, as the Baroness said, a truly Imperial spectacle. His attendants glistened little less than himself, and would have cast the flying interpreter, in his ordi- nary evening clothes, quite into the shade, but for the extraordinary brightness and intelligence of Jacks eyes. He was a per- son not easily depressed by hereditary great- ness of any kind, and was accustomed to describe his peregrinations with the Shah in confidence as a jolly lark. On the present occasion, when every body else was on the tenter-hooks of ceremony and sublime expectation, and the Baroness was, as she afterward confessed, ready to drop with an overpowering sense of personal responsi- bility, Jack was evidently quite at his ease. His eyes roved hither and thither, and pres- ently fixed themselves on Cyril Clarke with such an expression of comic enjoyment as brought a look of severe reproof into his friends face. Welcome to our humble roof, your Im- perial Majesty, observed the Baroness, in a clear, triumphant voice, at the same time advancing three steps to meet her august visitor. The Shahs arms fell flat on his sides, and he bowed profoundly. His Imperial Majesty bids me say that he is very glad to come, said Jack, in re- spectful tones, and that he congratulates you upon the weather. Then the Baron came forward. Proud to see your Majesty, Im sure. Hope it wont be the last time. HER IMPERIAL GUEST. 55 This was the observation he was accus- tome(l to make to every guest to whom he wished to be civil, and he had not the fac- ulty enjoyed by the Poet Laureate and oth- ers of gracefully varying his phrases. Impossible; starts for Teheran to-night, whispered Jack, hastily. Then aloud, in grave and deferential tone, he added, His Imperial Majesty reciprocates your good wishes, but is not inclined for prolonged conversation upon any topic. This was an immense relief to the host- ess, who, with her rounded armon which he kept his eyes fixed as though it were some species of sausage forbidden to the true believerlinked in that of her distin- guished guest, began to make a progress through the rooms. The Shah looked ex- quisitely uncomfortable; his face betrayed that mixture of fear and fierceness peculiar to Eastern despots when in European soci- ety, and every now and then he addressed his interpreter in the Persian language in a tone of manifest dissatisfaction. Only when Myra came forward to be introduced to him did he show any symptoms of interest. She was generally mistress of herself, and on this occasion manifested a calmness and dignity that were beyond all praise. The Duchess, who was a witness to the intro- duction, remarked that the Patterini girl rather overdid it, and would have showed better taste in manifesting a little more humility. But the Shah himself (and no- body cared for the Duchess in comparison with him) appeared more than satisfied. After having seen your daughter, Bar- oness, said the interpreter, his Imperial Majesty feels that there can be nothing left to see worth speaking about, and he would rather go home at once. Go home! What does he want to go home about I Hes only just come, whis- rered the Baroness, remonstratingly. The Shahs attention was fortunately engaged at the moment in looking at himself in a mirror. He wants to go home and think about herwhether he can afford to buy her, an- swered Jack, imperturbably. Dont say that money wont do it, because youll make him angry. He is not in a sweet temper. Thats why hes got such a short suit. He has just put to death Supper is served, said the major-domo, approaching his mistress with a respectful obeisance, and cutting short the sanguinary details. The supper was an immense success. So far from the Shah being particular in his food, he ate of every thing. But the sher- bet which had been provided for him did not seem to his taste. What can we do ? whispered the Baron- ess, in great distress. Hush! put some brandy in it, said Jack. Brandy? Why, I thought all spirituous drinks were contrary to his religion.~~ Of course they are: thats why he likes them. Put lots of brandy in it. The Shah drank this sherbet like a fish. As the temporal head of the Persian Church, he abstained, however, from the Champagne, which his two attendants partook of from large goblets. The ball was proceeding by this time with great vigor, and every thing going on pro- pitiously. Would his Imperial Majesty like a turn in the garden 7 inquired the Baroness, will- ing that her guest should show himself to those who were unable to penetrate the crowd in the banqueting hall. Jack re- peated the invitation, but the Shah shook his twinkling fez. He knows whats good for him, and I dont think the open air would quite suit him, Baroness. He has had too much b. and s.brandy and sherbet. He starts to-night for Teheran, and the sooner I can get him off, the better. The Baroness looked at her illustrious visitor with an admiration even greater than before. Her mind reverted to his august ancestor in the Arabian Nights, who was wont to make his journeys through the air upon an enchanted carpet. It did not seem to her that he was likely to go to Te- heran that night by any other means of pro- gression, and yet the air would be certain to disagree with him. There are some chibouks, Mr. Delayne, she whispered; if you think Not for worlds, answered the inter- preter, hastily. Get a cup of very strong coffee; then make the band strike up some- thing strongthe Rogues March, or any thingand Ill get him away. The coffee was brought. The Shah look- ed at it for a moment with grave displeas- ure, as though he detected chiccory in it, or a drowning fly, and then kicked it out of the attendants hand. Fortunately at that instant the band struck up a wild and pier- cing Eastern air, and assistedindeed, com- pelledby the arm of his flying interpreter, his Imperial Majesty rose from his divan and proceeded diagonally, and now and then with an unexpected movement at right an- gles, like the knight at chess, toward the en- trance hall. The Baron hastened forward to ~escort him, but his politeness had nearly cost him dear, for the Eastern potentate, mistak- ing the object of his haste, and ever on the watch for treachery, half drew his sabre, and yelled something in the Persian tongue which sounded uncommonly like an execra- tion. Jack hurried him through the hall, closely followed by his two prime ministers, or whatever they were, and at the door found the royal carriage in waiting, which whirled him off to the palace. 56 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. Every body said that nothing had been more characteristic of the illustrious visitor, more redolent of Eastern customs, than the mode of his departure. His breaking the coffee-cup to symbolize how his heart was torn at having to leave his host, his half drawing his yataghan, as though his despair at parting would have almost led him to cut short his own illustrious existence, and his manifest reluctance to leave the house, were the themes of universal admiration. If a king can do no wrong, a shah is in a still more unassailable position; and it is my belief, if he had cut the Barons head off it would have been set down to his Majestys geniality and condescension. Every body who had caught a glimpse of the Shah that evening was dazzled and de- lighted. The Duchess of Doldrum publicly acknowledged to her hostess that she had spent a delightful evening, and the Baroness was overwhelmed with congratulations and invitations from the best people in May- fair. That very morning, ere the mid-day beams began to stream into the deserted ball-room, and the mistress of Evelyn Lodge was still sunk in dreams of greatness, Cyril Clarke was married by special license, in a neigh- boring church, to Myra Patterini. The consent of both her parents, as we know, had been obtained, and had set her scruples quite at ease, and Cyril, who, un- like his father-in-law, was averse to spec- ulation or risks of any kind, had thought it better to settle the matter. He had been kept hanging on and off so long that he dreaded any more delays. When the Baron and Baroness came down to their dejeuner ~ la fourchette, they found it was a marriage breakfast, and there was nothing for it but to congratulate the bride and bridegroom. After the magnificent event of yester- day,. Cyril, you might have taken my appro- bation for granted, was the only reproof that fell from his mother-in-laws lips. My dear Baroness, I did take it for grant- ed, said Cyril, naIvely. The Baron even went so fair as to compli- ment him upon his sagacity. You are a deuced sight (he was certainly not a real nobleman) cleverer fellow than I took you to be,washis very expression; nor didhis encouragement end in words, for he gave him a check for his daughters dowry upon the spot. He was not pleased with what had happened, but he was a man who never cried over spilled milk; when he made a bad debt he wiped it off his books, and thought no more about itnay, he never even spoke ill of his debtor. There was still another surprise awaiting the Baroness that morning when she came to look at the newspapers. In most of them the fdle of the previous night was described in the most glowing colors, and the house of Patterini complimented in the highest terms upon the honor that had been con- ferred upon it; but one or two had not a word about the matter. They described the movements of the Shah in other directions, and announced his departure for that morn- ing, but not a syllable did they print about his visit to Evelyn Lodge. Those represent- atives of the press who had not taken ad- vantage of the Baronesss invitations to her ball had quietly ignored it altogether. They had been asked, of course. The Baroness had been careful to ask theni all; but some ma- lign influences had been at work even upon an incorruptible press, and her politeness had been thrown away. The force of spite and envy on the part of certain people people who pronounced their ps like bs, but who had influence with the babers could not further go, as the little party all agree(l. Still, as the judge observed in the famous murder case, the testimony of ten witnesses called to prove that they did not see the crime committed was a small thing when weighed against the testimony of one who did see it. And not only had eight hundred persons of fashion seen the Shah at Evelyn Lodge, but the representatives of a dozen newspapers. This latter fact became afterward of great importance, for, incredible as it may seem, no sooner had his Imperial Majesty left En- glandi. e., that very afternoonand been thereby prevented from contradicting the ridiculous statement in person, than a ru- mor got afloat that he had never been at the Patterini ball at all! The conflict of evidence was very curi- ous. Eight hundred persons of fashion plus twelve newspaper reporters on one side, and all the people of fashion who had not been able to obtain invitations and all the news- papers minus twelve upon the other. Im- mense influenceI am sorry to say even that of the Lord Chamberlain himselfwas thrown into the latter scale; but people who had met the Shah of Persia at supper were not likely to be browbeaten out of that fact, and the twelve newsl)apers, of course, stuck to their guns. Nobody ever heard of a newspaper acknowledging itself in the wrong, except nuder pressure of an action for libel, and the action (and the idea of bringing one was at one time seriously debated at Evelyn Lodge) would have been instituted in this case, if at all, by the other side. Cyril persuaded the Baroness, with difficulty, to treat time scandal with the contempt it deserved, and so the matter rested. The divan on which the Shah had sat in solitary statethe Persian Lone, as Jack had called himand the chibouk which he would have smoked had he not taken so much brandy with his sherbet, were pre BARRY CORNWALL AND SOME OF HIS FRIENDS. 57 served with reverent care, and shown to particular friends as a special favor for long afterward. Only two things, as it seems to me, gave any color to the ridiculous and malicious rumor to which I have alluded. The one was Jack Delaynes sudden retirement from the Foreign Office, in consequence, it was stated, of some transgression in connection with his Imperial Majestys visit, but which might, of course, have been for any other reason, for there were plenty. The other was even a still slighter ground for the scandal: it was only the fact that among the numerous members of the household of Cyril Clarke, Esq., was to be seen an East- ern retainer, said to have been the Persian crossing-sweeper in Regent Street, who dis- appeared at the very date of the great event I have been describingthe ball at the Pat- terinis. This was in all l)robability a mere coincidence; and what it could possibly have to do with the Shah of Persias visit to Evelyn Lodge I leave every reader to judge. Cyril proved an excellent son-in- law; and again and again I have heard the Baron Patterini remark that he was a deuced sight, etc., etc.; in fact, he had the very highest opinion of his sagacity. He used to have rows with his mother-in-la~v who has not? But with regard to the Shah of Persia, not a word ever passed betweeu them. As to Myra, if any thing was wrong about that Imperial visit (and far be it from me to hint there was), it is certain that she knew all about it from the moment that telegram came for Cyril, when he assured her that the man would come, and offered to lay his life that her dear mother should not be disappointed. BARRY CORNWALL AND SOME OF HIS FR[ENDS.( concladed.) B~ JAMES T. FIELDS. PROCTER was a delightful prose writer~ of children seem to me always less prema- as well as a charming poet. Having tnre than those of elder persons. Not that met in old magazines and annuals several of they are in fact so; but it is because they his essays and stories, and admiring their themselves have little or no relation to time style and spirit, I induced him, after much or maturity. Life seems a race which they persuasion, to collect and publish in Amen- have yet to run entirely. They have made ca his prose works. The result was a couple no progress toward the goal. They are born of volumes, which were brought out in Bos- nothing further. But it seems hard, when ton in 1853. In them there are perhaps no a man has toiled Ligh up the steep hill of thoughts that wander through eternity, knowledge, that lie should be cast, like Sisy- but they abound in fancies which the read- phus, downward in a moment; that he who er will recognize as agile has worn the day and wasted the night in Daughters of the earth and sun. gathering the gold of science should be, with all his wealth of learning, all his acen In them there is nothing loud or painful, and mulations, made bankrupt at once. What whoever really loves a good book, and becomes of all the riches of the soul, the knows it to be such on trial, will find Barry piles and pyramids of precious thoughts Cornwalls Essays and Tales in Prose most de- which men heap together? Where are lectable reading. Imparadised, as Milton Shakspeares imagination, Bacons learning, hath the word, on a summer hill-side, or Galileos dream? Where is the sweet fancy tented by the cool salt wave, no better after- of Sidney, the airy spirit of Fletcher, and noon literature can be selected. One will Miltons thought severe? Methinks such never meet with distorted metaphor or taw- things should not die and dissipate, when a dry rhetoric in Barrys thoughtful pages, hair can live for centuries, and a brick of but will find a calm philosophy and a beau- Egypt will last three thousand years! I tiful faith, very precious and profitable in am content to believe that the mind of man these days of doubt and insecurity of intel- survives (somewhere or other) his clay. lect. There is respite and sympathy in this I was once present at the death of a lit- fine spirit, and so I commend him heartily tle child. I will not pain the reader by por- in times so full of turmoil and suspicion as traying its agonies; but when its breath these. One of the stories in the first vol- was gone, its life (nothing more than a cloud nine of these prose writings, called The of smoke!), and it lay like a waxen image Man-Hunter, is quite equal in power to any before me, I turned my eyes to its moan- of the graphic pieces of a similar character ing mother, and sighed out my few words ever written by De Quincey or Dickens, but of comfort. But I am a beggar in grief. I the tone in these books is commonly more can feel and sigh and look kindly, I think; tender and inclining to melancholy. What, but I have nothing to give. My tongue de- for instance, could be more heart-moving serts me. I know the inutility of too soon than those passages of his on the death of comforting. I know that I should weep little children? were I the loser, and I let the tears have I scarcely know how it is, but the deaths their way. Sometimes a word or two I can

James T. Fields Fields, James T. Barry Cornwall, and Some of His Friends 57-65

BARRY CORNWALL AND SOME OF HIS FRIENDS. 57 served with reverent care, and shown to particular friends as a special favor for long afterward. Only two things, as it seems to me, gave any color to the ridiculous and malicious rumor to which I have alluded. The one was Jack Delaynes sudden retirement from the Foreign Office, in consequence, it was stated, of some transgression in connection with his Imperial Majestys visit, but which might, of course, have been for any other reason, for there were plenty. The other was even a still slighter ground for the scandal: it was only the fact that among the numerous members of the household of Cyril Clarke, Esq., was to be seen an East- ern retainer, said to have been the Persian crossing-sweeper in Regent Street, who dis- appeared at the very date of the great event I have been describingthe ball at the Pat- terinis. This was in all l)robability a mere coincidence; and what it could possibly have to do with the Shah of Persias visit to Evelyn Lodge I leave every reader to judge. Cyril proved an excellent son-in- law; and again and again I have heard the Baron Patterini remark that he was a deuced sight, etc., etc.; in fact, he had the very highest opinion of his sagacity. He used to have rows with his mother-in-la~v who has not? But with regard to the Shah of Persia, not a word ever passed betweeu them. As to Myra, if any thing was wrong about that Imperial visit (and far be it from me to hint there was), it is certain that she knew all about it from the moment that telegram came for Cyril, when he assured her that the man would come, and offered to lay his life that her dear mother should not be disappointed. BARRY CORNWALL AND SOME OF HIS FR[ENDS.( concladed.) B~ JAMES T. FIELDS. PROCTER was a delightful prose writer~ of children seem to me always less prema- as well as a charming poet. Having tnre than those of elder persons. Not that met in old magazines and annuals several of they are in fact so; but it is because they his essays and stories, and admiring their themselves have little or no relation to time style and spirit, I induced him, after much or maturity. Life seems a race which they persuasion, to collect and publish in Amen- have yet to run entirely. They have made ca his prose works. The result was a couple no progress toward the goal. They are born of volumes, which were brought out in Bos- nothing further. But it seems hard, when ton in 1853. In them there are perhaps no a man has toiled Ligh up the steep hill of thoughts that wander through eternity, knowledge, that lie should be cast, like Sisy- but they abound in fancies which the read- phus, downward in a moment; that he who er will recognize as agile has worn the day and wasted the night in Daughters of the earth and sun. gathering the gold of science should be, with all his wealth of learning, all his acen In them there is nothing loud or painful, and mulations, made bankrupt at once. What whoever really loves a good book, and becomes of all the riches of the soul, the knows it to be such on trial, will find Barry piles and pyramids of precious thoughts Cornwalls Essays and Tales in Prose most de- which men heap together? Where are lectable reading. Imparadised, as Milton Shakspeares imagination, Bacons learning, hath the word, on a summer hill-side, or Galileos dream? Where is the sweet fancy tented by the cool salt wave, no better after- of Sidney, the airy spirit of Fletcher, and noon literature can be selected. One will Miltons thought severe? Methinks such never meet with distorted metaphor or taw- things should not die and dissipate, when a dry rhetoric in Barrys thoughtful pages, hair can live for centuries, and a brick of but will find a calm philosophy and a beau- Egypt will last three thousand years! I tiful faith, very precious and profitable in am content to believe that the mind of man these days of doubt and insecurity of intel- survives (somewhere or other) his clay. lect. There is respite and sympathy in this I was once present at the death of a lit- fine spirit, and so I commend him heartily tle child. I will not pain the reader by por- in times so full of turmoil and suspicion as traying its agonies; but when its breath these. One of the stories in the first vol- was gone, its life (nothing more than a cloud nine of these prose writings, called The of smoke!), and it lay like a waxen image Man-Hunter, is quite equal in power to any before me, I turned my eyes to its moan- of the graphic pieces of a similar character ing mother, and sighed out my few words ever written by De Quincey or Dickens, but of comfort. But I am a beggar in grief. I the tone in these books is commonly more can feel and sigh and look kindly, I think; tender and inclining to melancholy. What, but I have nothing to give. My tongue de- for instance, could be more heart-moving serts me. I know the inutility of too soon than those passages of his on the death of comforting. I know that I should weep little children? were I the loser, and I let the tears have I scarcely know how it is, but the deaths their way. Sometimes a word or two I can 58 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. muster: a Sigh no more! and Dear lady, weather, which is turned adrift, or laid up do not grieve! but further I am mute and in ordinary for future use. Nevertheless, it useless. (I mean the palace) is a remarkable achieve- I have many letters and kind little notes ment, after all; and I speak sincerel when y which Procter used to write me during the I say, All honor and glory to Paxton! If years I knew him best. His tricksy fancies the strings of niy poor little lyre were not peeped out in his correspondence, and sev- rusty and overworn, I think I should try to eral of his old friends in England thought sing some of my nonsense verses before his no literary man of his time had a better image, and add to the idolatry already ex- epistolary style. His neat and elegant isting. chirography on the back of a letter was al- If you have hotter weather in America ways a delightful foretaste of something than that which is at present burning and good inside, and I never received one of his blistering us here, you are entitled to pity. welcome missives that did not contain, no If it continue much longer, I shall be held matter how brief it happened to be, welcome in solution for the remainder of my days, passages of wit or affectionate interest, and shall be remarkable as Oxygen, the In one of his early letters to me he says: poet (reduced to his natural weakness and There is no one rising hereabouts in lit- simplicity by the hot summer of 1851), in- erature. I suppose our national genius is stead of taking a mechanical turn. And, in truth, Your very sincere and obliged it is much better to make a good steam- B. W. PRocrEn. engine than to manufacture a bad poem. Building the lofty rhyme is a good thing, Here is a brief reference to Judds re- but our present buildings are of a low or- markable novel, forming part of a note der, and seldom reach the Attic. This written to me in 1852: piece of wit will scarcely throw you into a Thanks for Margaret (the book, not the fit, I imagine, your risible muscles being woman) that you have sent me. When doubtless kept in good order. will you want it back? and who is the au- In another missive he writes: I see you thor? There is a great deal of clever writ- have some capital names in the Atlantic ing in itgreat observation of nature, and Monthly. If they will only put forth their also of character among a certain class of strenoth t here is no doubt as to the result, persons. But it is almost too minute, and but the misfortune is that persons who for me decidedly too theological. You see write anonymously doni put forth their what irreligious people we are here. I strength, in general. I was a magazine shall come over to one of your camp-meet- writer for no less than a dozen years, and I ings and try to be converted. What will felt that no personal credit or responsibil- they administer in such a case? brimstone ity attached to my literary trifling, and al- or brandy? I shall try the latter first. though I sometimes did pretty well (for Here is a letter bearing date Thursday me), yet I never did my best. night, November 25, 1852, in which he re- As I read over again the portfolio of his fers to his own writings, and copies a charm- letters to me, bearing date from 1848 to ing song: 1866, I find many passages of interest, but Your letter, announcing the arrival of most of them are too personal for type. the little preface, reached me last night. I A few extracts, however, I can not resist shall look out for the books in about three copying. Some of his epistles are enriched weeks hence, as you tell me that they are with a song or a sonnet, then just written, all printed. You Americans are a rapid and there are also frequent references in race. When I thought you were in Scot- them to American editions of his poetical land, lo, you had touched the soil of Boston; and prose works, which he collected at the and when I thought you were unpacking request of his Boston publishers, my poor MS., tumbling it out of your great In June, 1851, he writes: trunk, behold! it is arrangedit is in the I have encountered a good many of your printers handsit isjprintedpublished~it countrymen here lately, but have been in- isah! would I could add, SOLD! That, troduced only to a few. I found Mr. Norton, after all, is the grand triumph in Boston as who has returned to you, and Mr. Dwight, well as London. who is still here, I believe, very intelligent Well, since it is not sold yet, let us be and agreeable. generous and give a few copies away. In- If all Americans were like them and deed, such is my weakness, that I would yourself and if all Englishmen were like sometimes rather give than sell. In the Kenyon and (so far as regards a desire to present instance you will do me the kind- judge fairly) myself, I think there would ness to send a copy each to Mr. Charles be little or no quarreling between our small Sumner, Mr. Hillard, Mr. Norton: but no island and your great continent, my wife requests to be the donor to Mr. Our glass palace is a perpetual theme Norton, so you must, if you please, write for small-talk. It usurps the place of the his name in the first leaf and state that it BARRY CORNWALL AND SOME OF HIS FRIENDS. 59 comes from Mrs. Procter. I liked, him very much when I met him in London, and I should wish him to be reminded of his English acquaintance. I am writing to you at eleven oclock at night, after a long and busy day, and I write now rather than wait for a little inspiration, because the mail, I believe, starts to-mor- row. The unwilling Minerva is at my el- bow, and I feel that every sentence I write, were it pounded ten times in a mortar, would come out again unleavened and heavy. Braying some people in a mortar, you know, is but a weary and unprofitable process. You speak of London as a delightful place. I dont know how it may be in the white-bait season, but at present it is foggy, rainy, cold, dull. Half of us are unwell and the other half dissatisfied. Some are appre- hensive of an invasionnot an impossible event; some writing odes to the Duke of Wellington; and I am putting my good friend to sleep with the flattest prose that ever dropped from an English pen. I wish that it were better; I wish that it were even worse; but it is the most undeniable twad- dle. I must go to bed, and invoke the Muses in the morning. At present, I can not touch one of their petticoats. A SLEEPY SONG. Sing! sing me to sleep! With gentle words, in some sweet slumberous measnre, Such as lone poet on some shady steep Sings to the silence in his noonday leisure. Sing! as the river sings, When gently it flows between soft banks of flowers, And the bee murmurs, and the cuckoo brings His faint May music, tween the golden showers. Sing! 0 divinest tone! I sink beneath some wizards charming wand; I yield, I move, by soothing breezes blown, Oer twilight shores, into the Dreaming Land! I read the above to you when you were in London. It will appear in an Annual edited by Miss Power (Lady Blessingtons niece). Fzsnxy MoaNING. The wind blowing down the chimney; the rain sprinkling my windows. The En- glish Apollo hides his headyou can scarce- ly see him on the misty mountain - tops (those brick ones which you remember in Portland Place). My friend Thackeray is gone to America, and I hope is, by this time, in the United States. He goes to New York, and after- ward I suppose (but I dont know) to Boston and Philadelphia. Have you seen Esmond? There are parts of it charmingly written. His pathos is to me very touching. I be- lieve that the best mode of making ones way to a persons head isthrough his heart. I hope that your literary men will like some of my little prose matters. I know that they will try to like them; but the papers have been written so long, and all, or almost all, written so hastily, that I have my misgivings. However, they must take their chance. Had I leisure to complete something that I began two or three years ago, and in which I have written a chapter or two, I should reckon more surely on success; but I shall probably never finish the thing, al- though I contemplated only one volume. (If you can not read this letter, apply to the printers devil.Hibernicus.) Farewell. All good be with you. My wife desires to be kindly remembered by you. Always yours, very sincerely, B. W. PROcTER. P.S.Can you contrive to send Mr. Wil- lis a copy of the prose book? If so, pray do. In February, 1853, he writes: Those famous volumes, the advent of which was some time since announced by the great transatlantic trumpet, have duly arrived. My wife is properly grateful for her copy, which, indeed, impresses both of us with respect for the American skill in binding. Neither too gay to be gaudy, nor too grave, so as to affect the theological, it hits that happy medium which agrees with the tastes of most people and disgusts none. We should flatter ourselves that it is in- tended to represent the matter within, but that we are afraid of incurring the sin of vanity, and the indiscretion of taking ap- pearances too much upon trust. We sus- pend our conjectures on this very interest- ing subject. The whole getting up of the book is excellent. For the little scraps of (critical) sugar inclosed in your letter, due thanks. These will sweeten our imagination for some time to come. I have been obliged to give all the cop- ies you sent me away. I dare say that you will not grudge me four or five copies more, to be sent at your convenience, of course. Let me hear from you at the same time. You can give me one of those frequent quar- ters of an hour which I know you now de- vote to a meditation on things in general. I am glad that you like Thackeray. He is well worth your liking. I trust to his making both friends and money in America, and to his keeping both. I am not so sure of the money, however, for he has a liberal hand. I should have liked to have been at one of the dinners you speak of. (When shall you begin that bridge? You seem to be a long time about it. It will, I dare say, be a bridge of boats, after all.) I was reading (rather re-reading) the other evening the introductory chapter to the Scarlet Letter.. It is admirably written. Not having any great sympathy with a cus- tom-housenor, indeed, with Salem, except that it seems to be Hawthornes birth-place f30 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. all my attention was concentrated on the style, which seems to me excellent. The most striking boolc which has been recently published here is Fillette, by the au- thoress of Jane Eyre, who, as you know, is a Miss Bront~. The book does not give one the most pleasing notion of the authoress, perhaps, but it is very clever, graphic, vig- orous. It is mans meat, and not the whipped syllabub, which is all froth, with- out any jam at the bottom. The scene of the drama is Brussels. I was sorry to hear of poor Willis. Our critics here were too severe upon him The Frost King (vuig. Jack Frost) has come down upon us with all his might. Banished from the pleasant shores of Bos- ton, he has come with his cold scythe and ice pincers to our undefended little island, and is tyrannizing in every corner and over every part of every person. Nothing is too great for him, nothing too mean. He con- descends even to lay hold of the nose (an offense for which any one below the digni- ty of a Kingor a Presidentwould be kicked). As for me, I have taken refuge in A SONG, WITH A MORAL When the winter bloweth loud, And the earth is in a shroud, Frozen rain or sleety snow Dimming every dream below There is eer a spot of green Whence the heavens may be seen. When our purse is shrinking fast, And our friend is lost (the last !), And the world doth pour its pain, Sharper than the frozen rain There is still a spot of green Whence the heavens may be seen. Let us never meet despair While the little spot is there; Winter brighteneth into May, And sullen night to sunny day Seek we then the spot of green Whence the heavens may be seen. I have left myself little space for more small-talk. I must, therefore, conclude with wishing .that your English dreams may con- tinue bright, and that when they begin to fade you will come and relunte at one of the white-bait dinners of which you used to talk in such terms of rapture. Have I space to say that I am very truly yours? B. W. PROCTER. A few months later, in the same year (1853), he sits by his open window in Lon- don on a morning of spring, and sends off the following pleasant words: You also must now be in the first burst and sunshine of spring. Your spear-grass is showing its points, your succulent grass its richness, even your little plant L?] (so useful for certain invalids) is seen here and there; primroses are peeping out in your neighborhood, and you are looking for cow- slips to come. I say nothing of your haw- thorns (from the common May to the clas sic Nathaniel), except that I trust they are thriving, and like to put forth a world of blossoms soon. With all this wealth, present and future, The yellow cowslip and the pale primrose, you will doubtless feel disposed to scatter your small coins abroad on the poor, and, among other things, to forward to your humble correspondent those copies of B C s prose works which you promised I know not how long ago. He who gives speedily, they say, gives twice. I quote, as you see, from the Latins. I have just got the two additional vol- umes of De Quincey, for which thanks! I have not seen Mr. Parker, who brought them, and who left his card here yester- day, but I have asked if he will come and breakfast with me on Sundaymy only cer- tain leisure day. Your Dc Quincey is a man of a good deal of reading, and has thought on divers and sundry matters; but he is evi- dently so thoroughly well pleased with the Sleur Thomas De Quincey that his self-suf- ficiency spoils even his best works. Then some of his facts are, I hear, quasi facts only, not un.frequently. He has his moments when he sleeps, and becomes oblivious of all but the aforesaid Thomas, who per- vades both his sleeping and waking visions. I, like all authors, am glad to have a little praise now and then (it is my hydromel), but it must be dispensed by others. I do not think it decent to manufacture the sweet liquor myself and I hate a coxcomb, wheth- er in dress or print. We have little or no literary news here. Our poets are all going to the poor-house (except Tennyson), and our prose writers are piling up their works for the next 5th of No- vember, when there will be a great bonfire. It is deuced lucky that my immortal (aim! I am De Quinceying)I mean my humble performances were printed in America, so that they will escape. By-the-bye, are they on foolscap? for I forgot to caution you on that head. I have been spending a week at Liver- pool, where I rejoiced to hear that Haw- thornes appointment was settled, and that it was a valuable post; but I hear that it lasts for three years only. This is muelan- choly. I hope, however, that he will real- ize (as you transatlantics say) as much as he can during his consulate, aim d that your next President will have the good taste and the good sense to renew his lease for three years more. I have not seen Mrs. Stowe. I shall probably meet her somewhere or other when she comes to London. I dare not ask after Mr. Longfellow. He was kind enough to write mae a very agree- able letter some time ago, which I ought to have answered. I dare say that he has for- BARRY CORNWALL AND SOME OF HIS FRIENDS. 61 gotten it, but my conscience is a serpent that gives me a bite or a sting every now and then when I think of him. The first time I am in fit condition (I mean in point of brightness) to reply to so famous a cor- respondent, I shall try what an English pen and ink will enable me to say. In the mean time, God be thanked for all things! My wife heard from Thackeray about ten days ago. He speaks gratefully of the kindness that he has met with in America. Among other things, it appears that he has seen something of your slaves, whom he represents as leading a very easy life, and as being fat, cheerful, and happy. Never- theless, I (for one) would rather be a free mansuch is the singularity of my opinions. If my prosings should ever in the course of the next twenty years require to be reprint- ed, pray take note of the above opinion. And now I have no more paper; I have scarcely room left to say that I hope you are well, and to remind you that for your ten lines of writing I have sent you back a hundred. Give my best compliments to ali whom I know, personally or otherwise. God be with you! Yours, very sincerely, B. W. PROCTER. Procter always seemed to be astounded at the traveling spirit of Americans, and in hi~ letters he makes frequent reference to our national propensity, as he calls it. Half an hour ago,~ he writes in July, 1853, we had three of your countrymen here to lunchcountrymen, I mean, Hibernically, for two of them wore petticoats. They are all going to Switzerland, France, Italy, Egypt, and Syria. What an adventurous race you are, you Americans! Here the women go merely from the blue bed to the brown, and think that they have traveled and seen the world. I myself should not care much to be confined to a circle reach- ing six or seven miles round London. There are the fresh winds and wild thyme on Hampstead Heath, and from Richmond you may survey the Naiades. Highgate, where Coleridge lived, Enfleld, where Charles Lamb dwelt, are not far off. Turning eastward, there is the river Lea., in which Izaak Wal- ton fished; and farther onha! what do I see? What are those little fish frisking in the batter (the great Naval Hospital close by), which fixed the affections of the enam- ored American while he resided in London, and have been floating in his dreams ever since? They are said by the naturalists to be of the species BlandamentunL album, and are by vulgar aldermen spoken carelessly of as white-bait. London is full of carriages, full of stran- gers, full of parties feasting on strawberries and ices and other things intended to allay the heat of summer; but the Summer her- self (fickle virgin) keeps back, or has been stopped somewhere or otherperhaps at the Liverpool Custom-house, where the very brains of men (their books) are held in du- rance, as I know to my cost. Thackeray is about to publish a new work in numbersa serial, as the newspa- pers call it. Thomas Carlyle is publishing (a sixpenny matter) in favor of the slave- trade Novelists of all shades are plying their trades. Husbands are killing their wives in every days newspaper. Burglars are peachin~ against each other: there is no longer honor among thieves. I am start- ing for Leicester on a weeks expedition amidst the mad people; and the Emperor of Russia has crossed the Pruth, and in- tends to make a tour of Turkey. All this appears to me little better than idle, restless vanity. 0 my friend, what a fuss and a pother we are all making, we little flies who are going round on the great wheel of time! To-day we are flickering and buzzing about, our little bits of wings glittering in the sunshine, and to-morrow we are safe enough in the little crevice at the back of the fire-place, or hid in the folds of the old curtain, shut up, stiff and torpid, for the long winter. What do you say to that profound reflection? I struggle against the h~ssitude which besets me, and strive in vain to be either sensible or jocose. I had better say fare- well. On Christmas-day, 1854, he writes in rath- er flagging spirits, induced by ill health: I have owed you a letter for these many months, my good friend. I am afraid to think how long, lest the interest on the debt should have exceeded the capital, and be I beyond my power to pay. You must be good-natured and excuse me, for I have been illvery frequently and dispirited. A bodily complaint torments me, that has tormented me for the last two years. I no longer look at the world through a rose-colored glass. The prospect, I am sorry to say, is gray, grim, dull, barren, full of withered leaves, without flowers, or if there be any, all of them trampled down, soiled, discolored, and without fragrance. You see what a bit of half-smoked glass I am looking through. At all events, you must see how entirely I am disabled from returning, except in sober sentences, the lively and good-natured letters and other things which you have sent me from Amer- ica. They were welcome,and Ithank you for them now, in a few words, asyonob- serve, but sincerely. I am somewhat brief even in my gratitude. Had I been in brav- er spirits, I might have spurred my poor Peg- asus, and sent you some lines on the Alma, or the Inkermanbloody battles, but exhibit- ing marks not to be mistaken of the old En- glish heroism, which, after all is said about 62 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. the enervating effects of luxury, is as grand and manifest as in the ancient fights which English history talks of so much. Even you, sternest of republicans, will, I think, be proud of the indomitable courage of En- glishmen, and gladly refer to your old pa- ternity. I, at least, should be proud of Americans fighting after the same fashion (and without doubt they would fight thus), just as old people exult in the brave con- duct of their runaway sons. I can not read of these later battles without the tears com- ing into my eyes. It is said by our corre- spondent at New York that the folks there rejoice in the losses and disasters of the al- lies. This can never be the case, surely? No one whose opinion is worth a rap can rejoice at any success of the Czar, whose double-dealing and unscrupulous greediness must have rendered him an object of loath- ing to every well-thinking man. But what have I to do with politics, or you? Our pleasant object and serene employ are books, books. Let us return to pacific thoughts. What a number of things have happened since I saw you! I looked for you in the last spring, little dreaming that so fat and flourishing a Statesman could be over- thrown by a little fever. I had even begun some doggerel~ announcing to you the ad- vent of the white-bait, which I imagined were likely to be all eaten up in your ab- sence. My memory is so bad that I can not recollect half a dozen lines, probably not one, as it originally stood. I was at Liverpool last June. After two or three attempts I contrived to seize on the famous Nathaniel Hawthorne. Need I say that I like him very much? He is very sensible, very geniala little shy, I think (for an American !) and altogether ex- tremely agreeable. I wish that I could see more of him, but our orbits are wide apart. Now and thenonce in two yearsI di- verge into and cross his circle, but at other times we are separated by a space amount- ing to 210 miles. He has three children, and a nice little wife, who has good humor engraved on her countenance. As to verseyes, I have begun a dozen trifling things, which are in my drawer un- finished; poor rags with ink upon them, none of them, I am afraid, properly labeled for posterity. I was for six weeks at Ryde, in the Isle of Wight, this year, but so nn- well that I could not write a line, scarce- ly read one; sitting out in the sun, eating, drinking, sleeping, and sometimes (poor soul!) imagining I was thinking. One Sun- day I saw a magnificent steamer go by, and on placing my eye to the telescope I saw some Stars and Stripes (streaming from the mast-head) that carried me away to Boston. By-the-way, when will you finish the bridge? I hear strange hints of you all quarrel- ing about the slave question. Is it so? You are so happy and prosperous in Amer- ica that you must be on the look-out for clouds, surely! When you see Emerson, Longfellow, Sumner, any one I know, pray bespeak for me a kind thought or word from them. Procter was always on the look-out for Hawthorne, whom he greatly admired. In November, 1855, he says, in a brief letter: I have not seen Hawthorne since I wrote to you. He came to London this summer, but, I am sorry to say, did not inquire for me. As it turned out, I was absent from town, but sent him (by Mrs. Russell Sturgis) a letter of introduction to Leigh Hunt, who was very much pleased with him. Poor Hunt! he is the most genial of men; and now that his wife (who has been his evil angel all his life) is confined to her bed by rheumatism, is recovering himself and, I hope, doing well. He asked to come and see me the other day. I willingly assented, and when I saw himgrown old and sad and broken down in healthall my ancient liking for him revived. You ask me to send you some verse. I accordingly send you a scrap of recent man- ufacture, and you will observe that instead of forwarding my epic on Sevastopol, I select something that is fitter for these present vernal love days than the bluster of heroic verse: SONG. Within the chambers of her breast Love lives and makes his spicy nest, Midst downy blooms and fragrant flowers, And there he dreams away the hours There let him rest! Some time hence, when the cnckoo sings, Ill come by night and hind his wings Bind him that he shall not roam From his warm white virgin home. Maiden of the summer season, Angel of the rosy time, Come, nnless some graver reason Bid thee scorn my rhyme; Come from thy serener height, On a golden cloud descending, Come ere Love bath taken flight, And let thy stay be like the light, When its glory hath no ending In the Northern night Now and then we get a glimpse of Thack- eray in his letters. In one of them he says: Thackeray came a few days ago and read one of his lectures at our house (that on George the Third), and we asked about a dozen persons to come and hear it, among the rest, your handsome country - woman, Mrs. R S . It was very pleasant, with that agreeable intermixtnre of tragedy and comedy that tells so well when judi- cionsly managed. He will not print them for some time to come, intending to read them at some of the principal places in En- gland, and perhaps Scotland. What are you doing in America? You are too happy and independent! 0 for- BARRY CORNWALL AND SOME OF HIS FRIENDS. 63 tunatos Agricolas, sua si bona nOrint! I am not quite sure of my Latin (which is rusty from old age), but I am sure of the senti- ment, which is that when people are too happy, they dont know it, and so take to quarreling to relieve the monotony of their blue sky. Some of these days you will split your great kingdom in two, I suppose, and then My wifes mother, Mrs. Basil Montagu, is very ill, and we are apprehensive of a fatal result, which, in truth, the mere fact of her age (eighty-two or eighty-three) is enough to warrant. Ah, this terrible age! The young people, I dare say, think that we live too long. Yet how short it is to look back on life! Why, I saw the house, the other day, where I used to play with a wooden sword when I was five years old! It can not surely be eighty years ago! What has occurred since? Why, nothing that is worth putting down on paper. A few nonsense verses, a flogging or two (richly deserved), and a few whitebait dinners, and the whole is reckoned up. Let us begin again. [Here he makes some big letters in a school-boy hand, which have a very pathetic look on the Page.] In a letter written in 1856 he gives me a graphic picture of sad times in India: All our anxiety here at present is the Indian mutiny. We ourselves have great cause for trouble. Our son (the only son I have, indeed) escaped from Delhi lately. He is now at Meerut. He and four or five oth- er officers, four women, and a child escaped. The men were obliged to drop the women a fearful height from the walls of the fort, amidst showers of bullets. A round shot passed within a yard of my son, and one of the ladies had a bullet through her shoul- der. They were seven days and seven nights in the jungle, without money or meat, scarce- ly any clothes, no shoes. They forded rivers, lay on the wet ground at night, lapped water from the puddles, and finallyreached Meerut. The lady (the mother of the three other la- dies) had not her wound dressed, or seen, in- deed, for upward of a week. Their feet were full of thorns. My son had nothing but a shirt, a pair of trowsers, and a flannel waist- coat. How they contrived to live I dont know; I suppose from small gifts of rice, etc., from the natives. When I find any little thing now that disturbs my serenity, and which I might in former times have magnified into an evil, think of what Europeans suffer from the vengeanceoftheIndians,andpassitbyin quiet. I received Mr. Hillards epitaph on my dear kind friend Kenyon. Thank him in my name for it. There are some copies to be reserved of a lithograph now in progress (a portrait of Kenyon) for his American friends. Should it be completed in time, Mr. Sumner will be asked to take them over. I have put down your name for one of those who would wish to have this little memento of a good kind man I shall never visit America, be assured, or the continent of Europe, or any distant region. I have reached nearly to the length of my tether. I have grown old and apa- thetic and stupid. All I care for, in the way of personal enjoynient, is quiet, ease to have nothing to do, nothing to think of. My only glance is backward. There is so little before me that I would rather not look that way. In a later letter he again speaks of his son and the war in India: My son is not in the list of killed and wounded, thank God! He was before Delhi, having volunteered thither after his escape. We trust that he is at present safe, but ev- ery mail is pregnant with bloody tidings, and we do not find ourselves yet in a posi- tion to rejoice securely. What a terrible war this Indian war is! Are all people of black blood cruel, cowardly, and treacher- ous? If it were a case of great oppression on our part, I could understand and (al- most) excuse it; but it is from the spoiled portion of the Hindostanees that the re- vengeful mutiny has arisen. One thing is quite clear, that whatever luxury and refine- ment have done for our race (for I include Americans with English), they have not diminished the courage and endurance and heroism for which I think we have formerly been famous. We are the same Saxons still. There has never been fiercer fighting than in some of the battles that have lately taken place in India. When I look back on the old history books, and see that all history consists of little else than the bloody feuds of nation with nation, I almost wonderthat God has not extinguished the cruel, selfish animals that we dignify with the name of men. NoI cry forgiveness: let the women live,if they can, without the men. I used the word men only. Here is a pleasant paragraph about Au- rora Leigh: The most successful book of the season has been Mrs. Brownings Aurora Leigh. I could wish some things altered, I confess; but as it is, it is by far (a hundred times over) the finest poem ever written by a woman. We know little or nothing of Sapphonothing to induce comparison and all other wearers of petticoats must courtesy to the ground. In several of his last letters to me there are frequent allusions to our civil war. Here is an extract from an epistle written in 1861: We read with painful attention the ac- counts of your great quarrel in America. We know nothing beyond what we are told by the New York papers, and these are the stories of one of the combatants. I am afraid 64 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. that, however you may mend the schism, you will never be so strong again. I hope, how- ever, that something may arise to terminate the bloodshed; for, after all, fighting is an unsatisfactory way of coming at the truth. If you were to stand up at once (and finally) against the slave-trade, your band of soldiers would have a more decided principle to fight for. But But I really know little or nothing. I hope that at Boston you are comparatively peaceful, and I know that you are more ab- olitionist than in the more southern coun- tries. There is nothing new doing here in the way of books. The last book I have seen is called Tannhduser, published by Chapman and Halla poem under feigned names, but really written by Robert Lytton and Julian Fane. It is not good enough for the first, but (as I conjecture) too good for the last. The songs which decide the contest of the bards are the worst portions of the book. I read some time ago a novel which has not made much noise, but which is prodig- iously cleverCity and Suburb. The story hangs in parts, but it is full of weighty sen- tences. We have no poet since Tennyson except Robert Lytton, who, you know, calls himself Owen Meredith. Poetry in England is assuming a new character, and not a better character. It has a sort of pre-Raphaclite tendency which does not suit my aged feel- inou. I am for Love, or the World well lost. But I forget tbat, if I live beyond the 21st of next November, I shall be seventy-four years of age. I have been obliged to resign my Commissionership of Lunacy, not being able to bear the pain of traveling. By this I lose about 900 a year. I am, therefore, sufficiently poor even for a poet. Browning, as you know, has lost his wife. He is com- ing with his little boy to live in England. I rejoice at this, for I think that the English should live in England, especially in their youth, when people learn things that they never forget afterward. Near the close of 1864 he writes: Since I last heard from you, nothing ex- cept what is melancholy seems to have tak- en place. You seem all busy killing each other in America. Some friends of yours and several friends of mine have died. Among the last I can not help placing Na- thaniel Hawthorne, for whom I had a sin- cere regard He was about your best prose writer, I think, and intermingled with his humor was a great deal of tenderness. To die so soon! You are so easily affronted in America, if we (English) say any thing about putting an end to your war, that I will not venture to hint at the subject. Nevertheless, I wish that you were all at peace again, for your own sakes and for the sake of human na- ture. I detest fighting now, although I was a great admirer of fighting in my youth. My youth? I wonder where it has gone. It has left me with gray hairs and rheuma- tism, and plenty of (too many other) infirm- ities. I stagger and stumble along, with al- most seventy-six years on my head, upon failing limbs, which no longer enable me to walk half a mile. I see a great deal, all be- hind me (the Past), but the prospect before me is not cheerful. Sometimes I wish that I had tried harder for what is called Fame, but generally (as now) I care very little about it. After allunless one could be Shakspeare, which (clearly) is not an easy matterof what value is a little puff of smoke from a review? If we could settle permanently who is to be the Homer or Shakspeare of our time, it might be worth something; but we can not. Is it Jones, or Smith, or ? Alas! I get short-sighted on this point, and can not penetrate the impenetrable dark. Make my remembrances acceptable to Long- fellow, to Lowell, to Emerson, and to any one else who remembers me. Yours, ever sincerely, B. W. PROCTER. And here are a few paragraphs frorh the last letter I ever received from Procters loving hand: Although I date this from Weymouth Street, yet I am writing 140 or 150 miles away from London. Perhaps this tempo- rary retreat from our great, noisy, turbulent city reminds me that I have been very un- mindful of your letter, received long ago. But I have been busy, and my writing now is not a simple matter, as it was fifty years ago. I have great difficulty in forming the letters, and you would be surprised to learn with what labor this task is performed. Then I have been incessantly occupied in writing (I refer to the mechanical part only) the Al oir of Charles Lamb. It is not my booki.e., not my propertybut one which I was hired to write, and it forms my last earnings. You will have heard of the book (perhaps seen it) some time since. It has been very well received. I would not have engaged myself on any thing else, but I had great regard for Charles Lamb, and so (somehow or other) I have contrived to reach the end. I have already (long ago) written some- thing about Hazlitt, but I have received more than one application for it, in case I can manage to complete my essay. As in the case of Lamb, I am really the only per- son living who knew much about his daily life. I have not, however, quite the same incentive to carry me on. Indeed, I am not certain that I should be able to travel to the real Finis. My wife is very grateful for the copies of my dear Adelaides poems which you sent her. She appears surprised to hear that I AT LAST. 65 have not transmitted her thanks to you be- without it. Longfellows Hyperion was an- fore. other of his favorite books during the years We get the Atlantic Monthly regularly. he was on duty as a commissioner. I need not tell you how much better the Among the last mrreeable visits I made poetry is than at its commencement. Very to the old poet was one with reference to a good is Released, in the July number, proposition of his own to omit several songs and several of the stories; but they are.in and other short poems from a new issue of his London, and I can not particularize them. works then in press. I stoutly opposed the We were very much pleased with Col- ignoring of certain old favorites of mine, onel Holmes, the son of yonr friend and con- and the poets wife joined with me in de- tributor. He seems a very intelligent, mod- ciding against the author in his proposal to est young man; as little military as need cast aside so many beautiful songssongs be, and, like Coriolanus, not baring his as well worth saving as any in the volume. wounds (if he has any) for public gaze. Procter argued that, being past seventy, he When you see Dr. Holmes, pray tell him had now reached to years of discretion, and how much I and my wife liked his son. that his judgment ought to be followed We are at the present moment rusti- without a murmur. I held out firm to the cating at Malvera Wells. We are on the end of our discussion, and we settled the sitle of a great hill (which you would call matter with this compromise: he was to ex- small in America), and our intercourse is punge whatever he chose from the English only with the flowers and bees and swab edition, but I was to have my own way with lows of the season. Sometimes we encoun- the American one. So to this day the Amer- ter a wasp, which I suppose comes from ican reprint is the only complete collection over seas! of Barry Cornwalls earliest pieces, for I held The Storys are living two or three miles on to all the old lyrics, without discarding a off, and called upon us a few days ago. You single line. have not seen his Sybil, which I think very fine, and as containing a very great future. But the young poets generally disappoint us, and are too content with startling us into admiration of their first works, and then go. to sleep. I wish that I had, when younger, made more notes about my contemporaries; for, being of no faction in politics, it happens that I have known far more literary men than any other person of my tune. In counting up the names of persons known to me who were, in some way or other, con- nected with literature, I reckoned up more than one hundred. But then I have had more than sixty years to do this in. My first acquaintance of this sort was Bowles, the poet. This was about 1803. Although I can scarcely write, I am able to say, in conclusion, that I am Very sincerely yours, B. XV. PROCTER. Procter was an ardent student of the works of our older English dramatists, and he had a special fondness for such writers as Decker, Marlo~ve, Heywood, Webster, and Fletcher. Many of his own dramatic scenes are modeled on that passionate and roman- tic school. He had great relish for a good modern novel, too; and I recall the titles of several which he recommended warmly for my perusal and republication in America. When I first came to know him, the duties of his office as a Commissioner of Lunacy obliged him to travel about the kingdom, sometimes on long journeys, and he told me his pocket companion was a cheap reprint of Emersons Essays, which he found such agreeable reading that he never left home voL. LILNo. 30L5 The poets figure was short and full, and his voice had a low, veiled tone habitually in it, which made it sometimes difficult to hear distinctly what he was saying. When he spoke in conversation, he liked to be very near his listener, and thus stand, as it were, omi confidential ground with him. His turn of thought was apt to be cheerful among his friends, and he proceeded readily into a vein of wit and nimble expression. Verbal fe- licity seemed natural to hhn, and his epi- thets, evidently unprepared, were always perfect. He disliked cant and bard ways of judging character. He praised easily. He had no wish to stand in any bodys shoes but his own, and he said there is no literary vice of a darker shade than envy. Talleyrands recipe for perfect happiness was the oppo- site to his. He impressed every one who came near him as a born gentleman, chival- rous and generous in a marked degree, an(l it was a habit of all who knew him to have an affection for him. Altering a line of Pope, this counsel might have been safely tendered to all the authors of his day iDisdain whatever Procters mind disdains. AT LAST. Wn~ne first the bride and bridegroom wed, They love their single selves the best; A sword is in the marriage bed, Their separate slumbers are not rest; They quarrel and make up again, They give and suffer worlds of pala. Both right, and wrong, They struggle long, Till some good day, when they are old, Some dark day, ~~hen the bells are tolled, Death having taken their best of life They lose themselves, and find each other; They know that they are husband wife, For, weeping, they are Father, M~other I

R. H. Stoddard Stoddard, R. H. At Last 65-66

AT LAST. 65 have not transmitted her thanks to you be- without it. Longfellows Hyperion was an- fore. other of his favorite books during the years We get the Atlantic Monthly regularly. he was on duty as a commissioner. I need not tell you how much better the Among the last mrreeable visits I made poetry is than at its commencement. Very to the old poet was one with reference to a good is Released, in the July number, proposition of his own to omit several songs and several of the stories; but they are.in and other short poems from a new issue of his London, and I can not particularize them. works then in press. I stoutly opposed the We were very much pleased with Col- ignoring of certain old favorites of mine, onel Holmes, the son of yonr friend and con- and the poets wife joined with me in de- tributor. He seems a very intelligent, mod- ciding against the author in his proposal to est young man; as little military as need cast aside so many beautiful songssongs be, and, like Coriolanus, not baring his as well worth saving as any in the volume. wounds (if he has any) for public gaze. Procter argued that, being past seventy, he When you see Dr. Holmes, pray tell him had now reached to years of discretion, and how much I and my wife liked his son. that his judgment ought to be followed We are at the present moment rusti- without a murmur. I held out firm to the cating at Malvera Wells. We are on the end of our discussion, and we settled the sitle of a great hill (which you would call matter with this compromise: he was to ex- small in America), and our intercourse is punge whatever he chose from the English only with the flowers and bees and swab edition, but I was to have my own way with lows of the season. Sometimes we encoun- the American one. So to this day the Amer- ter a wasp, which I suppose comes from ican reprint is the only complete collection over seas! of Barry Cornwalls earliest pieces, for I held The Storys are living two or three miles on to all the old lyrics, without discarding a off, and called upon us a few days ago. You single line. have not seen his Sybil, which I think very fine, and as containing a very great future. But the young poets generally disappoint us, and are too content with startling us into admiration of their first works, and then go. to sleep. I wish that I had, when younger, made more notes about my contemporaries; for, being of no faction in politics, it happens that I have known far more literary men than any other person of my tune. In counting up the names of persons known to me who were, in some way or other, con- nected with literature, I reckoned up more than one hundred. But then I have had more than sixty years to do this in. My first acquaintance of this sort was Bowles, the poet. This was about 1803. Although I can scarcely write, I am able to say, in conclusion, that I am Very sincerely yours, B. XV. PROCTER. Procter was an ardent student of the works of our older English dramatists, and he had a special fondness for such writers as Decker, Marlo~ve, Heywood, Webster, and Fletcher. Many of his own dramatic scenes are modeled on that passionate and roman- tic school. He had great relish for a good modern novel, too; and I recall the titles of several which he recommended warmly for my perusal and republication in America. When I first came to know him, the duties of his office as a Commissioner of Lunacy obliged him to travel about the kingdom, sometimes on long journeys, and he told me his pocket companion was a cheap reprint of Emersons Essays, which he found such agreeable reading that he never left home voL. LILNo. 30L5 The poets figure was short and full, and his voice had a low, veiled tone habitually in it, which made it sometimes difficult to hear distinctly what he was saying. When he spoke in conversation, he liked to be very near his listener, and thus stand, as it were, omi confidential ground with him. His turn of thought was apt to be cheerful among his friends, and he proceeded readily into a vein of wit and nimble expression. Verbal fe- licity seemed natural to hhn, and his epi- thets, evidently unprepared, were always perfect. He disliked cant and bard ways of judging character. He praised easily. He had no wish to stand in any bodys shoes but his own, and he said there is no literary vice of a darker shade than envy. Talleyrands recipe for perfect happiness was the oppo- site to his. He impressed every one who came near him as a born gentleman, chival- rous and generous in a marked degree, an(l it was a habit of all who knew him to have an affection for him. Altering a line of Pope, this counsel might have been safely tendered to all the authors of his day iDisdain whatever Procters mind disdains. AT LAST. Wn~ne first the bride and bridegroom wed, They love their single selves the best; A sword is in the marriage bed, Their separate slumbers are not rest; They quarrel and make up again, They give and suffer worlds of pala. Both right, and wrong, They struggle long, Till some good day, when they are old, Some dark day, ~~hen the bells are tolled, Death having taken their best of life They lose themselves, and find each other; They know that they are husband wife, For, weeping, they are Father, M~other I 66 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. AT WINDSOR CASrULE. r~ IERE is one town in Englandwhich, not- I withstanding that the epithet royal is commonly applied to it, is always attract- ive to the cultivated American. The stern- est republican of us all can not restrain a feeling of pride and exultation when that mna~nificent mansionthe finest ever built by man for i ancalled Windsor Castle, first strikes upon his gaze. It has a majesty of its own quite independent of kingship, though it has been always the ii. bitation of kings. Its towers and terraces are not trodden by privileged feet only, but the ~ hole nation take their pride and l)leasure in it; a nation that was once our own, and whose annals, so far at least as that glorious structure is connected with them, are our ~nnals. A cathedral has been defined by a great poet as a petrified religion ; and so may this fair Jwelling-house, so royal, rich, and wide, containing the habitations of so many degrees of men, and associated with events such as every generation of English- speaking races will read of with interest to the end of time, be considered petrified history. The standard of England that floats to-day from its highest tower, pro- laiming that the Queen is now in residence, has floated over scores of kings and queens in that same place: those mighty ramparts, used now only for pleasure and for state, were thrown up near a thousand years ago for a defense by the first William, who loved the tall deer as though he was their father, and whose favorite hunting - seat was at Windsor, in the centre of the same~ fair forest that surrounds it now. Not even William the Conqueror was, however, the first monarch who had his dwelling here, though he first fortified the place. Its orig- inal founder is lost in the mists of time Whether to Cusar, Albauact, or Brute, The British Arthur, or the Danish Knute, tue merit of choosing such a spot is to be ascribed will never now be known; its po- sition upon that lordly hill, with six fair counties visible from it, was sueh as indeed to invite time builder, though in those early years the picturesqueness of time spot was probably not so much a recomumenda- tion as the opportunities it offered for sport. The Conqueror himself thus describes it: Miaxime utilis et commodus est visas proNe? coatiguam aq am at silvasa venatiomubus a tam a very desirable residence (as the auc- tioneers term it) by reason of its wood and water, and because it was a good hunting country. Edward the Confessor, who would give any thing away to the priests, had made over this charming seat to the Abbey of Westminster; but William said, Pooh, pooh, those excellent monks ought not to be tempted with deer parks and such vani- ties, and got it restored to the crown. wiansomi CASTLE, ~OiiTHW ST viawFeon ThS hIVES.

At Windsor Castle 66-75

66 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. AT WINDSOR CASrULE. r~ IERE is one town in Englandwhich, not- I withstanding that the epithet royal is commonly applied to it, is always attract- ive to the cultivated American. The stern- est republican of us all can not restrain a feeling of pride and exultation when that mna~nificent mansionthe finest ever built by man for i ancalled Windsor Castle, first strikes upon his gaze. It has a majesty of its own quite independent of kingship, though it has been always the ii. bitation of kings. Its towers and terraces are not trodden by privileged feet only, but the ~ hole nation take their pride and l)leasure in it; a nation that was once our own, and whose annals, so far at least as that glorious structure is connected with them, are our ~nnals. A cathedral has been defined by a great poet as a petrified religion ; and so may this fair Jwelling-house, so royal, rich, and wide, containing the habitations of so many degrees of men, and associated with events such as every generation of English- speaking races will read of with interest to the end of time, be considered petrified history. The standard of England that floats to-day from its highest tower, pro- laiming that the Queen is now in residence, has floated over scores of kings and queens in that same place: those mighty ramparts, used now only for pleasure and for state, were thrown up near a thousand years ago for a defense by the first William, who loved the tall deer as though he was their father, and whose favorite hunting - seat was at Windsor, in the centre of the same~ fair forest that surrounds it now. Not even William the Conqueror was, however, the first monarch who had his dwelling here, though he first fortified the place. Its orig- inal founder is lost in the mists of time Whether to Cusar, Albauact, or Brute, The British Arthur, or the Danish Knute, tue merit of choosing such a spot is to be ascribed will never now be known; its po- sition upon that lordly hill, with six fair counties visible from it, was sueh as indeed to invite time builder, though in those early years the picturesqueness of time spot was probably not so much a recomumenda- tion as the opportunities it offered for sport. The Conqueror himself thus describes it: Miaxime utilis et commodus est visas proNe? coatiguam aq am at silvasa venatiomubus a tam a very desirable residence (as the auc- tioneers term it) by reason of its wood and water, and because it was a good hunting country. Edward the Confessor, who would give any thing away to the priests, had made over this charming seat to the Abbey of Westminster; but William said, Pooh, pooh, those excellent monks ought not to be tempted with deer parks and such vani- ties, and got it restored to the crown. wiansomi CASTLE, ~OiiTHW ST viawFeon ThS hIVES. AT WINDSOR CASTLE. 67 What hunting partiesthe cue relaxation of his iron swaymust have been held here! What tenderness save while he hunted them did lie show to beast, what cruelty to man, in those far-stretching fields! How harshly mnst the cnrfew have sounded over them as it bade fire and candle ont with its snllen tongue! What lust and wrong and crime once reigned here, unchecked by any law save one mans will! King John (another selfish monarch, an of a viler type) lay here, as the old phrase goes, while that first installment of English ]iber- ty was being arranged for, called Jkfagna Charta, nd which he had to sign, very unwillingly, at Rannymede, on the Thames, hard by. An- other King John was bronght here, even still more against the grain, in the person of the prisoner of Poitiers, John of France, who with his fellow- captive, David, King of Scots, is said (by Stow) to have suggested to their conqneror, Edward III., that the castle would have been better set if bnilt on high~r gronud. Edward took their advice, and with the aid of the fa- mons William of Wykeham, bishop and architect, corn- mencedthe palace, which suc- cessor after saccessor has en- larged, nutil it became the princely home we now behold it. Edwar IV. built at its foot St. Georges Chapel, itself one of the architectural boasts of England, and the resting-place of m~ of her kings. Henry VII. erected the Tomb- house, which has received the later mon- archs, and Henry VIII. the great gateway. To the antiquary there is probably no place, with the exception of the Tower of London, so associated with historical memories as Windsor Castle; nor is it less interesting to the poet, not only on acconnt of the won- derful beauty of its landscape, bnt from the associations of love and song that linger around it. For in this castle yonng James of Scotland pined from ten years old to twenty-eight, his captivity mitigated only by the tender passion for Jane Beaufort, which he has described in his own pathetic poem: In her was youth, beauty with humble port, Bounty, riches, and womanly feature, God better wote than my pen can report; Wisdom, largesse, eAate, and cunning lure, In every poynt so guided her mesure In word, in deed, in shape, in countenance, That Nature mi~ht no more her child advance. An this model of girlish perfection t e young lug married, and found her no less worthy than his poetic fancy had mirrored. In the castle, too, w.ns imprisoned the fa- inous Earl of ~uYrey, another cnptive bird ~ ho h~ s left his song behind him, but whose f~ te was not so fertanate, for he only came forth from his prison to die npon the block at the command of him who never spare m~ n in his fury nor woman in his lust bluff, cruel - hearted Hal. Bnt, after all, these events re too far back to arouse any fe hug yond a vague pathetic interest. To my mind there is nothing more striking in the history of Windsor Castle than an event that occurred there bnt sixty ye~ rs ago, and the principal actor in which was that contemptible and selfish voluptunry, INTERiOR oa~ ST. CEOROES (JILAPEL. HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. the Prince Regent, afterward George IV. This was the opening of the coffin of Charles I., whose remains, indeed, Lord Clarendon had stated in his history to be buried at Windsor, but none knew exactly where. The public ignorance of the spot, in fact, had caused the circulation of a most ex- traordinary story. Every body knows that at the Restoration the body of Cromwell, the greatest prince that ever ruled in En- gland, who had taught Rome charity and bent the knee of Spain, and who when in life no man durst contend with, was dug up from its grave in Westminster Abbey and hung in chains, as though he had been a felon, at Tyburn. But very soon after that infamous and cowardly sacrilege it was ru- mored that some friends of Cromwell had anticipated this act of baseness, and placed the body of Charles I. in the Protectors coffin, so that it was in reality the martyr king who was gibbeted by his own son, and whose bones received the insults of the turncoat mob. This curious statement re- ceived some corroboration from the fact that the head was separated from the trunk. One Mr. Barkstead, son of the regicide of that name, asserts that his father, being lieutenant of the Tower of London and a great confidant of the P ote tor, asked him on his death-bed where he wo id be buried, to which Cromwell answer 4, Yhe he had obtained the greatest victo y and glory namely, on the field at Naseby, in N rth- amptoushire, which was accordingly thu~ performed. At midnight, oon after hi death, being first embalmed in a lead n cof- fin, the body was in a hearse conveyed t~ the s~ id field, the said Mr. Barkstead, by order of his father, attending close to the hearse; and being come to the field, they found about the midst of it a grave dug about nine feet deep, with the green sod carefully laid on one side and the mould on another, in which, the coffin being soon put, the grave was instantly filled up, and the green sod lai carefully fiat upon it, care being taken that the surplus mould was clean taken away. Soon after like care was taken that the said field was entirely plowed up, and sown three or four years successively with corn. In the Harician Miscellany this version is repeated, after which is added the follow- ing: Talking over this account of Bark- steads with the Rev. Mr. Sm, of G whose father had long resided in Florence as a merchant, and afterward as minister from King Charles II., and had been well acquainted with the fugitives after the Res- toration, he assured me he had often heard the same account by other hands, those miscreants always boasting that they had wreaked their revenge against the father, as far as human foresight could carry it, by beheading him while living, and making his best friends the executors of the utmost ig- ominies upon him when dead. He (Cromwell) contrived his own burial, as own ed by Bark- stead, having all the honors of a pompous funeral paid to an empty coffin, into which aft ward was removed the corpse of the martyr, that if any sentence should be pronounced a pon his body, it might effectually fall upon that of the king The secret being only among that abandoned few, there was no doubt in the rest of the people but the body so exposed was that it was said to be, had not some whose curiosity had brought them nearer the tree observed with horror the remains of a countenance they little had expected there, and that on tying the cord THE QUADImANGLE. AT WINDSOR CASTLE. 69 there was~ strong seam about the neck, by which the head had been, as was supposed, immediately after the ecollation fastened gain to the body. This hem0 ~ hispere abont, an the nnmbers th~ t cauie to the dismal sight hourly increasing, no- tice was immediately given of the suspicion to the attending officer, vho disp~ tehed a ines- senger to conrt to quaint them ~ -ith the rumor, and the ill con- sequences the sI)read- ing or examining into it further ~igbt h ye, on which the bodies were immediately or- (lered down to be hur- ~ed again Many cir- cumstances m~ ke this ecount not alto0ether improbable, as all those enthusiasts to the last moment of their lives ever gloried in the truth of it. To this view of the matter, as we have said, Lord Clarendons vague account of the burial of Charles has given some counte- nance. Upon those who bore the kings body en- tering St. Georges Chap- el, at Windsor, with which they had before been well acquainted, they found it so al- tered and transformed, all inscriptions an those laud-marks pulled down by which all men knew every particular place in that church, and such a dismal mutation over the whole, that they knew not where they were; nor was there one old officer that had belonged to it, or knew ~here our princes had ns~d to be interred. At last there was u fellow of the town who undertook to tell hem where there was a vault in which King Henry VIII. and Jane Seymour were interred. And as near that place as could conveniently be they caused the grave to be made. So stood the matter at the Restoration, when it was naturally expected that the royal martyrs body would be disentombed and buried with greater respect; but either Charles II. was averse to such unpleasant proceedings, or thought he had done enough in the way of honoring his father by dishon- oring his enemies. His aversion to take any such step gave additional color to the substit- tion story, which, for the sake of poetical justice, it is much to k wished had heen found correct. It was, however, left for the Prince Regent, in 1813, to settle the whole question; and Sir Henry Halford, his physician, relates the incidents of its dis- covery. While completing the mausoleum in the Tomb-house it hecame necessary to form a passage to it from under the choir in St. Georges Chapel, and in constructing this an aperture was made in the vault of Hen- ry VIII. In this vault were known to be laid himself and Jane Seymour, but a third coffin, covered with a black velvet pall, was now beheld in it; and this was supposed (and, as it turned out, correctly) to hold the remains of Charles I. The examination was made in the presence of the Regent hiinself and ,fter a century and a half the roy~ 1 martyrs ho es were once more brought to light, and identified beyond question. It had been embalmed, of course, though clumsily, and it was difficult to deny, notwithstand- ing much disfigurement, that the counte- nance bore a strong resemblance to the pie- tures of King Charles I. hy Vandyck. The beard was a reddish-hrown, hut the rest of RO~TN~) TOWER, wIEnSOR eASrLEwEsr ENn. 70 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. the hair black and long, except at the back, where it had been probably cut short for the headsinans axe. On holding UI) the head, which was loose, the muscles of the neck were found to be retracted, which proved that the decapitation had taken place during life. The identification was therefore colnl)lete, and a portion of the hair was sent liy Sir Henry Halford to Sir Walter Scott, who had it set ill a gold ring, with the kings last word, Remember, en- graveil 1~j)Oli it. This is but one of a huiidred historical events which crowd Ul)OU the recollection of every man of cultivation as lie first sets eyes on Windsor Castle, and I have only mentioned it because some of its details are not generally known. In Mr. Jesses l)olY~i- lar Day cit Windier, for example, not a word is said of the substitntion story, which gives so great an interest te the ddnoeemcet. From whatever side you approach this glo- rious bnilding it presents a splendid spec- tacle; but for the advantage of the Amer- jean visitor I am about to state what seenis to me to be the best method of doing so, ozone - mvs OATEWAY, cENTF.E OF sourn WmNO, WINuSOR eASTI and of speIi(liiig a day iii this most interest- ingnei ghl)orllood to the greatest advantage. It may not fail to every one of my fellow- countrymen, as it happened to myself, to visit Viindsor Castle by royal command, bnt it is imni)ossible not to enjoy its beanties even withont that crc)wnillg felicity. In- deed, iii visiting very great personages in- deed the pleasure often consists less in the fact itself than in the satisfaction of talking about it afterward to others who have been less favoreda circumstance which, on re- Ilection, gentle reader, you wiil allow should by imo means render yonr presemut hmunuble servant an object of envy. One likes to have gone up Mont Blanc, merely to say so, observed an athletic young gentleman of my ac(lmiaintance. Well, rejoined a less Alpine friend of his, I am rather lazy, and therefore confine myself to saying so. Now to say that you have been to court is within the power of every body, and there- fore none need be jealons of the man that has absolutely gone through with it. The usual way of approaching Windsor from London is by the Great Western Rail- - - way, from which, as it crosses the Thames, you get a view of the castle that is (save from one - other l)osition to be de- scribed) absolutely in- comparable; and it was from this spot that Tur- ner took his famous picture of the stately l)lace. Yet if the read- er will take my advice, he will visit Windsor from time opposite direc- tion, namely, l)y coming by the Southwestern Railway to Virginia Water, which is itself a portion of the forest, and driving or walking through it to the town. This lake is the largest piece of artificial water iii Enoland, and was laid out by the order of the Duke of Cum- berland, the hero of Culloden ; but ht is chiefly noted as being the occasional resort of George IV. an(l his ntis- tresses. It is very pret- ty, and a few honrs may be pleasantly spent in exploring it ; but the forest itself, of which it forms but the extrem- ity, has more pressing claims on the atten- tion. Nowhere in Great AT WINDSOR CASTLE. 71 Britain, nor perhaps ill all the world, are seen at once such fertility al)(l grandeur as are exhibited in the Great Park, as that vast portion of the forest is called which ex- tends for many miles to the south of Wind- sor. The finest trees of which the country boasts, anti those which for generations have been carefully tended, so that their age is undoubted, are here to be seen. The pollards are of vast size. One beech-tree near Sawyers Lodge Mr. Jesse found to be thirty-six feet round at six feet from the ground, and two oak-trees aiear Cranbourn Lodge are even larger. One of these is term- ed William the Conquerors Oak. Whether it dates from that monarchs time or not, it is certain that it and a thousand other trees around it have seen many and many a gen- eration of mankind grow up and fade, while they are hale and green as ever. Old summers, when the monk was fat, And issuing strong and sleek, Would twist his girdle tight, and pat The girls upon the cheek. The aspect of these noble boles and spread- ing branches suggests not only the lapse of time, but their victory over it, and invests them with a living majesty. Jiernes Oak, or Sir John Falstaffs Oak, as it was called after Shakspeares genius had immortalized it, is not in this portion of the park; but there is no doubt that Shakspeare himself, LUNG WALE, AND STATUE OF GEORGE ILL. VIROImA WATER. 72 hARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. as well as many of the men and women of nothing lies between to mar the view, that his Merry Wires of Windsor, have trod the royal dwelling, above the rest beyond com- turf, have sought the shade, that are so pare, Windsor Castle. grateful to us now. New plantations, too, It is the fashion to exaggerate the effect are perpetually growing up, as though to of architecture upon the mind, and I must assure us of the perpetuatioa of this noble confess that I have looked uposi many a fair forest, and iii front of each is placed a small cathedral without experiencing those tran- iron pillar, with the date of planting. How scendental emotions which are supposed to interesting would such pillars be, had the be proper to the occasion; but the spectacle practice been instituted from the first of Windsor Castle is really overpowering. Then, as well as Prince Alberts Planta- Its colossal size, its beauty, and the variely tion, we should have had King Ste- of it, its position, set on a high hill, cons- phens, with l)erhaps half a dozen ancient mandiug so rich a panorama of flood and pohlards to represent it, or Henry VIIIs, field, and, above all, the associations that whose man - minded offset rose, as the rush in unbidden upon hun who first be- poet tells us, to chase the deer at five. holds it, combine to produce a sublime ins- The asnonist of ganse is enorusons, and so pression. In my own case, at least, I feel tame are these creatures of the forest that that the lithograph from these stone walls you might suppose they had never heard a will never fade while the retina of the usind gunshot. The hare does but cock Isis ears endures upon which it was first printed. the. while you pass, the rabbit ceases not to From tlse nsoment you have once seen it fondle his own harusless face, nor does this glorious object haunts yosi on your for- tlse stately pheasant quicken its speed for est way, till at last, as you reads the extrem- your presence as it runs across the drive. ity of that magnificeist avenue called the Above all, the deer are every where; in Long Walk, it appears right iii froist of you. eopse and form twisskhe the innumerable This avenue, however, though so broad that, ear and tail ~ underneath the trees and in wlsile lined by the tallest trees, no shadow the open, mostly in herds. but sometimes in from osse ever touches its opposite neiglsbor, companies of six or seven, they throng the extends for three miles in a straiglst line. glades as thickly as under their great pro- The entrance of the castle now opposite tector, Norman William. to us is called George IYs Gateway, assd is Tlsen presently, while you are still luxn- only used by tIme royal fansily assd those vis- riating in new sylvan beauties, the forest itors who are staying with theni. The ordi- parts before you, and through the gap thus nary entrances are approached from Windsor made by art you behold, miles away, yet as town. That oise in general use leads into (histinet as thoughs it were close at hand, for the Lower Ward, as it is called, the great EAST VIEWTHE 5OVE5SEI(5N5 PSSLVATE APARTMENTS. AT WINDSOR CASTLE. 78 conrt-yard in which St. (leorges Chapel stan(ls aiid the houses of the military knights, and thence through the Middle Ward, hy the Norman Gate, to the terraces and the state apartments open to the 1)llbliC when the Queen is not in residence. But we ourselves (for one can not really stoop to use ihe singular on such an occasion) are a(lmit- ted through George IV.s Gateway into time Upper Ward, and are set downjust think of this, reader, and respect your authorat the Sovereigns Entrance. Many a crown- ed head, even in these latter days, fromu Al- exan(ler of Russia to the Shah of Persia, has passed l)elmeath that stately l)ortmll, to behold such wonders as, I will venture to say, are not to be found in their own royal abodes. The Queens Audience-Chaumber, with its ceiling h)y Verrio, its festoons of flowers imy Grinling Gibbons, and its tapestries hy hands unknown, indeed, hut which must have spent a lifetime in the work the Queens Presence - Chamber; the Guard- Chamber; St. Georges Hall (200 feet long), with its throne, the twenty-four shields with the arinorial hearings of all the En- glish kings from Edward III., and with the full-length portraits of eleven sovereigns by Vaiidyck, Lely, Kneller, and Lawrence the Ball-Room, with its Louis XIV. furni- ture and appropriate tal)estries of Jasoii and the Golden Fleece; the Tlmrone-Roonm; the tamnou5 Waterloo Chamber, with its six-and- thirty heroes upon canvas, almost all by Lawrence; the Vestibule; the Kings Draw- ing-Rooni, illustrated hy Rubens only ; tIme Kings Council-Chamber; the Kings Closet; time Queens Closet; the Queens Drawing- Roomall adorimed by the fimmest pahmters of the purest times; and the Vammdyck Room, itself a treasury of art all these are in- cluded. in tlme State Apart memmts, and umay be seeim by any visitor at Windsor bet wecum certain imours. But time Sovereigums Private Apartuments, which occupy time whole east wing of the castle, are reserved for those whmomn shine or sommme umeumiber of lieu famnily delighits to Imommor, or, at all evemmts is 50 good as to (10 50. Never before Imave I been inmh)resse(1 by the mere sighmt (mf splendid fur- nitmmre ; bmmt Imere time fume taste go~s so imar umoniomusly witim time costlimmess timat omme camm umot elmoose but admire; time splendor is by no menus time most strikuig featuire and when I was told timat a little cabimmet whmose (imliet beauty had attracted nine had cost ten tlmousammd gmmhmeas, I felt extrenme surprise. The privmmte (lrawimmg-roomns, to tIme numulmer of whmiclm thmere apl)eare(l 110 hnmit, are gen- erally terumed Blue, Red, etc .,accordimmg to time prevmmihing (0101 of thmeir tittimugs; ammd from every window of the house (as its royal temmammts call tlmeir dwelhmmg, and wlmicim is omme of the few thmings by whmicim in their ummaffeeted talk you can discerum timeir pro- prietorslmip of timis superb abodej there is u view of gardemm and forest such mis miglmt well take a poets heart by storm. Time Shmumh, I was told, wimo is, of eoumrse, a stranger to timme foliage, was mumore impressed by time view thmmmn h)y tIme fmmrniture bmut a simple citizeum like ummyselfmnay he exemused for dwell- immg upon the latter. Time tapm~stry of time chairs alomme was imi some cases so exquisite wmNm)somm C ~ST1ES0UTii AND mAmmT OF EAST SmuEQcm:ENm mmOOMm mz TIlE SOUTHEAST rowEum. 74 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. that I would no more have dared sit on them than wonl(l poor Christopher Sly in the play, to whom, ilI(leed, I involuntarily compared myself more thaii once amidst those unac- cLlstome(l splendors. The finest of all the internal decorations are thought to be those of the Qneens Cor- ri(lor, a golden gallery, as it seemed to me, which runs round half the castle, thongh itever approaching any public room. Per- haps the most interesting chamber is the suit of rooms on the North Terrace that form the Library, into which, as a humble follower of the profession of letters, I was inducted and allowed to roam at will. The contents of this l)lace are simply priceless: the original MSS. of the most valued poets and l)~~5~ writers, time original editiomis of the most ancient primited books, the most splendid illnminated MSS. of Asia and Afri- ca (still being collected, for some were lmronglit from time Abyssinian campaign), the most gorgeons missal s, and all arranged so that time eye cumin at once behold their con- tents, though the brain to master theum is in(lee(l but rarely bronght with it. Most curious of all is the private collection of miniatures of the royal family, including many who were lost before the public grew faumilia.r with them, and also many who were a little less than kin and umore that kimlfor exanml)le, the fimmuous Perdita, and other mmmistresses of Georoc IV. Indeed the secret history of this princely race may be read here in briefthe richest store that ever was laid bare to eye of gossip. I, however, have no such itching tongue, nor would it he fit return, as it seems to me, for nnsought thongh dee~)ly appreciated fa- vor, were I to describe the particular kind- ness that I received from my royal host. It is not the first time that literature has been thus honored at Windsor Castle (though, it is true, never in the person of so humble a scribbler as myself), amid I would fain not be time first to abnse such hospitality. If any attemhit hail been made to knight me, I might, indeed, have revenged myself by such a breach of confidence; but being a re- l)mil)licaim, no such experinment was, of course, attemmihited on mmmc. It may seem a stroke of batimos, ammd an admission of great want of digmmity of umind, but time size of the servants who atteimded upon our royal ~)rogress through time castle, or noiselessly arose from timeir comfortable chairs at omir up- proacli, made cominsiderable impression on nine. I wonder whether it is inmo use to ap- h)l~~ for a situation in tIme royal household of Great Britain unless one is over six feet high! The obsequiousness of these scarlet giants to myself, who amn wholly unaccus- tomned to such respect, amused mne vastly, especially as it contimmued after I bud parted commm~)mmny within my royal entertaimmer. I was mmot the rose of Englamind, but I had been near the rose, ammd was respected accordingly. A great contrast to all this muagnilicence awaited me timat evemming in an experiemmce wimiclin was imin its way, however, quite as in- terestiming, and whmichi also lies within tIme reach of minny Aminmerican who ree~ to Wind- sor. Instead of takimmg up his (luarters for thu night withimi the town, or retmirmining to Lomindomin, I would recoummeud Imium, by all mmmeamms, to walk through time groun(ls of Etoim College to SuIthill, wimere an oldfashmiommed hotel, called Both amnsits imminmnense fromm covered wimen I visited it by the blossoms of time wistaria, and ~)resentiflg a most at- tractive spectaclewill afford him excellent emmtertaimmnment. It is here that lim old days ETON COLLEGE. IN THE GOLD AVENUE. 75 the Montern of the Eton boys used to he held, on a little hill where they collected salt, as the money was called, for which ev- ery visitor was put uiiiler contribution. The king, who always attended in person, gave one hundred pounds, and every nobleman at least five pounds, nor, I believe, was less than gold taken from any body. The col- lectors were the head boys of the school, dressed in magnificent fancy costumes, and each with a bundle of tickets, one of which lie gave you when he had received your salt, to exempt you from further demands. The sum thus collected, often amounting to a thousand pounds, was given to the head boy of the college on the foundation, that is, a poor scholar, not a rich oppidan, as most Etonians are, to support him during his res- i(lence at the university. When this head boy was unpopular, his gains used to be much lessened by the damages which his school-fellows committed, in order to spite him, in Bothams beautiful garden, and for which he had to pay. The garden is still in existence, with a space cut in the trees for a fine view of Windsor Castle, and also, at this present writing, Mr. Botham, a perfect repository of old-world Eton stories. Attractive as will be his hospitality, I must, however, trouble my reader, after he has partaken of it, to accompany me in an evening walk of some two miles. This will bring him to a sequestered church-yard, with an ancient church and yew-tree as old as itself, sur- rounded on one side by rugged elms, on the other by a charming pastoral landscape. This is Stoke Pogis church-yard, the scene of Grays world-famous Elegy. He himself lies buried in a humble tomb which his piety erected to his mother, whom, says he, with more pathos than reason, I had the mis- fortune to survive ; but a huge cenotaph has been erected at a little distance, upon which are engraved some of the finest verses from his immortal Ode to Eton College,~~ and his Elegy in a Country Church-Yard, each of which objects lies within view. Fresh from the splendors of the palace, the simple lines that describe the life of the poor, and contrast it not ignobly with that of the great, made a profound impression upon me; but in such a time arid place they can scarcely fail to do otherwise under any circumstances: The boact of heraldry, the pomp of power, Aid all that heauty, all that wealth, eer gave, Await alike the inevitable hour: The paths of glory lead hut to the grave, is a lesson that not only princes need, hut all of us in our degree. It may not be generally known that Gray struck out no less than three stanzas from his original MS. of the Elegy; after to meet the sun upon the upland lawn, came the following verse: Him have we seen the greenwood side along, While oer the heath we hied, our labor done, Oft as the wood-lark piped her farewell sang, With wistful eyes pursue the setting sun. Mason was of opinion that what follows was equal to any of the better known verses: Hark, how the sacred calm that breathes around Bids. every fierce, tumultuous passion cease, In still small accents whispering from the ground A grateful earnest of eternal peace and certainly those beautiful lines described exactly the poets flivorite scene under the influences beneath which I beheld it. Be- yond all doubt upon time cenotaph itself should be inscribed this last (which orig- inally preceded the epitaph), in the place of some less local couplet: There scattered oft, the earliest of the year, By hands unseen, are showers of violets found; The redbreast loves to build and warble there, Aiid little footsteps lightly print the ground. IN THE GOLD AVENUE. Br rue AuTuna OF Time CAtuzawnon SeceeT. LA MYSTERIOUS LETTER. FRANCIS IREDELL preliared his own breakfast, which consisted of a cup of smoky tea and a dry biscuit. The battered kettle on the gas-fixture and the box of bis- cuits under the table represented the lowest ebb ever attained in the tide of Mr. Iredells resources, and there had been many fluctua- tions in his finances of late years. Poverty may have a lileturestlue side as well as a (Irohl or a lugubrious one. The poverty of this artists studio sat lightly omi room as well as occupant. One read the luaus char- acter and history iii ail his surroundings. A large window admitted a wealth of day- light, which fell alike on a beamatifiul jar- dini~re, duisty (lraperies, a brokemi lay figure, heaps of l)aimmt-brushes, rare specimemus of Daimio bronze, and a tropical butterfly poised on sapphire wings, flecked with sil- ver, above a collectiomi of pipes. The very walls took up time thread, and reflected the inmates iii as niamiy separate mirrors of mood, from the half-completed clay model of a classical imead, the glimpses of dreamy Mediterranean skies, amid the hasty copies of Titians fieshi-tiuts, to the realistic faint scemies lackimug the poetry of thie Flemish auiil Frencla schools of art. A desultory fancy had always led Framicis Iredehl to pur- sue the latest whim, an(l here and there the sketches had enuaght a simmiheama of true in- spiratiomi. He was too proud to solicit pat- ronage or propitiate critics, and then lie took refuge in the superiority of the unappre- elated. To the public he was known as a promising artist if hie would settle down to amiy omie thing. This very setthimug dowmi was the haute of his existence; mtmi(l in the mean while he made smoky tea for his own breakfast.

Virginia W. Johnson Johnson, Virginia W. In the Gold Avenue 75-82

IN THE GOLD AVENUE. 75 the Montern of the Eton boys used to he held, on a little hill where they collected salt, as the money was called, for which ev- ery visitor was put uiiiler contribution. The king, who always attended in person, gave one hundred pounds, and every nobleman at least five pounds, nor, I believe, was less than gold taken from any body. The col- lectors were the head boys of the school, dressed in magnificent fancy costumes, and each with a bundle of tickets, one of which lie gave you when he had received your salt, to exempt you from further demands. The sum thus collected, often amounting to a thousand pounds, was given to the head boy of the college on the foundation, that is, a poor scholar, not a rich oppidan, as most Etonians are, to support him during his res- i(lence at the university. When this head boy was unpopular, his gains used to be much lessened by the damages which his school-fellows committed, in order to spite him, in Bothams beautiful garden, and for which he had to pay. The garden is still in existence, with a space cut in the trees for a fine view of Windsor Castle, and also, at this present writing, Mr. Botham, a perfect repository of old-world Eton stories. Attractive as will be his hospitality, I must, however, trouble my reader, after he has partaken of it, to accompany me in an evening walk of some two miles. This will bring him to a sequestered church-yard, with an ancient church and yew-tree as old as itself, sur- rounded on one side by rugged elms, on the other by a charming pastoral landscape. This is Stoke Pogis church-yard, the scene of Grays world-famous Elegy. He himself lies buried in a humble tomb which his piety erected to his mother, whom, says he, with more pathos than reason, I had the mis- fortune to survive ; but a huge cenotaph has been erected at a little distance, upon which are engraved some of the finest verses from his immortal Ode to Eton College,~~ and his Elegy in a Country Church-Yard, each of which objects lies within view. Fresh from the splendors of the palace, the simple lines that describe the life of the poor, and contrast it not ignobly with that of the great, made a profound impression upon me; but in such a time arid place they can scarcely fail to do otherwise under any circumstances: The boact of heraldry, the pomp of power, Aid all that heauty, all that wealth, eer gave, Await alike the inevitable hour: The paths of glory lead hut to the grave, is a lesson that not only princes need, hut all of us in our degree. It may not be generally known that Gray struck out no less than three stanzas from his original MS. of the Elegy; after to meet the sun upon the upland lawn, came the following verse: Him have we seen the greenwood side along, While oer the heath we hied, our labor done, Oft as the wood-lark piped her farewell sang, With wistful eyes pursue the setting sun. Mason was of opinion that what follows was equal to any of the better known verses: Hark, how the sacred calm that breathes around Bids. every fierce, tumultuous passion cease, In still small accents whispering from the ground A grateful earnest of eternal peace and certainly those beautiful lines described exactly the poets flivorite scene under the influences beneath which I beheld it. Be- yond all doubt upon time cenotaph itself should be inscribed this last (which orig- inally preceded the epitaph), in the place of some less local couplet: There scattered oft, the earliest of the year, By hands unseen, are showers of violets found; The redbreast loves to build and warble there, Aiid little footsteps lightly print the ground. IN THE GOLD AVENUE. Br rue AuTuna OF Time CAtuzawnon SeceeT. LA MYSTERIOUS LETTER. FRANCIS IREDELL preliared his own breakfast, which consisted of a cup of smoky tea and a dry biscuit. The battered kettle on the gas-fixture and the box of bis- cuits under the table represented the lowest ebb ever attained in the tide of Mr. Iredells resources, and there had been many fluctua- tions in his finances of late years. Poverty may have a lileturestlue side as well as a (Irohl or a lugubrious one. The poverty of this artists studio sat lightly omi room as well as occupant. One read the luaus char- acter and history iii ail his surroundings. A large window admitted a wealth of day- light, which fell alike on a beamatifiul jar- dini~re, duisty (lraperies, a brokemi lay figure, heaps of l)aimmt-brushes, rare specimemus of Daimio bronze, and a tropical butterfly poised on sapphire wings, flecked with sil- ver, above a collectiomi of pipes. The very walls took up time thread, and reflected the inmates iii as niamiy separate mirrors of mood, from the half-completed clay model of a classical imead, the glimpses of dreamy Mediterranean skies, amid the hasty copies of Titians fieshi-tiuts, to the realistic faint scemies lackimug the poetry of thie Flemish auiil Frencla schools of art. A desultory fancy had always led Framicis Iredehl to pur- sue the latest whim, an(l here and there the sketches had enuaght a simmiheama of true in- spiratiomi. He was too proud to solicit pat- ronage or propitiate critics, and then lie took refuge in the superiority of the unappre- elated. To the public he was known as a promising artist if hie would settle down to amiy omie thing. This very setthimug dowmi was the haute of his existence; mtmi(l in the mean while he made smoky tea for his own breakfast. 76 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. His slight repast ended, he kindled his ineersehaum, and prepared to set about the days labor, when lie was aroused by a knock on the door, and the janitor passed in a letter. Who the deuce has written to me ? so- liloquized Mr. Iredell, turning the small en- velope in his hand. A wotrians chirogra- phy evidently. I am not a ladys man. He was in no haste to open the niissive and solve the question; time had never been precious to Francis Iredell. Perhaps I have found a patroness of art, he said, with a little grimace. The sheet contaiued these guarded lilies: Mr. Francis Iredell is earnestly requested to visit flolmcroft immediately. If lie ~vilI lie iii the summer- house at the end of the maple avenue, omi Mrs. Mestons property, at five oclock this afternoomi, lie ~vill have no cause to regret the step. A Fumaan. Shades of roniance! Why, niy respect- ed aunt, Mrs. Meston, lives at Hoinmeroft. To be sure! I had forgotteii; ali(l it I bad remembered, I fancy the (11(1 girl would tliinik I wanted something of herthe sale of a picture, or to be mentioned in her will. Bah! she is surrounded by toadies now, no doubt. He laughed and tossed aside the letter, then took it up to read again, with a frown. Whom am I to see in the summer-house? Pooh! I am too old a bird for this sort of chaff. Somebody wishes to make me ridic- ulous. He leaned out the wiiidow. The October day was perfect, with a cloudless sky, radiant sunshine, and a soft south wind. Nature lured him away from the studio; the ele- muent of curiosity, which combines self-love, also begaui to exert art influence. What if any person at Holmeroft did wish to dupe him miht it not be amusing to afford the unknown an opportunity? He formed a studden resolution. If Spof- ford could lend him ten dollars, lie would make the journey. He crossed the hall to another door precisely like his own, which opened on an atelier also inipregnated with the pathetic atmosphere of uvaiting. A man wearing the same mask of cheerfnl bonhomie over patient heroism was tracing the ghost of some future great work on a canvas uvith red chalk. Hard up, eh? Oh yes, I can let you have ten dollars as well as not. I only wish I had ten thousand, my boy. Mr. Iredell returned to his own quarters, brushed his hat, and surveyed himself in a cracked fragment of looking-glass. A faint sensation of pleasurable excitement was be- ginning to infect him, all due to a few lines traced in a slanting feminine hand. The glass reflected a large, well-formed man of thirty, with a massive head, broad, open brow, calm, penetrating gray eye, and a luxuriant brown beard. The hair worn rather long, the beard, and attire were Un- conventional, but there was about him the easy grace which stamped unmistakably the gentleman. May miot the negligemit costume of a man forgetful of his coat be charming in a world which owes so much of painful self-consciousness to the tailor? Still yieldiiig to that guidance of destiny which captivated him this morning, lie took the next step. If he was not too late fbr a train which would bear him to Hoinicroft before five oclock, he would keep tine ap- poititmuent. A title of humanity streamed through the open door of time great d6p6t. Too late? No; tine teat-oclock train, bound east, uvas -, pamitiiig with suppressed steam and there ready to start. Fleeting miles strung like beads on fleet- in mu oments; past shimiimmg rivers, past wide stretches of hill-side draped in autmmtnats gor- geonas livery, time awakeined thotighits of Fran- cis Iredeli keepimig pace with flyimug motion. He reached Hohmucroft at four oclock and fifty mmnitimates. Tue locomotive suvept on, and he was left gazing about him a trifle blankly. Why html lie come? Surely he could not tell. The station was a ~)retty Gotiiic struactuare, with the name Holmeroft placed prominently above the door. A tel- egraphi girl with a pink bow in her hair glanced coqmtettishily thironagh the witidow of her office; a lank youmig man witla a large cigar leammed agaimust thue wall; three barefooted urchins pattered away in search of other excitement; a rusty wagon con- tainimig a cider barrel creaked slowly by. Time stranger climbed the road toward tine Hall, a red brick honse overlooking time vil- lage, amid by into mameans equaling the preten- sion of its name. A hittle brook, spaummed by a bridge, flowed at the foot of thne hill, and to the right a steep path braiiciied fromni the drive leading map to thie door. Following thus path, he found himself in tIne sutnmner-hottse as his watch poinited to thme hour of five. lmn the peaceftmh stihimmess of earth tIne smoke risimig from the village chimneys seemed to pause before melting into ether, amid tine balm of silence bathed all his jaded senses. From the rose-flushed horizon whmere the sian was settimig a purple bloom veiled the hills; at his feet the sumac glowed in fiery splendor; on tine air floated the last fra- grance of expiring smammerthe aromatic scent of dyimug leaves. He turned to fine mahile walk, which time season mad converted to an avenue of gold, where each tree stood in perfect symmetry, yellow merging into rmasset-red, and beheld a figmare advanicimig toward 1dm. Time last rays of the sun made for huer a path of glory, with time maples arching above, her uncovered imead catchaing tine gleam of reflected light as she moved. Something stirred within Francis Iredehl at sight of her, as if the wings of his genimus were unfurled for the first time. IN THE GOLD AVENUE. 77 A saint in black garments against pale gold, after Fra Angelico, lie muttered. Then he removed his hat as she stood be- fore him. Have I the honor of addressing one of Mrs. Mestons household P I sent for you, she replied, in a low, firm voice. ILMRS. MESTON AT HOME. Both were silent for a moment. The art- ist a~vaited explanation with a shade of reserve iii his manner. If a woman wished to (lupe him by this anonymous summons, he had best be on his guard. He observed her closely without appearing to do so.1 Now that she had quitted the Gold Avenue, and the day was waning, she was a young lady of about five-and-twenty, with chest- nut hair and pale complexion. It occurred to Francis Iredell that she was oddly unlike the young lady of the period ; her black robe was almost conventual in simplicity, yet became the supple, rounded figure; the waving luxuriant hair, which gleamed with auburn threads here and there, was gather- ed in a knot at time back of the smuall head. There was not an ornament about her; even her fingers were devoid of rings. Sue pos- sessed that individuality which would have made one observe her in a crowd without being able to define the attraction. I sent for you, she repeated, hurriedly, as if losing her coniposure. This is the home of your aunt, Mrs. Meston. So I perceive, rather dryly. He ~vould not help her iu the least. She looked at him almost appealingly. Have you ever made yourself known to her? Have you ever shown her any of the courtesy her age exacts, at least from her kinsumarm ~ What a smoothly modulated voice it was, with a sweet, penetrating inflection, putting these actually iumpertiiment questions to him! Francis Iredell laughed; the humor of the situation overcame him. My dear child, you should deliver lect- ures on etiquette to poor relations. It is a goo(l rule in life to only associate with those one meets on an equality. Such a rule should not hold in families,~ said the girl, in a sombre tone. There more than elsewhere, because ty- rannical distinctions can be made. TIme girl moved closer to him, and laid her hand impulsively on his arm. What do you know about it? What can you know P TIme sudden change in her manner sur- prised him, but before he could speak she had drawn back into her habitual calm. I must explain myself to the best of my poor ability, Mr. Iredell. I took the liberty of sending for you, to try to induce you to remember your duty toward Mrs. Meston. You are kind, ironically. I am not altogether disinterested, she returned, quickly. Let Godfrey Noy be devoted, he said, somewhat bitterly. Why leave every thing to Godfrey Noy? Now that you are here, Mr. Iredell, will you not call this evening? Mrs. Meston cami infer that you are sketching through the country: and not a word about ale, I beo Shall I see you again, if I come ? he in- quired, extending his hand with that mas- culine ernprcssement natural in addressimmg a young woman. A man trn(lged across the slopea burly trami), ragged, dusty, travel-stained, with a bundle slung over his shoulder on a stick. He looked up at the pair ~vith a sullen, fero- cious gaze, in ~vhich was reflected the smoul- dering envy of the vicious poor. He ~vent slowly on, and disappeared with a muttered curse at time sharp stones of the path, which wounded his feet. I do not play a part in the drama at all, said the girl, ignoring the proffered hand, and hastening away up the walk. A trifle l)i(lued by this abrupt leave-tak- ing, Francis Iredehl betook himself to tIme village taverna low white building on tIme street, with a long piazza, a flavor of tobac- co smoke and kerosene oil, and time imposing name of time United States Hotel. At eight oclock he again climbed the hill, at the same time heartily wishing lmiumself at his club instead. 1mm tIme starlight the house was dimly defined omily by illuminated win- dows in different portions of time building; the trees of the avenue, time evergreens on the lawn, were masses of shadow. He was admitted into a marble-paved hall, where a tinted laump swung from time ceiling, reveal- ing large Chmimmese vases, a medallion coat of arms omi time wall, and a circular stairway rounding mmpward as if to smipport statues in niches. He smiled at the coat of arms: his uncle had ma(le a fortune as a master-car- l~enter. In a small parlor, opening on a larger dimly lighted drawimmg-room, sat an 01(1 lady and an old gemmtlemuamm playing b6ziqae, within mmmch lively recriumination as to the points of tIme game. Francis laid down his weapomin of satire on time threshold, as Mrs. Mestomi rose to greet Imim. A master-carpemmter, for- sooth! If shine chmose to play time grande dame, slme filled the rdle remuarkably well. Purple nmoir6 and rich lace may be worn by a hostess to entertain a genthemamin in a wig, if she chooses, especially if shine possesses bright black eyes, strongly marked brows, and puffs of milk-white Imair arranged about a delicate yellow old face. Jewels sparkled in her ears and loaded her thin wrinkled hands. To be sure ! she said, in a high, cracked voice; Francis Iredehl, of all time world! I am glad to see you, my dear, although you 78 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. do not often afford me the pleasure. It is the climate is salubrious, the scenery fine, ten years, if it is a day, since you have given the drives unsurpassed, the lakes most ro- me a civil word. mantic. It has been suggested that no My dear aunt, what possible importance more desirable spot could be selected for can my movements have to you ? he rel)lied, a waterimig - place. Would a fashionable lightly saluting one soft old cheek. hotel or a sanitary retreat be best in your We do not like a Mordecal at our gate, opinion ? Sir. Politeness is cheap to old women. A hotel, said Francis, promptly; then Had I supposed you needed it, I would the invalids could build a house afterward, have come before, he said, quietly. or if the hotel failed, it could be converted Mrs. Meston regarded hini sharply. He into a water-cure. was no longer nit awkward boy blushing at Mrs. Meston skipped up to her nephew her notice, and his very iudepeudeuce of and kissed himmi. bearing pleascd tIme capricious woman. My very words ! she exclaimed. Could she by any means chain him to her The discomfited physician upset the card- chariot wheel table, and became purple in the face in Dr. Slmarpe, immy nephew, Mr. Francis Ire- the eftbrt to recover the pack. Hannah dell. I (lommt know whether he is a genius Lejcune beamed on time new-coiner in the or a lunatic. suddemi radiance of rare beauty: laughter The old gentleman in the wig took off his wrought tIme change, sparkling in the sad spectacles, blue cycs, amid revealing a row of pearly Please remnember that it is my deal, teeth. She l)lace(l her finger archly on her maamn. How are you, Sir I lip. Evidemmtly Francis Iredell had won fa- Where is Hannah? How stupid young vor at court, most unexpectedly to himself. girls are in these days ! His comiscience pricked him when Mrs. Mes- I am here, said a quiet voice from a ton urged 1mm to renmove fromn the tavern, dark corner, and he dechimmed firmly. He felt somehow Miss Lejeune, Francis. hike an impostor, deceiving his aunt as to The girl of the summer-house placed her the object (if his visit, of which lie was, in- hand in his with downcast eyelids. deed, ignorant as well, amid would only prom- Now tell me ho~v it is that Holmocroft ise to remain in Holnicroft another day. is honored by your I)resence, pursued Mrs. Dr. Shmarpe accompanied him down the Meston, with a gayety which suggested an hill. A whimsical person evidemitly, who uncertain temper. had retired from the city world to slumber Francis could not resist stealing a glance away the remnant of existence in seclusion, at Miss Lejeune, who was imiteritly absorbed but who could no more attain the required in drawing worsted through a bit of canvas. somnolency than an electric eel can remain Oh! the country about Holmcroft is imiactive when attacked. The old French- charming, aunt. An artist must gather man may close his days over truffled turkey honey while the sun shines. and. childrens games in a chateau; the 01(1 Mrs. Meston nodded her head in great American, turned farmer, must work, cx- good humor, amid cast a triuniphmant glamice perimnemit, manage the polities of the vil- at her venerable admirer opposite, who lage. looked scornfully incredulous. You have seen Miss Hannah before, I am doing my best to imuprove Hoim- young man ? said Dr. Shmarpe. Dont tell croft, but I meet with oppositiomi at every mime! Theres a girl in a millionsensible, turn. I had to build the railway station active, amid a lady. with my own money, and I battled for two My dear Sir, you are mistaken. I have years before I changed the village name never met Miss Lejeumme before to-day. from Potts Corners to Holincroft. Fancy Themi Francis emitered the tavern, wonder- my letters dated from Potts Corners! Is ing what umanner of girl this was who had the country really pretty, my dear ? sent for hmimn imi such an absurd. fashion, and, Very beautiful, I should say. lighting a cigar, began to draw omi a sheet Mrs. Meston nodded again at Dr. Shmarpe. of paper a black figure, with trees arching You hear that? Hannah, tell Mr. Ire- overhead. dell the two plans. Not a word from you, Hannah Lejeune slipped into time dint doctor. drawing - room, amid lenimed. her forehead It was droll to see tIme two old people against time pane of tIme bug French win- stiffen with repressed. excitememit mis this dow, gazing bhamikly into the darkness be- proposition was made. A faint color stole yond. into the girls cheek, her lips curved into a I like him, perhaps because he is poor, sumile revealing a dimple. Francis decided she murmured. that animation made her almost pretty. She was trying to fathom that nmysterious Holmcroft is considered to possess great abyss of self. No one understood Hammnah advantages by those best acquainted with Lejeumne, and she least of all. She had be- its resources, she began, like a guide-book; thought her of neglected, almost forgotten IN THE GOLD AVENUE. 79 Francis Iredell in a moment of hysterical Do your worst, replied Hannah, flush- (lefiance. The most timid animal will turn ing and trembling. at bay, and Hannah Lejeune had thus turn- I advise you not to force me to extremi- cd on Mrs. Noy and her son, handsome God- ties. You were always a wild girl. I have frey Noy, presumptive heir of Mrs. Mestons only to tell Mrs. Meston that you ran away property. from my house under suspicious circum Two years before, Hannah had run away stances. in the early morning from Mrs. Noys town- Hannah turned white. All the world was house, goaded to the rash act by the in- against her, a penniless, homeless girl, striv- justice of that lady, whose dead husband lag to gain her own independence. Of had l)romised always to shelter and protect course Mrs. Meston would be infected with the orphan niece. Mrs. Noy had been some- this poison of suspicion, and discharge her. what alarmed, but when she discovered thrnt Life at Holnicroft was dreary enough; still, Hannah had fled to her old nurse Bridget, it hind been a safe shelter and she nmust lose and proposed to support herself in some that for Mrs. Noys cruel caprice. Mrs. Noy way, the lady washed her hands of her, said also pondered on the situation, and held her it was all that could be expected of Han- peace. Hannah might be a ladys compan- nabs blood, she being a Lejeune, and de- ion, provided it was not known as a reproach cided it was j uist as well to have a pretty in her own world, and also provided it were girl out of the house before Godfrey return- not at Holmcroft. Still, the girl was an en- ed from his German university. Godfrey emy in this camp, and must be driven off at from early youth had shown a truly lament- any cost. The code of her class is to crush able disposition to fall in love with every and intimidate by insolemice, and Learn to girl he met. The traces of these two years know thine adversary was a rule of subtle were to be read in Hannahs sober blue eyes aumalysis quite beyond Mrs. Noys range of and firm, rather thin lips. There were warm intellect. hearts and a reckless generosity in the little Mrs. Mestons laughing farewell on the din~y room back of Bridgets crockery shop, door-step was, I have made my will, as where the old wonmans nurselimig received mother and soum departed. the best; but Hannah, launching her little Alice said, prinily and sourly, I think fleet of hopes on a stormy tide, saw many of you should have told us you was Mrs. Noys them perish like glass bubbles on the rocks. niece. Three months before Francis met her in the Alice knew, then. Hannah awaited her Gold Avenue she had answered Mrs. Mestons doom; and in the interval of restless anxi- advertisement for a companion, and been ety remembered Francis Iredell, who could received at the Hall only to discover that alone rival the people at Holuicroft. her patroness was a connection of Mrs. As she stood at the window a face sudden- Noys. Hannah awaited the result in si- ly grew on the other side of the panea hence. Godfrey Noy came to visit his aunt, large face with fierce eyes. Alice came in brought his handsome assured self his dog- to close the shutters. cart and groom, his gun and silver-mounted I believe I saw a man, whispered Han- ulressincr~case. The young man perfornmed nah. his duty according to his lights. He flat- Dont tell her, returned Alice. She tered Mrs. Meston, he cajoled Alice, tIme will not sleep a wink for thimiking of rob- maid, with presents, and he flirted with hers. Hannah Lejeune, ignorant of her identity. What do you say? A mans face ! cried The companion trod the rim of her volcano Mrs.Meston, shrilly. Alice, light the lamps. with rebellious pride. She was very neces- We cant be too careful in these dreadful sary to Mrs. Meston, snubbed by Alice, and days of murder and violence. tossed back time ball to Godfrey Noy with a A twinkling lamp was placed in every secret amusement which she strove not to window of time large house, and Mrs. Meston find pain. The inevitable resulted. Mrs. insisted on detaining her two companions in Noy came to see her dear sister-in-law, and her chamber all night, where she sat within fetch away her naughty boy who was so reach of the rope communicating with tIme happy at Holmeroft. great bell. When Holmeroft heard this Hannah commfronted the cold stare of her bell the village was to rush to time rescue, relative, and inhaled again a perfume of for Mrs. Meston was afraid to Imave a man- rose, hateful to her childhood from wound- servant sleep beneath her roof. Shall 1 ing association. Mrs. Noy bowed when in- put time knife to my own throat by admit- troducel, but afterward she pounced on timing one of the wretches I shine would say. Hannah alone. Thus the three lonely women watched. XVhat are you doing here ? she demand- ed, haughtily. 111.THE OPAL STUD. I am Mrs. Mestons companion. What did she mean by telling me about You must go away, said Mrs. Noy, fiximing liner will ? questioned Godfrey Noy, in a her black eyes steadily on the girl. grumbling tone, permissible 1mm ones family. 80 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. That you are her heir, I suppose, dar- ling, said his mother, soothingly. But handsome Godfrey persisted in taking a gloomy view of his prospects, perhaps be- cause he had supped on deviled crabs and Champagne at one oclock that very morn- ing. She may outlive all of us; and ten chances to oue she will finally turii to that artist fellow, Francis Iredell. I dont be- lieve in these old women who last forever! If I only kne~v how matters stood. She keeps her papers in the house, and that girl Hannah mounts guard. Look here! I shall have to cut stick before the races un- less He went out, leaving his mother with a furrowed brow; and he had already made up his mind how to act. This happened on Friday morning, at the very moment when Francis Iredell was strolling in the Gold Avenue with Hannah Lejeune, moved l~y all pleasant and sooth- ing influences; a better man, he told him- self, for the emancipation into a purer at- mosphere. It was another perfect October day, dreamy and soft. His companion fairly sparkled with animation as she showed him Mrs. Mestons favorite views; but he return- ed again to the maple walk, striving to transmute something of the mellow radi- ance of color to his own memory, even as he studied the face beside him, to which ex- pression was as a magicians wand. As for Hannah, this was her one holiday out of life, and she enjoyed it almost des- ~)erately, in the belief that she would never have another. She regarded Francis Iredell with a curious sort of pride, and thrilled with delight at every clever anecdote told by him, every bonmot in tilt with Mrs. Mes- ton, who delighted in repartee. Had she not brought him to Holmcroft? Was he not more worthy of Mrs. Mestons regard in every way than was Godfrey Noy? There was a second evening at the Hall, where Dr. Sharpe, in his brown wig, appear- ed punctually, and Mrs. Meston was as co- quettisli in her rich attire as a girl. Han- nah could not determine ~vhether Mrs. Noy had written about herself or not, but she felt that electric foreboding which often precedes a great change. Certainly Mrs. Meston must search a long while before she replaced this companion, who read aloud well, made all the dainty trifles of needle- work that great ladies like to bestow on their friends, and traced by intuition the meaning of those patterns sent into the country for the benefit of dress-making womankind. She saves me two or three hundred a year by her taste in trimming, Mrs. Meston had said to Mrs. Noy; but it had not occurred to her to add the sum to Hannahs slender salary. Francis Iredell was charming. His heart really warmed to the people who received him so kindly, although his curiosity was not yet fully satisfied as to Hannahs motive in sending for him; and he brought to the country-house that atmosphere of interest which can only be imparted by those out in the world, who gather crumbs from many sources of public gossip. Hannah listened with parted lips and changing color. Did not Othellos periods become umore eloquent and flowery for the attention of Desdemona, think you I The day had not been without excitement in the society of a ~vinning girl. Francis Iredell had not indulged in a simni- lar luxury for years. He was a poor Bohe- mian; yet if he could afford to marry, his ideal wife was not unlike Hannah, in her broad straw hat, with a knot of red berries on her breast. The t~vo gentlemen again walked down the bill together, and in sentimental mood Dr. Sharpe told his coml)anioli of his pro- found admiration for Mrs. Meston. I think we might get married, quite in a sensible way, of course, said the doctor, pensively, only I can not give up my place, and she will not leave the Hall. Restlessness pursued the artist to the gloomy tavern. He never composed him- self to sleep before two oclock, and here was Holmcroft sleeping soundly at ten. He wandered down the village street without purpose, and then the fancy impelled him to climb to the sunimer-house where he first saw Hannah Lejeune, and evolve in the stillness and darkness the picture which haunted him. The imight was warm. He stretched himself on the seat conifortably. Not a soul stirred abroad; he was the soli- tary watcher. His cigar went out. Reverie may have merged imito stupor, when he was aroused to full consciousness. Mrs. Mestons bell was sending forth a wild, startling peal through the night. Alice, the maid, slept in a room connect- ed by a passage with Mrs. Mestons chamber. Alice, most prim and exacting of privileged servants, had betaken herself to rest on this night with more alacrity froma having spemit the previous one in an arm-chair, owing to the face seen at the window by Hammnah. She was aroused from heavy sleep by a slight noise in her closet. Its the Maltese cat. Poor puss ! Alice opened the closet, and confronted a manthe blood-curdling fulfillment of the household dreadburly, ragged, fierce in aspect. The candle dropped as Alice sank on her knees. A ring of cold steel pressed her temple, a hoarse voice spoke in her ear, a lmeavy hand grasped her shoulder. Wheres the silver kept? Scream, and Ill Mercy ! groaned cowering Alice. The box is in the passage-way.~~ IN THE GOLD AVENUE. She thought her moment had come. She was lifted into the closet, and the key turn- e(l on her. The tramp groped his way into the passage. As he did so the door of Mrs. Mestons room was closed softly and bolted in his very face. He waited in silence. A thread of light crossed Hannahs eye- lids, and waked her. A man stood beside her with a crape mask concealing his feat- ures. The girl felt the fate of the house in her hands: she swooned away, to all ap- pearance, and her flesh did not shrink when he lifted one nerveless arm, and suffered it ~o fall again, as if to assure himself of her unconsciousness. Thought does not revive more vividly with the drowning than it did with Hannah Lejeune at that perilous mo- ment. The intruder was searching for some- hing in the sandal-wood box on her bureau, where she kept Mrs. Mestons keys. What did he know about that particular box 0? Gathering all her courage for the effort, she made one spring to the open door, tore the key from the lock, closed, and locked it outside. It was the work of a moment. Clasping the door-knob she paused, expect- ant, in the almost palpable darkness of the hall, for unknown hands to seize her. How many robbers were in the house? The si- fence was terrible. She guided herself to Mrs. Mestons door, which was also wide open. Where were Mrs. Meston and Alice? She dared not whisper, but one fierce re- solve possessed her; she must gain the bell- cord, and sound the alarm for which Holm- croft had waited, with many a scoff, all these years. As her fingers closed over it, a heavy blow fell on the door leading to Alices room. Open this door, or it will be wuss for ye, said a savage voice. Hannah pulled the cord violently, then fled, just as the prisoner in her own room put his foot through the panel of the locked door with a rending crash. If he found her! Shrinking along the wall as if im- ploring the very house to shield her, in cold dread and terror she crouched in the space behind the tall clock. The pursuer came straight on. She felt her limbs stiffen; her brain was on fire; the dull ringing of in- numerable voices sounded in her ears; then she believed herself dead, beneath the pall of some indefinable horror. Francis Iredell, hastening up the Gold Avenue, now all darkness, encountered a man in full shock. There was a rush, a struggle, then the man had vanished, leav- ing a heavy box in his astonished antago- nists arms. The report of a gun made him hurry on. A second shape ran toward him, evidently in flight: Francis dropped the box and seized him. No, my fine fellow, I have you fast, he ~exclaimed. The second man was slight and supple. voL. LITNo. 307.6 Si Is it Francis Ircdcll ? Let me go, for Gods sake Godfrey Noy ! ejaculated Francis. Well, Sir, your pal has escaped My pal 0? iiiterposed Godfrey, haughtily. Do you take me for a thief? I am alone. and I have been playing the fool, trying to see the old ladys will. Quick! dont betray me. Go! I shall know where to find you, said Francis, sternly, recovering the box. Dr. Sliarpe had fired the gnu ami lost his man. When he recognized Francis lie in- sisted on discharging the weapon down the avenue again, in great excitement, until his companion diverted him. We must go into the house, he said, and both men felt a little thrill of fear. An affrighted cook and a house-maid re- sponded from a window of the wing, and utterly refused to come down to open a door. How did they know what had hap- pened? Francis hroke in one of the win- dows, and the two gentlemen entered. Mrs. Meston was discovered sitting up in her bed, she having extricated herself from the folds of her own India shawl, in which she had been well-nigh smothered. A burglar with crape over his face had awakened her; she had struggled to rise, when he enveloped her in the great shawl. Mrs. Meston, wild and disheveled, held something fast clutch- ed in her hand, which she raised to the light. It was a fragment of linen, with an opal stud of curious workmanship attached. Inside was the inscription: Godfrey Noy, 1870. I gave it to him, she said, and lay back on her pillow without another word. Sunset again over the purple hills; Fran- cis Iredell and Hannah Lejeune lingering in the summer-house. Mrs. Meston caine slow- ly down the Gold Avenue with Dr. Sharpe. Children, he cried, in his brisk, chirping voice, she has accepted me as the best of hurglar protectors. Mrs. Meston had never appeared so grave and dignified; the sunset gleamed on her dress and jewels. I am not a great match: I have heen making another will, and it is best we should all understand that Hannah Lejeune is my heiress.~~ No, no, exclninied the girl, quickly, in a pained tone. You do not know what I have done. Godfrey is my cousin. My dear, I know more than you imagine. I repeat, Hannah Lejeune is my heiress provided she marries to suit me. With that she laid her hand on the shoul- der of Francis Iredell. I have been here but two days, said the young man, musingly; and then he looked eagerly into Hannahs shy, reluctant eyes. Showers of leaves fell softly in the Gold Avenue. HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. THE FIRST CENTURY OF THE REPUBLIC. [Jjourteeutb 3paper.] THE PROGRESS OF THE EXACT SCIEN CES.L I ityof intellect, and singularly practical N any review of the progress of science turn of mind at once commanded apprecia durincr the first centnry of the repub- tion, anti secured to him a position which lie, the period which lies between the dec- enabled him to achieve a noble reputation laration of independence aud the close of not only as an efficient administrative offi- the eighteenth century may, without dau- cer and a zealous philanthropist, but also as ger of any important omission, be passed an original and sagacious scientific investi- over in silence. There were men, it is true, gator. To Rumford belongs the iaimortal in the colonies and in the newly emanci- honor of having boldly announced, before pated States whose native abilities and dis- the close of the eighteenth century, a truth tinguished attainments as astronomers or which the world was not very ready to re- physicists won for them a reputation which ceive till near the middle of the nineteenth, in their time reached to other lands, and a truth which lies at the foundation of the which has since come down to us; but mechanical theory of heat, and through that these, though they were masters, were not theory leads to the grandest generalization originators, and their names are but mci- in the history of sciencethe truth that dentally connected with the history of sci- heat is a mode of motion. Now that this ence. Of this class David Rittenhouse is truth has come to be as universally admit- an honorable example. His scientific activ- ted as it was then questioned, Anierica may ity is illustrated in his numerous communi- be justly proud that its discovery was made cations to the American Philosophical So- by one of her own sons. ciety, of which he was a member, and in the That the government of the United States, presidency of which he succeeded Franklin though it has as yet made no systematic and communications which display not only permanent provision for promoting scientific a powerful but also a remarkably versatile investigation, has not been wanting in lib- niind; and his singular ingenuity and cx- erality when solicited to lend its occasional traordinary mechanical skill are attested by aid to special objects of scientific interest, his orreries, still to be seen in the College of will be evident when we call to mind the New Jersey and the University ofPennsylva- Wilkes exploring expedition of 1838, the nia, which, according to the account given Lynch Dead Sea exploration of 1848, the in the Transactions of the Philosophical solar parallax expedition under Gilliss in Society, show the movements of the heav- 1849, the expedition of the Polaris in 1871, enly bodies for a period of five thousand and the more recent provision for the dis- years, and their positions in each year, patch of parties to distant parts of the month, day, and hour, with such accuracy world to observe the transit of Venus of as not in all this time to differ sensibly from 1874. But besides these instances, in which those given by the astronomical tables. the advancement of science for its own sake Toward the close of the century the cele- has been the exclusive aim of Congressional brated Priestley, whose discoveries entitle appropriations, many other examples may him to a high place among the original in- be mentioned in which legislation has been vestigators of his day, made our country his indirectly favorable to the same end. The home; but as the successes to which his Coast Survey is, from the necessity of things, fame is due were achieved before he left his a scientific institution and a school for train- native country, and as his later years were ing scientific men. The same is true of the mainly occupied with the profitless task of public survey of the great lakes, of the defending a now long exploded theory, which boundary commissions, of the exploring cx- his own discoveries had already rendered in- peditions in the heart of the continent, of defensible, and which his contemporaries the Naval Observatory, of the Nautical Al- were every where even then abandoning, he manac Office, and of the special commissions can not be counted as having materially from time to time created for investigating contributed to the advancement of science experimentally certain questions regarded in America. Another illustrious name be- as practical, which have nevertheless im- longs to this time, which should have been portant scientific relations, such as the heat ours, but which was lost to us by influences _______________________________ not wholly unlike those which gained us Ba Priestley. Benjamin Thompson, afterward tion; con and Locke, it is true, spoke of heat as hut with them the view was a pure hypothesis; Count of Rumford, was an American who with Rumford it was a demonstrated certainty. Speak- early in life abandoned a home and a coun- ing of the paper in which it was comniunicated to the try which his fellow-citizens had made in- Royal Society, Professor Tyndall says: Rumford in this memoir annihilated the material theory of heat. tolerable. Received into the service of a Nothing on the suhject more powerful has since heeii foreign prince, his force of character, activ- written.

F. A. P. Barnard, LL.D. Barnard, F. A. P., LL.D. The Progress of the Exact Sciences 82-100

HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. THE FIRST CENTURY OF THE REPUBLIC. [Jjourteeutb 3paper.] THE PROGRESS OF THE EXACT SCIEN CES.L I ityof intellect, and singularly practical N any review of the progress of science turn of mind at once commanded apprecia durincr the first centnry of the repub- tion, anti secured to him a position which lie, the period which lies between the dec- enabled him to achieve a noble reputation laration of independence aud the close of not only as an efficient administrative offi- the eighteenth century may, without dau- cer and a zealous philanthropist, but also as ger of any important omission, be passed an original and sagacious scientific investi- over in silence. There were men, it is true, gator. To Rumford belongs the iaimortal in the colonies and in the newly emanci- honor of having boldly announced, before pated States whose native abilities and dis- the close of the eighteenth century, a truth tinguished attainments as astronomers or which the world was not very ready to re- physicists won for them a reputation which ceive till near the middle of the nineteenth, in their time reached to other lands, and a truth which lies at the foundation of the which has since come down to us; but mechanical theory of heat, and through that these, though they were masters, were not theory leads to the grandest generalization originators, and their names are but mci- in the history of sciencethe truth that dentally connected with the history of sci- heat is a mode of motion. Now that this ence. Of this class David Rittenhouse is truth has come to be as universally admit- an honorable example. His scientific activ- ted as it was then questioned, Anierica may ity is illustrated in his numerous communi- be justly proud that its discovery was made cations to the American Philosophical So- by one of her own sons. ciety, of which he was a member, and in the That the government of the United States, presidency of which he succeeded Franklin though it has as yet made no systematic and communications which display not only permanent provision for promoting scientific a powerful but also a remarkably versatile investigation, has not been wanting in lib- niind; and his singular ingenuity and cx- erality when solicited to lend its occasional traordinary mechanical skill are attested by aid to special objects of scientific interest, his orreries, still to be seen in the College of will be evident when we call to mind the New Jersey and the University ofPennsylva- Wilkes exploring expedition of 1838, the nia, which, according to the account given Lynch Dead Sea exploration of 1848, the in the Transactions of the Philosophical solar parallax expedition under Gilliss in Society, show the movements of the heav- 1849, the expedition of the Polaris in 1871, enly bodies for a period of five thousand and the more recent provision for the dis- years, and their positions in each year, patch of parties to distant parts of the month, day, and hour, with such accuracy world to observe the transit of Venus of as not in all this time to differ sensibly from 1874. But besides these instances, in which those given by the astronomical tables. the advancement of science for its own sake Toward the close of the century the cele- has been the exclusive aim of Congressional brated Priestley, whose discoveries entitle appropriations, many other examples may him to a high place among the original in- be mentioned in which legislation has been vestigators of his day, made our country his indirectly favorable to the same end. The home; but as the successes to which his Coast Survey is, from the necessity of things, fame is due were achieved before he left his a scientific institution and a school for train- native country, and as his later years were ing scientific men. The same is true of the mainly occupied with the profitless task of public survey of the great lakes, of the defending a now long exploded theory, which boundary commissions, of the exploring cx- his own discoveries had already rendered in- peditions in the heart of the continent, of defensible, and which his contemporaries the Naval Observatory, of the Nautical Al- were every where even then abandoning, he manac Office, and of the special commissions can not be counted as having materially from time to time created for investigating contributed to the advancement of science experimentally certain questions regarded in America. Another illustrious name be- as practical, which have nevertheless im- longs to this time, which should have been portant scientific relations, such as the heat ours, but which was lost to us by influences _______________________________ not wholly unlike those which gained us Ba Priestley. Benjamin Thompson, afterward tion; con and Locke, it is true, spoke of heat as hut with them the view was a pure hypothesis; Count of Rumford, was an American who with Rumford it was a demonstrated certainty. Speak- early in life abandoned a home and a coun- ing of the paper in which it was comniunicated to the try which his fellow-citizens had made in- Royal Society, Professor Tyndall says: Rumford in this memoir annihilated the material theory of heat. tolerable. Received into the service of a Nothing on the suhject more powerful has since heeii foreign prince, his force of character, activ- written. THE FIRST CENTURY OF THE REPUBLIC. 83 developed in the combustion of coal, the te- nacity, rigidity, and other useful qualities of different descriptions of iron and steel, the causes producing the explosions of steam- boilers, and others of like character. Though we can attempt no history of sci- entific associations or organizations, there is one exception which may properly be made to this rule. The Smithsonian Institution is an organization unique in its character, which for the past thirty years has held a peculiar relation to the science of the coun- try, of which it has been , also, one of the most powerful promoters. In the language of the will of its founder, an English gentle- man of wealth who had never visited this country, it has for its large and liberal ob- ject the increase and diffusion of knowl- edge among men. The fund from which it derives its revenue is bequeathed in trust to the United States of America, and its affairs are administered by a Board of Regents ap- pointed principally by the Senate. During the infancy of the institution there was at one time danger that, instead of being made an instrumentality for the increase of knowl- edge by the encouragement of original re- search, it would become merely a depository of objects of interest in natural history or archuology, and of books of general litera- ture, exhausting itself thus in the creation of a museum and a library. To this it was proposed to add a show of diffusing knowl- edge by means of popular lectures delivered annually in Washinuton during the winter. Such lectures were, in fact, given down to about 1860; bnt the danger menaced by the other part of the project was averted by the earnest zeal and conclusive logic with which the purposes of the founder were set forth and defended by the able secretary of the institution, Professor Joseph Henry. Thus for a long period of years the institution has employed all its available income in defray- ing, in whole or (n part, the expense of orig- inal investigations, and in publishing the results of these, and of any others independ- ently made which, after careful examination by expert judges, have appeared to be sub- stantially valuable contributions to knowl- edge. Under the title of Smithsonian Con- tributions to Knowledge there have now been published nineteen large quarto volumes, embracing elaborate monographs on a large variety of subjects in exact science, in nat- ural history, in ethnology, and in linguistics, including among theni the important astro- nomical researches of Walker, Newcomb, and Stockwell, the ingenious discussions of rotary motion by General Barnard, the elab- orate investigations of terrestrial magnetism by Bache, the grammar and vocabulary of the Dakota language by Riggs, and the explorations of the North American earth mounds by Squier and Davis. In addition to its usefulness in provoking scientific research, of which it would be dif- ficult to measure the value, the institution has also fulfilled, and is now fulfilling, a most important function in acting as the organ of a widely extended system of scien- tific exchanges between our own and foreign countries. Its correspondents and agents are scattered every where throughout the civilized world. Plants, minerals, books specimens in natnral history, objects of ar- cha~ological interestevery thing, in short, which belongs to the material, or is service- able for the illustration, of science is through its instrumentality expeditiously forwarded to the remotest destination, without any ex- pense, except that which attends the local delivery, to sender or receiver. No such agency any where else exists. The degree to which it is promotive of scientific activ- ity, not only by stimulating individual ef- fort, but by bringing distant individuals into frequent communication with each oth- er, and inducing systematic co-operation, need hardly be insisted on. In the pure mathematics our country has an honorable, if not a very extensive, rec- ord. In this honorable record no name stands higher than that of Nathaniel Bow- ditch, whose voluminous and lucid commen- tary on the Mi6canique Celeste of Laplace not only eclipsed the multitude of his previous admirable performances, but drew from ana- lysts and physical astronomers of the highest eminence abroad most enthusiastic expres- sions of commendation. Professor Benjamin Peirce, of Harvard University, a pupil and friend of Bowditch, still in the vigor of life, stands hardly second to his master in the originality and value of his contributions to mathematical literature. His Analytic Me- chanics, which is professedly an attempt to consolidate thelatest researches and the most exalted forms of thought of the great geom- eters into a consistent and uniform treatise, is more than it professes to be. It is rather an attemptsuccessfully accomplishedto carry back the fundamental principles of the science to a more profound and central origin, and thence to shorten the path to the most fruitful forms of research. The most remarkable and most original of Pro- fessor Peirces publications is the descrip- tion of a new mathematical method, called by him Linear Associative Algebra. This method scents to be a step in the direction of quaternions, but a larger one. It there- fore oversteps the power of human concep- tion to grasp its essence, while its visible ma- chinery is algebraic, and in the modes of its use it has analogies both with algebra and with quaternions. The method is of too re- cent origin to have been largely developed in its capabilities or tested in its applica- tions. Of other eminent mathematicians whose labors deserve a more extended notice our S4 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. limits allow but a mere mention. The alge- bra of Professor Theodore Strong, the mein- oir on Musical Temperament by Professor A. M. Fisher, the essay of Professor A. D. Stanley on the Calculus of Variations,~~ Professor Pattersons Calculus of Opera- tions, Professor Newtons memoirs on ques- tions of higher geometry and on transcend- ental curves, General Alvords Tangencies of Circles and Spheres, General Barnards Theory of the Gyroscope and Problems in Rotary Motion, Professor Ferrels Con- verging Series, and his investigation of the movements of the atmosphere, are all valuable contributions to mathematical sci- ence; and this list might easily be greatly enlarged. ASTRONOMY. There are several distinct departments of astronomical science which are often pur- sued independently of each other. The eld- er Herschel occupied himself chiefly with discovery; Tycho Brahe, with the accurate determination of the places of known ob- jects; and the same is true in general of the practical astronomers of the present day. Our gifted countryman, Mitchell, was especially interested in devising new meth- ods of observation and record; our esteem- ed fellow-citizen, Mr. Rutherfurd, with the application of photography to astronomy. Some astronomers, like Newton, Lagrange, and Laplace at an earlier period, or like Ad- ams, Leverrier~ Peirce, Newcomb, and Stock- well in our own time, have engaged in the theoretic investigation of the laws of celes- tial motion, and of the action of the heavenly bodies on each other. Othersand the num- ber is large, including at present De in Rue, Huggins, Lockyer, Faye, and Seechi abroad, and Young, H. Draper, and Langley among ourselveshave been busied in the fascina- ting study of solar and stellar physics. Fi- nally, comets and shooting-stars, and the re- cently detected connection betWeen these two seemingly very different classes of bod- ies, have been a subject of long-continued study, fruitful of interesting result s,toa series of observers, among whom are most prominent at present Professor Schi aparelli, of Milan, and Professor Newton, of our own country. In connection with discorei-y, an interest- ing chapter might be written on the his- tory of the agencies to which discoveries are mainly due, that is, of observatoriesa history which the limitation of our space necessarily excludes. Half a century ago such a thing as an astronomical observato- ry was unknown in the United States. At present the number is considerably greater than the necessity. Though the work of the observatory is the basis on which the theory of the existing universe must rest, it is not a work which needs to be indefinitely repeated. With the very superior instru- ments which the skill of recent times has furnished, a few observatories, judiciously distributed over the earths surface, are all that the physical astronomer requires. There are at present in the United States not fewer than thirty astronomical obser- vatories, probably more. If so many had been needed, they would still in many cases have been founded in vain, since no suitable provision has accompanied their erection for maintaining them subsequently in use. Some of them, connected with the colleges of the country, have, perhaps, been made sufficiently useful for purposes of instruc- tion to justify their erection; but it is per- fectly clear that the founders in general have been laboring under the delusion that an observatory when once brought into ex- istence will somehow work itself. It has accordingly happened that, except in the case of the Naval Observatory, at Washing- ton, that of Harvard University, amid, in its earlier period, that of the Cincinnati Obser- vatory, the responsibility for the use of the instruments, provided at great expense in these various establishments, has fallen upon men overburdened with heavy duties as in- structors, occupying the greater part of their time by day, and remidering continuous sys- tematic observation by night physically un- possible. Notwithstanding these disadvan- tages, several of the gentlemen here referred to have found time in the midst of their dis- tractions to render so signal services to as- tronomical science as to connect their names permanently with tIme history of its prog- ress. There exists, however, no adequate provision, and in general no provision at all, for the training of observers and the support of observations ; and hence much of this costly apparatus has been hitherto com- paratively useless for tIme purposes of prac- tical astronomy. Still less has there been a provision for what is now the most urgent necessity of the sciencethe encouragement and maintenance of a class of astronomers of a superior order of scientific culture, de- voted to the study and reconstruction of theory. This is a consideration to which the benefactors of this noblest of sciences, who have provided it with so many instru- ments of magnificent proportions as monu- ments of their liberality speaking to the eye, would do wisely in the future to turn their attention. Some of the most interesting of the as- tronomical discoveries of the century have been due to the keen-sightedness of Aimieri- can observers. The great telescope of the Cambridge Observatory was mounted in the summer of 1847. On the 16th day of Sep- tember, 1848, it was the means of rendering for the first time visible to human eyes the eighth satellite of the planet Saturnthe eighth in the order of discovery, though the THE FIRST CENTURY OF THE REPUBLIC. 85 seventh in the order of distance from the planet. Five satellites of this planet had been discovered in the seventeenth century; two more, very close to the ring, were seen in 1789 by Sir William Herschel, who, as ii- lustrated in this example and in several others, seems to have been endowed with an almost preternatural keenness of vision; but his observations were not confirmed un- til bis son, more than forty years after (1836), rediscovered one of them, and caught a sin- gle doubtful glimpse of the other. Ten years later (1846) Mr. Lassell, of Liverpool, recovered the remaining one. The new sat- ellite discovered by the Messrs. Bond is faint- er than either of these two extremely diffi- cult objects, though more distant from the planet than any other, except that known as lapetus. Between this satellite and Ti- tan, the next interior, a wide gap had been noticed to exist, Titan revolving around the primary in a little less than sixteen days, and lapetus in more than seventy- nine. Bonds satellite, which has received the name Hyperion, has a period of a little over twenty-one days, so that it is compar- atively near to Titan, and leaves still a large seemingly unoccupied space between itself and lapetus. It is remarkable that Hype- non was noticed by Mr. Lassell on the 18th of September, only two days after its dis- covery by Bond. The most wonderful object in the uni- verse, as well to the physical astronomer as to the observer who surveys the heavens only for the gratification of his curiosity, is the double or multiple ring surrounding the planet Saturn. The ring is certainly dou- ble, a wide space, through which in one or two instances fixed stars have been seen, separating the inner, broader, and brighter from tbe outer, narrower, and less bright. Some very good observers have occasionally noticed what appeared to be lines of divis- ion in the breadth of both these rings, and these appearances, together with the deduc- tions of theory as to the conditions neces- sary to the stability of the system, have led to the general belief that the rings are not rigid solids. Until the year 1850, however, only two rings had been suspected to exist, unless by occasional and temporary subdi- vision. But on the 11th of November in that year there was noticed by the Messrs. Bond a shadowy appearance interior to the broad ring, which led them to suspect the existence of a third and almost nebulous ring, having a breadth about two-thirds as great as that of the narrow or outer ring. Subsequent observations confirmed them in tbis belief; and the same appearances were later noticed by Dawes and Lassell in En- gland. An interesting question hereupon arose as to whether this dusky ring was of recent formation, or had been noticed but not understood before. It was ascertained that Galle had mentioned appearances of a similar kind in a memoir published in 1838; and Father Seechi testified that such had been noticed in the observatory at Rome as early as 1828. Mr. Otto Struve also adduced evidences from the observations of J. Cas- sini in 1715, and those of Halley in 17~20 and 1723, that the obscure ring had been no- ticed by those observers, and assumed by them to be a belt upon the planet itself Mr. Struve created some excitement in the astronomical world by stating that on a comparison of the measurements of the ap- parent distance between the inner edge of the broad bright ring and the planets disk made by his father in 1826 and by himself in 1851, together with an examination of similar measurements by Huyghens, Cas- sini, Bradley, Herschel, Eucke, and Galle, he was satisfied that the inner edge of the bright ring is gradually approaching the planet, while the total breadth of the two rings is constantly increasing. This propo- sition was too startling to meet with ready acceptance by astronomers generally, and lip to the present time the question remains where Struve left it, with, however, an ap- parently growing disposition to accept his conclusions. If it is true that the ring is slowly subsiding toward the planet, the hy- pothesis is not without plausibility that Bends dusky ring may be composed of loosely scattered fragments, which, from causes possible to assign, have been accel- erated in their descent beyond the general mass. The astronomical discovery next in inter- est deserving mention, as an American con- tribution to science during the century, was remarkably enough made in the immediate neighborhood of the observatory which the successes of the Messrs. Bond had already made famous. Mr. Alvan Clark had just completed the great telescope of eighteen and a half inches designed for the Univer- sity of Mississippi, and now at Chicago, when on the night of January 31, 1862, his son, Mr. Alvan G. Clark, directing the instru- ment toward Sirius, the brightest of the fixed stars, detected almost in contact with it a minute point of light which he recog- nized immediately as a companion star. Curiously enough, a well-founded suspicion had long been entertained that this star is double. Minute as are the annual proper motions of the fixed stars in the heavens, they are in general uniform and well ascer- tained. Bnt the motion of Sirius was long ago discovered by Bessel to be affected by an irregularity such as would be produced l)y the action of some other body revolving with it around a common centre. The or- bit of the imaginary attendant star had, in fact, been inferred by Peters, of Altona, and Safiord, then of the Cambridge Observatory. No scrutiny with instruments then existing 86 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. had, however, been successful in detecting or even a few hours later on the same night. this attendant, when the newly finished The first American astronomer to detect an glass of Mr. Clark made it visible without asteroid previously unknown was Mr. James effort. After its discovery it was s~en with Ferguson, of the Naval Observatory, by whom the Harvard equatorial and others of less the thirty-first of the series, now known as power; but the 9k-inch Munich glass of the Euphrosyne, was found on September 1, Naval Observatory has never shown it. This 1854. Two others were subsequently dis- admirable discovery, or more properly the coveted by him, making three in all. Be- construction of a glass capable of making a sides these, there have been discovered one discovery so difficult, was rewarded by the by Searle, two by Tuttle, sixteen by Watson, Academy of Sciences of France by the pres- and twenty-two by Peters, making a total entation to Mr. Clark of the Lalande Medal of forty-four, all discovered within a period a prize annually decreed to the author of of about twenty years. the most interesting discovery of the year. Practical AstronomyThe automatic reg- Several comets have been discovered by Istration of time observations by means of American astronomers, among which may electro - magnetism is an improvement in be mentioned, the first of 1846, discovered practical astronomy due to American inge- February 26, 1846, by William C. Bond, of unity. The merit of its first suggestion has which the elliptic elements were determined been somewhat in dispute, but the earliest l)y Peirce, giving a period of ninety-five experimental demonstration of its feasibil- years. The comet known by the name of ity was certainly made by Professor John Miss Maria Mitchell was first seen by her on Locke, of Cincinnati, who in 1848 intro- October 1, 1847, at her private observatory duced a clock provided with a suitable in Nantucket. Two days later it was also mechanism into the circuit of the electric seen by De Vico at Rome, and Mr. H. P. telegraph between Cinciiinati and Pitts- Tuttle at Cambridge. The comet 1862, III., burg. The distance is four hundred miles, which was discovered by Mr. Tuttle July and the experiment was continned for two 18, 1862, and by Mr. Thomas Simons, of Al- hours, during which the beats were regu- bany, on the same evening, but later, be- larly registered at every station through- longs to the August stream of meteoroids. out the whole line. The application to An interestin~, fact in regard to Miss Mitch- astronomical observations immediately fol- elis comet is that, four days after its discov- lowed. In recognition of the value of this cry, it passed centrally over a fixed star of invention, Congress awarded to Dr. Locke the fifth magnitude without in the slightest the sum of ten thousand dollars, and or- degree obscuring it. For a brief time the dered a clock of the same description to star was, in fact, so truly in the centre of be constructed for the Naval Observatory. the nebulosity that it appeared like the As a recording instrument, the ordinary tel- proper nucleus of the comet. egraphic register of Professor Morse was Of the swarm of minute planets which at first employed. More convenient forms occupy the place between Mars and Jupi- of apparatus were subsequently devised by ter, where the law of Bode indicates a mem- Professor Mitchell,Mr. Joseph Saxton, of the ber of the solar system to be missing, about Coast Survey, and Messrs. W. C. and George one-third have been discovered by American P. Bond, who introduced the regulator which observers. It is remarkable that all of this has since been so almost universally eni- numerous group, now amounting to no few- ployed in these instruments, known as er than 146, belong to the nineteenth centu- Bonds spring governor. More recently ry, the first to be detected having been dis- (1871) a l)rillting chronograph has been in- covered on the evening of the first day of vented by Professor George W. Hough, of the century, January 1, 1801, by Piazzi, at the Dudley Observatory, which records to Palermo. Three others were discovered the nearest tenth of a second, and saves to within the seven years next succeeding, the observer who employs it the labor and after which nearly forty years elapsed with- time required for deciphering and record- out adding to the number. Up to the close ing in figures the indications of the regis- of 1850 the total number known amounted ter in common use. The electro-magnetic to thirteen only. Within the twenty-five method of recording transits was adopted years which have since elapsed there have without delay in the observatories of the been discovered 133 more, or about five per United States, and soon after found its way annum. It is to be observed that discovery into those of Great Britain and the conti- in recent years has been ~reatly facilitated nent of Europe, where it was known as the by the Berlin star maps and other celestial American method. Of its great value in charts, in which every star down to the promotiiig accuracy it is not necessary to ninth magnitude is set down. When an oh- speak; but only those who have had expe- ject is seen which is not in the map, there- rience in observation can adequately ap- fore, the probability is great that it is an as- preciate the degree to which it has lighten- teroid, and the question will be settled by a ed the labor of the observer. Previously to second observation on the following night, its introduction the clock divided with the THE FIRST CENTURY OF THE REPUBLIC. 87 object viewed the observers attention, and the necessity for unceasing vigilance was exhausting in the extreme. If nothing else had been gained by it but this, the benefit would be incalculable. The introduction of the electric chrono- graph into observatories furnished a very simple means of determining differences of longitude between any two places connect- ed by a telegraphic wire. These determi- nations are made by comparing the exact times of transit of a given celestial object over the meridians of both places, a single clock giving the times for both, or by trans- mittin,, time signals alternately in opposite directions compared with the clocks at both ends. The earliest observations of this kind were made in January, 1849, between Wash- ington and Cambridge, Massachusetts. The method has since been brought into very extensive use throughout the world. In 1867, and again in 1871 and in 1872, it was employed to determine the difference of longitude between Greenwich and Wash- in~ton, by means, in the first instance, of the Anglo-American cable, and, in the sec- ond and third, of the French, from Brest to St. Pierre, and Danbury, Massachusetts. In observing for longitude, the velocity of propagation of electric impulses in the wires of the circuit becomes a matter re- quiring attention, and thus the telegraph has become the means of throwing light upon this interesting question in physics. Impro~ernent of Instrnrnen ts.Until about 1850 the observatories of the United States were furnished with instruments of foreign manufacture exclusively. Since that time the telescopes of American opticians have rivaled, if they have not surpassed, in ex- cellence those of the most celebrated con- structors of the Old World. The l2Pinch equatorial of the Michigan University is one of many admirable instruments produced by Mr. Henry Fitz, of New York, an ingen- ious artisan, who was removed by a prema- ture death just as his reputation had been firmly established, and as he was preparing for a bolder attempt than any of those in which he had been previously so successful the construction of an objective of twen- ty - four inches aperture. Mr. Charles A. Spencer, of Canastota, New York, in the year 1848 suddenly acquired an extraordinary celebrity for superior skill in constructing objectives for microscopes. Having proved himself to be without a superior in this field, he turned his attention to the con- struction of telescopes with a success no less signal. One of the most remarkable examples on record of a career commenced without previous preparation, rather late in life, in a most difficult art, and leading in the end to the highest eminence, is to be found in the history of Mr. Alvan Clark, whose latest achievement has been the con- struction of the grand 26- inch objective erected in 1873 in the Naval Observatory at Washington. Mr. Clarks superior merit as an optician was recognized by the very skill- ful observer, Rev. W. R. Dawes, of Hadden- ham, England, some years before it was gen- erally known to his own countrymen; but the work by which he first attained the as- sured celebrity which he now enjoys wa~ the construction, in 1860 and 1861, of the magnificent telescope of 1& i inches aper- ture, for the observatory of the University of Mississippi, then under the direction of the writer of this article, which the troubles of the times diverted from its destination, and which was subsequently erected at the observatory of Chicago. Some of the most successful constructors of astronomical instruments in our country are to be found among the astronomers themselves. Mr. Lewis M. Rutherfurd, of New York, is the originator of a depart- ment of practical astronomy requiring the use of instruments specially adapted to its purposes; and as the most expeditious and satisfactory mode of providing these instru- ments, he resolved to construct them him- selL His idea was to make photography subservient to the uses of astronomy, and especially of uranography. Considering how rare are the occasions in which atmospheric conditions are altogether favorable to the observation of difficult objects in the heav- ens, and how large is the necessary con- sumption of time in making measurements of position and distance between the objects observed, it occurred to him that if these favorable opportunities should be seized to make exact photographic maps of the groups under examination, measurements of these maps might take the place of direct meas- urements of the stars, and that thus a single evening might be made productive of results as numerous and valuable as those obtained in many months in the ordinary course of observation. His first attempts at a prac- tical realization of this idea were made with a reflecting telescope, for the reason that a parabolic speculum is free from aberration both of color and figure. The Cassegrainian form was adopted, as best suited to the pur- pose; but the tremors produced by passing street vehicles were so largely magnified by the double reflection in this instrument that he was soon compelled to abandon it for the refractor. A little experience, however, taught him that the refracting telescopes in common use, whatever their degree of excel- lence for purely optical purposes, would not furnish him celestial photographs exhibit- ing the stars with the degree of sharpness which his plan required. Though the lumi- nous rays are well concentrated, the actinic rays are scattered, giving indistinct images of the larger stars, and failing to exhibit minute ones at all. He therefore undertook 88 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. the construction of an objective corrected for actinic effect, without regard to color. The whole of the work, theoretic and prac- tical, was (lone byhimself and about the year 1863 he completed an actin-aplanatic object- ive of eleven and a quarter inches aperture, which gave results entirely satisfactory. With this he speedily obtained many sharp- ly defined maps of star groups upon glass, and it remained only to effect the intended measurements upon these maps. Here was presented a new mechanical problem of pe- culiar difficulty. No known micrometric ap- paratus was adapted either in form or in di- mensions to effect these measurements. Mr. Rutherfurd met the difficulty with his char- acteristic ingenuity, and with his own hands constructed an instrument in which, by means of an observing microscope directed toward the plate, and having motion in two directions at right angles to each other, the co-ordinates of position of the objects ob- served may be measured with a delicacy which leaves nothing to be desired. In the original form of this instrument a microme- ter screw was depended on to give these di- mensions, and an immense amount of labor was expended in the construction of such a screw and in determining its error. The investigation resulted, however, in demon- strating that the error of the screw is not constant, no matter how faultless the work- manship or how excellent the material. Discarding the screw, therefore, for pur- poses of measurement, Mr. Rutherfurd in- troduces into the instrument, as at present constructed, two auxiliary microscopes trav- eling with the observing microscope, one in each direction, and reading the distances traveled upon fixed scales ruled on glass. In a paper read before the National Acad- emy of Sciences in 1866 Mr. Rutherfurd gave an account of his method; and at the same meeting a discussion of measurements made at his observatory upon photographs of the Pleiades was presented by Dr. B. A. Gould, who reached the conclusion that the micro- metric measurements of a single such plate, with the customary corrections for refrac- tion, etc., would give results about as accu- rate as those obtained by Bessel with thir- teen years laborthe time employed by him in mapping this group. Another American astronomer, whose in- genuity in the construction of instruments is no less remarkable than his skill in the use of them, Dr. Henry Draper, has devoted himself to the improvement of reflecting telescopes. The use of silvered glass for as- tronomical specula had been suggested by Foucault, as being a material lighter and less brittle than speculum metal, and as re- flecting a larger proportion of the light; and he had practically illustrated the value of this suggestion by actually grinding and silvering one or two such specula with his own hands. With no light to guide him but the knowledge of these facts, Dr. Draper un- dertook an investigation of the best mode of proceeding in the construction of such spec- ula, recordin~ the results of his experiments as he went on; and having at length at- tained a triumphant success, he published his method among the Smithsoaian Contri- lnttions, in an elaborate memoir, which has become a standard authority on the subject, and is continually quoted as such at the present day. The telescope described in this memoir is of fifteen and a half inches aperture, and it was for a long time the largest in the country; but it is now sur- passe(l by one of twenty-eight inches also constructed by Dr. Draper, and mounted in his observatory equatorially under a dome. With both these telescopes Dr. Draper has taken splendid photographs of the moon, one re~)resenting the satellite in the third quarter, which has borne an enlargement to fifty inches in diameter; and also the spec- troscopic photographs of Alpha Lyrm, men- tioned later in this article. Physical AstronomyNo incident in the history of astronomy has ever excited more universal interest than the detection, in Au- gust, 1846, by a method purely mathematical, of a planet which had been previously lurk- ing unseen upon the confines of the system ever since the creation. This marvelous achievement, of which the history is too well known to need repetition here, was simultaneously accomplished by two foreign astronomers, and does not belong to Ameri- can science. But it is a curious fact that the planet thus discovered fell immediately after into the hands of American astrono- mers, and that they have made it practically their own ever since. Owing to the exceed- ingly slow motion of the body, the elements of its orbit could not be determined from the observations of a few months. Assum- ing the orbit to be circular, several Europe- an astronomers reached early and concur- rently the conclusion that its mean distance from the sun is less than the discoverers had supposed by between five and six hundred millions of miles. But the first approxi- mately correct theory of its motions was wrought out by Professor Sears C. Walker, of the Naval Observatory at Washington, in February, 1847. When Herschel discovered the l)lanet Uranus in 1781, Lexell was ena- bled to determine its orbit by means of ob- servations made of the same body (supposed then to ben fixed star) by Bradley and Mayer nearly thirty years before; and the number of such previous accidental observations of this body which have since been discovered amounts to no less than nineteen. It was naturally hoped that time examination of star catalogues of earlier years would fur- nish some similar help to the solution of the problem presented by Neptune. Of these THE FIRST CENTURY OF THE REPUBLIC. catalogues, however, most were for one rea- son or another useless in this inquiry. One only offered a possibility that the newly (liscovered body might have been by good fortune recorde4 in it. This was the His- toire Celeste of Lacaille, embracing 50,000 stars; and Mr. Walker soon discovered that Lacaille had swept over the probable path of the planet on two days nearly followin0 each otherthe 8th and 10th of May, 1795. Having, therefore, from the observations made at Washington, combined with those received from Europe, computed as well as he could the place of the body for these dates, varying the elements so as to include the entire region within which it could pos- sibly have been at that time, he selected from Lalande all the stars within one de- gree of the computed path. There were nine of these, but among the nine one only seemed likely to be the planet. The ques- tion then presented itself Is this star still in the place in which Lalande saw it? Two days after this question had been raised by Mr. Walker, the telescope of the Washing- ton Observatory was directed to the spot, and foun4 it vacant. Assuming, therefore, this missing star to have been the planet, Mr. Walker computed an elliptic orbit which represented with gratft~ing precision all the modern observations. The elliptic elements first obtained were, however, only approxi- mate. In order to their more exact deter- mination it was necessary that the theory of the perturbations should be revised. Here Professor Peirce, of Harvard Universi- ty; lent his powerful assistance, and with the perturbations furnished by him, and re- vised normal places, Walker computed an ephemeris of the planet which he published in the Smithsonian Contributions. The only attempt at a theory of Neptune made abroad was by Kowalski, of Kasan, Russia, in 1855; but this, though formed on a much larger number of recent observations, did not represent the motions of the body more exactly than that of Walker. The ephemerides founded on these early theories were affected more or less with er- ror. Toward 1865 the errors were increasing with rapidity, and it was evident that with- out a new determination of the orbit, they would reach, before the end of the century, the serious amount of 5 of longitude. Pro- fessor Simon Newcomb, of the Naval Ob- servatory, Washington, now addressed him- self to the laborious task of reconstructing the theory from the foundation. His re- sults are published in the Smithsonian Con- tributions, and embrace (1) a determination of the elements of the orbit from observa- tions extending through an arc of 40~ (2) an inquiry whether the mass of Uranus can be determined from the motion of Neptune; (3) an examination of the question whether these motions indicate the action of an ex tra-Neptunian planet; (4) tables and formu- lie for finding the place of Neptune at any time, but more particularly between the years 1600 and 2000. In the computation of the tables the ele- ments adopted are not the mean elements, but their values at the present time as af- fected by secular inequalities and inequali- ties of long period, particularly that of 4300 years arising out of the near approach of the mean motion of Uranus to twice and a half that of Neptune, these being adapted to give the place of the l)lanet with the highest degree of accuracy during the pe- riod for which the tables are specially de- signed, i. e., till the year 2000. The work is one involving an enormous aniount of labor. As to the mass of Uranus, Prof New- comb concludes that no trustworthy value can be deduced from the motions of Nep- tune, nor, had this body been unknown, could even its existence have been detect- ed from all the observations of the exterior planet hitherto niade. It results, almost of course, that no evidence yet appears of the existence of any still more distant plan- et remaining yet undiscovered. Soon after the publication of Professor Walkers Elements of Neptune, Professor Peirce, in a communication to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, after demon- strating that this planet, with the mass Je- duced from Bonds observations of Lassells satellite, anif with the orbit assigned by Walker, wonbi fully reconcile all the mod- ern observations and all the ancient acci- dental ones better than the hypothetical planet of Leverrier or Adams (Flamsteeds observation of 1690 being discordant with Adams to the extent of 50 and with Lever- rier to 20, but harmonizing with the com- putation from the Walker and Peirce theo- ry within a single second), ventured upon the bold assertion that the planet actually discovered by Galle, searching under Lever- riers direction, was not the planet predict- ed or expected, but a very different body, which occupied that place at that time only by a happy accident. Leverrier had fixed the distance of his planet from the sun at 36.154 times the earths distance, and Pro- fessor Peirce demonstrated that at the dis- tance 35.3 (at which a planet would have a periodical time equal to twice and a half that of Uranus) so important a change takes place in the character of the perturbations as to make it impossible to extend to the space within that distance any investiga- tions relating to the space beyond. The observed distance is slightly over 30; and it appears that a second similar peculiarity occurs at 30.4, where a planet would have a period just double that of Uranus. The perturbations produced by it on this latter would, therefore, for a twofold reason be of very different character from those re HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. suiting from the supposed planet at the dis- tance of 36. Though these criticisms of Professor Peirce are well founded, and have never been satisfactorily answered, yet they can not materially affect our estimate of the merit of Adams and Leverrier. A plan- et such as that indicated by their analysis would have produced very nearly the act- ually observed irregularities of motion of Uranus, and must have been occupying very nearly the place in the heavens of that which was actually found. Any planet capable of doing this must have been in this neighbor- hood at the time of the discovery, and it was the merit of the analysis that it indi- cated the quarter in which the disturbing body was to be looked fora merit which remains, though the actual planet differs from the planet predicted in mass, distance, and period. Besides his Theory of Neptune, Profess- or Newcomb has made numerous very val- uable contributions to physical astronomy. His Investigation of the Orbit of Uranus, published in the Sin ithson ian Contributions in 1873, is a work of great labor, commenced as early as 1859, but necessarily deferred till after the completion of the Theory of Neptune. In 1871 he published in Liouvilles Jour- nal, Paris, a Theory of the Perturbations of the Moon produced by the Action of the Planets. Of this very able and very orig- inal investigation it is sufficient to cite the opinion expressed by Professor Cayley, pres- ident of the Royal Astronomical Society of London, who pronounces it, from the bold- ness of the conception and the beauty of the results, a very remarkable memoir, con- stituting an important addition to theoret- ical dynamics. Another very interesting memoir by Pro- fessor Newcomb embraces an investigation of the secular variations and mutual rela- tions of the orbits of the asteroids, for the purpose of testing the question, from athe- oretic point of view, whether the theory of Olbers, that these bodies are the frag- ments of a single shattered planet, is ten- able or not. Twenty-five asteroids are in- cluded in the comparison, and the conclusion is unfavorable to the hypothesis in question. In the Washington observations for 1865 there appeared an investigation by Profess- or Newcomb of the value of the solar par- allax, reached by a discussion of the obser- vations made in 1862 at six observatories in the northern hemisphere and two in the southern, and a combination of these with other results furnished by micrometrical measures of Mars by Professor Hall, the parallactic equation of the moon, the lunar equation of the earth, and finally the tran- sit of Venus of 1769 recomputed by Pro- fessor Powalky. The inference is that the true parallax is 8.85, with a probable error of 0.013. Apparently the conciusion from the transit of 1874 will not be far from 8.87, a result very near to that previously ob- tained by Professor Newcoinb. The great geometers who succeeded New- ton in applying the principle of gravitation to the explanation of planetary motions as- sume that those minute inequalities, of which the effects only become sensible after long intervals, and produce considerable changes only after many centuries, or, perhaps, myr- lads of centuries, are developed uniformly with the timea supposition which answer- ed the immediate purpose, though it is by no means true. Yet a knowledge of the laws which govern these inequalities is im- portant to the settlement of a number of interesting questions, especially such as con- cern the stability of the system, and the vi- cissitudes of heat and cold to which our own planet has been manifestly subjected in the distant past. Lagrange pointed out the mathematical criterion by which the gen- eral question of stability might be deter- mined. Its application required a knowl- edge of the masses of the planets. These were not accurately known, but by substi- tuting approximate values for them he was able to announce that none of the varia- tions of the planetary elements could go on increasing forever. Laplace went further than this, and proved that, provided the di- rection of revolution is the same for all the planets, the stability of the system is inde- pendent of the masses. In this case he showed that the sum of the products of the several masses by the squares of the eccen- tricities and the square roots of the mean distances is constant, and that if the eccen- tricities are small, the variations will be small, so that the system will not only be stable, but will undergo no large departures from its mean condition. This is the state of things in our solar system. The actual condition of physical astronomy at present has seemed to demand a more complete in- vestigation of this intricate subject, and such an investigation has been recently undertaken and successfully accomplished by Mr. J. N. Stockwell, of Cleveland, Ohio, whose elaborate memoir relating to it has been published among the Smithsonian Con- tributions to Knowledge. The object of the investigation has been to determine the nu- merical values of the secular changes of the elements of all the planetary orbits. The elements considered are four: the eccentric- ities and inclinations of the orbits, and the longitudes of the nodes and of the perihe- ha. The fluctuations of value are largest in the case of Mercury, and smallest in the case of Neptune. We are concerned chiefly with what relates to our own planet, and more especially with the fluctuations in the eccentricity of its orbit. This eccentricity may vary between the limits zero and Jo THE FIRST CENTURY OF THE REPUBLIC. 91 0.0694, involving a difference between the inent of the rings in mass, and therefore it aphelion and perihelion distance of the is not in conflict with the view of Professor earth from the sun of 13,000,000 miles, and Peirce. If this be discarded, there remains also a difference between the duration of no other bnt to suppose the rings to be made the snmmer and the winter half year of thir- np of innumerable small discrete solid mass- ty-two days. It can hardly now be doubted es so near together that, in a zone having that to these changes of eccentricity have the generally admitted thickness of one or been due the remarkable vicissitudes of cli- two hundred miles, they present to a dis- mate to which, as geology informs ns, the tant observer the appearance of a contin- earth has been subjected. At present the nons solid. This view is that which is held winter of the sonthern hemisphere occurs in by Mr. R. A. Proctor. aphelion, and is longer than the summer by Few of our American astronomers have eight days. The consequence is that the contributed more abundantly to the litera- south pole is capped with massive ice, which ture of the science than Professor Stepben occupies an area of probably more than 2000 Alexander, of Princeton. In 1843 Professor miles in diameter. When the eccentricity Alexander presented to the American Philo- is maximum, the hemisphere which has the sophical Society an elaborate memoir upon winter in aphelion is probably ice-bound the physical phenomena attending eclipses, nearly or quite down to the tropic. transits, and occultations, which excited The stabihity of the Saturnian system and much interest in the astronomical world. the mechanical condition of the material of In 1874 there was published among the Saturns rings form the subject of an impor- Smithsonian Contributions a paper by the taut memoir read by Professor B. Peirce at same astronomer, en titled, Exposition of the meeting of the American Association for certain Harmonies of the Solar System. the Advancement of Science held at Cincin- The design is to show inductively a tenden- nati in 1851. The conclusion arrived at is cy in nature to the arrayment of the plan- that the rings could not possibly be stable ets according to a law of distances from the unless sustained by the mutual attraction suns centre, in which the distance of each between them and the inner satellites; and succeeding planet is five-niuths of that of consequently that, in the absence of such sat- the last preceding, and to explain the actual elhites, they could have no existence. Also, departures from this law in the existing so- that inasmuch as no solid material known is lar system by the supposition that in one or sufficiently tenacious to resist without rupt- two instances two planets (called, therefore, nrc the immense divellent forces to which a half-planets) have been formed in the place solid ring under such circumstances must be of one. The earth and Venus constitute a subjected, therefore the rings must be fluid, pair of this kind. This ingenious specula- and not solid. Laplace had recognized the tion may be classed among the curiosities difficulty attendant on the hypothesis of a of astronomy, as it does not appear practi- continuous solid ring of such breadth, and cable to test its probability by mathemat- had therefore assumed that the rings, though ical analysis. apparently presenting continuous plane sur- In the year 1849 Professor Daniel Kirk- faces, are nevertheless divided into many wood, then of Delaware College, Newark, concentric and comparatively narrow rings, now of the State University of Indiana, an- He also perceived that such rings would nounced a remarkable law connecting the necessarily be in a condition of unstable masses and distances of the planets of the equilibrium with the planet in case their solar system an(1 their periods of rotation centres of gravity should coincide, as would on their axes. To understand this, let it be seem from their appearance to be most prob- premised that between any two planets sue- able, with their centres of figure; and he ac- ceeding each other in order as numbered cordingly supposed that there exist irregu- from the sun outward, there is, when the larities in the disposition of their substance bodies are in conjunction at their mean dis- imperceptible to us, which, by displacing the tances, a point of equal attraction, that is centres of gravity, give them the necessary to say, a point in which a body free to move stability. He failed to show that these two would be held in equilibrio by the opposing hypotheses can both be true and at the same attractions of the two planets. Suppose time consistent with the optical phenomena, these neutral points to be found for all the and, in fact, left the theory of this system planets of the system, and the distance be- incomplete. In 1857 Mr. J. Clerk Maxwell, tween the two neutral points above and be- in a prize essay presented to the University low each planet to be called the diameter of Cambridge, in England, investigated these of the sphere of attraction of that planet, hypotheses of Laplace, and showed conclu- then, according to this law, it will be true sively that they are untenable. On the hy- that the cubes of these diameters for any pothesis of fluidity he investigated the tidal two planets will be to each other as the movements which must take place in the squares of their respective numbers of rota- rings, and rejected equally this supposition. tions during one sidereal revolution of each. But his analysis did not extend to the move- This law was subjected to a close examina 92 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. tion by Professor Sears C. Walker in 1850, with a favorable conclusion. It is to be observed, however, that the uncertainty ex- isting as to the masses of several of the planets, and as to the periods of rotation of some of them, gives to this conclusion the character of a probable rather than of a certain result. In order to extend the anal- ogy throughout the system, Mr. Walker in- terpolates a planet in the rcgion of the aster- oids between Mars and Jupiter, which he places very nearly at the distance given by Bodes law. He finds also that if there ex- ists a planet nearer the sun than Mercury, its distance must be one-fifth that of the earth, or about 18,000,000 miles. For the doubtful masses, Mr. Walker finds that the values demanded by the law are within the limits, often pretty wide, of those actually employed by different authorities in the in- vesti~ations of physical astronomy and in the construction of tables. It will only be after a higher degree of perfection shall be attained in the theory of every planet than has yet been reached, that the accuracy of Kirkwoods analogy can be conclusively tested. The physical condition of the sun is a subject which has occupied very much of late years the attention of the scientific world. Ever since the invention of the tel- escope the solar spots have been observed with careful and curious interest, and these, together with the varying features of the photosphere itself, when minutely examined, led early to a general though hardly univer- sal acquiescence in the opinion expressed by Wilson in the Philosophical Transactions of 1774, and adopted by Sir William Herschel, that the luminous surface which we see is not the surface of a solid. The question what is beneath this surface remained a subject of controversy; and on any hypoth- esis of the state of the suns mass, the essen- tial nature of the spots and the causes pro- ducing them were matters equally unsettled. The vastly improved instruments of recent years, the employment of photography in aid of observation, and a hove all, the appli- cation of the spectroscope to the study of the chromosphere and the photosphere, have shed a flood of light upon this difficult sub- ject, which is likely soon to harmonize all opinions, though it can hardly be said to have done so yet. Immediately after the erection of the great Munich achromatic at the Harvard Observatory, this splendid instrument was employed by Mr. W. C. Bond in a continu- ous series of observations of the solar spots continued for a period of more than two years, maps of the spots being carefully drawn at every observation. The results are published in full in the Annals of the Harvard Observatory, and furnish a valuable means of studying the varying aspects of the spots, their growth, decline, and dura- tion. More recently many foreign observers have devoted themselves to the investiga- tion; among whom may be mentioned Mr. De La Rue, Mr. B alfour Stewart, and Mr. Loewy in England, who have given special attention to the laws governing the varia- tions of the total area of sun spot and its distribution over the solar disk; Mr. Faye, in France, and Father Secehi, in Rome, who have engaged not only in observations, but in speculations on theory. The British ob- servers arrived at the conclusion that the maxima and minima of spot development are periodic, the period coinciding with the synodical revolution of the planet Venus, to the influence of which body they therefore ascribe it. They attribute a similar and perhaps as powerful an effect to Jupiter; but in this case the irregularities are less, on account of the greater distance of the disturbing body. Professor Loomis, of New Haven, investigated the question of the pe- riod of maximum, in a paper published in 1870, arriving at the conclusion, somewhat different from that above mentioned, that the period is determined by Jupiter, and is about ten years; the magnitude of the max- imum flnctuatiimg, and dependent on Venus, with irregularities unaccounted for still outstanding. As to the suns physical con- stitution, Professor Sterry Hunt is the au- thor of a theory which is essentially a part of his theory of chemical geology, according to which the solar sphere consists wholly of matter in a gaseous condition, all the el- ements being mingled but not combined, their affinities being held in check by the intensity of the heat. The partial cooling of the surface by radiation depresses the temperature to the point at which combina- tion is possible, and thus are formed vast volumes of finely divided solid or liquid matter, which, suspended in the surround- ing gases, become intensely luminous, and form the source of the solar light. This view is sustained also by Mr. Faye and by Mr. Balfour Stewart, but is dissented from by Father Seechi, who inclines to believe the luminous envelope to form a kind of liquid or viscous shell. Recent observations by Professor S. P. Langley, with the admi- raimle thirteen-inch objective of the Alle- ghany Observatory, have furnished proba- bly the most conclusive evidence on this subject which has yet been obtained, and are entirely favorable to the theory of Pro- fessor Hunt. Professor Langleys papers have been published in the American Journal of Science for 1874 and 1875, and are full of interest not only as to the phenomena of the spots, but as to the minute features of the suns general superficies. Accompany- ing his latest paper is a magnificent en- graved illustration from a drawing of a typical solar spot observed in December, THE FIRST CENTURY OF THE REPUBLIC. 93 1873. It represents what is commonly call- ed the penumbra as being formed of long- drawn luminous filaments which in their curvature give evidence of gyratory move- ments, indicating that the spots are formed by tremendous vortices spirally ascending or descending. Professor Langley remarks of the appareiitly black centre or nucleus of the spot, that he has fonud it by direct experiment, when all extraneous light is excluded, to be not only intrinsically bright, but insupportably intense to the naked eye. One of the most interesting contributions to the knowledge of the solar physics was the discovery in 1871 by Professor C. A. Young of that comparatively limited but well-defined solar envelope called the chro- mosphere, where the lines which in the or- dinary solar spectrum are black become re- versed, and assume the brilliant tints which characterize the spectra of the elements to which they belong, as seen in experiments artificially instituted. A very ingenious device recently suggest- ed by Professor A. M. Mayer, of Hoboken, for the study of the laws of the distribution of heat upon the suns surface is the latest addition which has fallen under our notice to the means of investigating the physical condition of that body. The double iodide of copper and mercury becomes discolored when raised to a certain ascertained temper- ature. Let a thin paper, blackened on one surface and coated with the iodide on the other, receive the solar image on the black- ened side, the aperture of the object-glass being reduced to such an extent that no dis- coloration of the salt may occur. Then let the aperture be gradually enlarged. Pres- ently a spot will appear, which marks in the image the point of maximum temperature in the solar disk. By successive additional en- largements of aperture the spot on the paper will be correspondingly enlarged, and its borders will indicate the isothermal lines of the solar disk. CometsIn 1843 Professor Alexander, of Princeton, presented to the American Phil- osophical Society an investigation of the orbit of the great comet of that year, accord- in~ to which it appeared that the body must almost have touched the sun, this result be- ing explained on the hypothesis that the centre of gravity of the comet was not coin- cident with its centre of figure. In 1850 he published in the Astronomical Journal a mem- oir on the classification and special points of resemblance of certain periodic comets, and the probability of a common origin in the case of some of them. Three classes were distinguished. The possible rupture by the planet Mars of a large cometthat of 1313 and 1316to furnish three of the third class was suggested as an example. This hypothesis was very lightly treated by Hum- boldt in his Cosmos, but it has found unex pected corroboration in the observations of our own time. In regard to cometary physics some very important speculations, or, perhaps, more properly discoveries, are due to American physicists and astronomers. The nature of the appendages called tails and the causes producing them have been in all ages sub- jects of perplexing discussion, and have given rise to a variety of hypotheses, many of which are more or less wild. This char- acter can not be attributed to the theory presented in 1859 by Professor W. A. Norton, of Yale College, in which the formation of comets tails is assumed to be due to elec- trical repulsion, exerted both by the nucleus and by the sun, upon the attenuated matter sublimed from the mass by the solar heat. The particles, under the action of these forces, pass off in hyperbolic orbits. An ap- plication was made of this theory to the case of the remarkable comet of 1858, known as Donatis, by Professor Peirce. This comet had been continuously observed and mapped through all its varying and wonderful as- pects, during the entire five months of its visibility, by Mr. George P. Bond, whose mon- ograph on the subject, published in the An- nals of the Harvard Observatory, with its numerous and beautifully executed illustra- tions, will always make it an authority of the highest character on the subject of comet- ary changes. Professor Peirces analysis led to results entirely in harmony with the hy- pothesis, explaining not only the pbenom- ena in general, but the special aspects, in- cluding the simultaneous exhibition of one or more rectilinear tails, along with the principal tail, which was curved in the form of a sabre. He applied a similar analysis to the great comet of 1843, with results equally satisfactory. Here also the investi- gation explained the existence of two tails, one of which did not reach the comets head. The theory of electrical repulsion as applied to comets was proposed by some foreign as- tronomers, perhaps independently, at about the same time with the appearance of Pro- fessor Nortons memoir. It is frequently spoken of abroad as Professor Z6llner s view. AurorasThe aurora borealis has formed the subject of a pretty voluminous litera- ture, both at home and abroad, during the last half century. All the scientific jour- nals teem with articles on the subject, and the transactions of societies contain numer- ous elaborate memoirs relating to it. We can mention but a few of these publications, and those only briefly. In the first volume of Transactions of the Connecticut Acad- emy there appeared the results of seven- teen years study of auroras by Edward C. Herrick, of New Haven, an observer unsur- passed for accuracy of observation and soundness of judgment. This paper will ever be a high authority in regard to the 94 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. facts. Professor Loomis, of New Haven, ex- amined a few years since the question of the periodicity of the aurora, and of its rela- tion to the maxima and minima of solar dis- turbance as indicated by the spots, with reference to the possibility that both phe- nomena are dependent on a common cause. He found the periods nearly equal, but the auroral period less regular than the other, and the coincidences in general only ap- proximate. This question was at the same time occupying Professor Lovering, of Har- vard University, who has investigated it, so far as records go, to exhaustion. The tenth volume of the Transactions of the Ameri- can Academy contains a catalogue by him of every aurora to be found in accessible records from the year 502 B.c. down to AD. 1868. The total number is about 12,000; and this immense catalogue is carefully ana- lyzed with a view to determine the daily, the yearly, and the secular periodicity, if such exists. The results, which are not only tabulated, but expressed in curves, do not exhibit all the regularity which might be anticipated, but they show, nevertheless, evidences of a periodicity, subject mani- festly to large disturbances from unknown causes. Meteoric AstronomyTo American astron- omers is due the credit of having first cor- rectly interpreted the phenomena presented by the frequent intruders from the regions of space into our atmosphere called shoot- ing-stars. In regard to the nature of these bodies the most widely various hypotheses had from the earliest times been held by different speculators, none of them support- ed by proofs, or resting on any systematic observation. Some of the earliest conject- ures regarding them seem to have been soundest. Anaxagoras, whose general views of the structure of the universe were so much in advance of his time, supposed that there are non - luminous bodies revolving about the earth, from which meteors may proceed, though this idea is marred by the supposition that such bodies may have been thrown off from the earth itself by centrifu- gal force. Diogenes of Apollonia, whose own writings are not extant, but who wrote on cosmology, is said to have held that, besides the visible planets, there are other planets which are invisible. These sagacious con- jectures, however, were overborne by the later authority of Aristotle, who inculcated the doctrine that shooting-stars are terres- trial meteors originating in the atmosphere itselfa doctrine generally received as the most probable down to the present century. On the morning of November 13, 1833, there occurred one of the most wonderful displays of celestial pyrotechnics that was probably ever witnessed. As observed in the Eastern United States, it commenced about midnight and continued for some hours, increasing in magnificence until it was lost in the light of the rising sun. It was visible probably over the greater part of North America, and was actually observed at various points from the West India Isl- ands to Greenland, and westwardly to the one-hundredth degree of lonoitude. From the numerous descriptions of this sublime spectacle with which, immediately after its occurrence, the journals of the day were crowded, it seenis to have presented the ap- pearance of a literal shower of fire, the me- teors falling on all sides in prodigious num- bers, and ninany of them exhibiting a splendor truly dazzling. An important fact in regard to these meteors noticed by many observers was the apparent divergence of their paths from a single radiant I)oint. All accounts agreed in fixing this radiant in tIme constel- lation Leo, and in the statenment that it con- tinued to maintain its position unchanged as the constellation advanced with the di- urnal motion of the heavens. This fact of- fered very conclusive evidence that the source of the meteors was foreign to the earth, and that their paths, though seeming- ly divergent, were actually parallel to each other and to a line drawn from the specta- tor to the radiant, the divergency being merely an effect of perspective. To Pro- fessor Denison Olmsted, of New Haven, be- longs the credit of having first pointed out the legitimate conclusions to be drawn from these phenomena, which he did in a paper published in the American Journal of Science in March, 1834. Having first demonstrated the cosmical origin of the meteors, Professor Olmsted proceeded, with the aid of such im- perfect data as at that time existed, includ- ing observations of a similar star-shower observed on the Eastern Continent in 1832, and of a much earlier one witnessed by Humboldt and Bonpland in Cumana, South America, in 1799, to devise upon this basis a theory adequate to account for the facts. The conclusion reached by him was that the meteors must be portions of a nebulous body drawn into the earths atmosphere at a point of near approach, and inflamed by the heat generated by the resistance of the atmosphere to their motion. Professor Olmsted did not explain the meaning at- tached by him to the term nebulous. If he meant by it a gas, or a finely comminuted and uniformly diffused solid matter, his the- ory is inadmissible. But if he meant a con- genes of loosely scattered discrete bodies, the phenomena are in harmony with his view; and to this extent the more recent and more exact investigations of Professor Newton, of Yale College, and Professor Schi- aparelli, of Milan, have confirmed his conclu- sions. But in assigning to the supposed nebulous body a period of 182 days, and in his speculations as to the density of the con- stituent parts of the nebula, he was less THE FIRST CENTURY OF THE REPUBLIC. 95 happy. He supposed the specific gravity to be very small, whereas the researches of Newton and others conclusively prove that these bodies must have the average density of our harder rocks; and the numerous spec- linens in cabinets of the fragmentary por- tions of them which have forced their way through the atmospheric shield by which our J)lanet is protected against their de- structive impact are many of them largely or wholly composed of metal. The intense interest excited in all classes of persons by the meteoric display of 1833 turned the at- tention of a multitude of observers in this and other countries to the study of these phenomenaa study which .was pursued both by the careful examination of records for the discovery of past examples of similar occurrences, and by the direct and continu- ous observation of the heavens themselves. The scientific journals of the period bear striking witness to the activity of these in- vestigators. One of the most successful among them was Mr. E. C. Herrick, of New Haven, at that time, or later, librarian of Yale College, who presently announced the discovery of three or four additional periods of periodical shooting - star abundance or star showers, viz., in January, August, Apr11, and December. In regard to the August period, Quetelet, of Brussels, was afterward found to have anticipated him, but his dis- covery of the others was original. Since that time observation in many quarters has been so persistent and so fruitful of results as to justify the statement that there are not fewer than fifty different days in the year on which there is a tendency to a me- teoric display above the average. As from the examination of records, an- cient and modern, the number of observed returns of the November shower was in- creased, two very important deductions fol- lowedfirst, the congeries of bodies fur- nishing the meteors must extend along its own orbit to a distance equal in longitude to about one-sixteenth or one-seventeenth of an entire circumference; and secondly, there must be a continuous advance or pro- cession of the node, or intersection of the orbit with that of the earth, causing a re- tardation of the display by about a day at each return. The significancy of the accu- mulated data was first shown by Professor Newton in 1864, who, from a comparison of observations covering a period of 931 years, determined the length of the cycle to be 33.25 years, the annual mean procession of the node 1.711, the inclination of the orbit about 170, and the length of the part of the cycle within which showers might be ex- pected 2.25 years. From these definitely ascertained results he deduced the highly important conclusion that the periodic time of the group of bodies from which the me- teors proceed must be one of the five follow- ing, and no other, viz., 179.915 days, 185.413 days, 354.586 days, 376.575 days, or 33.25 years. It remained only, by applying the principles of physical astronomy, to com- pute the amount of annual procession of the node for each of these five orbits, and, by comparing the results with the observed l)rocession, to determine which of the five orbits is the true one. This computation Professor Newton suggeste(l as the e pen- meet urn crucis; but delaying to ap~)ly it him- self, the honor was snatched from him by Mr. Adams, of Cambridge, England, who demonstrated that the only orbit of the five which fulfills the conditions is that which belongs to the period of 33.25 years. Professor Newton followed up his success with the November umeteors by investiga- tions hardly less remarkable of the numer- ous irregularly occurring bodies of this class called sporadic. From a very large number of determinations of the altitudes of these bodies above the earth, he formed a table arranging the observations in groups be- tween limits of altitude regularly increas- ing, by which it apl)eared that few are seen at heights greater than 180 kilometers and few below 30 kilometers, the mean altitude on the whole being 95.55 kilometers. He then, by a course of very ingenious reason- ing and analysis, proceeded to demonstrate that the number of meteors which traverse some part of the earths atmosphere daily, and are large enough to be visible to the naked eye (sun, moon, and clouds permit- ting), amounts to more than seven and a half millions. Including those fainter bod- ies of this class which escape the unaided eye, but may be detected by the telescope, this number must be greatly increased. Taking as a basis of calculation the num- ber of telescopic meteors observed by Win- necke between July 24 and August 3, 1854, with an ordinary comet-seeker of 53 aper- ture, the total number per day would seem to be more than 400,000,000a number which higher optical power would, of course, cor- respondingly increase. The following are some of the more interesting conclusions reached in this investigation: 1. It is im- possible to suppose that these sporadic me- teors proceed from a group or ring at the same mean distance from the sun as the earth. 2. The mean velocity of these me- teoroids considerably exceeds that of the earth in its orbit, and hence the orbits are not apj)roximately circular, but resemble the orbits of comets. 3. The number of meteoroids in the space through which the earth is moving is such that in each volume of the size of the earth there are as many as 13,000 small bodies, each one of which is capable of furnishing a shooting-star visi- ble, under favorable circumstances, to the naked eye. The further contributions to the theory 96 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. of shooting-stars in which American astron- omers have participated are those which connect these bodies with the coniets. Near the end of December, 1845, Mr. Herrick and Mr. Bradley, of New Haven, watching the Biela comet with the Clark telescope in the observatory of Yale College, observed a small companion comet beside the principal one. The same was seen two weeks later by Lieutenant Maury and Professor Hubbard at the Naval Observatory at Washington, and two days later than this was noticed in Europe. Professor Hubbard thereafter made this body a special study. At the time of the observations above mentioned the com- et was receding, and each day the pair pre- sented some novel phase. At one time an arch of light connected the two; the prin- cipal one had two nuclei, and each had two tails. The smaller grew till it equaled the larger in brilliancy, then faded gradnally, until, when the comet was last seen in March, it was no longer visible. In 1852 the comet was very distant, but it was still double, the two companions being a million and a quarter miles apart. Since Septem- ber of that year this remarkable object has never been again seen. At the return in 1859, it was in conjunction, or nearly so, with the sun, and was necessarily invisible. In 1866 every thing favored its visibility, and hundreds of observers swept the heavens in search of it without success. Another return was due in the autumn of 1872. The body was not seen, but countless fragments broken from its mass came pouring into the earths atmosphere on the night of the 27th of November, producing a star shower which for an hour or two almost rivaled in brill- iancy that of the 13th of the same month in 1833. A German astronomer, Professor Klinkerfues, at once conceived the notion that, if this were the comets following, the main body might be seen in its retreat, though we had not seen it in its approach. But if so, it must be seen in the southern hemisphere. He telegraphed Mr. Pogson, at Madrai: Biela touched earth November 27. Search near Theta Centauri. Mr. Pogson looked, and found the comet. The question is unsettled whether this was one of the two parts into which the comet was divided in 1845. Professor Newton thinks it was more probably a fragment thrown off longperhaps centuriesbefore. The comet of 186~2, III., was discovered on the 18th July, 1862, by Mr. H. P. Tuttle, of Cambridge, Massachusetts. It has been proved by Professor Schiaparelli that this comet is only a large member of the August stream of meteoroids. The comet of 1866, I., discovered by Tempel, December 19, 1865, is shown also by Schiaparelhi to be a member of the November stream. This comet Pro- fessor Newton has identified with one which appeared in 1366. From the evidence fur- nished in these instances, and for other rea- sons, Professor Newton and Professor Weiss regard all these meteoroids as sufficiently proved to be made up of countless frag- ments detached from solid cometary masses, which comets until thus entirely broken up are only large members of the swarms with which they move in company. The cause of the fracture is supposed by Professor A. W. Wright, of Iowa, to be the intense beat of the sun as the body approaches its peri- helion. Professor Wright has recently ob- tained a gas from the Iowa meteorite which has the same spectrum as that of the com- ets. The comets tail, therefore, is a gas- eous emanation not to be confounded with these meteoroid masses. Comets and meteoroids having thus been demonstrated to be generally identical, the question of the origin of all these bodies has become one of great interest. A theory on this subject, put forth in 1866 by Pro- fessor Schiaparelli, of Milan, assumed that matter is disseminated throughout space in all possible grades of divisionembracing, in the first place, immense suns or stars of different magnitudes; secondly, groups of smaller or comparatively minute stars, such as those into which many of the nebulai are resolved; then bodies so small as to be in- visible except when they approach our sun, appearing then as comets; and finally, cos- niical clouds, made up of elements conform- able in weight to such as we may handle or transport upon the earth. The elements of these cosmical clouds he supposes to be so distant from each other that their mutual attraction is insufficient to counteract the effect of the suns unequal action upon their different members, so that when drawn into our system from tIme regions of space, they lose wholly their globular form, and enter as streams, which may possibly consume years, centuries, and even umyriads of years in passing the perihelion, forming in space a river whose transverse dimensions are very small with respect to its length. This was the essential part of a theory which won for its author the Copley medal from the Royal Societya theory of which the only part not pure hypothesis is the demon- stration that the mean velocity of the me- teoroids exceeds that of the earth, and this fact had already been demonstrated by Pro- fessor Newton some years before. The rest, viz., all that relates to the different mechan- ical conditions of matter in space, is mere conjecture, and it is doubtful whether it continues still to be held by Profcssor Schi- aparelhi himself. A more probable theory of the origin of comets is suggested by a very significant observation of the sun made by Professor Young, of Dartmouth College, on the 7th of September, 1871. An explo- sion was seen to take place at that time, by which a volume of exploded matter was THE FIRST CENTURY OF THE REPUBLIC. 97 driven to a height of 200,000 miles, with a velocity, between the altitudes of 100,000 and 200,000 miles, of 166 miles per second. The visible clouds consisted of hydrogen. The resistance of the solar atmosphere pre- vented their complete separation from the sun, but should solid masses be projected with an equal velocity, they must be driven off never to return. Professor Youngs ob- servation, therefore, suggests an origin of comets which harmonizes with the views of Weiss and Newton as to the source of meteoric streams; and it is in further con- firmation of these views that hydrogen was found by Graham in abundance occluded in meteoric masses, and that the gas of the Iowa meteor gave to Professor Wright a cometary spectrum. METEOROLOGY. As early as 1743 Dr. Franklin made the important discovery that the atmospheric disturbances known as northeast storms on the Atlantic coast of North America begin actually in the southwest. The first fact which drew his attention to this seeming physical paradox was the occurrence of an eclipse of the moon on the 21st of October in the year just mentioned, which a north- easter prevented him from observing at Philadelphia, although it was seen to its close by his brother, at Boston, before the storm began. This storm did great dam- age along the coast, and, from the accounts subsequently obtained, it appeared that its effects were felt progressively from Caro- lina to Massachusetts. Other storms of the same kind were observed to advance in the same manner, whence Franklin in- ferred the existence of a law, and proceeded to inquire the cause. This he presumed to be the rarefaction of the air by the tropical heats of the far south, producing upward currents, with diminished pressure and a consequent flow of air toward the region of rarefaction. This inference of Dr. Franklin was the first step toward a proper under- standing of the law of storms in the tem- perate zones. The views then held by Dr. Franklin as to the mechanical action of the air in water- spouts, and as to the identity of the phenom- ena with tornadoes on the land, were very nearly those at present entertained. He failed, however, to recognize the important agency of the heat set free by condensation in the whirling column in maintaining and promoting the violence of the action, and he supposed that the height of the column of water raised was limited to that which the static pressure only of the atmosphere is capable of sustaining in a vacuum. For a long period after these observations, mete- orological science made very little advance either in this country or abroad. The year 1814 was marked by the publication of the VOL LILNo. 30T.7 well-known essay on dew by William Charles Wells, which has become a classic in mete- orological science, and has been pronounced by SirJohn Herschel a model of experimental inquiry. Dr. Wells was a native of Charles- ton, South Carolina, and though his life was principally spent abroad, he belongs in a certain sense to the science of America. In the year 1827 Mr. William C. Redfield, of New York, published the first of a series of papers in which he announced and main- tained a theory of the storms of the Atlantic coast, or, as he called them, Atlantic hurri- canes, which gave rise to much controversy, but which has since in substance been re- ceived as a true statement of the law gov- erning the great progressive storms of the northern hemisphere. Mr. Redfield held and aimed by a laborious comparison of ob- servations upon the winds, made at numer- ous and widely distant points on land and at sea during these storms, to provethat the storm is a vast whirlwind, circular in figure, its motion of gyration being to an observer within it from right to left. While such was supposed to be the internal move- ment, the whole storm was shown to have a motion of translation along a curved path, convex toward the west, and having usual- ly its vertex in about latitude 370 or 35O~ en- tering upon the continent between Georgia and Texas, and passing off on the coast of New England or of British America. The motion of progress is, therefore, the reverse of that of rotation, and the storm moves on its path in the same manner in which a wheel might be supposed to roll along a curved track. The birth-place of these storms was supposed by Mr. Redfield to be the West India Islands and the Caribbean Sea, and, like Franklin, he supposed them to be caused by uprising currents produced by local tropical heats. As for their prog- ress, he supposed them to be borne along first by the trades, and then by the counter- trades, or prevailing west winds of the high- er temperate zone. To the theory of Mr. Redfield was opposed a rival theory, identified with the name of its originator, Mr. James P. Espy, of Pennsyl- vania, who published in 1841 an essay en- titled, The 1~hilosophy of Storms. As to the origin of storms the two theories were in harmony; but Mr. Espy supposed the air currents within the storm to follow the di- rection of radii of the circle from the cir- cumference to the centre, instead of being coincident in direction with the circumfer- ence itself. Long-continued and extended observation has shown that in this he was in error; and it is, in fact, capable of a pri- ori demonstration that no two opposite at- mospheric currents, drawn toward the same point by a local diminished pressure, can approach in straight lines or meet each oth- er directly. From the configuration of the 98 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. earth, and from its motion of rotation, of which the atmosphere partakes, such cur- rents must necessarily deviate toward the right, producing as a result a motion of gy- ration. It is evident, however, that Mr. Redfield was not wholly correct. The true motion of the winds within the storm is nei- ther rectilinear nor circular, but spiral, con- verging to the centre. Mr. Espy made an important contribution to the physics of storms in pointing out the source of the en- ergy which maiutains them in action after the merely local cause which originally pro- duced them has ceased to have effect. This is the immense liberation of the heat of elasticity which takes place in consequence of the condensation of the aqueous vapor contained in the ascending air. As the air ascends, it expands from diminished press- ure; expansion reduces its temperature be- low the dew-point; condensation occurs, and the heat released causes further expan- sion. Thus the process continues till the moisture of the air is exhausted. The storm would soon cease if it were not in this man- ner continually fed by fresh supplies of un- condensed vapor drawn in with the air from surrounding regions. No such storm can endure upon deserts like those of Northern Africa. Mr. Espys merits were acknowl- edged by the French Academy of Science in a formal report. Professor Loomis, of Yale College, has made many valuable contribu- tions to meteorological science in the study of particular storms, and more recently in a careful analysis of the weather maps which have for the last few years been issued daily from the Signal-office of the United States War Department. He has especially shown that while all our great storms are cyclonic, and to that extent conformable to Mr. Red- fields theory, they are not by any means, as Mr. Redfield had supposed, circular. They are rather irregularly elliptical, having their longer diameter generally north and south, inclining most frequently to the northeast and southwest direction, and they have oft- en large sinuosities of outline. The weather maps of the Signal-office just mentioned, and the system of widely extended telegraphic communication of ob- servations from all points of our national territory to a single central office at Wash- ington, by means of which the material is gathered for their preparation, have fur- nished admirable means for studying the laws which govern atmospheric changes on this continent. The system originated in 1869, at Cincinnati, with Professor Cleve- land Abbe, who now conducts it, under Gen- eral Myer, chief signal officer. The tele- graphic prognostications of the weather daily transmitted for publication from the central office to all the chief cities of the Union have proved to be a very important public benefit. Something similar to this was attempted about twenty years ago by Mr. Espy, who then held an official appoint- ment as meteorologist under the govern- ment, but the means at his command were more limited, and his organization less com- plete. The Smithsonian Institution, ever since its establishment, has been active in promoting meteorological observation, and has maintained constant communication with several hundred observers in all parts of the United States. Previously to the war the secretary, Professor Henry, had planned and had partially put into operation a sys- tem of weather bulletins and storm warn- ings like the present, which, in consequence of the disturbed state of public affairs, was necessarily abandoned after the commence- ment of hostilities; and for a number of years there was maintained at the institu- tion a large meteorological wall map of the continent exposed to public view, on which were daily exhibited emblems showing the aspect of the weather and the direction of the wind at each of a large number of points of observation distributed widely through- out the country, as communicated by tele- graph. SOUND. The science of acoustics has been great- ly advanced by the labors of the physicists and physiologists of the present century. The muthematical theory of sound, the mode of its generation and propagation, the prin- ciples of music, and the laws of harmony had been well established by previous in- vestigators. But the experimental study of the particular phenomena of vibration, of the physiology of audition, of the ele- mentary tones which enter into the ordi- nary notes of music, of the physical causes of timbre or quality in sounds, and of what- ever else in acoustics is incapable of being deduced abstractly from definitions or first principles, had received comparatively lit- tle attention, or had been pursued with lit- tle success. The recent progress of ex- perimental acoustics has been wonderfully promoted by the ingenuity of the methods employed in the study of vibration; some of them graphic, in which the vibrations record themselves, and others optical, in which they present a visible picture of their phases to the eye. The methods strictly acoustic have, moreover, been greatly im- proved in the hands of modern investiga- tors; as in the case of the sirene of Cagniarif de la Tour, which has been converted by Helmholtz into an instrument of largely in- creased capabilities. The vibrating lens of Lissajous, and the revolving mirrors and manometric flames of Ko~nig, have furnished admirable means of illustrating the compo- sition and resolution of harmonic vibrations. Professor Tyndalls singing tubes and sen- sitive flames have shown in a striking man- THE FIRST CENTURY OF THE REPUBLIC. 99 ner the power of one vibration to excite or repress another. Recent comparatively simple forms of apparatus contrived by Ger- man experimenters have shown that the velocity of propagation of sound in air or other gases can be determined in the space of a few feet with as much accuracy as has been heretofore attained in the most elabo- rate and protracted observations made in the open air between signal stations sepa- rated from each other by some miles. No single investigator has contributed more largely to the advancement of acous- tic science than Professor Helmholtz, of Berlin. In his great work on tone sensa- tion he has given the whole philosophy of composite waves and the theory of audition as founded on the capacity of the ear to re- solve these waves into their component ele- ments. He has shown that within a certain portion of the structure of the ear there are found a multitude of microscopic stretched cords, each of which is fitted to respond to a particular vibration, just as in a piano a single string will vibrate when its own note is sounded, while all the rest remain silent. He has also contrived hearing tubes or shells, called by him resonators, which pos- sess this same property of separating an ele- mentary tone out of an ordinary composite musical note, and by means of a series of these he succeeds in discovering all the ele- ments of which such notes are composed. Every such elementary tone when separately heard has precisely the same quality, wheth- er derived from a reed, a stringed, or a wind instrument; and thus it appears that the quality or timbre of a musical instrument is an effect of difference of composition, and not of difference of elementary sound. In the United Staii~s the number of inves- tigators who have occupied themselves with this interesting branch of science is small. Professor W. B. Rogers, now of Boston, gave some attention as early as 1850 to the curi- ous phenomena of singing tubes, that is, of tubes which utter a musical note on the in- troduction within them of a small gas flame. The vibration was imputed by Professor Rogers to a periodical explosive combustion of the gas, extinguishing the flame, which is immediately re-illuminated. For the pur- pose of demonstrating this latter fact, he employed as his gas jet a tube bent twice at right angles, which, by means of a pulley, he caused to revolve rapidly around its low- er limb. When this is revolved it produces an apparent ring of flame so long as the tube is silent; but the moment the sound begins, the ring breaks into a crown of minute flames resembling a string of pearls. Professor Henry, in the discharge of his duties as chairman of the Light - house Board, has made many experiments on sound, with a view to improve the system of fog-signals. Some of the facts observed by him are interesting contributions to sci- ence. One of these is the remarkable prop- erty manifested by powerful sounds to prop- agate themselves laterally, or in directions divergent from that to which they are orig- inally confined. A steam-whistle, for exam- plc, blown at the focus of a large parabolic mirror will at moderate distances be better heard in front and iu the prolonged axis of the mirror than behind it; but when the distance amounts to several miles, it is heard as well behind as before. In like manner, if a source of sound be near a building, an observer at a distance on the other side of the building may hear it distinctly, and yet may entirely lose it as he approaches the building. Another remarkable observation is as to the effect of winds on the audibility of sounds. At any considerable distance a wind blowing from the observer toward the source diminishes the loudness. This is ex- plained by the consideration that the lower strata of the air are retarded in their move- ments by the friction of the earth, and con- sequently that the fronts of the sound waves become inclined to the earths surface. But as the direction of sound propagation is nor- mal to the wave fronts, it happens that a sound proceeding against the wind is de- flected upward so that its force passes above the heads of distant listeners. The only elaborate continuous series of investigations in acoustics which has been undertaken in this country has been con- ducted by Professor A. M. Mayer, of Hobo- ken. The processes of Professor Mayer, which are themselves extremely ingenious, have led to many results of interest and value. It is a proposition deducible from theory, and was so announced by D5ppler more than thirty years ago, that the undu- lations generated by a vibratory body in motion will be effectively shortened in the direction toward which the body moves, and lengthened in the opposite direction. This is true as well in optics as in acoustics, and it is upon the assumption of its truth that Mr. Huggins has founded his inferences as to the absolute velocities with which the fixed stars are approaching the earth or receding from it. It has first been experimentally proved in the researches of Professor Mayer. The double sirene of Helmholtz affords a convenient means of studying the effect of partial or complete interference between sound waves which differ in phase at the point of origin, but there has been hitherto no instrumental means devised for deter- mining the amount of difference of phase which exists between two waves originating in a common phase at the same origin, but brought by different and unequal paths to the point of interference. This want Pro- fessor Mayer has supplied, and in doing so has at the same time provided the most ex- act mode hitherto devised of measuring the 100 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. wave length corresponding to any pitch, and of ascertaining the velocity of sound in the air or ill any gaseous medium. The deter- minations are made by means of the ser- rated flames in Kmnigs revolving mirrors, and their precision is secured by what is called a flame micrometeras ingenious in conception as it is exact iu its indications. The analysis of a composite note which Helmholtz accomplished by the use of his resonators, combined with Kmnigs mano- metric flames and revolving mirrors, was effected by Professor Mayer directly by con- necting the arms of a. number of steel tun- ing-forks by means of tightly stretched silk fibres with a membrane forming part of a reed pipe. On causing the pipe to speak, every fork whose tone forms a part of the note immediately sounded. Professor Mayer has also presented very strong evidence to confirm the opinion which many naturalists have entertained, that the antennam of insects constitute for them the organs of hearing, or organs, at least, through which they receive impres- sions for their guidance from the vibrations of the atmosphere; he has iuvestigated and delineated the curves which represent the resultant sound wave of a composite note, and has devised the means of optically rep- resenting the movements by which a single molecule of an elastic vibrating medium must be animated under the influence of such complex impulses. The most inter- esting of his contributions to this depart- ment of science is found in his determina- tiou. of the law which connects the pitch of a sound with the duration of its residual sensation, and in the deductions which flow from this law. It appears experimentally that if a sound of any pitch is suddenly arrested there follows a momentary disso- nance, but that if the interruption is reg- ular and periodic the dissonance diminishes with a diminution of the intervals till it finally disappears; also, that a more rapid succession of the impulses is necessary to this disappearance in proportion as the pitch is higher. Professor Mayer finds that for a tone produced by forty vibrations a second, the residual uensation lasts one-eleventh of a second, while for one of 40,000 vibrations per second, it lasts only one-five-hundredth of a second. This difference of duration of the residual sensation is the reason that trills upon the upper notes are pleasing, while those on the lower are not. The ap- plication of these principles to the study of harmony and to the means of producing the most agreeable effects in musical composi- tion is important. P. A. P. BARNARD. NEW YORK. [To liE CONTINUED.] GARTH:* ~ ~obeI. By JULIAN HAWTHORNE. CHAPTER IX. IT is not my purpose to ask the readers company across the threshold of the room where the dead body lies; let Garth pass in alone, and out of our sight. We have fol- lowed him closely enough thus far, and now, perhaps, it will be as well to pause and take a new departure; and, forbearing to make a direct inspection of the events of the next few years, to rejoin that square -visaged, dark-browed young gentleman in farmers attire, whom we left, many pages ago, at his morning easel on the shore of the quiet lake. Here again is the level translucence of the silent surface, the golden islet at the coves mouth, the broad glory of the October woods, the Persian pomp of distant Wabenoev- cry thing as it was before, save that the shadows of the trees on the eastern shore are less lengthened than at first. It now lacks but an hour or so of noon, and the art- ist is putting the finishing touches to his study. The stillness of the early morning, broken only by a few scattered bird notes, has melted into a voicelessness yet more profound, as though Nature were hushing herself beneath the overriding sun. When Garth sent forth a snatch of mellow whis- tling, or tapped his easel musingly with the handle of his paint-brush, the sound would ~o titillating articulately across the lake, and sometimes come tiptoeing back to its source, as an infants spirit might revisit its earthly cradle. Had Garth been in the hu- mor to shout aloud, or boisterously laugh, the whole wide basin would have been rack- ed with noisy echoes. But he seldom raised his voice above a moderate conversational tone, and as a mode of soliloquy he pre- ferred whistling to any other. It was a sort of musical accompaniment to thought, and threaded the whimsical incongruities of fancy on a strand of melody. Moreover, there was a delicate satisfaction in the nice evolution of such tuneful trifles, which bore analogy to the pleasure of a happy stroke of the brush, and enhanced it. Byandby Garth glanced up at the sun, and told himself that it must be eleven oclock: too late to paint any more. In- deed, for the last half hour he had been Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1875, by JULIAN HAWTHORNE, ill the office of the Li- brarian of Congress, at Washington.

Julian Hawthorne Hawthorne, Julian Garth 100-106

100 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. wave length corresponding to any pitch, and of ascertaining the velocity of sound in the air or ill any gaseous medium. The deter- minations are made by means of the ser- rated flames in Kmnigs revolving mirrors, and their precision is secured by what is called a flame micrometeras ingenious in conception as it is exact iu its indications. The analysis of a composite note which Helmholtz accomplished by the use of his resonators, combined with Kmnigs mano- metric flames and revolving mirrors, was effected by Professor Mayer directly by con- necting the arms of a. number of steel tun- ing-forks by means of tightly stretched silk fibres with a membrane forming part of a reed pipe. On causing the pipe to speak, every fork whose tone forms a part of the note immediately sounded. Professor Mayer has also presented very strong evidence to confirm the opinion which many naturalists have entertained, that the antennam of insects constitute for them the organs of hearing, or organs, at least, through which they receive impres- sions for their guidance from the vibrations of the atmosphere; he has iuvestigated and delineated the curves which represent the resultant sound wave of a composite note, and has devised the means of optically rep- resenting the movements by which a single molecule of an elastic vibrating medium must be animated under the influence of such complex impulses. The most inter- esting of his contributions to this depart- ment of science is found in his determina- tiou. of the law which connects the pitch of a sound with the duration of its residual sensation, and in the deductions which flow from this law. It appears experimentally that if a sound of any pitch is suddenly arrested there follows a momentary disso- nance, but that if the interruption is reg- ular and periodic the dissonance diminishes with a diminution of the intervals till it finally disappears; also, that a more rapid succession of the impulses is necessary to this disappearance in proportion as the pitch is higher. Professor Mayer finds that for a tone produced by forty vibrations a second, the residual uensation lasts one-eleventh of a second, while for one of 40,000 vibrations per second, it lasts only one-five-hundredth of a second. This difference of duration of the residual sensation is the reason that trills upon the upper notes are pleasing, while those on the lower are not. The ap- plication of these principles to the study of harmony and to the means of producing the most agreeable effects in musical composi- tion is important. P. A. P. BARNARD. NEW YORK. [To liE CONTINUED.] GARTH:* ~ ~obeI. By JULIAN HAWTHORNE. CHAPTER IX. IT is not my purpose to ask the readers company across the threshold of the room where the dead body lies; let Garth pass in alone, and out of our sight. We have fol- lowed him closely enough thus far, and now, perhaps, it will be as well to pause and take a new departure; and, forbearing to make a direct inspection of the events of the next few years, to rejoin that square -visaged, dark-browed young gentleman in farmers attire, whom we left, many pages ago, at his morning easel on the shore of the quiet lake. Here again is the level translucence of the silent surface, the golden islet at the coves mouth, the broad glory of the October woods, the Persian pomp of distant Wabenoev- cry thing as it was before, save that the shadows of the trees on the eastern shore are less lengthened than at first. It now lacks but an hour or so of noon, and the art- ist is putting the finishing touches to his study. The stillness of the early morning, broken only by a few scattered bird notes, has melted into a voicelessness yet more profound, as though Nature were hushing herself beneath the overriding sun. When Garth sent forth a snatch of mellow whis- tling, or tapped his easel musingly with the handle of his paint-brush, the sound would ~o titillating articulately across the lake, and sometimes come tiptoeing back to its source, as an infants spirit might revisit its earthly cradle. Had Garth been in the hu- mor to shout aloud, or boisterously laugh, the whole wide basin would have been rack- ed with noisy echoes. But he seldom raised his voice above a moderate conversational tone, and as a mode of soliloquy he pre- ferred whistling to any other. It was a sort of musical accompaniment to thought, and threaded the whimsical incongruities of fancy on a strand of melody. Moreover, there was a delicate satisfaction in the nice evolution of such tuneful trifles, which bore analogy to the pleasure of a happy stroke of the brush, and enhanced it. Byandby Garth glanced up at the sun, and told himself that it must be eleven oclock: too late to paint any more. In- deed, for the last half hour he had been Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1875, by JULIAN HAWTHORNE, ill the office of the Li- brarian of Congress, at Washington. GARTH. 101 rather imagining or remembering than copying what was before him. However, the sketch was nearly finished; and cer- tainly the meaning which he had intend- ed to bring out was sufficiently indicated. Would any one divine it besides himself? His father, perhaps; not Madge, certainly. No matter; it was there. By-the-way Madge. Where was she? She had half promised to come to the lake this morning in order to be accompanied on a nutting expedition which had been in prospect for several days past. But that was to have been not later than ten oclock: she must have given it up. Wellthe sketch was finished, however. Garth smiled, with a short humph ! then bent his bead down and stared at the meeting line of water and sand with a meditative frown. There lay his hat, amphibiously; he had put it there for the violets sake. He arose and exam- ined it; the flower was as fresh as when first plucked. But it will fade before she gets it, was Garths thought; and she doesnt care for faded things. Well, why should she ? He turned back to his easel, and began slowly to pack up his brushes, palette, and other implements, preparatory to going home. In the midst of this employment there came to his ears a kind of warbling outburst of song. It was from no birds throat, neither could any man have uttered it; it was clear, elastic, and pure, and gave a sense of indescribable exaltation, mingled with sadness. Sadness overtakes and sweet- ens the merriest sound which comes, as this came, from a distance. In the essence of the note, however, Garth fancied he recog- nized a chord which no change of conditions could have altered into cheerfulness, which could hardly even have proceeded from a happy soul. Such as it was, at all events, it went straight to his heart. He greatly appreciated music, less from a professional point of view (for, indeed, he had scarcely any practical knowledge of it) than as be- ing a man of sensitive ear and deep emo- tional perception. There was little music to be had in Urmsworth, unless the efforts of the village choir could be called such, and Garth was accustomed to build sym- phonies of his own from the roar and mur- mur of the oaks and hemlocks that grew in the neighborhood of his studio window. The outburst of song died away, and a few moments afterward Garth almost doubt- ed whether his imagination had not played him a trick, eitherwholly creating the sound, or at least developing it from some slight natural origin. Certainly it had possessed a flavor more spiritual than earthly. Upon reflection Garth found himself reminded by it of a female face which he had once seen, the image whereof had staid so vividly in genius of the autumnal landscape which he his memory that at length, to be rid of it, had been reproducing, that Garth had near- he had put it upon canvas. It was a face which few people would have called beauti- ful; and Madge, to whom he had once shown it, was of opinion that it was simply ugly. Be that as it might, Garth always contem- plated it with a thonghtftul kind of enjoy- ment, and once remarked to his father (.vho was the only person besides Madge that had ever been favored with a sight of the study) that he had never seen so interesting a com- bination of lines in any human face. They appeared at the first glance to be discord- ant and irregular; but the more they were studied, the more did an inner harmony and significance become apparent, transcending the superficial canons of female beauty. Mr. Urmson looked at the head for a good while in silence, finally saying, with one of his slow, penetrating smiles: Well, old boy, I can see that its an odd visage; and if I once happened to like it, I can imagine my find- ing it not easy to be tired of afterward. The truth is that human faces are windows for one another to whatever in life is of the highest importance, and a window which is clear to one looker will be ground glass to another. Now most people would call this face ground glass; but paint a picture of Miss Danver, and all the world would re- joice to look through it. Mr. Urmson had a fondness for this figurative kind of talk, and Garth generally caught his meaning more easily than did most people; but on this occasion he professed not to under- stand, and seemed rather disturbed and discontented. He had some answer in his mind, but forbore to give it utterance: how could he vindicate the head without seeming to call Madge in question? It was not until after this incident that he showed it to her, and her verdict upon it, instead of mortifying him, appeared to somehow set him at ease, without, howev- er, in any way lessening his own estimate of its merits. It must not be supposed that the out- break of melody which Garth had just heard, or fancied lie heard, recalled this face mere- ly because he was in the habit of picturing it to himself and associating it with other pleasant impressions. As a man of princi- ple, and looking upon his affections as ir- revocably engaged elsewhere, he would not knowingly have permitted himself an un- due absorption in the idea of any other woman than his mistress. The analogy, therefore, between the voice and the coun- tenance is to be accepted as genuine; there was that in the one which suggested the other, or might do so to a man of genius in a particularly lucid and impressionable mood of mind. But the little episode had been so unexpected, so charming, and with- al so like an ideal utterance of the very 102 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. ly persuaded himself it was a dream. Pres- of sharp distrust. He turned about with a ently, however, the sweet carol was repeat- most unreasonable emotion of resentment; ed, now sounding nearer and more distinct, but what he saw so modified his ill humor Stepping to the verge of the water, the art- as to make him rise to his feet and bow very ist saw a feminine figure standing near the politely. extremity of the tongue of land which A lady and gentleman were standing side bounded the western side of the cove, about by side on the soft turf which sloped down a quarter of a mile away. Her scarlet man- from the woods to the sand. The gentle- tie and the peculiarly shaped straw hat she man had very much the advantage in years wore left no doubt in his mind that she was over his companion, though he still might Madge. But what of the voice? have passed for under forty. His appear- The morning and the October tints have auce was decidedly prepossessing, his bear- got into her throat, he said to himself. ing at once frank and refined. At the same Madge could do any thing but sing till to- time, the effect he produced was slightly day. But can it beis there a Jenny Lind perplexinga mingling, it seemed to be, of hidden in my Madge, and I never suspected several dissimilar characteristics. His fore- it ? He shook his head with a half smile, head was grave and fair, and, with a trifle It cant be! its only the stretch of air more arch and height about the temples, and water between us. If it were so, she might have been called noble. It was shad- wouldnt need her beauty to bewitch the owed by curls of glossy brown, with a line whole world. But can mere distance weave or two of silver showing here and there. such a spell as that? Was it her voice,aft- The brows were level and handsome,but er all? the eyes were veiled by a pair of slightly As if in answer to the doubt, the figure tinted glasses, set in tortoise-shell. The in the scarlet mantle trilled forth a bar of glasses, however, had a gentlemanly polish melody for the third time. Though every of their own which was by no means un- note was distinct and true, there were no pleasing. The nose which they bestrode words; she seemed to be simply trying her was perhaps the most faultless feature in voice, or amusing herself with the replying the face, being perfectly straight and del- music of the echoes. Apparently she had icately mouldeda trifle too long, if any not yet caught sight of Garth; but he, aft- thing, insomuch that the point a little over- er listening until the last pulsation of sound shadowed the upper lip. The countenance had dissolved away, called out to her and thus acquired a slightly Jewish cast, which beckoned with his hand. She looked at increased its prevalent air of culture. him, and then, turning slowly, disappeared The lower part of the face was undecipher- behind a crimson growth of scrub oak. It able, owing to the peculiar treatment of the seemed to Garth that she moved with a dark beard. The mustache, finely curved more stately step than was her wont. Madge and eloquent, was in itself, one would think, never lacked the supple grace that accom- adornment enough, without the addition of panics perfect physical proportion and de- the thick-growing imperial which tapered velopment, but her ordinary bearing could from the chin. Nevertheless, the two har- hardly be called dignified. monized well together, and would have Garth resumed his packing in a strange formed a very graceful appendage to the mood of mingled exhilaration and puzzle- visage, had not their effect been interfered ment. This unlooked-for blossoming out with by a well - groomed and compactly in Madge of the divine faculty of song was moulded pair of whiskers, which, again, so inestimable a blessing to her betrothed would have done themselves much better as to be almost unwelcome. Every true- justice alone. As it was, the eye wandered hearted young man believes that he believes unsettled from one hirsute ornament to an- the woman of his choice to be the embod- other, and found no resting-place. imeut of every desirable feminine charm. The gentleman was dressed in an unas- If, then, she suddenly dawns upon him in a suming but fashionably cut suit of tweed, new light, delightfully transcending her for- and held in his hand a soft felt hat of rath- mer self he is bound, in common honesty, to er Italian contour. In his other hand he be jealous of his former opinion of her. He carried a short, pliable cane, which the must be displeased that she pleases him spurs upon the heels of his neatly fitting more, because she thereby casts a slur upon boots argued a riding-whip. These boots, the sincerity of his first love. Either he was which were drawn outside the pantaloons, false, or she imperfect; and yet he can not and reached fully up to the knee, gave the slight the new-coiner without doubly for- figure a gallant, almost a dapper, air, which saking her predecessor. commented curiously on the gravely intel- Immersed in some such whimsical quan- lectual promise of the gentlemans upper dary, Garth was tying up the legs of his half. How could the owner of such a fore- easel, when he was addressed from behind head be supported upon so sportive a pair by a courteous male voice, the tone of which, of legs? The inconsistency which was sug- nevertheless, impressed him with a feeling gested by this contrast repeated the per- GARTH. 103 plexity first occasioned by the triple growth of beard. But if the stranger puzzled Garth, it was evident that Garth was no less an enigma to the stranger. The young artists rustic garb seemed at odds with his palette and canvas; and although his face, when he turned about, did something toward recon- ciling the discrepancy as it concerned him- self, it rendered his rough coat and corduroys only the more inexplicable. The strangers first address, while perfectly courteous, had been couched in the tone of a superior. On encountering Garths glance he seemed, by some imperceptible process, to shift his stand-point, and to be less frankly at his ease than at first. He smiled behind his glassee, tapped his boot once or twice with his riding-whip, bowed as often in a rather objectless manner, and said: Oh, pardon ns, Sir. We have intruded without ceremony; but, frankly, we thought that We thought you might be able to tell us our way back to Urmhurst, said the young lady, interposin~, in a quiet and somewhat frigid tone. Urmsworth, you mean I returned Garth, smiling as he looked at her. I can accom- pany you part way, if youll wait a minute. Urmsworthyes, said the gentleman, regaining his composure, with a slight lan gh. Urmhurst, he added, turning to his companion, while Garth knelt to complete his packing Urmhurst, my dear Elmer, is the old Urmson seat, you know. Ah ! he continued, putting on his hat and looking ~round with a slow shake of his head, all ~his begins to come back to me. I have )athed in this very cove as a boy, and caught pickerel through the ice in winter. You are an artist, Sir, I perceive. Will you allow mel Ah! ah fine effect that, by George! Pardon! Do you live in this neighborhood I and are acquainted with these Urmsons, I dare say I Ah! now how are they getting on I Is the old gentleman well I During this monologue the young lady had been quietly observing Garth, and she now said, in the same indifferent tone she had before used, I think this gentleman is an Urmson himself. I am Garth Urmson, confessed that worthy, getting to his feet, with his bag- gage in hand, and scarcely concealing his amused surprise at the young ladys pene- tration. I dont know your names, he continued, though I have seen you both before in the Green Vaults at Dresden. I am Miss Golightley, returned the young lady, composedly; and this gentle- man is your uncleMr. Golightley Urmson. My dear, dear boy ! exclaimed the lat- ter, stepping up and putting his whip under his arm, in order to grasp Garths free hand in both his own. His greeting was very warm. My dear, dear nephew ! he re- peated. The three now walked on together in si- lence, this unforeseen recognition appear- ing to have taken the breath out of conver- sation for the moment. Uncle Golightley was between the two younger people, but Garth, by falling a step behind, had no dif- ficulty in keeping Miss Golightley in view. She seemed rather tall, though this was partly due to her bearing, which was unusu- ally dignified for so young a woman. A scar- let cape, fantastically embroidered round the edge, was thrown over a simple but ele- gant morning dress. Her face was of a kind more likely to interest others than to show interest on its own part. There was nobil- ity in it, but veiled by an apparent indiffer- ence almost amounting to cynicism. The eyes were gray and cold, and the left one was a little smaller than the other. The cheek-bones were high, and rounded into undue prominence; and though the nose was small, the chin had too much decision. The mouth, exquisitely curved and set, wa~ the only faultless feature, and even its beauty was marred by the paleness of the lips and a rather sarcastic touch about the corners. But chiefly noticeable to the art- ists eye was the gem-like purity of all the facial contours the lines were as clear and sharp as if cut in cameo. For the rest, her figure, though girlish, gave promise of wom- anly development; her ungloved hands were slender and small, and one was bleeding from the scratch of a thorn. It was your voice I heard across the cove I demanded Garth, at length breaking silence. Yes; I was trying the echo. I did not know any one was within hearing. I liked your voice. I have had the best masters, and I sing very well, said this imperturbable young lady. I thought, from your hat and cloak, that you were some one else, Garth remarked. I saw a very pretty girl with a hat like this in the village yesterday, replied Miss Golightley; so I made over one of mine to resemble it. Who is that girl I she has a great deal of taste. Margaret Danver, answered Garth, and was provoked to find his color rise. Shes of French Acadian descent. I have seen girls not unlike her in Nor- mandy; but Margaret Danver is prettier very pretty indeed. Danver I By-the-way, my dear Ehinor, is not that the name old Mr. Graeme men- tioned to us yesterday, when we were ask- ing him about a place where you and your mother could board I Ah! and now I think of itnow I think of it, Garth ,my dear 104 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. boy, was not your fi~thers mother a Danver? had been especially heavy, insomuch that To be sure she wasMarie Danversame not only the income, but a large portion of family. lily mother, you know, was a Go- the invested capital, had to be sacrificed to lightley; and Miss Elinor here ishow is it, meet them. He had accompanied each ap- my dear imy mothers grandniece. So she plication with the usual assurance that it and I call ourselves cousins, dont we, Eli- would in all human probability be the last, nor? But, Garth, he went on, resting one and was required only to secure a gigantic hand affectionately on the young mans profit sufficient to place them all forever shoulder, tell me all about Cuthbertall beyond the reach of want. Cuthbert had about your dear father. Is he well? is he more than once offered to make over to him happy ? bodily the half or even two-thirds, of the He has never changed from my first re- estate; but Golightley had almost indig- membrance of him. He has grown white- nantly rejected the proposal; nothing could haired and wrinkled; but his eyes and voice be further from his intention, he wrote, than are the same they always were. How long permanently to possess himself of a dollar have you been here, Uncle Golightley I of the faniily inheritance. Nor is there Ah, yesterday yesterday morning, much doubt of his sincerity; and consider- Then you didnt get my letter? Well, I ing that he was probably aware of cicnm- thought it was an even chance that we stances which, if made known, would, mor- arrived before it. You see, my dear boy ally at least, have authorized his takings, you see, we left very unexpectedly, very his conduct might really be regarded as :~uddenly. Well, and this morning Miss generous forbearance. Elinor here insisted upon exploring the During the last twelve months, moreover, primeval forest and getting lost in it. Yes, he had made no drafts at all, nor had any she takes to the woods as though she were thing, either good or bad, been heard of native to them, instead of being next thing him up to the time of his present encounter to a native of Europe. And Iyou can with his nephew at the lake-side. Might it never know, Garth, exclaimed Uncle Go- not be, thought Garth, glancing at the well- tighticy, in an outburst of confidence, how dressed man, clinking his spurs in a long I rejoice to find myself here again at last, stride beside himmight it not be that the By George, to think such a solid, flesh-and- great fortune had at last been made, and blood Fact as you are should have wholly Uncle Golightley come home to make the come into existence since I was last at Urm- long-promised restitution? hurst! You know I sailed for Europe the At all events it was ungracious to rake year you were born, the year my own good up old grudges in this first hour of meeting, father diedold Captain Brian. You are and Garth resolved to compensate for his like him; very much his face and build. rudeness by being as agreeable as possible But to think of your being an artistreally thenceforth. What if he should invite his a painter! By George, I envy you! Ah, it uncle and the two ladies whom, as it seemed,. was a (Iream of my youthful days; but I he had escorted hither to make Urmhurst couldnt; hadnt the physical stamina. And their abode? The house was big enough you are succeeding, of course ? to accommodate luxuriously twice as many I dont know. Ive lived by it of late; guests; and certainly relatives of the family but that costs little, said Garth, gravely, ought to have the choice of coming there You are right, my dear boy, to make before going elsewhere. your art an end, not a means. Thats what You have not decided where to lodge ? I longed to do, and would have donetaken he asked of Miss Gohightley. what fortune sent, and been rich only in the Mother said she should speak with Mrs.. joy of creation. Danver to-day, replied that young lady. Garth turned upon his uncle rather grim- Mr. Graeme said she was honest and clean, ly. You know, I suppose, that Fortune is and I was very much pleased with Mar- apt to rob one of what she gives to another I garets appearance this morning. Robbery can never be niore than a tem- This speech, quietly and with seeming un- porary expedient, rejoined Uncle Gohight- consciousness though it was given, nettled~ hey, in a low voice; the rightful owner will Garth exceedingly. Was his future moth- come by his own at last. er-in-law to be spoken of as honest aiid Garth, even while making his retort, had clean, and allusion made to his betrothed begun to regret it. Uncle Golightley had wife as if she were some pretty animalwas always lived more or less upon his brother this to be doiie in his presence with im- and nephew; but it had been pretty well punity? And who was this cold-mannered, settled between the latter that he had a gray-eyed young aristocrat that presumed moral if not a legal right to the half, at to hold a tone of such superiority? Per~ least, of the property, and that by tempera- haps she looked down upon him as well; ment and situation he must have more oc- and would treat his father as an entertain- casion for money than his relatives. Since ing old peasant! Nay, was courtly Uncle Garths Sophomore year, indeed, his drafts Golightlcy perchance but her valet de place i GARTH. 105 and how did she get over the historic alli- dear boy, about having seen Miss Elinor ince of her own blue blood with that of the here and me in Dresden ~ rustic Urmsons? Yes, at the Green Vaults. I kept catch- Being so composed and unapproachable, ing the reflection of your faces in the mir- and withal a woman, it was not easy either rors that lined the walls. An older lady to chastise or retaliate upon her. Moreover, and gentleman were with you perhaps Garth felt himself at disadvantage before Mr. and Mrs. Golightleyl one to whom he could ill afford the odds: Ah, not that, not that ! murmured Un- no doubt he looked like a farmer, and there- dc Golightley, placing a hand of gentle by laid himself open to the imputation of restraint on Garths aria. You were nat- being no better than he looked. The case urally misled by our dear Elinors speaking might be similar with poor Mrs. Danver, of mother. No: it was Mr. and Mrs. Ten- whose manner could not be called aristo- terden. Elinors father and mother died of cratic; and even Madge Garth here meas- yellow fever upward of tea years ago. The nred Miss Elinor Golightley with his eye, Tenterdens adopted Ehinor, having no chil- making a mental comparison between the dren of their own. By-the-way, Mrs. Ten- two young women. How much the more terden was a Golightlcy, an only daughter lovely was Madge, and sweet and winning; of my mothers first marriage. You know and yet he could understand that Miss Eli- my mother was a widow when she came nor, with her foreign education and preju- North and married Captain Brian ? dices, might contrive to despise the free, Garth believed he did remember that. spontaneous charms of the village beauty. Yes. Well, then, continued Uncle Go- For a moment, perhaps, Garth so far forgot lightley, with a sigh, last year came our his dignity as to wish that he and his might great griefMr. Tenterdens death. Dear appear before this supercilious critic illus- Johndear, good John Tenterden! Ah, trated with every adornment of wealth and my dear child, he added, taking Miss Eli- fashion; and a pang of resentment visited nors hand and drawing it tenderly through him with the reflection that, but for his his arm, I should not have mentioned this uncle, this might have been. before you ! But the mood was too unworthy a one to Mentioning does not make it worse, re last, and, after a short pause, the young turned she, with a peculiar compression of man said, with grave simplicity, the corners of her mouth; and after pro- When you first repeated Mr. Graemes ceeding a few steps, she quietly drew away recommendation, I thought he might easily from Uncle Goliglitleys affectionate sup- have said more; but honesty and cleanli- port, and, turning aside from the path, ness include most virtues worth having, and walked just within the verge of the trees, exclude some so-called virtues that are real- leaving the two gentlemen to themselves.. hy faults. Uncle Gohightley, after beckoning a playful Mr. Graeme did say more, I believe, re- adieu to her with his hand, resumed con- turned Miss Elinor, carelessly; but as I versation with his nephew. was concerned with Mrs. Danver in her en- Poor Johnit was very suddenheart- pacity of landlady, and not as a relative of disease, you know. Ah! it was a trying yours, I didnt trouble myself to remember time, I can tell you, Garth; of course it all the rest. fell on my shoulders; and by George ! mur- I have often warned you, my dear, said inured Uncle Golightley, shaking his head, Uncle Golightley, throwing up his chin and with a sad smile, I dont see what they stroking his imperial to a point, that would have done without me. Not that I we New-Englanders have democratic ideas wouldnt have done ten times as much, and which will sound harsh to your ears at first. thought it nothing; for Johmnwell, frank- For my own part, I fear the Old World has ly, nmy dear Garth, he idolized me; and not spoiled me; but Garth here, I rejoice to see, only that, but he assisted me materially at is as thorough-going a young democrat as a critical moment of my affairs. Poor fel- any of his forefathers. low! his whiole immense fortune went al- I quite agree with what he says, though, most immediately afterward. observed Miss Elinor, with some emphasis, And he died in consequence ? and a faint reddening in the cheeks. I In consequence? no, no, no. I couldnt am satisfied to be honest and clean myself, think that ! exclaimed Uncle Gohightley, and that is all I shall require of other half stopping in his walk, amid looking at people ! his nephew with a pained expression no, Brava! brava ! cried Uncle Gohighitley, no; it was heart-disease. smiling and gently clapping his hands. But does not amixiety make heart-disease Ah! well make a Yankee of you yet. fatal? Well, its a sad story. And so Mrs. Garth kept silence, but thought he liked the Tenterden and Miss Gohightley came with frigid young lady better than he had done, you here ? Suddenly his uncle turned upon him and Hm ?yes, yes; Ill tell you another asked, But did not you say something, my time, said Uncle Golightley, answering out 106 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. of what seemed the midst of a brown-study. But you have been in Europe, he went on, putting a constraint upon himself. Tell me about it: how long did you stay? Were you alone? Why did you not come to me, my dear boy? That was unnephewlike ! Garth looked at his uncle and smiled, with a touch of incredulity about his mouth. However, he contented himself with saying that he had neglected to secure the address, and then proceeded to give a short account of his travels. He had not gone back to college after his mothers death, but had immediately placed himself under a draw- ing-master, with such good result that with- in a year he was enough advanced to make a pilgrimage to European galleries advisa- ble. He overcame the obstacles in his )ath~ and finally himself on the found way, accompanied by a friend of his college days, Jack Selwyn by name. He had remained abroad seeing and studying, and, for the most part, supporting himself during four years; and, returning, had ever since staid quietly at home with his father, painting pictures in a corner of the garret. He had been especially successful in portraits, but aspired to more ideal walks. Such, laconically as he gave it, was Garths narrative, to which his uncle, arm in arm with him, apparently gave profound at- tention. It is open to question, however, wbether he actually heard a syllable of it. In either case, he was unusually taciturn. By this time they had reached the lichen- covered rock on the border of the belt of pines, beneath whose shadow Garth had discovered the violet a few hours before. Miss Elinor, coming close upon it, stopped and knelt down, and searched among tha clustering green leaves. Finding no flow- ers, she rose and followed the others. I plucked Pie last violet this morning, said Garth, turning back and joining her. Here it is in my hat-band. It is not quite faded. Will you take it ? Thank you ! said she, in a soft tone of surprise, and with the first smile she had vouchsafed that day. She took the droop- ing flower from the artists fingers, smell- ed it twice or thrice, and then drew the stem heedfully through a button-hole in the bosom of her dress. They walked on to- gether, saying nothing. Garth, for his part, was rather surprised at what he had done, especially since he had plucked the violet before he knew of Miss Elinor Golightleys existence, and with tbe intention of pre- senting it to a very different sort of per- son. Meanwhile Uncle Golightley was out of sight round a bend of the path; but anon Garth and his companion heard voices, and, drawing near, saw their friend in affable converse with a very pretty girl in a scarlet mantle and a peculiarly shaped straw hat. That is your cousinMiss Danver, said Elinor, quickly. Yes, muttered Garth. I had forgotten her; or rather I thought she had forgotten me MARY, QUEEN OF ENGLAND. EARLY in the summer of 1553 it became certain that Edward VI., the boy King of England, was near his death. He had entered his sixteenth year, and bad been king since his tenth. His father, Henry VIII., had made provisions for conducting the government during the long minority. The administration was committed to a council, at the head of which was Edward Seymour, created Duke of Somerset, the maternal uncle of the young king. He was in a few years superseded by John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, and was behead- ed in 1552. Edward fell wholly under the influence of Northumberland, who was con- sidered the head of the Protestant cause, to which the young king was warmly devoted.5 In the autumn of 1552 Edward was at- tacked by measles; this was followed by a slow fever, and then by an ominous spitting of blood. His physicians were dismissed; he was given to the care of quacks, and finally to that of a woman who undertook to cure him after he had been given over by all others. Symptoms soon manifested themselves which could not be attributed to consumption. It was afterward ascer- tained that he had been poisoned. He must soon die, and who should be his successor? Henry VIII. had been empowered by Par- liament to regulate the succession after his death. By his will he directed that in case Edward should die without heirs of his own, the crown should fall in the first place to Mary, his own daughter by Catherine of Aragon; she dying childless, to Elizabeth, his daughter by Anne Boleyn; and she dying without children, to the descendants of his sister Mary, who, after having been married to the imbecile Louis XII. of France, had married her former lover, Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk. She was now dead, but her daughter Frances, married to Henry Grey, who was created Duke of Suffolk, was next in succession to Elizabeth. There was, however, a grave defect in the title of both Mary and Elizabeth. Both had, by the most solemn legal proceedings, been pronounced illegitimate, the so-called marriages of their respective mothers hay- * The narrative given in this paper of the eveuts of Queen Marys reign is substantially drawn from Froudes History of England. No writer could give a satisfactory account of these events without boing de- pendent upon this historian, unless be were able to ex- amine the original MSS., of which Mr. Froude availed himself, and which were either inaccessible to or not examined by earlier English historians.

A. H. Guernsey Guernsey, A. H. Mary, Queen of England 106-118

106 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. of what seemed the midst of a brown-study. But you have been in Europe, he went on, putting a constraint upon himself. Tell me about it: how long did you stay? Were you alone? Why did you not come to me, my dear boy? That was unnephewlike ! Garth looked at his uncle and smiled, with a touch of incredulity about his mouth. However, he contented himself with saying that he had neglected to secure the address, and then proceeded to give a short account of his travels. He had not gone back to college after his mothers death, but had immediately placed himself under a draw- ing-master, with such good result that with- in a year he was enough advanced to make a pilgrimage to European galleries advisa- ble. He overcame the obstacles in his )ath~ and finally himself on the found way, accompanied by a friend of his college days, Jack Selwyn by name. He had remained abroad seeing and studying, and, for the most part, supporting himself during four years; and, returning, had ever since staid quietly at home with his father, painting pictures in a corner of the garret. He had been especially successful in portraits, but aspired to more ideal walks. Such, laconically as he gave it, was Garths narrative, to which his uncle, arm in arm with him, apparently gave profound at- tention. It is open to question, however, wbether he actually heard a syllable of it. In either case, he was unusually taciturn. By this time they had reached the lichen- covered rock on the border of the belt of pines, beneath whose shadow Garth had discovered the violet a few hours before. Miss Elinor, coming close upon it, stopped and knelt down, and searched among tha clustering green leaves. Finding no flow- ers, she rose and followed the others. I plucked Pie last violet this morning, said Garth, turning back and joining her. Here it is in my hat-band. It is not quite faded. Will you take it ? Thank you ! said she, in a soft tone of surprise, and with the first smile she had vouchsafed that day. She took the droop- ing flower from the artists fingers, smell- ed it twice or thrice, and then drew the stem heedfully through a button-hole in the bosom of her dress. They walked on to- gether, saying nothing. Garth, for his part, was rather surprised at what he had done, especially since he had plucked the violet before he knew of Miss Elinor Golightleys existence, and with tbe intention of pre- senting it to a very different sort of per- son. Meanwhile Uncle Golightley was out of sight round a bend of the path; but anon Garth and his companion heard voices, and, drawing near, saw their friend in affable converse with a very pretty girl in a scarlet mantle and a peculiarly shaped straw hat. That is your cousinMiss Danver, said Elinor, quickly. Yes, muttered Garth. I had forgotten her; or rather I thought she had forgotten me MARY, QUEEN OF ENGLAND. EARLY in the summer of 1553 it became certain that Edward VI., the boy King of England, was near his death. He had entered his sixteenth year, and bad been king since his tenth. His father, Henry VIII., had made provisions for conducting the government during the long minority. The administration was committed to a council, at the head of which was Edward Seymour, created Duke of Somerset, the maternal uncle of the young king. He was in a few years superseded by John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, and was behead- ed in 1552. Edward fell wholly under the influence of Northumberland, who was con- sidered the head of the Protestant cause, to which the young king was warmly devoted.5 In the autumn of 1552 Edward was at- tacked by measles; this was followed by a slow fever, and then by an ominous spitting of blood. His physicians were dismissed; he was given to the care of quacks, and finally to that of a woman who undertook to cure him after he had been given over by all others. Symptoms soon manifested themselves which could not be attributed to consumption. It was afterward ascer- tained that he had been poisoned. He must soon die, and who should be his successor? Henry VIII. had been empowered by Par- liament to regulate the succession after his death. By his will he directed that in case Edward should die without heirs of his own, the crown should fall in the first place to Mary, his own daughter by Catherine of Aragon; she dying childless, to Elizabeth, his daughter by Anne Boleyn; and she dying without children, to the descendants of his sister Mary, who, after having been married to the imbecile Louis XII. of France, had married her former lover, Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk. She was now dead, but her daughter Frances, married to Henry Grey, who was created Duke of Suffolk, was next in succession to Elizabeth. There was, however, a grave defect in the title of both Mary and Elizabeth. Both had, by the most solemn legal proceedings, been pronounced illegitimate, the so-called marriages of their respective mothers hay- * The narrative given in this paper of the eveuts of Queen Marys reign is substantially drawn from Froudes History of England. No writer could give a satisfactory account of these events without boing de- pendent upon this historian, unless be were able to ex- amine the original MSS., of which Mr. Froude availed himself, and which were either inaccessible to or not examined by earlier English historians. MARY, QUEEN OF ENGLAND. 107 ing been declared void from the begin- ning. In any case, one of them must be ilicoitimate. It began to be urged that if Henry could fix the succession after his death, then Edward could do the same. There were many reasons why he should do this. Mary was a devoted Catholic, and the reformers believed that if she should come to the throne she would set herself to undo all the work whici they had accom- plished, and bring the Church of England again under subjection to the papal see. Northumberland and the Protestant lead- ers pressed this upon the dying boy. Mary, they said, besides being clearly illegitimate, was objectionable in every way. She was the foremost enemy of Gods word and of the reformed faith. If she were to become queen, she would doubtless marry a prince of the house of Spain, and make England a mere tributary of that overshadowing mon- archy, which was even now straining every nerve to extirpate the true faith in Ger- many and the Netherlands. Lady Suffolk was ready to make over her claim to her daughter, Lady Jane Grey, who had just been married to Lord Guildford Dudley, the youngest son of the Duke of Northumber- land. Let Edward set aside both Mary and Elizabeth,and declare the Lady Jane to be his heir. These considerations could not but weigh with Edward, and among his last acts was to draw up with his own hand an order of succession, by which the crown was bequeathed to the Lady Jane, and in case of her death without heirs, to her sister, Lady Catherine Grey. Edward died July 6, 1553, but his death was not announced for several days, for Northumberland wished to secure the per- son of Mary before Lady Jane should be proclaimed queen. But such a secret could not be kept from watchful eyes, and before tlie king liad been dead an hour a messen- ger bearing the tidings was on his way to Mary. Taking saddle, she rode off toward Norfolk, where her friends were awaiting her. The Dudleys followed hard after, and nearly succeeded in capturing her. Four days after the death of Edward, Lady Jane was proclaimed queen, and made her public entry into London, where she was coldly received. Mary had in the mean while gathered a considerable force, and ignorant that the council had proclaimed Lady Jane, she sent a letter to it directing it to proclaim her as queen. For a week or more all was confusion. It was doubtful which side would get the upper hand; but it began to appear that Marys chances were the better, and the lords of the council undertook to shift the responsibility from their own shoulders to those of Northumberland. He must take the lead of the forces and move westward against those of Mary, while the lords re mained in London to take advantage of any wind that might blow. Tidings of fresh movements in favor of Mary began to come from Northampton- shire, Lincolushire, and Oxfordshire. The fleet at Yarmouth declared for Mary. North- umberland moved a little distance from Cambridge, when his men refused to bear arms against their lawful sovereign. He sent to the council for re-enforcements, but his messenger came back with but slender answer. Several members of the council who had been most fully committed to Lady Jane, went over to Mary. Among these were Arundel, and Pembroke, whose son was to be married to Lady Catherine Grey as soon as he could get rid of his present wife. They convened the mayor, aldermen, and chief citizens of London. Arundel told them the kingdom was on the verge of civ- il war, which must break out unless they abandoned the cause of Lady Jane. Re- ligion would be brought into the struggle; the French would interfere on one side, the Spaniards on the other, and whatever were the result, it would be disastrous to En- gland. The only hope was to place the crown on the head of the lawful queen. Pembroke declared that what Arundel had said was true, and let others do as they would, he would fight for Mary; his sword should make her queen, or he would lose his life. No word was spoken in favor of Lady Jane. A body of one hundred and fifty men was sent to the Tower, of which her father was governor, to demand the keys. He gave them up, and rushed to the apartment where his daughter was sitting under a canopy of state. He tore it down, telling her that the council had revolted, and that she was no longer queen. She replied that she was glad to hear it, and now that her reign of twelve days was over, hoped she might leave the Tower and go home. She was indeed to leave the Tower, but only for the scaffold. The council and the city authorities now went to Cheapside and proclaimed Mary as queen. Mary was then in her thirty-seventh year; in constitution she was many years older. Her life had been a sad one. She was a child when her father began to question whether her mother had ever been his law- ful wife. She was just entering womanhood when that mothers name was branded with undeserved disgrace. Three years niore, and that mother was dead, having committed her daughter to the care of her unnatural father. To gain some mitigation of his harshness she was compelled to write to him confessing her disobedience in clinging to the faith of her mother, to abjure the authority of the Bishop of Rome, and to ac- knowledge that the so-called marriage be- tween her father and mother was illegal, 105 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. contrary to the divine law, and utterly void. During Edwards nominal reign she was subjected to a thousand petty annoyances on account of her religion. In person she narrowly escaped deform- ity. Her stature was short. Her figure above the waist was shrunken from con- tinued ill health; below the waist it was bloated from a constitutional tendency to dropsy. Her forehead was broad and over- hanging; her cheeks thin and pinched. Her eyes were bright, but her ncar-sightednesa gave them an unpleasant appearance. Her voice was deep and harsh, like that of a man. Her talents were respectable. She had much of the firmness which belonged to her Tudor blood, and the impetuosity of her Spanish descent was aggravated by the pe- culiar nature of the disease from which she had long suffered. She had most of the ac- complishments of her times. She spoke En- glish, French, Spanish, and Latin, and read Italian, embroidered skillfully, and played well upon the lute. By the 19th of July the Duke of Northum- berland, still at Cambridge, learned through a private messenger what had taken place at London. He went to the market-cross, accompanied by Sandys, vice-chancellor of the university, and announced that in tak- ing up arms against Mary he had acted under orders from ~he council, who had changed their minds, and that he would also change his; and, flinging up his cap, he shouted, Long live Queen Mary ! To Sandys he said that the queen was a mer- ciful person, and there would be a general pardon. Though the queen should grant you a pardon, replied Sandys, the lords never will. An hour after the proclama- tion of Mary a herald arrived with an order from the council for the arrest of Northum- berland.5 In the morning the university met in the senate-house to depose their heretical vice-chancellor. Sandys tried to speak, but was pulled from his chair. He drew his dagger, but was disarmed, lashed to the back of a lame horse, and taken to London. He, however, lived through the persecution, and under Elizabeth became Archbishop of York. The insurrection had been so easily quelled tbat there was little excuse for harsh meas- ures. Over a hundred persons were put under arrest, among whom was Ridley, who had preached a violent sermon against Mary at St. Pauls Cross. Northumberland, of course, must be brought to trial, but * Lord Northnmberland had, for his own ends, been prominent politically as a Protestant leader. Froude says, Had the Reformation been, as he pretended, the tine concern of the Duke of Northnmberland, he wonid have brooght Mary back himself, bound by con- ditions which in her present danger she wonid have accepted. But Northomberland cared as little for re- ligion as for any other good thing. Mary meant to spare his life; and as for the Lady Jane, she said that justice would not permit that an innocent person should suf- fer for the crimes of others. Her foremost desire was now to bring back her kingdom to communion with the Church of Rome, and she thought that this might be effected without violence. In this she found herself mistaken. The people, especially the popu- lace of London, were not ripe for the pub- lic celebration of the mass; and the queen was made to understand this in a singular manner. August came, and the body of Edward lay still unburied in the apartment where he had died almost a month before. Mary resolved to have the obsequies celebrated with all the rites of the Church, including a public mass for the repose of his soul. The council feared the open celebration of Cath- olic rites would lead to tumult. Simon Renard, the astute minister of the Emperor Charles V., sided with them. He represent- ed that Edward had died a heretic, and the funeral services of the Church were only for her faithful children. Let him have the funeral of a heretic in Westminster Abbey; the queen need take no part, and, if she chose, could have private masses said for him in the Tower. So he was buried with the forms of the English Church, Cranmer officiating, this being the last public act of the latter as Archbishop of Canterbury. In the Tower a requiem was sung and mass said by Gar- diner, the reinstated Bishop of Winchester. Even this excited discontent. Men began to murmur that if religion were to be inter- fered with, it might be well to have North- umberland out of prison. The reformed preachers sounded the alarm, and inflam- matory placards were posted up in the streets. The haughty Tudor blood of Mary was roused, and she resolved to go on in the way in which she had begun. The rights of the Church should be restored, and its public ceremonies celebrated to the exclu- sion of all others. The people seemed re- solved this should not be done. By the middle of August the kingdom seemed set against the restoration of popery. Catho- lic services could be held at St. Pauls Cross only under the protection of a military guard. In a week all this was changed, and through the weakness of one man. On August 15 the Duke of Northiumber- land and six others were brought to trial. All were convicted of high treason; but it was resolved that only the duke, Sir John Gates, and Sir Thomas Palmer should be put to death. Northumberland had been noted as a brave soldier by sea and land. But here he broke down. He had begged for mercy when first arrested; and when sentenced he entreated for a few days respite, that by the aid of a confessor he miTht for see ~ prepare death. If he could MARY, QUEEN OF ENGLAND. 109 some member of the council, he would com- municate important information. Gardiner went to him both as confessor and as mem- ber of the council. The duke assured him that he had always been a true Catholic, and had never believed a word of all the doctrines for which he had been so zealous. Let me live but a little longer, he im- plored, that I may do penance for my sins. The queen was still inclined to spare his life, but was met by a protest from the Spanish minister in the name of his master. Those of the prisoners who were to be spared were kept in ignorance of the mercy reserved for them. On August 21 they were all brought to the chapel of the Tower, where they heard mass, made their confessions, and received the sacra- ment. Then Northumberland rose and said: Truly, good people, I profess before you all that I have received the sacrament according to the true Catholic faith ; and the plague that is upon the realm and that is upon us now is that we have erred from the faith these sixteen years, and this I protest unto you all from the bottom of my heart. They were then led out. But the duke made one more vain attempt to save his life. He wrote an abject appeal to Arundel, who now stood high in the queens favor: Alas, my lord, is my crime so heinous as no re- demption but my blood can wash away the spots thereof? An old proverb there is, and that most true, A living dog is better than a dead lion. Oh that it would please her good Grace to give me life, yea, the life of a dog, if I might but live and kiss her feet and spend both life and all in her service ! All in vain. What Sandys had told him was true. The lords in council, who had been his accomplices, had no mercy for him. The next day he was brought to the block. Before the axe fell he protested that his re- bellion was owing to the false preachers who had led him away from the Catholic faith, and exhorted the spectators to turn at once to the Church, in which from the bottom of his heart he had always believed, and in which he now died. The recantation of its leader seemed a death-blow to the Reformed faith. What could others say when he thus disavowed all that he and they had maintained? The Catholics were exultant. God, they said, had visited his people, and Mary, the virgin ineen, had been set upon the throne for uheir redemption. And all England seemed to have become Catholic in a day: Catho- lic, that is, after a fashion papistical. but yet far from As yet there had been nothing which can fairly be called persecution for religion. Many Protestant preachers had, indeed, been ~rrested, but the charge was for sedi- tious, not for heretical, utterances. Ridley was already in custo(ly on account of his St. Pauls Cross sermon; Latimer was brought before the council, and his demeanor was adjudged to be seditious, and he was sent to the Tower. Probably the blunt old man spoke his mind plainly enough. Cranmer had not been molested at all, and it began to be said that he was about to conform to the Church. He put forth a letter denying this, and offered, if the queen would grant him leave, that he would prove that the mass in many things not only hath no foun- dation of Christ, His apostles, nor the prim- itive church, but also is contrary to the same, and containeth many horrible blas- phemies. He was summoned before thc council, charged with an attempt to excite sedition, and committed to the Tower. The people wished Mary to marry, and that her husband should be an Englishman; but, as it happened, there were but two liv- ing Englishmen who could be thought of as fit to be her husband. What with the wars of the Roses and subsequent executions, there were but these two who had in their veins a saving drop of the royal Plantagenet blood Reginald Pole and Lord Edward Courte- nay. The former was over fifty years of age, and the latter was despised by the queen. In considering the question of her mar- riage, Marys thoughts naturally turned to- ward her Spanish kinsmen. Charles V., from political motives, was desirous of a matrimonial alliance with England. He had, indeed, thought of marrying Mary him- self, but he was growing old, was infirm, and was already meditating abdication. So he fixed upon his son Philip, and in this he was ably seconded by Renard. Mary says she had never known what it was that men call love. She listened to Renards constant praises of Philip as a woman approaching forty listens to her first proposal of marriage. One day she called Renard to her apart- ment, a single attendant being present. Upon an altar was the consecrated wafer, which she always invoked as her protector, guide, and counselor. She had, she said, passed days and nights before it, imploring the Divine guidance in the matter of her marriage. The three flung themselves on their knees before the altar and sang the J7eni, Creator. As the chant closed, Mary was assured from within that a Divine message was vouchsafed to her. The prince of Spain had been chosen by Heaven as the spouse of the virgin queen, and all mans malice should never keep them asunder: if mira- cles were required to give him to her arms, miracles would not be wanting. Mans power did, indeed, set itself against the fulfillment of her passion. She and Philip were within the degrees of consan- guinity prohibited by the Church, and a papal dispensation would be necessary for 110 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. the union; and even Gardiner feared that the people would not then consent to sub- mit such a matter to the papal see. He ad- vised her to marry Courtenay, send Eliza- beth to the Tower, and proceed to extirpate heresy. The House of Commons presented an almost menacing petition. Let her mar- ry an Englishman, and then, with Gods 0race~ there would soon be an heir horn of the union. Paget, another of the council, thought that it would be dangerous to med- dle with Elizabeth; and, since Mary was bent upon Philip, the best way would be to acknowledge Elizabeth as heir-presumptive, marry her to Courtenay, give assurance that there should be no tampering with the suc- cession, no restoring the papal supremacy, and no restoration of the lands which had been wrested from the Church; this done, there would be no difficulty in the queen s marrying whom she pleased. But Mary was now fully resolved, with all her Tudor persistency, that she would marry Philip, that the power of the Cath- olic Church and of the Pope as its head should be as unlimited in England as it was in Spain, and that the hated daughter of a hated mother should never be Queen of England. If she herself should die child- less, the crown should go rather to the Scot- tish linesay, to the Countess of Lennox, who was now (Erected to assume court pre- cedence of Elizabeth. But her marriage with Philip would set all things right. Heaven would bless her with a son, whose advent would remove any pretensions of others. With the aid of God and of Spain heresy would be set aside, and the Church restored to all its rights. But it was well to bring Cranmer to his deserts, and to have at hand the means of forestalling any dan- ger that might threaten from Lady Jane Grey and from the Dudleys. Early in November Cranmer, Lady Jane, her husband, and his two brothers were tried for high treason, found guilty, and sentenced to death. Mary still meant to spare the life of Lady Jane,* and perhaps of the Dud- leys; but Cranmer should be executed at once. But here ecclesiastical law inter- fered to prevent the execution of the civil sentence. Until the archbishop had been degraded by apostolic sentence he could not suffer at the hands of a secular tribunal. The execution must be delayed until Pole arrived as papal legate. Meanwhile, on No- vember 8, came the formal offer from the emperor of the hand of his son, and a prompt answer, yes or no, was required. The coun- cil were in session in an adjacent room. Mary rushed in and demanded their con- sent. They were taken by surprise, had no time for consultation, and no on esingly had the courage to thwart the queen. Some- thing was said which she took for an assent, and, with a joyful face, she came out and told the Spanish embassador that the an- swer was yes. The queen thereupon summoned the Coin- moits to her presence, and told them that she would marry as God should direct her choice, and that direction had been already pronounced in favor of Philip. Never was bride more anxious than Mary for the speedy consummation of her nuptials. Christmas had almost come before the final terms of the treatyhadheen settled, andAsh-Wednes- day that year fell on February 6. There is no marrying during Lent, and unless Philip came before that time, there must be a de- lay of forty days. Renard assured the queen that the prince should be in her arms before Septuagesima. But before that time events happened which kept back the bridegroom for six months. New-Years of 1554 had hardly come and gone before a great conspiracy broke out. It was directed mainly against the Spanish marriage, and comprised the Dudleys, the Duke of Suffolk (father of Lady Jane Grey), the Marquis of Northampton, and many country gentlemen, notable among whom was Sir Thomas Wyatt. The first thing was to get rid of Mary; the next appears to have been left to be decided by circum- stances. One idea was that Elizabeth was to marry Courtenay and be placed on the throne; another was that Lady Jane should be made queen; another was that if the aid of France was required, it should be purchased by acknowledging the claims of Mary, Queen of Scots. Mary at first took the matter lightly. If Philip would only come, and come before Lent, all would go well. But the insurrection soon assumed formidable proportions, and early in Febru- ary Wyatt came near making himself mas- ter of London, which would have been de- cisive. But the rising had fared ill in other quarters. Suffolk was captured, after hid- ing two wintry days and a night, without food, in a hollow tree. Wyatts force was dispersed, and himself made prisoner. Mary had triumphed once more. All the latent ferocity of her Tudor blood was aroused. She would never again be exposed to such a risk. The house of Grey should be de- stroyed, Lady Jane with her kindred, for so long as she lived to furnish a rallying point for insurrection, Philip would never venture to England. She was forthwith brought to the block. Her story is one of the most pa- thetic in English history. Even the cold- blooded Hume is warmed in relating it. Prompt vengeance was meted out to those who had borne part in the rising. In a few hours a hundred corpses were dangling from gibbets in St. Pauls Church-yard, on Lon * The emperor and his minister Renard had from the first urged the execution of Lady Jane Grey. See Froude, vol. vi., p. 60 (Am. ed.). MARY, QUEEN OF ENGLAND. 111 don Bridge, and at Charing Cross. At all cross-ways and in all thoroughfares, wrote the French embassador, the eye is met -with the hideous spectacle of hanging men.~~ Week after week commissioners were busy trying prisoners, who were hurried to the gallows, while the jails were crowded with those awaiting trial. Mary was resolved upon the death of Eliz- abeth. The latter had been ill, but as soon as she could be removed was brought to London. Sbe was shut up in the Palace of Whitehall, while Gardiner occupied himself in hunting up evidence against her. The emperor forwarded to Mary full dispensa- tions from the Pope for her marriage, with a pressing urgency for the death of Eliza- beth. Mary now needed little urging. She said that she knew Elizabeth was guilty; the proofs were every day accumulating, and she would insist that justice should be meted out to her. She could hardly sleep, so ardent was her longing for the safe ar- rival of Philip. But still no proofs upon which the council dared to act were forth- coming against Elizabeth, and she was placed under harsh custody at Woodstock, where she remained a year. Months passed, but still no Philip crossed the sea. Not even a word from his hand came to the waiting queen. The trials of the last half year began to tell heavily upon her. She grew ill with hysterical longings. If she heard of the arrival of merchants or sailors, she would send for them and ques- tion them. Some said that the prince had little heart for this business in England some told her that the French fleets were guarding the Channel to intercept him in crossing. She would start from her bed at night terrified by her imaginations. On the 19th of April came tidings that Philip was actually on his way with a gal- lant train of Spanish nobles. Escorted by six thousand soldiers, he had set out for the coast. Early in July the fleet of a hundred and fifty vessels sailed from Corunna. The voyage was a long and tedious one. The prince and ali on board were terribly sea- sick. As they neared the English coast, or- ders were given that no salute even should be fired, forfear of bringing down upon them the French cruisers. On the 19th of July the white cliffs of England were sighted, and on the next day the great flotilla was safe- ly anchored off Southampton, where, or at the neighboring Winchester, whither the queen had come to meet him, were gathered almost the entire nobility of England; for, since the marriage was to be, they deter- mined to give a meet reception to the husband of their sovereign. Philips party remained at Southampton over Sunday to recover from the fatigues of the voyage. Then, in the midst of a drenching rain, he and his escort set out on horseback for Winchester, where they arrived, wet and bedraggled, just before sunset. Philip went first to the cathedral, where the choir chant- ed a solemn Te DeunL laudamus, and then pro- ceeded to the deanery, where he meant to pass the night. But the queen, who was at the bishops palace hard by, could not wait till morning, and Philip was sum- moned to meet Mary for the first time. What he saw has been already described; only during the year she had grown more haggard in face, in form. What she thought she saw was the embodiment of all her over- wrought fancies. What others saw was a personable young man below middle height, of good, erect figure, with reddish hair and beard, not uncomely in face, were it not for the coarse protruding jaw of his Burgun- dian ancestors. It required thirty years for him to fit himself to be the original from whom Motley has painted his matchless -word-portrait: A small, elderly, imper- fectly educated, patient, plodding invalid, with white hair and protruding under-jaw and dreary visage, sitting every day, sel- dom speaking, never smiling, seven or eight hours every twenty-four, at a writing-table covered with heaps of innumerable dis- patches, in a cabinet far away beyond the seas and mountains, in the very heart of Spain ; scrawling upon those innumerable dispatches memoranda which were to con- sign to the sword, to the stake, to famine, and to pestilence tens of thousands of men, women, and children in the far-off Nether- lands, a quarter of the breadth of Europe away. Of all those tens of thousands not one endured a tenth of the torture which Philip was to endure during the last months of his life ; and not one of them bore his torments with more patience, or made, as ecelesiastics held, a more godly and edifying end. He was tortured by the gout so that the very touch of a linen sheet upon his hands or feet gave him intolerable agony. Like Herod of old, he was eaten up alive by worms. The formal marriage between Philip and Mary was celebrated with all pomp two days afterward. They had been previously married by proxy. Mary had gained one desire of her heart, and partially gained the other. Catholic orthodoxy had been meas- urably restored, but her subjects had not been brought back to the unity of the fold. The kingdom was still schismatical and un- der the papal ban. Mary therefore bent herself to the restoration of the papal su- premacy, involving in the future, if not at the moment, all that this implied; among other things the power of the ecclesiastical courts to pronounce civil punishment, which the secular arm must enforce. The first thing to be done was to effect a formal reconciliation with the papal see, and the great obstacle to this was that the 112 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. new Pope, Julius III., was loath to formally give up the right to reclaim the abbey lands which had been wrested from the Church. But the political affairs of the papacy de- manded that this sacrifice should be made, at least for the present; and the Pope final- ly consented. Pole, after long waiting, was ~~mpowered to go to England, with author- ity to promise all that was required, and to grant the papal absolution to the schis- natical English. He came at a fortunate time, for the people were elated by reports that the queen was in a condition which promised the birth of an heir. The legate set out from Brussels on No- vember 13, going by land to Calais, where he embarked on the 19th for England, and in a few hours lauded at Dover, whence he proceeded to London. The king and queen were ~at dinner. Phil- ip sprang from the table, hurried to the gate, and caught the legate in his arms. Mary received him at the head of the grand stair- case, embraced him, declaring that his com- ing gave her as much joy as the possession of her kingdom. The courtly cardinal re- sponded in Latin, Aye, garia, gratia p1 a, benedicta tu in mulieri bus. Then, after an ear- nest colloquy, he said that his coming had by Divine Providence been postponed until the time had arrived when he could say to her, Blessed be the fruit of thy womb. At that momentso Mary said, and so she always believedcame to pass what had taken place when the aged Elizabeth, in the same words, greeted the Virgin Mother undefiled. The child leaped within her. Not a moment was lost in making public the glad tidings. The council gave orders that a Te Deem should be sung that evening in every church in London; and the next day being Sunday, all pulpits rang with this crowning testimony of Heaven to the Catholic faith. On Monday came a courier from Rome bearing the briefs by which the Pope formally relinquished the last of the reservations which stood in the way of the reconciliation. Three days later, the solemn ceremonies of reconciliation were opened. Both Houses of Parliament were convened at Whitehall. Philip and Mary were seated under a canopy of state, the legate on their right. It was observed that the queen took special care to make her supposed condition as conspicu- ous as possible. The chancellor presented Pole as embassador from the apostolic see, charged with a weighty mission which he would himself explain. Pole then made a long address, closing with the announce- ment that he came with the full powers of the keys to lock and unlock; he had come to build, not to destroy; he was not to call in question any thing that had already been done; all matters of the past should hens things cast into the sea of forgetfulness. But, he concluded, you can not receive the benefit and grace offered from the apos- tolic see until you have abrogated the laws whereby you have disjoined and dissever- ed yourselves from the unity of Christs Church. Parliament retired to deliberate. Next day the Lords and Commons were convened at Westminster to vote separate- ly upon the question whether they should return to the apostolic see. In the Lords there was no opposition. Among the 360 Commons there were two dissentients. One voted silently; the other, Sir Ralph Bag- enal, said that great and worthy prince, King Henry, had for twenty years labored to expel the Pope from England. He had sworn to King Henrys laws, and would keep his oath. The forms of procedure were then agreed upon. The next daySt. Andrews Dayafter high mass in Westminster Abbey, Parlia- ment assembled at the palace, where the papal legate pro~nounced the absolution. When by speedy messenger the tidings reached Rome, they were greeted with ar- tillery salvos from the Castle of St. Angelo, with jubilees and indulgences, with illumi- nations and bonfires, with masses of the Holy Ghost and pardons. Pope Julius sent a nuncio to urge that in view of this great salvation the emperor and the King of France should make peace, and the Catholic powers, at one with each other, could then trample out heresy andput down the infidels. Gardiner had as yet failed to secure the passage of special laws for the punishment of heresy. But these were brought again before Parliament early in December, and, not without strenuous opposition, the Lol- lard statute of Henry IV., De Heretico Corn- burendo (for the burning of heretics), was restored on the 15th. The bishops courts also regained their old power of arbitrary arrest and discretionary punishment. The life and person of every Protestant were now in the hands of the Catholic bishops, and at the head of these were the unscru- pulous Gardiner, of Winchester, the brutal Bonner, of London, and the fanatical Pole, to be made Archbishop of Canterbury as soon as Craumer should be disposed of. A general amnesty was now proclaimed for all past political offenses. The surviving pris- oners of Wyatts conspiracy were set at lib- erty, and exclusive attention was given to the work of saving souls after the manner of the Spanish Inquisition. On January 28, 1555, the cardinal-legate put forth his first general instructions, to the effect that au- thority had been restored to the ecclesias- tical courts to proceed against the enemies of the faith, and to punish them according to law. This day is the proper commence- ment of the Marian persecution. On that day Gardiner, Bonner, and four other prelates formed a court at St. Mary MARY, QUEEN OF ENGLAND. 113 Overys Church, in Southwark, and cited before them Hooper, and John Rogers, a canon of St. Pauls, who was to be the first martyr. They were required to make their submission within four-and-twenty hours. As they left the court, Hooper said to Rog- ers,Come, Brotl]er Rogers, must we two take this matter first in hand, and fry these fagots ? Yea, Sir, with Gods grace, replied Rog- ers. Being called into court the next day, they refused to recant, and were sentenced to the stake, the day of execution to be fixed at the queens pleasure. Five weeks passed, when, on February 4, Rogers was roused from sleep and told that Bonner was waiting to degrade hini from the priesthood, and then he was to be burned, all of which was done. Hooper had been sentenced at the same time with Rogers, but as he had been Bishop of Glouces- ter, he was to suffer in that city, which he had infected with his pernicious doctrines. He was taken thither, and burned on the 9th. The untrained provincial execution- ers bungled in their work, and unintention- ally prolonged his agonies. At the same hour Rowland Taylor was burned at Ald- ham, in Suffolk; on the day before, Lau- rence Sandars had been roasted at Coven- try. In Gardiners first batch of prisoners there had been six clergymen of note. Of these four had now suffered. Bradford had been sentenced, but was respited; Card- maker, prebendary of Wells, had flinched and made his submission. Both, however, came afterward to the stake. Gardiner and Bonner now paused in their executions, probably to see how the matter would be received. They, however, made numerous arrests, confining themselves to men of 110 note. Renard, after studying the popular feeling, advised more moderate measures; and Philip, thinking it politic to clear himself of responsibility, caused his chaplain to preach a sermon in the royal presence in which he denounced the exe- cutions and inveighed against the tyranny of the bishops. The lords of the council talked strangely. Philip, who had grown weary of Mary, thought of going home, and Renard begged not to be left behind, for his life would not be safe. But the plans of wise men, who were turn- imig their thoughts toward Elizabeth, were set at naught by the premature exposure of an ill-judged conspiracy, by which placards were to be issued simultaneously all over the kingdom setting forth that the queens alleged pregnancy was a delusion, and that a supposititious child was to be foisted upon the nation. The people were to be sum- moned to rise in arms, drive out the Span- iards, tear down the inclosures of the coma- mon lands, and proclaim Courtenay as king under the title of Edward VII. In such a Vo,~. LILNo. 3~T.8 wild agrarian scheme the lords and men of substance could bear no part, and there was nothing for them to do but to keep quiet and await the course of events. Renard took new heart, and urged Philip to remain in England. Before Easter the executions of heretics were renewed, and before April was over sixteen persons had been sent to the stake. Among these were a weaver, a butcher, a barber,ai~apprenticeboy,agentleman,and Robert Ferrars, an upright, whimsical man, who had been Bishop of St. Davids during the early part of the reign of Edward VI., had been thrown into prison by Northum- berland, where he remained unnoticed and forgotten until tIme beginning of the perse- cution. Then there was another pause in the burnings. Julius III. had died imear the close of March, and Cardinal Pole was an unsuc- cessful candidate for the papal chair; but Marcellus Cervino, Cardinal of St. Cross, was elected. His pontificate lasted only three weeks, and Pole once more put himself for- ward in vain. Cardinal Caraffa was chosen, and took the name of Paul IV. But in the mean time Pole thought lie saw an oppor- tunity of accomplishing a great workno less than that England should mediate a peace between France and the empire. A place for the assemblage of the envoys of the three powers was fixed upon near Calais, and the meeting was to take place just after the time when the child of Marywhich, it was assumed, could be no other than a son was expected to be born. On the 20th of April Mary withdrew to Hampton Court, where she might in quiet await her hour of trial. A cradle was ready for the expected babe; nurses and rockers were provided; litanies were sung in the streets of London; a grand procession of ecelesiastics, headed by Philip and Gardi- ner, paraded around tIme palace, the queen looking at them from a window. Ciren- lars were ready written, to be sent to bish- ops, embassadors, and sovereign princes, announcing the happy birth of a prince, blanks to be filled np being left for time date. On the 30th what seemmied the labors of childbirth began. A message was at once sent to London. Ic Deems were sung, and bonfires ready for lighting were piled up in the streets. Tidings were sent to Antwerp, which were taken to announce the actual birth. Time great bell was set rimmging, and salutes were fired fromn tim vessels in tIme river. The paimis soon passed away. But Mary Imad no misgivings. The physicians assured her that all was as it should be; and the litanies, prayings, and processions still went on in London streets. So day after day wore on, but no elmild appeared. Time peace coimferemmee could be l)mmt off no longer. It 114 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. met, and separated without result. By-and- only adviser in whom she would trust. by it began to be suspected that the queen Under the direction of this enthusiast and had been mistaken as to her condition. Her dreamer, the persecution received new vig- women became convinced that her case was or. Even Bonner required to be spurred one of dropsy, but dared not tell her so. on in the work. All through the month of May the poor Why the three bishops, Cranmer, Lati- woman lay in her room waiting for what mer, and Ridley, had been left so long in was never to be. She imagined that for prisoii at Oxford, otherwise unmolested, has some fault of hers the Almighty had delay- never been satisfactorily explained. But ed the fulfillment of His promise. It must at length they were to feel the full force of be that she, on her part, had failed to ex- ecclesiastical law. On the 7th of September terminate His avowed enemies. Hardly a a commission appoiiited by Pole niet in St. score of heretics had been buriied, and the Marys Church, Oxford, for their trial. The realm swarmed with them. On the 24th details need not here he given. Their con- of May she wrote a circular to quicken the demnation was predetermined. Latimer, flagging zeal of the bishops. now fourscore years old, and Ridley were This circular did its work. In the next easily disposed of. They were formally three months fifty persons were brought to condemned on the 30th, but their execution the stake in the dioceses of London, of was postponed for a space in the hope that Rochester, and in that of Canterbury, real- they might be brought to save their souls ly that of Pole, thou~,h nominally adminis- by recaiitation. A Spanish friar was ap- tered by Harpsfield, his archdeacon. Among pointed to convert theni. But one of them these sufferers was Cardmaker, who had would not even see him, and upon the other been among the first arrested, but had saved his arguments produced no effect. They his life by recantation. He was now brought were burned October 15, and Cranmer from to a new trial, was again offered his pardon his window was a spectator of the sufferings upon a new recantation; but he stood firm, of his friends. and suffered. By canon law one who has received the Burnt-offerings were as useless as prayers archiepiscopalpauiurn can only be condemn- to bring forth the long-expected child. For ed by the Apostolical Court. Cranmer was a little longer the queen flattered herself therefore cited to appear at Rome within with the imagination that she had merely eighty days to answer the charges there to mistaken her time by a couple of months, be brought against him. But lie was all but all others knew that neither now nor the time to be kept in prison at Oxford. ever could she become a mother. The hope On the 14th of December a mock trial was of a direct heir being given up, it remained instituted at Rome. The report of the cx- to consider the succession again; and the amination at Oxford was put in evidence, queen, sorely against her will, was forced and it is said that counsel on both sides to think of Elizabeth, who had hefore been were heard. Pope Paul IV. pronounced the brought from Woodstock to Hampton Court, final sentence, to the effect that Thomas but had never seen her sister. Early in July Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, having word was sent to the princess that the queen been accused by his sovereigiis of divers wished to see her in her apartments, and crimes and misdeiiieanors: it having been the sisters met for the first time in two proved against him that lie had followed years. Elizabeth protested that she had the teachings of John Wycliffe and Martin been guilty of no wrong, and Mary pretend- Luther of accursed memory, that he had ed to he convinced, but muttered to herself published books containing matters of her- in Spanish, Sabe Dies (God knows). Ehiz- esy, and still obstinately persisted in those abeth was set nominally at liberty, but was erroneous opinions: he was therefore de- not suffered to remain at court, a ad was dared to be anathema, sentenced to be de- closely watched. prived of his office, and having been de- Philip was no sooner perfectly assured graded, to be delivered over to the secular that no child was to be born to him than arm. lie announced that he was about to visit The decision did not reach England till the Netherlands. The emperor, his father, February 14, 1556, and Bonner and aiiother was about to hay down the double crown, bishop were sent down to Oxford to finish and Spain and the Netherlands were to fall the affair. Bonner performed the work of to him. He must go, but would return in degradation with such characteristic bin- two or three weeks. The parting took place tahity that lie was rebuked by his colleague. on the 28th of August, 1555. Mary was not Cranmers robe was stripped off and his hair long in learning that her hiusbaiid was in- clipped. Bonner, having scraped the fin- dulging in promiscuous and vulgar amours. ger points which the consecrating oil had She sank into the deepest melancholy, fall- touched, cried out, Now are you lord no ing little, if at all, short of insanity. Her longer ! The deposed prelate, clad in a rehi~ion, such as it had now become, was beadles threadbare robe aiid a tradesmans her sole consolation, and Pole became the cap, was then led nw-ny. MARY, QUEEN OF ENGLAND. 115 Pole addressed to him a hitter letter, charging him with all his offenses, viewed from a Catholic point of view. If he was to speak in his own name, it should he only to God, whom he would pray to consume him with fire from heaven. But speaking as the representative of the Church, he ex- horted Cranmer to come back to light and life, and earn the forgiveness of God; but if he persisted in his vain opinions, then might God have mercy upon him. Cranmer broke down. Physically timid, he shrank back from the stake. IF lie (lay after his degradation he sent a submission to the queen; then he recalled it, only to write a new one. Then lie was plied with all sorts of temptations. He wrote a third, a fourth, a fifth submission, each more cx- l)licit than the preceding. In the last he went so far as to anathematize the doctrines of Luther and Zwingli, accepted the Pope as the head of the Church, acknowledged the real presence, the seven sacraments, and purgatory, and implored the prayers of all faithful Christians that those whom he had led away might be brought back to the true fold. For a month he was left to his own re- ilections, and then a paper was presented him to sign, in which he acknowledged him- self guilty of all the charges embodied in Poles bitter letter. He was a blasphemer, a persecutor; he had sinned against King Henry and his wife; he was the cause of the divorce, from which had sprung up all the heresy, schism, and crime of the king- dom; he had denied the presence of his Maker in the consecrated elements; lie had (leceived the hymn and robbed the souls of the dead in stealing from them their masses; lie prayed the Pope, the king, and the queen to pardon him; he prayed God to pardon him as He had pardoned Mary Magdalene and the thief upon the cross. All this he had done, and had done it all in vain. He was told that he must die, and that the only grace to be accorded to him was that he mi~ht at his death repeat to the people the recantation which he had made, and to which his hand had affixed his name. It must have been believed that lie * The immediately subsequent conduct of Cranmer can only be explained by the fact that the protraction of his trial, and the pressure brought to hear upon what Froude terms his many-sided susceptible na- ture, bad resulted in both physical and mental pros- iration. Pole, in his letter, too, had held out the false hope of pardon. It should he remembered that the archbishop might at an earlier period have escaped his doom by flight, but disdained such an evasion. At last his spirit gave way, and the first step toward submission having been taken, farther confessions were easily extorted. Froude not unaptly compares Cranmers conduct with Peters denial of his Master. The apostle, though forewarned, denied his Master on the first alarm of danger; yet that Master, who knew his nature in its strength and infirmity, chose him for the rock on which He would build His Church.Eu. JlAiirrii. was sincere in his recantation, and would persist in it. The 21st of March was appointed for the execution. It was intended that the public recantation should be made at the stake. But the morning was wild and stormy, and the ceremony was adjourned to St. Marys Church. Cole, prebendary of Ely, mounted the pulpit, and liroceeded to deliver a dis- course. He nave some reasons why the queen and council had decided that Cran- mer should die, notwithstanding his recan- tation, adding that there were others which it were not nieet and convenient for every one to understand. After exhorting the people to take warning from the example before them, lie turned to Cranmer, assuring him that since he had so manifestly repent- ed, he, like the penitent thief, would that day be in paradise; a dirge should be sung for him in every church in Oxford, and mass- es said for the repose of his soul. And now, Master Cranmer, he concluded, I pray you that you will perform what you prom- ised not long ago: that you would openly express the true and undoubted profession of your faith. I will do so, replied Cranmer. He began a quiet discourse, beseeching the prayers of all good Christians, whom lie exhorted not to unduly love the world, but to love and serve God, the king, and the queen; to live with each other like breth- ren and sisters; to exercise charity and alms-giving. And now, lie went on, I declare unto you my very faith, without col- or or dissimulation; for now it is no tinie to dissemble: I believe in God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth; ~ii every article of the Catholic faith; every word and seiitence taught by our Saviour Christ, His apestles and prophets in the Old aiid New Testament. And now I come to the great thing that troubleth my conscience more than any other tIming that I ever said or did in my life; and that is the setting abroad of writings contrary to the truth, which here I now renounce and refuse as things written with my hand contrary to the truth which I thought in my heart Now surely was coming the full and am- ple recantation and acknowledgment that he had been not only a heretic, but ahypo- crite all his life long since he had fallen into schism. What must have been the aston- ishment of the audience when the sentence was concluded! Aiid written for fear of death, to save my life if it might be: aiid that is, all such bills and papers as I have written and signed with my hand since my degradation, where- in I have written many things untrue; and forasmuch as my hand offended in writing contrary to my heart, my hand shall there- fore first be punished; for if I amay come to the fire, it shah be time first burned. As for ihi HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. the Pope, I utterly refuse him, as Christs enemy and antichrist, with all his false doc- trine; and as for the sacrament, I believe as I have tau~ht in my book against the Bish- op of Winchester. He would have gone on, but from the throng, who had been bewildered by a con- clusion so unexpected, rose cries of Pull him dowi~ ! Stop his mouth ! Away with him ! He was violently seized and dragged away to the stake, a quarter of a mile oft; on the very spot where Latimner and Ridley had borne such good witness, and where such different words had been expected from Cranmer. Brief work was made there. lie approached the stake with a cheerful countenance, undressed himself in baste, and stood only in his shirt. There was even then a little urging that he should recant; but Lord Williams, who superintended the execution, cried out, Make short! make short ! The wood was dry, and the pile, well built, was soon ablaze; but before the flames reached the body, Cranumer stretched out his right arm into them, saying, This was the hand that wrote it, and therefore it shall first suffer punishment. Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, Chancellor of England, died while the pro- ceedings against Cranmer were in progress. He was by far the ablest minister whoum Mary ever had. He was the originator of the Marian persecution, and was held to be its executor, but he really had little to do with it after the first blow had been struck. He sent Rogers and Hooper to the stake, and would doubtless have been glad to have con- signed Elizabeth to the block. He was ready to do almost any thing to extirpate heresy, but he would not stoop to search for here- tics in a butchers shop or a servants hall; that he left for Pole and Bonner. For many years he had held high posts under Henry VIII.; he was imprisoned for five years un- (her Edward VI.; and men who have been in jail for points of faith are not apt there to learn lessons of charity toward their op- ponents, to be put in practice when they are released and placed in power. He was unscrupulous and vindictive, but bold and fiinr-sighted. A kind of epitaph was written for him, intended, it is said, to have been said at York by way of special grace at the accession of Elizabeth. The conclusion was: A[ortuus est, et sepultus est, et desceudit ad ia- feros. Let us say no more about him. The year 1556 opened gloomily for Mary. Time harvest of the Precedimig year had been a failure, and there was a growing scarcity of food. Wild conspiracies were formed at home and fomented abroad. Rapine and lawlessness grew rampant, and the ferocity of the government kept even pace with the turbulence of the people. Along the Thames were rows of gibbets, from which hung in chains the bodies of pirates. Sixty persons were sentenced to be hanged together at Oxford. There was a settled suspicion that Philip was coming over with an army to overthrow the liberties of England. One of the council went over to urge him to come back unattended, so as to dispel the alarm. The messenger returned only with a letter from Philip to the queen, at the re- ceipt of which she seemed to grow tea years older in a day. Time French emubassador wrote to his sovereign that Mary was in a constant rage because she could enjoy nei- tImer the society of her husband nor the love of her people, and was afraid that her life would be attempted by her own attendants. All these evils were attributed to the wrath of Heaven, and the cause of this wrath must be the wrongs which the Church still suffered. The abbey property in tIme hands of imindividuals could not be restored to its rightful owners, but the crown could restore so much as remained in its hands; and this began to be done. Above all, more strenu- ous efforts must be made for the extirpation of heresy. So tIme persecution was pushed on more furiously. 0mm April 23 six men were burned at Smithfield; on the 26th, six more at Colehester; on May 15 two men, one old and the other blind, at Stratford-le- Bow, where on June 27 eleveim men and two women were burned in tIme presence of 20,000 spectators. 0mm August 20 twenty-three men and womnemin, all tied together, were haled from Colehester to London to be burned; but as they were paraded through the streets, so great was the tumult that even Bonner was aghast. He wrote to Pole for directions. TIme council, not withnout good consideration, decided tlmat it would be per- ilous to let the executions take place, and the prisoners were let go upon easy terms of sub- mission; but several of them were subse- quently re-arrested and put to death. Pole, in a pastoral letter, took the citizens of Lon- don to charge for their sympathy with tIme heretics. Whinereas, he wrote, you have sore offended God by giving favor to heretics, now temper your favor under such manner that if you can convert timemn by any ways unto the unity of tIme Chmurchm, then do it, for it is a great work of mercy. But if ye can not, and ye suffer or favor them, timere can not be a work of greater cruelty against tlme commonwealth than to nourish or favor any suchm. For, be you assured, there is no kind of men so pernicious to the comumonwenlth as they be; there are no thmieves, no mnnr- derers, no adulterers, nor no kind of treasomi to be compared to theirs, wIno, as it were, undermining the elmief foundations of all comnnmonwealthms, ~vhmichm is religion, umaketh an entry to all kinds of vices iii the most heinous manner. But time famine still lasted; and still, therefore, God was angry. Time new year, 1557, opemned within time appointment of a MARY, QUEEN OF ENGLAND. 117 commission, of which Bonner was the head, the special object of which was to find out those who circulated heretical books, who refused to attend mass, who would not walk ia processions or use holy-water, or who in any way showed disrespect for the established religion. The commissioners were empowered to inquire at pleasure into the conduct and opinions of every man or woman in the kingdom. They were tram- meled by no forms of law, and all magis- trates and officers were commanded to assist them at their peril. Any three commission- ers were sufficient to constitute a court, which might act at its option, either with or without a jury, aad might call upon ev- ery clergyman to testify as to the habits and beliefs of every man or woman in his parish. Those who persisted in their heret- ical opinions were to be delivered up to their ordinary to be punished according to law; and by law such opinions might be punished by fine, imprisonment, or death. No Inquisition in Spain or the Netherlands ever had more ample power than this coin- mission had in England. The year 1558, the last which Mary was to see, opened hardly more favorably than the previous one. The harvests had, in- deed, been abundant, and wheat, which had been held at fifty shillings a quarter, had fallen to four or five. Perhaps this might have been owing to the vigorous manner in which the commission had proceeded against heresy. But the war on the Continent was going on badly. In the first week of the year Calais, the last spot in France held by England, had been taken, and the great fleet which was to have recovered it was totally wrecked. Really the loss of Calais was a gain. It was of no value to England, and was a source of perpetual irritation to France. But the nation was mortified to the hearts core to lose the last of the great Continental conquests of the Plantagenets. Mary is reported to have said that when she was dead the name of Calais would be found inscribed on her heart. As the weeks wore on there arose a great fear of an invasion from France, and stren- iious preparations were needed to repel it. But the musters went on slackly. Derby- shire was set down for 1500 men; the Earl of Shrewsbury succeeded in raising 400 from among his own dependents; and the mag- istrates declared that owing to death, want, and the waste of means in the war of last year, the county could provide only a hun- dred more. The recruits disbanded them- selves in Devonshire and mutinied in Lin- colashire. The ringleaders were hanged, but that did nothing to increase the force under arms. With the summer set in an epidemic of fever and agile; and after the death of Mary it was publicly asserted that, with quartan agnes and with such other long and new sicknesses in the last two years of the reign of Queen Mary, so many of her subjects was made away, what with the execution of sword and fire, what with sicknesses, that the third part of the men of England were consumed. Philip had made a brief visit to England in the preceding year. He had left early in July. In the spring of this year Mary again fancied that she was to become a mother. She made her will in anticipation of the perils of childbirth, and wrote to her husband to come to her. But her delusion was soon dispelled, and her bitter disap- pointment was evinced, as before, by re- newed assaults upon heresy. One Bainbridge, in Hampshire, hind been condemned, hut when at the point of exe- cution he proffered his submission. The sheriff reprieved him by his own authority, for, save in the case of Cranmuer, pardon had always been offered till the last moment. The sheriff was speedily rebuked by the council: her Majesty could not but find it very strange that he had saved one con- demned for heresy; the execution must proceed at once. Bainbridge was burned accordingly, but the sheriff was sent to the Fleet for his former clemency. In London the burnings went on with fresh vigor, and a proclamation was issued forbidding any one, under pain of death, to approach, speak to, or comfort heretics on the way to death. At a prayer-meeting in a field near the city thirteen persons were apprehended and brought before Bonner. Seven were burn- ed together on June 28, hilt such was the indignation of the spectators that he did not dare to proceed to tIme trial of the other six in the city. He sent them to his own palace at Fuiham, where they were tried, and burned privately at Breutford; and as ifso it was thoughtto evince the Divine approval, on that very day a considerable naval victory was gained over the French. Early in Noveniber three men and two wom- en, wlm o had been presented by Pole to be visited with condign punishment, were burned at Canterbury. These were the last victims of the Marian persecution; for with- in ten days, and almost at the same hour, the archbi~hop, its head, and the queen, its heart were summoned before the tribunal of their Maker. Early in November Philip was assured that Mary could live only a few days at most. He sent the Count de Feria over to her with a desire that she should put no obstacle in the way of the succession of Elizabeth, which was inevitable. Feria ar- rived on the 9th, and was admitted to an interview with the queen. Next to her de- sire for the firm establishment of the Catho- lic faith was that the hated daughter of a listed mother should not wear the English crown. But she now yielded to the inevi 118 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. table. She even declared that she was well content that it should be as her husband wished, and only entreated of Elizabeth that her debts should be paid, and the Catholic religion be maintained. Dc Feria, after con- sulting with the council, hurried to Eliza- beth, told her what had taken place, and assured her that her succession was secured, for his master had used his influence for her, and there was no fear of opposition from any quarter. On the 14th one of the queens ladies-in- waiting conveyed to Elizabeth the same re- quests which she had made through Feria, with the addition that her servants should be properly cared for. She then quietly prepared for her end. At midnight of the 16th she received the last rites of the Church. Mass was said at her bedside toward morn- ing. When the Host was elevated she was too far gone to move or speak, but fixed her eyes upon the consecrated elements, which she believed to be the body of her Lord. As the closing words of the benediction were uttered, her head sunk, and all was over. Mary had reigned a little more than five years, and in the last three of them she fell to a depth to which, few have reached. She won for herself a name of infamy which will stand forever in mens speech. She will ever be styled The Bloody Mary. Pity it is that the epithet can not be transferred from her in person to the principle of which she made herself in her day the exponent the principle of persecution in the name of religion, be that religion true or false. The Marian persecution was one of in- effable cruelty and atrocitya cruelty and atrocity not to be measured by the number of its victims, but by the reason for which they were sacrificed. It was of all other persecutions a persecution solely and en- tirely for conscience sake. Not one of its victims could by any stretch of ingenuity be considered as dangerous to the state.* The victims of Alva in the Netherlands be- longed to a sect avowedly inimical to Span- ish rule; they might be ia a sort regard- ed as rebels against the government. The French Huguenots who perished in the dragonnades of Louis XIV. had been, as a sect, in arms against the king and his pre- decessors. The English Protestants who suffered under Mary only sought to wor- ship God in the way they thought accept- able to Him. Protestants there were in the kingdom who might be dangerous to the government; but not one of these suffered at the stake, not one was even called in ques- tion by the ecclesiastical courts of Pole and Gardiner and Bonner. No earl, baron, or knight was interrogated by the inquisitorial commission. Almost nine-tenths of those who suffered belonged to those distinctively classed as the common people, and two- thirds of these to the more humble portion of that class, and a third of the whole num- ber were women and children. There are four or five lists, nearly agreeing, of those who suffered at the stake; the lowest list contains 270 names, the highest 290. Of these 5 were or had been bishops, 21 clergy- men, 8 gentlemen, 84 tradesmen, about 100 husbandmen, laborers, and servants, 55 wom- en, and 4 children; one of these was born while the mother was actually at the stake, and was tossed into the flames. Besides these there were about a hundred others who were lamentably destroyed by imprison- ment, famine, and torment. guard there were maay who never listened to a mass, they dnrst not strike where there was danger that they wonl(l be struck in return. They ivent ont late the highways aud hedges; they gathered up the lame, the halt, and the blind; they took the weaver from his loom, the carpenter from his workshop, the husband- man from his plo~v; they laid hands on maidens and boys who had never heard of any ether religIon than that they were called on to abjure; old men tottering into the grave, and children whose lips coold but josh lisp the articles of their creed, and of these they made their burnt-offerings; with these they crowded their prisons, and when filth and famine killed them, they Although Pole and Mary conld have laid their fiong them ont to rot. How long England wonid have hands on earl and haron, knight and gentleman, whose endnred the repetition of the horrid spectacle is hard heresy was notorious, aithoogh in the queens own to say.Freude, close of vol. vi. THE LATTER DAYS. STORMS have passed over us; thee earth is changed; Pale leaves now filatter in the dusky green; In uplands where of old the wild bee ranged A great wind sighs, No more shall these be seen. Therefore to hollows of the field I go, To lowly places where the sun lies warm, Where I can hear the voices from the farm, The noonday cricket chirp, the cattle low. I am content to let the seasons pass, For still I feel there is some sheltered nook, Some corner, that the sun must ever bless, Though lilies die upon the dying grass. Oh, never is this yearning earth forsook, Nor severed love bereft of blessedness! A. F.

A. F. F., A. The Latter Days 118-119

118 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. table. She even declared that she was well content that it should be as her husband wished, and only entreated of Elizabeth that her debts should be paid, and the Catholic religion be maintained. Dc Feria, after con- sulting with the council, hurried to Eliza- beth, told her what had taken place, and assured her that her succession was secured, for his master had used his influence for her, and there was no fear of opposition from any quarter. On the 14th one of the queens ladies-in- waiting conveyed to Elizabeth the same re- quests which she had made through Feria, with the addition that her servants should be properly cared for. She then quietly prepared for her end. At midnight of the 16th she received the last rites of the Church. Mass was said at her bedside toward morn- ing. When the Host was elevated she was too far gone to move or speak, but fixed her eyes upon the consecrated elements, which she believed to be the body of her Lord. As the closing words of the benediction were uttered, her head sunk, and all was over. Mary had reigned a little more than five years, and in the last three of them she fell to a depth to which, few have reached. She won for herself a name of infamy which will stand forever in mens speech. She will ever be styled The Bloody Mary. Pity it is that the epithet can not be transferred from her in person to the principle of which she made herself in her day the exponent the principle of persecution in the name of religion, be that religion true or false. The Marian persecution was one of in- effable cruelty and atrocitya cruelty and atrocity not to be measured by the number of its victims, but by the reason for which they were sacrificed. It was of all other persecutions a persecution solely and en- tirely for conscience sake. Not one of its victims could by any stretch of ingenuity be considered as dangerous to the state.* The victims of Alva in the Netherlands be- longed to a sect avowedly inimical to Span- ish rule; they might be ia a sort regard- ed as rebels against the government. The French Huguenots who perished in the dragonnades of Louis XIV. had been, as a sect, in arms against the king and his pre- decessors. The English Protestants who suffered under Mary only sought to wor- ship God in the way they thought accept- able to Him. Protestants there were in the kingdom who might be dangerous to the government; but not one of these suffered at the stake, not one was even called in ques- tion by the ecclesiastical courts of Pole and Gardiner and Bonner. No earl, baron, or knight was interrogated by the inquisitorial commission. Almost nine-tenths of those who suffered belonged to those distinctively classed as the common people, and two- thirds of these to the more humble portion of that class, and a third of the whole num- ber were women and children. There are four or five lists, nearly agreeing, of those who suffered at the stake; the lowest list contains 270 names, the highest 290. Of these 5 were or had been bishops, 21 clergy- men, 8 gentlemen, 84 tradesmen, about 100 husbandmen, laborers, and servants, 55 wom- en, and 4 children; one of these was born while the mother was actually at the stake, and was tossed into the flames. Besides these there were about a hundred others who were lamentably destroyed by imprison- ment, famine, and torment. guard there were maay who never listened to a mass, they dnrst not strike where there was danger that they wonl(l be struck in return. They ivent ont late the highways aud hedges; they gathered up the lame, the halt, and the blind; they took the weaver from his loom, the carpenter from his workshop, the husband- man from his plo~v; they laid hands on maidens and boys who had never heard of any ether religIon than that they were called on to abjure; old men tottering into the grave, and children whose lips coold but josh lisp the articles of their creed, and of these they made their burnt-offerings; with these they crowded their prisons, and when filth and famine killed them, they Although Pole and Mary conld have laid their fiong them ont to rot. How long England wonid have hands on earl and haron, knight and gentleman, whose endnred the repetition of the horrid spectacle is hard heresy was notorious, aithoogh in the queens own to say.Freude, close of vol. vi. THE LATTER DAYS. STORMS have passed over us; thee earth is changed; Pale leaves now filatter in the dusky green; In uplands where of old the wild bee ranged A great wind sighs, No more shall these be seen. Therefore to hollows of the field I go, To lowly places where the sun lies warm, Where I can hear the voices from the farm, The noonday cricket chirp, the cattle low. I am content to let the seasons pass, For still I feel there is some sheltered nook, Some corner, that the sun must ever bless, Though lilies die upon the dying grass. Oh, never is this yearning earth forsook, Nor severed love bereft of blessedness! A. F. LEGISLATIVE HUMORS. 119 LEGISLATIVE HUMORS. PART III. By TIlE lox. S. S. COX. Fancy is ever popular; all like The sheeted flame, which shines but does not etrike. These fine merits above all: Point without sting, and satire without gall; A courteous irony so free from scoff, The grateful victim felt himself let off; St. Stephen takes not from St. Giles his art, But is a true good gentleman at heart. BULWER. IN Congress, as at the bar, to acquire em- inence something more is needed than a knowledge of current politics. Since the war there are complicated and added Feder- al relations. To compass these implies that a member should kaow something about every thing. He should be especially in- formed about matters of his coanmittee. The Parliamentary conflict can not be won by small-arms alone, but by infantry, cavalry, and artillery. The mere cross-roads stump- er generally becomes a yearling Congress- luau, that is, a member with one term of service; for in his last session, being beat- en the previous autumn, he is a mortuary monument. The survivors are the men who hold the House by making their minds an arsenal for every weapon. They are accom- plished, or should be, in physics, metaphys- ics, ethics, hi story, philosopl]y, and, above all, in pertinent facts. To omit the lath of satire and humor in the close encounter, which is lissom and sharp only as it is well tempered in all these streams, is to leave the prince out of the play. This good temper has become indispen- sable siuce the enlargement of the Hall in 1S37. It is the attractive element. It is so especially since the recent increase of the number of members. The most weighty, or rather the best, speech is listened to with fatigue unless there be an occasional smart double-entendre, tart retort, tickling piquan- cy, personal point, or pertinent fact. That which draws most, which empties the aaem- l)ers seats to fill the area in front of the Speakers desk, is the bellicose. It is this which, like a dog fight, will break up any deliberation. If it takes the form of a per- sonal explanation it is more welcome. This attraction consists in the capability of wrath joined to the felicities of fun. The men who make our humor in and out of Congress are the favorites of the people. We give them pet names. Corwin, Douglas, Butler, Lincoln, all had these affectionate freedoms extended to them by their sup- porters or enemies, just as Little Johnny, Old Pam , Dizzy, and others in England had them. They were associated with some- thing jocular. Lord Russells crisp scorn and Disraelis epigrammatic sneer helped to mould English politics. Mr. Gladstones serious mind, ever meditating between the moral and material interests, has not con- tributed to gladden the tone of English or- atory. But in his despite there is much of the old flavor of humor remaining in the Commons. This decorous Gladstonian so- lemnity seems to be generally confined to the followers of Sir Robert Peel. It is well represented on the Tory side by the present Lord Derby. Hence we miss much of the brilliance of other and elder Parliamentary days. These Adullasaites would be more popular if, with their information and sense, they would unlimber from that painful aud prudent restraint which marks their public efforts. The food they furnish may be nu- tritious, but it is not always agreeable. In vain we look among them for the wit and humor even of the corn-law times. Is Eu- glish humor degenerating? In the five vol- umes of Hansard of the last session but one of Parliament there is a dull and sickening uniformity of mere statement of fact, little deduction or reasoning, and much less vi- vacity. This is well, perhaps; but would it not be useful now and then to have a thunder-storm like that of Plimsolls, the sailors friend, when he cleared the sky by a tragic performance and a cry of Murder? Better now and then the menagerie than the everlasting tame collision ofselfisli in- terests unrelieved by any gleam of nature. The burden of debate is church livings and beer, Irish miseries and trade, Improving rifles, lecturing at reviews, Aud levying taxes for reformsin screws. We may well ask: Are these tIme only ele- ments of a national existence? Are these the only means of winning popular favor? Have the newspaper and caricaturist mo- nopolized all time points of ridicule against wrong and all the jocularity which illus- trates affairs? Without being too much a praiser of the time past, and without derogating from the management of the English Parliament un- der its new conditions, we naturally recur to the giants of other not very recent days. It is no mere pun to say its palmiest days were those when Palmerston charmed the British public. He did it because he was himself a fit receptacle of his own jokes. Lord Granville had, and has yet. something of the easy, winning wit of so- cial life. He has a velvety mode and a honeyed tongue. His flame is hambent. Fair as the Lovelace of a ladys dream, lie is not inaptly called ox-eyed, from his Juno-like majestic meekness. Have the days of roaring irony amid sarcasm gone by with Palmerston? Palmerstomi had no peer for ruhing,.for he heartily relished it. how lie could laugh at the puerile vanity of consistency ! The nation hau~lied with 1dm. He ruled as well by his laugh as by his j mmdgment. Cobden is gone. Bri~lit and

Hon. S. S. Cox Cox, S. S., Hon. Legislative Humors 119-129

LEGISLATIVE HUMORS. 119 LEGISLATIVE HUMORS. PART III. By TIlE lox. S. S. COX. Fancy is ever popular; all like The sheeted flame, which shines but does not etrike. These fine merits above all: Point without sting, and satire without gall; A courteous irony so free from scoff, The grateful victim felt himself let off; St. Stephen takes not from St. Giles his art, But is a true good gentleman at heart. BULWER. IN Congress, as at the bar, to acquire em- inence something more is needed than a knowledge of current politics. Since the war there are complicated and added Feder- al relations. To compass these implies that a member should kaow something about every thing. He should be especially in- formed about matters of his coanmittee. The Parliamentary conflict can not be won by small-arms alone, but by infantry, cavalry, and artillery. The mere cross-roads stump- er generally becomes a yearling Congress- luau, that is, a member with one term of service; for in his last session, being beat- en the previous autumn, he is a mortuary monument. The survivors are the men who hold the House by making their minds an arsenal for every weapon. They are accom- plished, or should be, in physics, metaphys- ics, ethics, hi story, philosopl]y, and, above all, in pertinent facts. To omit the lath of satire and humor in the close encounter, which is lissom and sharp only as it is well tempered in all these streams, is to leave the prince out of the play. This good temper has become indispen- sable siuce the enlargement of the Hall in 1S37. It is the attractive element. It is so especially since the recent increase of the number of members. The most weighty, or rather the best, speech is listened to with fatigue unless there be an occasional smart double-entendre, tart retort, tickling piquan- cy, personal point, or pertinent fact. That which draws most, which empties the aaem- l)ers seats to fill the area in front of the Speakers desk, is the bellicose. It is this which, like a dog fight, will break up any deliberation. If it takes the form of a per- sonal explanation it is more welcome. This attraction consists in the capability of wrath joined to the felicities of fun. The men who make our humor in and out of Congress are the favorites of the people. We give them pet names. Corwin, Douglas, Butler, Lincoln, all had these affectionate freedoms extended to them by their sup- porters or enemies, just as Little Johnny, Old Pam , Dizzy, and others in England had them. They were associated with some- thing jocular. Lord Russells crisp scorn and Disraelis epigrammatic sneer helped to mould English politics. Mr. Gladstones serious mind, ever meditating between the moral and material interests, has not con- tributed to gladden the tone of English or- atory. But in his despite there is much of the old flavor of humor remaining in the Commons. This decorous Gladstonian so- lemnity seems to be generally confined to the followers of Sir Robert Peel. It is well represented on the Tory side by the present Lord Derby. Hence we miss much of the brilliance of other and elder Parliamentary days. These Adullasaites would be more popular if, with their information and sense, they would unlimber from that painful aud prudent restraint which marks their public efforts. The food they furnish may be nu- tritious, but it is not always agreeable. In vain we look among them for the wit and humor even of the corn-law times. Is Eu- glish humor degenerating? In the five vol- umes of Hansard of the last session but one of Parliament there is a dull and sickening uniformity of mere statement of fact, little deduction or reasoning, and much less vi- vacity. This is well, perhaps; but would it not be useful now and then to have a thunder-storm like that of Plimsolls, the sailors friend, when he cleared the sky by a tragic performance and a cry of Murder? Better now and then the menagerie than the everlasting tame collision ofselfisli in- terests unrelieved by any gleam of nature. The burden of debate is church livings and beer, Irish miseries and trade, Improving rifles, lecturing at reviews, Aud levying taxes for reformsin screws. We may well ask: Are these tIme only ele- ments of a national existence? Are these the only means of winning popular favor? Have the newspaper and caricaturist mo- nopolized all time points of ridicule against wrong and all the jocularity which illus- trates affairs? Without being too much a praiser of the time past, and without derogating from the management of the English Parliament un- der its new conditions, we naturally recur to the giants of other not very recent days. It is no mere pun to say its palmiest days were those when Palmerston charmed the British public. He did it because he was himself a fit receptacle of his own jokes. Lord Granville had, and has yet. something of the easy, winning wit of so- cial life. He has a velvety mode and a honeyed tongue. His flame is hambent. Fair as the Lovelace of a ladys dream, lie is not inaptly called ox-eyed, from his Juno-like majestic meekness. Have the days of roaring irony amid sarcasm gone by with Palmerston? Palmerstomi had no peer for ruhing,.for he heartily relished it. how lie could laugh at the puerile vanity of consistency ! The nation hau~lied with 1dm. He ruled as well by his laugh as by his j mmdgment. Cobden is gone. Bri~lit and 120 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. Russell lag superfluous; Goschen ciphers only; and even Gladstone is half retired. Brougham, that incarnate encyclopedia, whose coach with its B on the panels re- minded Sydney Smith that it had a B on the outside and a wasp in the inside Brougham, lie too belongs to the rear, with the Bolingbrokes, Pitts, Sheridans, Burkes, OConnells, Cannings, and Peels almost myths for their rare graces of wit and or- atory. Disraeli himself, though a power, wields his weapon wearily; and Bernal Os- l)orne hardly essays to play his old r6lc as Mercutio. Are public life and debate belittled in the public esteem in England or upon the Con- tinent? The Parliamentary sessions at Rome are scarcely sessions, if we are to be- lieve Mr. Trollope. How sombre is his Italy in sackcloth and ashes, her head drooping on her breast, her hands hanging listlessly by her sidessitting solitary and sleepy in the deserted hall upon Monte Citorio! The entire Chamber consists of 508. The quo- rum is a majority, as in our system; yet for month and month business is impossible, and that, too, at the Grand Capitol. Is it l)ecause Italy pays no salary to her Depu- ties? Salary seems hardly to keep our Con- gress full. Is the real reason the lack of ~iquant, eloquent debate, or has the omni- present newspaper absorbed the other Cs9 tates ? There is no complaint of this kind in France. Even now, when Versailles is the Parliamentary capital, there is a fresh- ness which allures to the Chamber, spring- ing as well from the exceptional and tran- sitory nature of the organism as from the inflammable vivacity of Gauhic and galling (lebate. The wit of the tribune is, however, too finical for general appreciation. When De Remusat dashes an epigram at an im- potent ministry, Paris chuckles. It has found, he said, a new way out of a false ~ositionby remaining in it. The reteii- tion of office after defeat is not a new sub- ject for the pasquinade and the epigram, but no sprucer specimen has yet appeared than this of the departed statesman. Nothing so arouses the French Chamber Hmxe we too followed the hearse of our as a personal imputation. The Deputies great orators and humorists? Who can till are never used to it, always resent it, and the place of Ben Hardin or Tom Corwin? are always at it. They give every thing a No one has approached them, unless it be personal turn. Gambetta could have a duel another Kentuckian, J. Proctor Knott, the a month for announcing merely abstrac- present member from Bardstown. In hina tions. They do not distinguish between the Kentucky gives to us a second edition of official and the person. Nor, for the matter Hardin, revised and improved. He is the of that, do others. Mr. Garfield, Speaker fresh volume. It is more elegant, scholarly, pro ternpore, once touched this idea daintily piquant, and bound in superior morocco, and when some irmember intimated that the mnor- clasped in undeniable gold. Our people al weight of the chair favored a motion, are not yet through reading his Duluth The chair has no moral weight. Its office speech. It hits the American sense of cx- is to keep order. The most logical spec- travagance, which, as I undertook in previ- linen of wit at the English Parliamentary ous papers to show, is the reservoir whence noonday turned on this point. Fox repre- flows most of our fun. It is in his magic headed Pitt for resting the sincerity of a mirror that the identical and ironical Col Tue Barbers to shave our Congress long did try; One shaves with froth, the ether he shaves dry P ministerial declaration on the purity of hinis private character. Such conduct, said Fox, is by no means Parliamentary, nor could it iii this instance have ranch weight. His private character has no reproach. As a minister he has no character. A similar point was once made by Sheridan on Pitt; but Pitt, in reply, was scorching. TIe turn- ed his electricity upon Sheridan by likening his tirades to the fizz and froth of an un- corked bottle. Then the caricaturist drew a cartoon, Uncorking Old Sherry. Looking at the stirring personal debates growing out of the Adams-Clay coalition an(L the Jackson administration in our coun- try, we look in vain for something roseate and fragrant. Scarcely any plant appears on the surface, except that which, like the cactus, shows a hot sian and a prickly vege- tation. Did these fierce personal invectives, which often led to the duel, have no relief in the atmosphere of social and legislative geniality? Was Benton always hectoring Clay? Was Randolph always studying how most bitterly to bite? Was MDuffie ever alert to thunder and lighten? Men then talked about halters and honor, contempt and monsters, conspiracies and treason, in a way to astound our hater day. This talk is not less surprising to us than would be the re-appearance of those departed Senators with the then fashionable blue coat and brass buttons, the invariable plug of tobac- co and gold-headed cane, the immense ~ux from the salivary gland, and the incessant, magnificent profanity. There were fewer members then. They were better known, and made umore mark than now. A philip- pie on the humblest was recognized, and laad its run. There were two Barbours from Virginia, one a member of the Senate, amid the other of the I-louseboth able men. One, named James, was ornate and verbose; the other, Philip, was close and cogent as a (lebater. A wag once wrote oma the wall of the House: LEGISLATIVE HUMORS. 121 onel Sellers and Senator Diliworthy are seen. His wit took down and off and out the most grandiose schemes and schemers iii the most superlative way. These three members of Congress, Hardin, Corwin, and Knott, are selected to illustrate this extravagant type of humor. Whence came this inspiration? All three were Ken- tuckians. It is said of Sheridan that he ri- l)ened a witty idea with a glass of port; and if it resulted happily, another glass was the reward. Like the Kentucky Congressman who took two cocktails before breakfast. When asked why, he said, One makes me feel like another fellow, and then I must treat the other fellow ! Is the humor which Kentucky gave and gives owing to any pe- culiar juice or humor growing out of her soil? Or is it (Irawn from the still air of delightful studies l Something of both, as ~vihl appear. First, of Old Ben Hardin. Governor Corwin once told me that Har- din was the most entertaining man he ever knew. He had an exhaustless fund of anec- dote, and with it great natural parts and acquired culture. His celebrity for a quar- ter of a century as a Southera Whig member of Congress was not altogether owing to his gift of remembering or telling good stories, nor to his bonhomie. There is always in or about Congress a class of good fellows more witty in a social than iii a debating way. The court always had a jester. Why not Congress? Charles I. had Archie. His sayings were called arch. Such men as Ogle of Pennsylvania, MConnell of Ala- baum, and William H. Polk of Tennessee umay be remembered in this socially jovial connection, but their printed or public hu- mor, except in little spurts, is hardly to be found, even if it existe(l. If you believe in the Virginia and Ken- Picky resolutions, follow iii the footsteps of Captain Andrew Jackson; then, Sir, I hang my hammer on your anvil, said the eccen- tric MConnell to President Polk. The gentleman asks me who are my friends, said Etheridge, of Tennessee. I answer, any body who dont spell constitu- tion with a K. These dashes of humor generally have a personal tang. Before describing Hardin, let me set him within a frame of lesser brill- jants of this character. General Butler once rallied General Banks on his fine theatric voice. You say you read my speeches ? said Banks. I read them, said Butler, but your manner and voice were not iii them, and hence they were ineffectual. Mr. Tipton once used the spirit of the wit of Dean Swift about Defoe. The man who was in the stocksI forget his name, said Swift. So Tipton: The gentleman from I wish the State was larger; it is so hatd to think of its name. Rhode Island ? suggested Judge Trumbull. One Senator had a natural habit of strutting. General Schurz being accused of that style, with mimock modesty hinted that he did not want to encroach on the exclusive privilege of New York. Senator Carpenter was not less facetious, though less good-tempered, whemi on the French arms debate he punc- tured the alleged egotisum of Semmator Sum- ner to the quick. He identifies himself so completely with time universe that he is not at all certain whether lie is part of the uni- verse or the universe is part of him. He is a reviser of time decalogue. You will soon see the Sernion on the Mount revised, cor- rected, and greatly enlarged and improved by Charles Sumner. Mr. Sumners gravity often led to these little missiles, but they fell quite harmless, for they were feathered with time lightest of levity. Ab, said Mr. Conkling to Mr. Sumner, I fell into an error by supposing the Senator was paying nine attention. His mind is roving at large in that immense do- main which it occupies. Judge John C. Wright, of Ohio, so many years the inspiration of the Cincinnati Ga- zette and of his party, was a member of Con- gress when pungent wit was apt to be called out to Bhadensburg. Personality was then as comamon as courage. His pluck amid his humor were once shown in this scene: While hie was answering Mr. Randolph, General Hamilton, of South Carolina, who was one of the worshipers of Randolph, sprang to his feet, and at the top of his voice, under great excitement, said: The most infernal tongue that was ever placed in a mans head, and wholly irresponsible. Challenge Imiam, and lie will swear lie cant see the length of his arm ! This idea grew out of the answer of Mr. Wright to tIme challenge of Romulus M. Saunders: I have received your challenge, but can not accept it. Ow- ing to the imperfection of my vision, I could not tell your honor from a sheep ten steps. The ninoment Mr. Wright took his seat a member rose, and with a voice like a newly weaned mule colt, said, TIme gentleman reminds me of an old hen I have at home that is always cackling and never lays an egg. Then Judge Wri~ht desired, coolly, to read a copy of a criminal indictment found against time memuber, and the person- ality was not so humorous. These personalities are a piquant kind of humor which often becomes caustic wit. It touches the peculiar avocations, personal foibles, or physical peculiarities of members. This is not tIme hmighest order of festive legislation, but it is oftemi use(l. It gives occasion, however, for tIme readiest retort. Sheridan was once twitted by Pitt on his theatrical pursuits Sui plausm gaudere the- ati-i. He retorted omi thie youthful Premmmier: If ever I again engage in the composition 122 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. he alludes to, I may be tempted to improve on one of Ben Jonsons best characters the character of the Angry Boy in the Al- cliyrnist. To call a large man niy feeble friend, or a little man the gigantic gentleman; to dilate upon a loud-voiced member, or cry londer to his loudness; to mimic his intonations, or take oft his hair or wig, make sport of its color, or emphasize the peculiarities of his dress or toilet, of his eyes, ears, or legsthese little diversions are as common to the legislature as to the stnge. They make their momentary music, bnt scarcely rise into the risible utilities of the logical ad absurdum. A palpable hit of this kind may some- times be defended, as when a man wears his clothes to illustrate his own business, as woolen manufacturer for a turift?, or, vice versa, a foreign suit to show the amenities of free trade. Then the toilet is subordi- nated to the topic. The man is measured by the worth of his clothes as well as his oratory. Often references are made to the ambition of members. Senators especially who are Presidential aspirants receive these hits. They are fair, and are relished: they are the pungent penalties of prominence. Prominent members are generally the butt of the most ridicule. In the instances here- tofore given during calls of the House these personal observations appear in d6shabill6. Nor are these freedoms peculiar to Con- gfess. On the question of sending the Prince of Wales to India and paying a large sum, it was piquantly pnt that as the object to be instructed about was the need of the empire, that the responsible officials to be sent ought to be the ministers, and not the Prince. These little jets from this class gave a momentary sparkle to the sluggish waters of debate. Now while Hardin is not to be classed with these characters, a greater dis- advantage attends a sketch of his career as a humorist. He is not reported according to his reputation. His quarter of a century of service fails to show the voluminous fun with which he enlivened and enforced his positions. Here and there we have a few shots from small-arms, as when he said, meekly, That if like a sheep I am shorn, unlike a sheep, I will make a noise about it. When denouncing extravagant naval salaries, and referring to the naval lobby, he exclaimed, Their march may be on the mountain wave, but their home isin the gallery ! I have the substance of one of his speeches delivered in the hall of the House. It was in self-vindication about a local and now obsolete matter. It is only eighty pages. He began by saying he had pleaded more causes and defended more men than any lawyer in Kentucky, yet nev- er was he under the painful necessity of de fending himself before. This speech shows a remarkable array of facts, a keen appreci- ation of political ethics, a fervid patriotism, a touching pathos, but hardly one gleam of his reputed rare humor. Referring to the Kentucky families whose sons, with his own, were warring in Mexico, and speaking of the Governor, who was his antagonist, he said: The next news from the theatre of war may put our families in mourning. But in the midst of this general distress it is consoling to see with what philosophy the Governor bears it. He slowly walks from the palace to the Secretarys office, and then back to the palace, with stoical firmness that does honor to his resolution. Cato when in Utica never showed more. He knows that none of his family is in danger. They would have been soldiers if it had not been for those vile guns. The only dan- ger to his family is that they may be mash- ed up in the palace gate in a rush for offices; and when they get them they can truly say that they are competent to the enioluments thereof. This was the only smile in this lengthened speech. It is said that Hardin was a rough-and- ready debater, that his oratory was rather racy of the Kentucky stump and soil, that he had more pugnacity than polish. He was known by the sobriquet of Meat-axe Hardin. Randolph said of lsini that ho was a butcher knife sharpened on a brick- bat. This is not my impression from the meagre report of his speeches, nor from the articles now being published about him by Mr. Haycraft, of Elizabethtown, Kentucky. It is not the true impression. Hardin was a man of disciplined mind. He was not at all of the Crockett-Boone or- der. He had a native chivalry and inde- pendence which were representative of a border class at that day, but lie was a man full of classic, historic, legal, and other re- sources. He had the varied armory which equips for general or special debate. Like a good lawyer, and with a wonderful mem- ory and quick perception, he was the very man for the occasion sudden. But he was rather of the humorous than of the witty kind. The butcher knife is too coarse and the vendetta dirk too polished to de- scribe Isis quality. He was born in Pennsylvania, Westmorc- land County, removed with his family to Kentucky when a boy, and was educated by an old Irish teacher, who was a good linguist. The teacher killed a man, and had to move to another county. Young Ben followed him, and changed the venue, to finish in the dead languages. I-Ic studied law with Felix Grundy, and began to prac- tice in 1806. He never left his profession till he died, in 1852. He was on one side of every important case in those early days His aniamation allowed no juror to slumber, LEGISLATIVE HUMORS. 123 He was not only successful because of gen- erous reading, but, by rare tact, he could gain a case by side-by remark. Here is an instance, and it serves to show the se- cret of his legislative humor and success: Henry Ditto had some sheep killed by a dog. Ditto shot the dog. A suit for dam- ages was the consequence. Mr. Hardin ap- peared for Ditto. The trial occupied two days. The cause was argued with great ability on each side, and the jury retired. After being out an hour or two they came back into court for instructions on some law point. After being instructed, and the jury ascending the stairway, one of them turned and said, Judge, if the jury is hung, what will be the consequence I Mr. Har- din replied, The consequence will be that twelve honest men are hung for one sheep- stealing dog It is related of Mr. Buchanan that in early life he went to Kentucky to settle. He saw Hardin in court, dressed in his nableached linen, careless and clownish. But he heard him argue, and turning from the court- house, he said, If such looking men are so sniart in Kentucky, it is no place for me. Hardin was in the Twenty-fourth Con- gress. We had then unfriendly relations with France. A fierce debate springs up between Cambreling, John Quincy Adams, Evans of Maine, Wise, and others, in which Hardin is a conspicuous figure. He plays his irony upon the indefatigable commercial member from New York, Mr. Cambreling. 1-le compares him most amusingly with Dan- iel Webster; then, turning on Mr. Adams as the Semr~pronius, whose voice was still for war, he reminds him that in the sequel Sempronius deserted to Ciesar, while Lucius (to whom he likened himself) remained faithful to Cato, and fought it out for peace like a man. Mr. Hardins allusions to the classics are not infrequent. He especially loved Ho- mer, and, as will be seen hereafter, be be- caine indissolubly linked with one of the Homeric heroesthe snarling Thersites. Caleb Cushing forged the link in a graceful retort. Was this love of the classics one of the levers of this Kentuckians power over men? It is related of him that when one of his own side made a speech he took his hat and left the House. But when Rufus Choate began his first mellifluous speech this meataxe man lingered and listened, andy listening, was lost in rapture. This demi-god of the Western hnstings sits fas- cinated and enmeshed by the involutions, all full of depth and all starred with learn- ing, with which Choate delighted his ear and mind. Was there no refined susceptibility in this rough and hardy man I Choate brought the music out of his soul as the wind does Thit of the woods. He held Hardin as with the glittering eye of the ancient mariner. It was done by no other necromancy than the silver tongue and the golden thought, in- woven and intertwisted by a skill that would puzzle a Genoese filigree-worker. Few men in Congress appreciated Rufus Choate. Was it because he was too fond of the odd ends of learning, or that his rhet- one was too involved in fancies and frolics? Certain it is that while he could hold Har- din, he did not make the impression on the Senate or on Congress which we would ex- pect. When MDuffie, in his rude way, on the tariff question, charged Choate with weaving the texture of a cobweb, and pick- ing up worm-eaten pamphlets to form an argument for the leader of a band of high- way robbers, and held him up to ridicule as a humming-bird in a flower-garden or a but- terfly in a farm-yard, how did this splendid orator respond? Gracious heavens! this man, only not divine, who even yet holds in thrall the gentlest and brightest of New Englands bravery of intellect, actually and elaborately denied the facts and called for proof, as some Western lawyer once did in an answer in chancery. The accusation is groundless. Let time Senator sustain it if he can. Imagine Butler, hoar, or Dawes answering such a speech otherwise than by a counter-charge of chivalric pungency! Yet the large-hearted and broad-humored Kentuckian threaded delightfully time laby- rinthine beauty of Choates rhetoric, and saw something in the legal dialectician and in the Gothic style of his multifarious orato- ry that entranced him by a witchery beyond the reach of art. What is the mystery? It is the same charm of life and heart ~yhichm in our first paper we remarked in Webster, Randolph, aimd Bur~ e ss, and in all those who have the susceptibility to humor. It is in the innate gentleness which, as in Hardins case, shone in his life and triumphed in his death; for at the last, when dying at tlireescore and ten, Mr. Hardin called around him all of his kith and the brethren of his Method- ist communion, and offered up from those lips which had so often commanded in great debate, the gentlest orison which ever pre- ceded the departing soul to its God. Thomas Corwin, in so far as the record al- lows judgment, far outshone Hardin in this Kentuckian constellation of humor. In all the elements, from the lowest burlesque to the finest wit, lie was confessedly the mas- ter. He drew from the arsenal all the weap- ons of parliamentary warfimre; but how sel- dom he used them! His effusions were brilliant, fervid, eloquent, patlmetk~, but above all, his satire, while keen, wm~s not poisoned or barbed with ill temper. It was pertinent and powerful, demolishing, yet stingless. The motto at the head of this paper, which is time description of Shmiel, de- scribes the humor of Corwia. He was a great lawyeras great as Ogden Hoffman, 124 HARPERS NEXV MONTHLY MAGAZINE. and far greater than he in Congress. His mind was full, and his words were thought- ful. He was no cynic. He was also a scholar. His mind had ranged through the bounds of human knowledge. His eloquence on the stump and at the bar, in the House or Senate, when pleading against the Mexican war, or for compromise before our civil war, whether he struck the basso of sorrow or the tenor of merriment, was full of divinest sympathy. Yct he is best remembered for lighter efforts, as when he started in full opulence of illustration after the foible of a fellow-member. No one can imagine his power unless he has seen his facial expres- sion and heard his variety of tone. The play of his dark countenance was the pre- lude to his witty thought. What Bulwer has sung of Canning, ~~ho schemed for the gaze and plotted for the cheer, may be more truly said of Corwia: Read him not; tis unfair. Behold him rise, And hear him speak! The House all ears and eyes It is said of Alvan Stewart, the eloquent abolitionist of New York, that he could read a dry affidavit so as to upset the gravity of bench and bar. It was in the manner. In this line Corwin was primus inter pares; or, rather, he was simply peerless. His face and its serio-jocoseness would have been the fortune of any player. Will you have condiments in your coffee I said a good landlady to him, as he was once traversing my old Ohio district, on the ~veevil plat- form. Imagine that face, and the solemn courtesy of his response! Pepper and mustard, in adam, but no salt, thank you ! Whether this rare gift of humor came to him from his Magyar ancestry, or was in- duced by influences in his native county of Bourbon, Kentuckywhether it was a part of his early training or practice when a wagon boy, it is certain that few men were ever so effective in publicly using it. As early as fourteen he had the action, em- phasis, and gesture which make the rhetor- ical youth. His childhood was father to the orator. His independence of thought and his lucid expression we are not called upon in this paper to discuss. His humor makes one of the green spots in the Con- gressional desert. One of its best illustrations is his answer to General Crary, of Michigan, who had ac- cused General Harrison of want of strategy at Tippecanoe. Crary was a militia gen- eral. The droll manner of the response can not be put on paper. The humorous orator described a training-daythe leader of the host on horseback, the retreat to a neigh- boring grocery, the trenchant blade of the general remorselessly slaying water-melons, and the various feats upon thishloodless field in such a style that his victim was ever after known as the late General Crary. Never was speech couched in a happier vein. The time of its delivery is Saturday afternoon, when a saturnalin is given, as be demurely hinted in the proem, to servants of good masters. The way he touches the non sequitur of the debate is felicity itself. The pending bill is about the Cumberland road, and the debate is on General Harri- son s war record. Before members can vote money for the road, they must know how time Indians at Tippecanoe were painted whether red, black, or blue. TIme appro- priation la 1840 is identical with the tactics of an Indian war in 1811. Then he begins quietly to lift high his opponent in the controversy that he may drop him lower. General Crary is called an illustration of the way in which we in America can turn our hands to any business. On a question involving a subtle knowledge on strategy, what preparations had not Gen- eral Crary made for tIme criticism! But there is only one way to give this speech its real meaning, and that is by quoting: He has announced to the House that he is a militia general on the peace establishment. That he is a law- yor we know, toleral)ly well read in Tiddo Practice and Espinesse8 Nisi Prias. These studies, so happily adapted to the subject of war, with an appointment to the militia in time of peace, furnish him at ouce with all Ihe knowledge necessary to discourse to us, as from high authority, upon all the mysteries in the trade of death. Again, Mr. Speaker, it must occur to every one that we, to whom these criticisms are addressed, heing all colonels, at least, and most of us, like the gentleman himself, brigadiers, are, of all conceivable tribunals, the hest qualified to decide any nice point connected with military science. I trust, as we are all brother officers, that the gen. tieman from Michigan, and the 240 colonels or gen- erals of this honorable house, ~vill receive what I have to say as coming from an old hrother in arms, and ad- dressed to them in a spirit of candor, Such us becomes comrades free, Reposing utter victory. Sir, we all know the military studies of the gentle- man from Michigan before he was promoted. I take it to be beyond a reasonable doubt that he had perused with great care time title-page of Berate Sfemeben. Nay, I go further. As the gentleman has incidentally as- sured us he is prone to look into musty and neglected volumes, I venture to assert, without vouciting the fact from personal knowledge, titat he has prosecuted Isis researches so far as to he able to know that the rear rank stands right behind the front. This, I think, is fairly limferable from what I understand hitn to say of the two lutes of encampment at Tippecanoe. Thus we see, Mr. Speaker, that the gentleman from Michi- gan, so far as study can give us kno~vledge of a sub- ject, comes before us with claims to great profundity. Bmmt this is a subject which, of all (sthers, requires the aid of actual experience to make us wise. Now tite gentleman, beisig a militia general, as he has told us, tils brother officers, in thtat simple statement has revealed the glc)rions htistory of toils, privatiomis, sacri- fices, and bloody scenes through witich we know from experience and observatioms a momihitia officer iii time of peace is sisre to pass. We all, in fancy, now see the gentleman from Michigan iii that most dangesoims and glorious event in the life of a militia genemal on lisa peace establishniemmta Isarade daythe day for which all time other days of isis life seem to have been made. We can see time troops in motion; umbrellas, hoe and axe Isamidles, and other like deadly implememits of LEGISLATIVE HUMORS. 125 war, overshadowing all the field, when in! the leader of the host approaches. Far off his coming shines. Ills plume, white, after the fashion of the great Bour- bon, is of ample length, and reads its doleful history in the bereaved necks and bosoms of forty neighboring lien-roosts. Like the great Suwaroff, he seems some- what careless in forms and points of dress. hence his epaulets may be on his shoulders, back, or sides, lint still gleaming, gloriously gleaming, ha the sun. Mounted he is, too, let it not be forgotten. Need I describe to the colonels and generals of this honorable house the steed which heroes bestride on such occa- sions? No, I see the memory of other days is with you. You see before you the gentleman from Mich- igan mounted on his crop-eared, bushy-taileti mare, the singular obliquities of whose hinder limbs is de- scrihed by that most expressive phrase, sickle hams her height fourteen bands, all told; yes, Sir, there von see his steed that laughs at the shaking of time spear, that is, his war-horse whose neck is clothed with thunder. Mr. Speaker, we have glo~ving descrip- tions in history of Alexander the Great and his war- horse Bucephalus at the head of the invincible Mace- donian phalanx; but, Sir, such are the improvements of modern times that every one must see that our mi- litia general, with his crop-eared mare with bushy tail and sickle ham, would literally frighten off a battle- field a hundred Alexanders. But, Sir, to the his tory of the parade-day. The general, thus mounted and equipped, is iii the field, and ready for action. On time eve of some desperate enterprise, such as giving orders to shoulder arms, it may be, there occurs a crisis, omie of the accidents of war ~vhich no sagacity could fore- see or preventa cloud rises and passes over the sun! there an occasion occurs for the display of that great- est of all traits in the character of a commander, that tact which emoables him to seize upon amid turn to good account events unlooked for as they arise. Now for the caution wherewith the Roman Fahius foiled the skill and courage of Hannibal. A retreat is ordered, amid troops and general in a twiukilug are fonud safely bivouacked in a neighboring grocery! But even here the general still has room for the exhihihioms of heroic deeds. Hot from the field, and chafed with the mm- toward events of the day, your general unsheathes his trenchant blade, eighteen inches in length, as you ~viil well remenaher, and with an energy amid remorseless fury he slices the water-melons that lie in heaps around hini, and shares them with his surviving friends! Others of the ~inews of war are not wanting here. Whisky, Mr. Speaker, that great leveler of modern times, is here also, and the shells of the water-melons are filled to the brim. Here again, Mr. Speaker, is shown how the extremes of barbarism and civilization meet. As the Scandinavian heroes of old, after the fatigues of war, drank ~vine from the skulls of their slaughtered enemies in Odins hail, so now our militia general and his forces, frona the skulls of melons thus vauquished, iii copious draughts of whisky assuage the heroic fire of their souls after the bloody scenes of a parade-day. But, alas for tials short-lived race of ours, all things will have an end, amid so even is it with the glorious achievements of our general. Time is on the wiu~ and lviii not stay his flight; the suu, as if frightened at the mighty events of the day, rides (hoivn the sky; anti at the close of the day, when time hamlet is still, the curtain of aught drops upon the scene; And the gtory, lihe the phenix in its tires, Exhales Ia odors, hiazos, and enpires. Would that onr men of genuine hunior would, like Corwin, more frequently level their lances nt the extravugance and van- ity which disfigiare onr national character! Then, indeed, would our humor have that lanmanity and refinenierat whicla Sydney Snaitla gave to it in definition and practice, wlaose office he likened to a Lorraine glass, which throws a sunny hue ovcr the lund- scape. How it expands caution, relaxes dignity, tempers coldiactis, teaches age and care and pain to smile, extorting reluctant gleams of pleasure from melancholy, and citarming even the pangs of grief! How it penetrates through the coldness and awk- wardness of society, gradually bringing men nearer together, and, like tiac comatbined force of wine and oil, giving every man a glad heart amad a shining countenance! If more of this flavor of the nmind enlivened our pil- grimage on earth, it would elevate benevo- lence and inspire principle. If more of the Hardin-Corwin type of itien were in our pub- lie assemblies, there would be less of the treasons, stratagems, and spoils of politics. The third humorous triumvir is oaae yet living, ai~d now again returned to Congress. Proctor Knott, next after General Butler, is best known as a Congressional laumorist. But his humor, like nil genuine virtues, has little or no malice in its composition. When I)eoPle first come to Waslaington they are disappointednot now at the city itself, for it utore than falls expectation, but at tite public atmen. Sergeant S. Prentiss, tite Maine-Mississippian orator, was there in Feb- ratary, 1833, and writes to his sister that lao has seen General Jackson, ~ who is no more fit to be President than I am. You have no idea how destitirte of talent are more than half of the members of Congress. Nine out of ten of your ordinary acqunitatance are fully equal to them. This is the first im- pression. Closer acquaintance reveals that each of these unpromising members has sonae peculiar quality which lifts him aside from, if not above, his fellows at laome. Titey are singed cats many of them, who, like Proctor Knott, nany not be taken for mucla at siglat for a month or a session or so, and then their native hue and quality burst out unexpectedly and grandly, like certain tropical flowers, with a report! Few suspected Mr. Knott of the posses- sion of such an abundant flow of the facile and graceful faculty of fun-making. One speech about paving Pennsylvania Avenue had only provoked the House to hear more. They lacard it in his Duluth speech. Whaen I first heard the Englisla Parlia- mentarians speak, it was with surprise. No one except Briglat and Walpole seemed to be fluent after the American method. Their hesitation and aaaamanerism were atrocious. Imagine Cicero addressing the Roman Sen- nte Quousqameah !tanderahemst !abu he !haw !,mostralm-h-lt ? In Parliumnent tlte orator sits on a rough bencla, lais itead covered, to pour forth this outlandish gib- ber. Literally, he puts off his hat to put his case. A case thus put is the very antichi- mamax of graceful and fervid oratory. It is time ideal of an awkward manner, even when 126 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. delivering brilliant sense. Disraeli has it. It is the dandyism of dawdleism. It is the reverse of the copia loquendi of Cicero, aud of the fluency of the incomparable Corwin and the unhesitating Knott. If a man in Congress hesitates, he is lost. T~venty in- terruptions give him pause. In Parliament it would seem that he is lost if he does not I hesitate and hem and liaw. But it was not the easy flow of Mr. Knotts periods that gave him prompt fame. He struck a pre- vailing sense of fun connected with our superlative language and exaggerated spec- ulation. The man who touches this theme in fit style, whether it be Mark Twain and his speculative lobby with millions in it, or Proctor Knott with his Duluth, as the cen- tre of the visible universe where the sky comes down at precisely the same distance all around it, or one vast corral into which all commerce goes whether it will or not, demonstrates the typical American trait. Senator Nye discusses the merits of tor- pedocs. How does he do it? He tells the Senate that Lieutenant Cushing blew the Albemarle so high that gravitation did not operate on it; and in describing the old blunderbuss and other ancient and effete arms, he said that in those olden times if a nian was killed, it was an accident! But if you would have the superlative of this extravagant humor, gaze at the picture which Governor Wise once drew of Virginia agriculture: The landlord skins the ten- ant, the tenant the land, until all are poor together. The ledge patches outshine the sun. Inattention has seared the hosom of mother earth. Instead of cattle on a thou- sand hills, they chase the stump-tailed steer through the ledge patches to procure a tough beefsteak ! He had met a Virgin- ian on horseback, on a bag of hay for a sad- dle, without stirrups, and with the leading line for a bridle, and lie had said to him, Whose house is that, Sir ? It is mine. They came to another house. And that ? Mine too, stranger. To a third house. And whose house is that I Mine too; but dont suppose, stranger, Im so darned poor as to own all the land about here ! Already in other papers I have endeavor- ed to analyze this indigenous taste for in- tensity of expression and magnificence of idea. It is not new with us. It is as old as the Ravolution. Ethan Allens Great Jehovah and the Continental Congress~~ is in the same swelling vein. When the En- glish commissioners came here to treat for peace in 1778, it seems that the very mete- orological phenomena and physical scenery stunned the curled darling of the court~ Lord Carlisle, one of the commissioners. He humorously attributes the great English disasters to the comprehensive magnitude of the country. Excusing his failure to rec oncile the colonies, lie writes to his friend the witty George Selwyn: I inclose you our manifesto, which you will never read. Tis a sort of dying speech of the commis- sion, an effort from which I expect little success Every thing is upon a great scale upon this continent. The rivers are fin- inense, the climate violent in heat and cold the prospects magnificent, the thunder and lightning tremendous. The disorders inci- dent to the country make every constitu- tion tremble. Our own blunders here, our misconduct, our losses, our disgraces, our ruin, are on a great scale. He caught the salient feature of ~ur scen- ery and society. We have only aggrandized it since. A burst of exaggeration in an American assenibly as surely awakens ludicrous in- terest as an allusion to a horse-race in the English Parliament. The model average En- glish statesnian is well described as The loun~iag member seldom in his place, And thea with thoughta remote upon a race. Hence an allusion to a ministry as splin- tered, spavined, and broken-winded is al- ways received with laughter by a body which adjourns for the Derby, and which represents a people who on that day take the liberty to abuse all on the roadnob and snob, tramp and shop-man, Queen am]. courtesan. But in an American Congress nothing so suits the prevailing temper and tone as the grotesque and ample hyperbole, the accumulated largess of language be- stowed on the description of a grand specu- lation, with its gorgeous incidents amid its magnificent accidents. When this Kentuckian, Knott, first talked in Congress, lie struck this Bi~ Bonanza vein. How the house enjoyed it! I re- member well his first pathetic description of the depth of that love for the people en- tertained by members; how it surpassed that of the young niothier for her first-born a depth of sentiment which hankrupts all the resources of pathetic eloquence and stir- ring poetry. How affluently he smoothed. the raven down of darkness till it smiled. as lie pictured the negroes who hung about the Capitol and in time galleries, perched like turkey-buzzards in a deadening, wait- ing for the rich repast that Congress was ex- pected to prepare for their rapacious heaks! Then how neatly he chan~ed the scene to Judiciary Square, full of the same class, re- clining in the shade, like black snakes in a brier patch. In thils strain of exaggeration lie took up the Pennsylvania Avenue Pave- meat Bill. Did he argue the points logical- ly? Of course. But who remembers the log- ic of arithmetic when down the deep Iambic lines the cothmurn treaAs majestic, full of mock and tumi(l trel)es? Who cares for the syllogism or the igaoretio cleachi when a LEGISLATIVE HUMORS. 127 chorus of Bacchantes sing the dithyramb of wild and intoxicating frolieksomeness I There is a logic of fua which drowns, over- tops all; and Proctor Knott floated on this rolling sea as easily as Captain Boytoa in the Channel, or, rather, like a behemoth of the deep. After making a picture of the luxury of the capital, its fragrant squares, its polish- ed walks, its promenades and drives, its sinuous foot-paths, laid with an elastic con- crete of white sea sand, bordered with shrub- bery that would have lent new charms to Calypsos favorite bower, and winding away in all the intricate mazes of the Cretan lab- yrinthits satin-slippered beauties, reclin- ing in such ecstatic languor upon the downy cushions of their splendid carriages that even the perfumed zephyr, as he steals from beds of rare exotics, shall not kiss their velvet cheeks too rudely, nor the dancing sunbeams taste the delicious fragrance that exhales from their honeyed lipsthe orator, like the gladiator of Byron, sees his young barbarians of Kentucky at play on the blue grass; and he turns lovingly to the toil- browned, bare footed daughter of a taxed Kentucky constituent, in her homespua gown, innocent of crinoline or train. Is this ample enough I Like his predecessor, he, too, is fond of Homer; and the touching picture he draws of the sacrifices of the of- fice-holder is in the best vein of Bea Hardin. There was no being on earth for whose com- fort he entertained so profound a solicitude as for that of your public functionary, no one whose smallest want so stirred his sym- pathetic soul to its serenest depths. When I see him bidding adieu to the sweets of private life, for which he is so eminently fitted by na- ture, to immolate himself on the altar of his country, Honiers touching picture of the last scene between the noble Hector and his weeping family rises before my imagination; when I see him seated sorrowfully at a miserable repast of sea terrapin and Champagne, my very bowels yearn for him; and when I see him performing, perhaps, the only duty for which he is folly competent, signing the receipt for his monthly pay, I am so overwhelmed for his miserable condition that I wish I were in his place. In a similar strain of elaborate satire he desired new pavements over which the car- riages of our government officials, with their coats of arms and livened outriders, might glide as smoothly and noiselessly as the aerial car of the fairy queen through the rose-tinted clouds of the upper ~tlier. Wind- ing up Isis speech with pregnant statistics and prophetic sense, he saw what many did not see then (1870), what local and Fed- eral extravagance was bringing upon the capital. In the peroration of this his first speech, which brought the Kentucky orator to the front, he was puzzled to tell what power short of an omniscient providence could fore- tell what the government would eventually have to pay for the improvement of this avenue. The astronomer predicts a total eclipse of the sun a hundred years in the future, and names the exact time and place upon the earth at which the sublime phe- nomenon will first be seen; and, whether it be upon the costly icebergs of Alaska or the blood-stained soil of suffering Cuba, punc- tual to the second the gigantic shadow falls upon the precise spot lie indicates. Thus summoning the infinitudes and splendors of the starry hosts by a sublime anticlimax) all radiant with humor, he can not foretell what any public improvement about Wash- ington city will cost or when it will be fin- ished. It defies the highest nmathematies and the utmost range of conjecture. Until the Duluth speech was made, the House had little thought of the rich pleni- tude of humor in store for them. The sur- prise was enhanced because Mr. Knott spoke rarely. He was not an active, rat her a lazy, memberostensibly so. All the day, before the sunny rays He used to slug or sleep, in slothful shade. They took the alligator for a log till they sat on him. Grudgingly was the floor yield- ed to him. He was offered only ten mm- utes; whereupon he remarked that his fa- cilities for getting time were so poor that if he were standing on the brink of perdition, and the sands were crumbling un(ler his feet, he could not in that body get time enough to say the Lords Prayer. The St. Croix and Bayfield Road Bill asked for some of the public domain. Mr. Knott disavow- ed any more interest in the bill than in an orange grove, on the bleakest summit of Greenlands icy mountains. It was thus ha introduced the splendid project: Years ago, when I first heard that there was some- where in the vast terra incognita, somewhere in the bleak regions of the great Northwest, a stream of wa- ter known to the nomadic inhabitants of the neigh- borhood as the river St. Croix, I became satisfied that the construction of a railroad from that raging torrent to some point in the civilized world was essential to the happiness and prosperity of the American people, if not absolutely indispensable to time perpetuity of re- publican institutions on this continent. [Great laugh- ter.] I felt instinctively that the boundless resources of that prolific region of sand and pine shrubbery would never be fully developed without a railroad constructed and equipped at the expense of the gov- ernment, and perhaps not then. [Laughter.] I had an abiding presentiment that, some day or oilier, time people of this whole country, irrespective of party af- filiations, regardless of sectional prejudices, and with- out distinction of race, color, or previous condition of servitude, would rise in their majesty and demand an outlet for the enormous agricultural productions of those vast and fertile pine-barrens, drained in the rainy season by the surging waters of the turbid St. Croix. [Great laughter.] He put this problem to the House as to the value of the lands: If the timbered lands are the most valuable, and valueless with- out the timber, what is the remainder of the land worth, which has no tiumber on it ab 128 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. all? How he pictured this land satirical- lavishing all the stores of his mighty genius Upon the ly as the Goshen of America and an inex- fall of Ilion, it had not heen his more hiessed lot to haustible mine of agricultural wealth, and crystallize in deathless song the rising glories of Du- luth. [Great and continued laughter.] Yet, Sir, had then with truthful exaggeration as a region it not heen for this map, kindly furnished me hy the which in ten years wonid by its vegetation Legislature of Minnesota, I might have gone down to fatten a grasshopper; how he brooded over my ohscure and humhle grave in an egony of despair hecause I could nowhere find Duluth. [Renewed laugh- the dnn~ers to our government if it neg- tei.] had such been my melancholy fate, I have no lected or abandoned such a region; how lie douht that with the last feeble pulsation of my break- amplified these dangers from the Declara- ing heart, with the last faint exhalation of my fleeting tion of Independence, secession, reconstruc- breath, I should have whispered, Where is Duluth? [Roars of laughter.] tion, and the new amendments, and, after But, thanks to the beneficence of that band of all, the worst of all dangers, the peril of our ministering angels who have their bright abodes in navy rotting in their docks for want of rail- the far-off capital of Minnesota, just as the agony of road communication mya with the prolific pine uxiety was ahout to culminate in the frenzy of despair, this blessed map was placed in my hands; and thickets of the St. Croix! Then he was con- as I unfolded it a resplendent scene of ineffable gin- cerned because we had lost Alta Vein, a gua- ry opened before me, such as I imagine burst upon ito isle, and then as to the proper point of the enraptured vision of the wandering pert through the opening gates of paradise. [Renewed laughter.] connection with the teeming pine-barrens, There, there for the first time, my enchanted eye rest- until at last, amidst shouts of laughter, he ed upon the ravishing word Duluth. mentioned Duluth ! How be rolls it as a If gentlemen will examine it they ~vill find Duluth sweet morsel under and over his tongue! not only in the centre of the map, but represented in the centre of a series of concentric circles one hun- Duluth! The word fell upon my ear with peculiar dred miles apart, and some of them as much as four and indescribable charm, like the gentle murmur of a thousand miles in diameter, embracing alike in their low fountain stealing forth in the midst of roses, or tremendous sweep the fragrant savannas of the sun- the soft, s~veet accents of an angels whisper in the lit South and the eternal solitudes of snow that mantle bright, joyous dream of sleeping innocence. Duluth! the ice-bound North. [Laughter.] How these circles T~vas the name for which my soul had panted for were produced is perhaps one of those primordial years, as the hart panteth for the water-brooks. [Re- mysteries that the most skillful paleologist ~vill never newed laughter.] But where was Duluth? Never in be able to explain. [Renewed laughter.] But the fact all my limited readiug had my vision been gladdened is, Sir, Duluth is pre-eminently a central place, for I l)y seeing the celestial word in print. [Laughter.] And am told by gentlemen who have been so reclcless of I felt a profounder humiliation in my ignorance that their own personal safety as to venture away into its dulcet syllables had never before ravished my de- those awful regions ~vhere Duluth is supposed to be lighted ear. [Roars of laughter.] I was certain the that it is so exactly in the centre of the visible uni- draughtsman of this bill had never heard of it, or it verse that the sky comes down at precisely the same would have been designated as one of time termini of distance all around it. [Roars of laughter.] this road. I asiced my friends about it, but they kne~v After thus locating his paradise, he ascer- nothing of it. I rushed to the library and examined all the maps I could find. [Laughter.] I discovered in tains its neighborhood advantagesbuffa- omie of them a delicate, hair-like limme, diverging from hoes, Piegans, and other savages. He de- the Mississippi near a place marked Prescott, which I scribes the convenience by which the red supposed was imutended to represent the river St. Croix, men could drive the buffalo into Duluth. lint I could nowhere find Duluth. I think Nevertheless, I was confident it existed somewhere, I see them now, exclaimed tho and that its discovery would constitute the crowning inspired humorist a vast herd, with heads glory of the present century, if not of all modern times. down, eyes glarimig, nostrils dilated, tongues [Laughter.] I knew it was bound to exist in the very out and tails curled over their backs, tear- miature of things; that the symmetry and perfection of our planetary system would be incomplete without it lug along toward Duluth, with a thousand [renewed laughter]; that the elements of material na- Piegans on their grass-bellied ponies yell- tare would long since have resolved themselves back ing into original chaos if there bad been such a hiatus in at their heels! On they conie! And creation as would have resulted from leaving out Du- as they sweep past the Creeks, they too join lath. [Roars of lau~hter.] In fact, Sir, I was over- in the chase, and away they all go, yehlimmg, whelmed with the conviction that Duluth muot only ex- bellowing, ripping amid tearing along, amidst isted somewhere, but that, wherever it was, it was a ciota great and glorious place. I was convinced that time ds of dust, until the last bufiblo is safely greatest calamnity that ever befell the bemmighted as- penned in the stock-yards of Duluth Sbus of the ancient world was in their having passed Was this burlesque relished by honest away without a knowledge of the actual existence of and fun -loving people? Yes; thousands Duluth; that their fabled Atlantis, never seen save by have sent and are yet sending for the doe- the hallowed vision of inspired poesy, was, in fact, but another miame for Duluth; that the golden orchard of usuent. Why? Simply because the orator the Hesperides was but a poetical synonym for the played with imagery, as a cunning harper beer gardens in the vicinity of Duluth. [Great laugh- with the strings of his harp? No. Because tar.] I was certain that Herodotus had died a miser- thais speech amid able death because in all his travels and with all his its humor had a moral whicha geographical research he had never heard of Duluth. he deftly turned against time subsidy, or, as [Laughter.] I kitew that if the immortal spirit of Ho- he expressed it in his peroration: inner could look dotvn from another heaven than that My relation is simply that of trmmstee to an express created by his o~vn celestial genius upon the long lines trust And shall I ever betray that trumst? Never, Sir! of phigrimus front every natioma of the earth to the gush- Rather perish Dmmluth! Perish the paragon of cities! ing fountain of poesy opened by the touch of his magic Rather let the freezing cyclones of the blealc North- ~vand, if he could be permitted to behold time vast as- west bury it forever beneath the eddyimug samids of the semblage of grand and glorious productions of time lyric art called into being by his o~vn inspired strains, raging St. Croix I he would weep tears of bitter anguish that, instead of Where did this Kentucky genius obtain A GHOSTLY VISITATION. 129 his rich resources of illustration? First from nature, with its deadenings and black snakes; next from patient culture, with his Homeric and other epical allusions; and next froui mixing ja the heat and dust of our extravagant active life, and studyin0 the grand volume of human nature. A close student of men and books, once Attorney- General of Missouri, familiar with frontier and prairie life, he had the rare perception to observe the queerness and oddity of things, and the rarer gift to so mix his col- ors and hum his figures that all should rec- ognize beneath the heightened colors the graphic genuineness and design of his art. But the special hmnor of this Duluth speech lies in its ma ~nifying, with a roaring rush of absurdity, the exaggerations of a West- ern Eden, in which utter nakedness and fragrant luxuriance alternate, and between whose aisles of greenery the sly devil of selfishness sat squat at the ear of Congress, tempting it to taste the forbidden fruit of subsidy. It is the string of spoken pearls, this effluence of diamond dew, this beguiling linked humor long drawn out, that holds the ear; but there is more meant than meets the sense. Like the allegory or the parable, there is moral hidden beneath this elabo- rate imagery. It is this moral which ex- alts the American mind to the sublimity of its own peculiar fun, and relieves the le- viathanie lawnessness of exaggeration of its strain upon the faculties. No speech that I can recall produced at once so signal an effect. I do not except General Butler when he addressed the House on the moiety question. He had an audience prepared to applaud. lie had the accessories, the misc en 8c~ne, to- gether with abundant gas-lights and per- sonal spleen, to set off the whole for a grand effect. He succeeded, for no one could up- trip him or knock him down. Like the Dutch toy, he is up again, rubicund and tri- umpliant. When he drew out of the ship hold these leaden statues representing the Goddess of Liberty and the Conscript Fa- thers, and described them as devices to avoid the customs duty, the shouts of laugh- ter were loud and uproarious. Without de- traction from this performance, I fail to find in it, or in any reported speech of Gener- al Butler, notwithstanding the skillful ar- rangement and statuesque poses by which he graced the fervor of that rhetoric hour, with a Mephistophelean - Brobdinguagian energy of fun, any comparison with this Du- luth effort of Knott. I refer to these efforts of Hardin, Corwin, Knott, and Butler for the sake of showing one class of humor which is not strictly that of the House. It proceeds from the peculiar manner of the man. It is elabo- rate and descriptive narrative, depending for its success on its splendid exaggeration of expression and thou~ht. It is not pecul- iar to the Legislature. It would be felici- tous in any forum. In niy next and concluding paper I shall consider the less elaborate individual hu- mor of the Legislature, and in so doing will confine myself more strictly to American il- lustrations of repartee and other forms of condensed humor. A GHOSTLY VISITATION. IT had been a dismal day; a steady driz- zling rain had proved fatal to all excur- sions, and in-doors the resources of pencil games, cards, and even reading aloud had long been exhausted. The dreary monoto- ny of the early tea was over at last, and we were once more assembled in the shabby lit- tle parlor, propounding the momentous in- quiry of what to do for the next few hours until bed-time should solve the problem. The small room was ill adapted to quiet t~tc-a-Wtes, and the alternative of the damp piazza had no attractions for even the most enthusiastic. Twenty Questions had been languidly suggested, and instantly voted down by the lovers of peace and harmony, and things generally wore an air of intense depression. Really, said good - natured, fat Mrs. Gray, clicking her inevitable knitting-nee- dles, I must say that for a company of clever and accomplished young peopleas you all, I think, profess to beyen seem to have very few resources. I came in here to be amused, and I think I shall be able to get my nap without going up stairs. Mrs. Gray was privileged, and her remark only provoked a feeble smile. If we but had a piano, sighed Miss Wis- ter, who prided herself on her fine contralto, we might have some pleasure;. but one cant sing without an accompaniment. As far as I can see in this dusky light, continued Mrs. Gray, the only persons who appear to have any occupation are those two in the corner, and thats a queer one, for lifteen, four, and a pair are six seems cer- tainly an odd way to count, let alone the singular allowance of two for his heels, and the fact that theyre always telling each other to go. Its very evident, laughed Mr. Listen, looking up from his cards, that youre un- initiated in the mysteries of cribbage, Mrs. Gray.A sequence of three for me, Miss Leniton. I wish, drawled Harry Britton, who was lounging on the sofa, and flirting in a desul- tory way with pretty Grace Arcott, that somebody would tell us a story; its too dark to read, and conversation apparently laos. Methinks, as they say in novels, tis the very hour for a ghostly tale of horror. Who can tell one I

Mary Beach Beach, Mary A Ghostly Visitation 129-134

A GHOSTLY VISITATION. 129 his rich resources of illustration? First from nature, with its deadenings and black snakes; next from patient culture, with his Homeric and other epical allusions; and next froui mixing ja the heat and dust of our extravagant active life, and studyin0 the grand volume of human nature. A close student of men and books, once Attorney- General of Missouri, familiar with frontier and prairie life, he had the rare perception to observe the queerness and oddity of things, and the rarer gift to so mix his col- ors and hum his figures that all should rec- ognize beneath the heightened colors the graphic genuineness and design of his art. But the special hmnor of this Duluth speech lies in its ma ~nifying, with a roaring rush of absurdity, the exaggerations of a West- ern Eden, in which utter nakedness and fragrant luxuriance alternate, and between whose aisles of greenery the sly devil of selfishness sat squat at the ear of Congress, tempting it to taste the forbidden fruit of subsidy. It is the string of spoken pearls, this effluence of diamond dew, this beguiling linked humor long drawn out, that holds the ear; but there is more meant than meets the sense. Like the allegory or the parable, there is moral hidden beneath this elabo- rate imagery. It is this moral which ex- alts the American mind to the sublimity of its own peculiar fun, and relieves the le- viathanie lawnessness of exaggeration of its strain upon the faculties. No speech that I can recall produced at once so signal an effect. I do not except General Butler when he addressed the House on the moiety question. He had an audience prepared to applaud. lie had the accessories, the misc en 8c~ne, to- gether with abundant gas-lights and per- sonal spleen, to set off the whole for a grand effect. He succeeded, for no one could up- trip him or knock him down. Like the Dutch toy, he is up again, rubicund and tri- umpliant. When he drew out of the ship hold these leaden statues representing the Goddess of Liberty and the Conscript Fa- thers, and described them as devices to avoid the customs duty, the shouts of laugh- ter were loud and uproarious. Without de- traction from this performance, I fail to find in it, or in any reported speech of Gener- al Butler, notwithstanding the skillful ar- rangement and statuesque poses by which he graced the fervor of that rhetoric hour, with a Mephistophelean - Brobdinguagian energy of fun, any comparison with this Du- luth effort of Knott. I refer to these efforts of Hardin, Corwin, Knott, and Butler for the sake of showing one class of humor which is not strictly that of the House. It proceeds from the peculiar manner of the man. It is elabo- rate and descriptive narrative, depending for its success on its splendid exaggeration of expression and thou~ht. It is not pecul- iar to the Legislature. It would be felici- tous in any forum. In niy next and concluding paper I shall consider the less elaborate individual hu- mor of the Legislature, and in so doing will confine myself more strictly to American il- lustrations of repartee and other forms of condensed humor. A GHOSTLY VISITATION. IT had been a dismal day; a steady driz- zling rain had proved fatal to all excur- sions, and in-doors the resources of pencil games, cards, and even reading aloud had long been exhausted. The dreary monoto- ny of the early tea was over at last, and we were once more assembled in the shabby lit- tle parlor, propounding the momentous in- quiry of what to do for the next few hours until bed-time should solve the problem. The small room was ill adapted to quiet t~tc-a-Wtes, and the alternative of the damp piazza had no attractions for even the most enthusiastic. Twenty Questions had been languidly suggested, and instantly voted down by the lovers of peace and harmony, and things generally wore an air of intense depression. Really, said good - natured, fat Mrs. Gray, clicking her inevitable knitting-nee- dles, I must say that for a company of clever and accomplished young peopleas you all, I think, profess to beyen seem to have very few resources. I came in here to be amused, and I think I shall be able to get my nap without going up stairs. Mrs. Gray was privileged, and her remark only provoked a feeble smile. If we but had a piano, sighed Miss Wis- ter, who prided herself on her fine contralto, we might have some pleasure;. but one cant sing without an accompaniment. As far as I can see in this dusky light, continued Mrs. Gray, the only persons who appear to have any occupation are those two in the corner, and thats a queer one, for lifteen, four, and a pair are six seems cer- tainly an odd way to count, let alone the singular allowance of two for his heels, and the fact that theyre always telling each other to go. Its very evident, laughed Mr. Listen, looking up from his cards, that youre un- initiated in the mysteries of cribbage, Mrs. Gray.A sequence of three for me, Miss Leniton. I wish, drawled Harry Britton, who was lounging on the sofa, and flirting in a desul- tory way with pretty Grace Arcott, that somebody would tell us a story; its too dark to read, and conversation apparently laos. Methinks, as they say in novels, tis the very hour for a ghostly tale of horror. Who can tell one I 130 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. Game ! said Miss Leniton, looking up with a smile at Mr. Liston, an(l closing the cribbage board. Perhaps I can gratify you, Mr. Britton, she added, coming for- ward and seating herself in our midst. A ghost story from Miss Leniton, cried one and all, delightedly, every trace of lan- guor disappearing as if by magic; for there was a certain mystery surrounding Katha- rine Leniton that gave her a nameless charm, and yet was so indefinable that it could be traced only to her abundant snow-white hair, which seemed most unaccountable and incongruous when you saw her fresh bright complexion and fine dark eyes. In short, Miss Leniton was a problem as yet un- solved. She was tall and handsome, and we should have said young, were it not for the curious fact about her hair. But, whatever her age, Bernard Liston seemed to find her very a~reeable, and devoted so much time to her that not a few of the girls marveled greatly where lay the fascination of tbat gray-haired woman,~ for Mr. Listoa was a clever fellow, wonderfully good-looking, and one whose attentions were not to be sneered at. But to return. We all drew our chairs close together around Miss Lenitou in the fast-gathering darkness, prepared to give our most profound attention, and after a short pause, in a clear, full voice, she com- menced her story. To begin at the beginnin h, she said, I must take you back a long ten years, to the time when I was at the poetic age of eighteena frank avowal on my part, which I have the less hesitancy in making on ac- count of the respect you have always shown my gray hairs. I had just left school, and was making my arrangements for the sum- mer vacation, when I received a letter from my quondam school-mate and dearest friend, Laura Archer, inviting me to make her a visit. Laura was two years older than I, and had spent the time since she left school traveling in Europe with her father, who idolized her, as be might well do, for besides being an only child, she was a very charm- lug and lovable girl. The purport of the letter I will give, and in as nearly as I can remember the exact words; and you may rely upon the accuracy of my statements, for every thing that occurred at that time is so indelibly stamped on my memory that it stands out now in bold relief when events much more recent are utterly forgotten. After various school allusions and ex- pressions of delight at being back again in America, the letter read as follows: And now I must tell you our summer plans. Fa- ther has bought a dear old house in the country, and we intend filling it with guests and having a splendid time; and, dear Kate, you must promise to make us a lo~ig visit and help entertain our friends. A word, parenthetically, about the house. I sincerely trust you are not superstitions, for there is a tale of terror con- nected with our new abode which I will now relate, so that you may never accuse me of deception. The house has been untenanted for several yeais, as it has obtained a bad name, owing to the fact that an old man and his wifeeminently worthy peoplewere foully murdered for their money, it was supposed, by a traveler whom they unsuspiciously harbored one stormy night. At all events, the aged couple were found the next morning with their throats cut, their money stolen, and the murderous traveler departed fur parts unknown. The mystery was never fully cleared, but the house gained thereby the reputation of being haunted, the story told and believed by time villagers being that at nightfall the spirits of the murdered couple are seen upon the premises. Of course this is all an idle tale, and we looked on it accordingly; but remember, Kate, if you fear a haunted house, that you have been duly warned. As you may easily imagine, my most at- tentive, listeners, comitinued Miss Leniton this but filled my adventuresome spirit of eighteen with greater eagerness; and the thought of secimig perhaps a real live ghost, proved an additional attraction. I accept- ed Lauras invitation very gladly, anti at the appointed time reported myself at the haunted house. My first inipression was that the situa- tion, though rt)mantie, was a very lonely one, bein0 at quito a long drive from the nearest village, time house standing alone on a high piece of ground, stirrountled l)y trees. The building itself was a two-story one, long and rambling, with a piazza ex- tending around the lower story, and with rooms on both sides of the hall. Laura met nine with great cordiality, and showed me over her domain with much glee. Its so long a time, she said, laughing, since Ive had a Itoame of any sort, that even this old shanty seems better than pleasures amid palaces to tue. Time house was plainly but very com- fortably furnished, and could accomnmmio(late quite a lar~e umuber of guests. The visit- ors arrived very soon, nearly all of them being acquaintances made while abroad, and we were at once launched omi what was to me, fresh from the monastic seclusion of school life, a career of unparalleled gayety. Riding, driving, boating olin a ncigbboring hake, picnicking in tIme woods near by, were our daily occupmttions, amid, of course, not a few quiet amid open flirtations were car- ried on. I umighint tell many amusing stories ahmout time guests, and of otie foreigmm count in par- ticular, but it would take too bug, amid, be- sitles I can never think of thinem individnull or collectively, without a shudder at their cold heartlessumess, in which yota will, I thinimik, quite agree when you hear the sequel of my story. Of course, when gathered on the pi- azza moonlight evenings, or seated out cool- er nights by the cozy wood fire, there were muany stories told of romance and of terror, anti seine tales of fearful advemitures were related l)y time bolder memkers of the party. Naturally at these thnes the legend of our A GHOSTLY VISITATION. 131 own haunted house was talked over, and the guests were bound upon their honor to tell if any of them bad seen the ghostly visitants, but none pleaded guilty to the charge. I was speaking, said Mr. Archer, on one of these occasions, to an old farmer a few (lays since, and telling him how free we had been from spiritual intruders since we had lived here, hoping thereby to convince him that it was but an idle tale; but the old fel- low shook his head solemnly, and muttered, The wraiths appear only when theres troii- ble, or sorrow, or death, and not when all goes well. Your time may come yet, your honor. This amused us all greatly, and we said we would try to be prosperous and happy, and so keep all nupleasant visitants away. How easy that seemed then, and how light-hearted we all were, no shadow of the forth-coming trouble showing itself to damp our ardor! We spent three weeks in this delightful mannerthree weeks to me of unalloyed pleasurewhen one fatal day Laura complained of illness, and declared herself unable to leave her room. During that night she grew feverish and delirious, and early the next morning Mr. Archer sent for the village physician, who, when he saw his patient, shook his head gloomily, and requested that the doctor from the neigh- boring town might be summoned at once. As soon as the latter caine, lie pronounced the fearful verdict that Laura had in some unknown way coiitracted a fever of the most malignant type, and from which recovery was very doubtful. Mr. Archer was com- ~letely overwhelmed by these terrible tid- ~, and I was obliged to communicate them to the expectant guests down stairs. It makes my blood boil even now when I look back, after this long lapse of years, upon that scene. Not one thought did any of the recipients of Mr. Archers unstinted hospitality show now for the grief-stricken man in this hour of dire calamity. Not one word of genuine sympathy for the bright young hostess who had been the life and joy of all their merry pursuits, and was now lying prostrated by the terrible fever, her delirious cries ringing in their very ears. No; the sole idea of each and all seemed to be to go away, to seek at once, amidst new pleasures, forgetfulness of the misery left behindany thing to get out of the fever- tainted house. So sorry, so very sorry, dear Miss Kath- arine, that our sweet young friend should suffer so sadly, and we would not think of intruding our presence at a time of such trouble. We could not be so very incon- siderate. If you would kindly have our luggage sent to the station in time for the next train, and see that some vehicle is pro- vided for us. Dont trouble yourself about luncheon, dear Miss Leniton, and do write us how darling Laura gets on. This in various keys from all the women. The men were a trifle more human; but all l)repared to go; even the count, who had been Lauras very shadow, finding suddenly that important business required his imme- diate presence elsewhere. Before leaving he seized my hand, and pressing it to his lips with immense emotioii, bade me with choked utterance tell dear APes Laure how he was in total de-spair, and should nay-are be happy again. And thou lie jumped with great alacrity into the village stage, which I had ordered promptly to be on hand. De- fend me from my friends! I exclaimed, as the door closed upon the last of the retreat- ing fair-weather crowd, and then, after the usual fenilnine style, I sat down and had a good cry. lInt I had little tinie in which to indulge my wounded feelings; for, as a matter of course, this sudden stampede had its due ef- fect upon the servants in the house, and to my dismay they also came to me in a body, panic-stricken, and asking their wages. Really, miss, said the spokeswoman, we cant stay, for them fevers is very catchiiu, Ive hicerd say, and, miss, we cant afford to get sick aiid die, havin to earn our owii hivin, miss, you see. This was incontrovertible, and so they all went; but I will give them credit for showing more feeling than the other batch, and they shed very genuine tears in depart- ing, and said that Miss Laura had been a good mistress, and they hoped she wouldnt come to no harm; but it was a bad house to get well in. After some difficulty I found in the vil- lage an old colored woman, who, as she said hind hind all the fevers agoin, and shouldnt ha cared if she hadnt, and so was not in the least afraid to help nurse our poor Laura. She and Mr. Archer and I were with the sick girl day and night, and the two doctors came faithfully. I look back to those days of anguish even iiow with a feeling of pro- found sadness. The fever ran its course, aiid on the ninth day dear Laura died, a lit- tle quieter, and recognizing apparently her poor distracted father, who held her in his arms until she breathed her last. Au! how well do I recall each incident of that day and of that uiever-to-be-forgotten night! But I must not anticipate. Laura died at noon, and Mr. Archer was in a state of such complete prostration that it was impossible to confer with him about any funeral ar- rangemnents. I told old Dimmah, our faithful nurse to have the body laid omit (lown stairs on the bed in one of the guest-chambers at the front of the house, and said also that I would sit up with it that night. I did this because I felt assured that sleep would not 132 hARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. visit me except by putting myself under the influence of some powerful narcotic, and that I feared to do, for I knew that when it once did come I should be unable to rally my scat- tered forces, and should thereby render my- self useless. Before his daughters death Mr. Archer had telegraphe4 to some rela- tives, who would, I sincerely trusted, arrive the following day, and thus free me from the fearful responsibility I could not now help feeling. Meantime I felt that I must keep awake at all hazards, and my nervous system was so completely alive, and every sense so highly wrought, that a morbid de- sire to watch for the last time by the form of my dear friend took such strong posses- sion of me that I resolved to do so, and told Dinah accordingly. The good old soul de- murred, but finding me determined, content- ed herself with putting some nicely cooked foodher own invariable solacein an ac- cessible place, and then retired to rest in one of the upper rooms. Mr. Archer still remained in his own apartment up stairs in a perfect stupor of grief, so that I was quite alone on the floor below. It was the last day of August, and the air had been of a most heavy, suffocating nature; so that when to- ward evening a violent storm set in, it was really a refreshing change, although it made the utter loneliness of our situation more appalling. As I look back now, I wonder at my cour- age in being willing to spend an entire night alone with the dead; but I had always strong nerves, and was by nature perfectly fearless. The body was laid out, as I said before, in the front-room on one side of the hall. Di- rectly opposite the bed were two windows reaching almost to the ground and opening on the piazza outside. The outer blinds had not been closed, and the inner shades were drawn up, so that I could see the storm raging without. A single candle burned on the centre-table, shedding a ghastly light on all surrounding objects, and especially on the white-sheeted, death- ly quiet figure on the bed. I tried to sit still, but found it impossible in that room, and so walked across the hall to the front- room on the other side, and after lighting a candlethe only one I could findendeav- ored to fix my mind upon a book. But it was in vain, for I was in a state of too in- tense nervous excitement to give attention to any thing requiring mental effort. The old clock in the hall ticked ominously, and struck each passing hour in a loud, mena- cing way. The wick in the candle beside me flickered and fluttered until I saw gloomy shadows in every corner of the room. I could hear the loud beating of my own heart, but no other sound, save the moaning of the wind amidst the trees, and the storm pelt- ing with merciless fury upon the roof of the piazza. Occasionally, as a heavier gust swept by, the doors and windows rattled ominously, and the air about me seemed to grow heavier and more difficult to breathe in. I imagined that I had taken the fever, and tried to feel my pulse; but its beatings, though rapid, were not alarming, and I en- deavored to reason away my nameless fears. I tried to distract myself from the present by recalling the events of our past gayeties, but could recollect nothing vividly except the nights when we told those tales of ter- ror, and with them caine to me the thought of the old farmers prediction about the ghosts appearing in times of sorrow and death. Ah, how little impression it made on us at that timet but now, in this deso- late hour, there was something strangely and terribly weird about it all. I started violently as the old clock tolled out, in solemn gloom, the hour of midnight; and at the same time a heavy gust of wind came against the house, so that the front- door rattled loud and long. My impulse was to rush up stairs and rouse Mr. Archer or old Dinah, but the next moment I was ashamed of such groundless terrors, and tried honestly to drive them away. I then remembered it was more than an hour since I had looked into the next room, and, with more courage than a few moments since I had thought to possess, I walked across the hall. The candle on the table shied its waverin~ li~ht around, and after glancing toward the bed, I was about turn- ing back, when my eyes fell upon the far- thest window, and there I distinctly saw a figure, clothed entirely in white, standing motionless outside, with eyes fastened UI)OIL the bed. While I gazed, horror-stricken and yet fascinated and unable to stir, suddenly another figure, t alter, and clothed also in white, appeared, and fixed its eyes upon the same silent object. As I looked, I saw I)lain- ly and with. frightful distinctness that the first figure was that of an old woman with white hair and ghastly pale face, and that her clothing was all white, while the sec- ond apparition was that of an old man with long, snowy beard, pale face, and attired, like the woman, completely in white. While I stood thus transfixed with ter- ror, and doubting the very evidence of my senses, the figures turned, and fixing their gaze on me, simultaneously made the most mysterious gestures. They pointed first to- ward the bed, then to methemi waved their hands to the right, and then immediately disappeared in the same direction. A mo- ment afterward I heard a violent rattling at the front-door. Then I suddenly seemed to recover the use of my deadened faculties, and I rushed frantically out and held the door with all my strength, altho~~gli I well knew it was securely locked an(l bolted. The rattling at the door ceased in a few moments, and I heard it repeated again at A GHOSTLY VISITATION. 133 the window. I ran back, now fairly roused, anti there, indeed, were the two fi~ures vig- orously endeavoring to raise the sash. The bolt, I remembered, was insecure, an(l I jumped on the window-seat, and with al- most superhuman effort held the window dowu, while the phantom finures tried, with apparent equal energy, to raise it. They l)aused a moment, and then began again their frightful gestures. They pointed first toward the bed, then to me, then waved their hands wildly upward. I now recovered my speech, which had been thus fax utterly paralyzed, and in my loudest, clearest tones I cried out, If you be human, for Gods sake speak to me; if spirits, I conjure you, as you hope for salva- tion, to go away and leave the dead unmo- lested. No word of answer came to my solemn appeal, only more violent gestures than before, accompanied by terrible gri- maces. Suddenly both figures disappeared again in the darkness, and, I hoped, were gone forever; but to my horror I saw they were now at the other window, which they were stealthily trying to raise. Again I hurried to that, anti with my utmost vigor held it down. Once more I appealed most earnestly to the relentless spectres, and in louder tones than before entreated them to give me some sign to show their object in coming thus to haunt us at the dead of night. But there was no reply, only a rep- etition of the same senseless gestures and grimaces, and no sound save the sobbing of the now dying storm. Again the spectral figures disappeared, and the front-door rattled louder than ever, but just as I turned to leave the room a gust of wind blew out the candle, and I was left in the dark. I ran across the hall to the other room, seized the candle burning there, and was hastening back, when that too was suddenly extinguished, and a hor- ror of darkness seemed to fall upon me. With one bound I leaped up the staircase, flew across the hall to Mr. Archers room, flung open the door, and cried, wildly, Come oh! come quickly, if you would save your child! I snatched the candle that burned beside him, and having fairly roused him from his heavy stupor, I rushed down stairs, he following me with equal rapidity. Into the room I sprang, my brain on fire, every nerve on the stretch, and there saw my worst fears realized. One of the windows stood wide open, the figure of the old nian was already in the room, and was now help- ing in that of the ghostly old woman. Wretches! I cried, vehemently, leave us in peace, and know that you will take possession of that dead girls body only by first stepping over ours.~ I then ran violently across to the bed, and placed myself beside it, lookin to Mr. Archer to follow, ~vhen, imagine my terror and amazement at seeing the figure of the old woman fling her arms around his neck and burst into loud sobs, while the spectre of the white-bearded old man seized his hand and wrung it with profound emotion! As I gazed with staring eyes at this singu- lar scene, my brain reeled, the rooni swam around, tIme figures seemed to fade away, and I fell heavily to the floor! * * * * * * When I regained consciousnessnearly two days afterwardI found a kind face bending over me, while a soft, gentle hand smoothed umy brow, although no word was spoken. Diimalm was busied about the room, and when she saw my look of intelligence, gave vent to a loud burst of satisfaction. Dear lamb, she said, we thought youd never know us no more. Ill call the mas- ter. When she left the room, I looked up at the kind old lady, and said, faintly, Where have I seen you before and why are you so kind to me? For answer she smiled and gently stroked my forehead again. In a few moments Mr. Archer caine, looking old and care-worn, but showing by hearty expressions of satisfac- tion his pleasure at my recovery. The fu- neral, he told me, was over, and as soon as I was well enough we should leave time house forever. After a pause, I glanced luquiring- hy at the kind old lady, who was placidly gazing at tIme landscape without, and Mr. Archer said, with a slight smile, You need not be afraid to speak before her; she is deaf and dumb. It is ray aunt, who most kindly started at once with her husband as soon as they received my telegram announ- cing Lauras illness, and were deeply shock- ed to find her dead. And they came that night? I breath- lessly asked. Yes, replied Mr. Archer, gently, and I do not wonder, my poor child, that you thought them uncanny visitors. They can neither of them hear nor speak, and, being Quakers, always mlress in white or light drab- color. They arrived at the station very late that night, and were (iriven over through time storm. The wagon left them at the gate, and as it rained so violently, my aunt put her white skirt over her head, and my uncle tied a lmandkerclmief over his hat, which, of course, added to their ghostly ap- pearance. They first knocked loudly at the front-door, but as no attention was paid, seeing a light through the window, they looked in, amid were greatly shocked to see the white-covered figure on the l)ed. Here Mr. Archer shuddered. Then they espied you, and made signs for you to open the door. As you did not comply with their request, they tried to let themselves in at each window in turn, but you resisted all their efforts with what was to them mnost 134 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. incomprehensible energy. They endeavor- night, and l)leasant dreams, undisturbed by ed by signs to tell you that they had come phantom figures in any shape. for kind purposes, hut all in vain, and they Miss Leniton left us, nmidst loud expres- were finally forced to conclude that you sions of thanks, and then our comments fell were out of your mind, when, fortunately, freely and fast. you called me to the rescue. Thus much So it wasnt a ghost story after all; liii my uncle has told me in sign-langnage, quite disappointed, said Miss Wister. which I understand quite well. And now, But she told it uncommonly well, and my dear child, why did you treat these es- really I becanme quite excited. flow luck p y timable people with such inhospitality I she was ! commented Harry Britton, entha- I then gave Mr. Archer my version of siastically. the story. I told of my earnest appeal to It was as much as I could do to keep the figures to speak, if human, and of my back a loud screani when the figures first forced conclusion that they could be no appeared, I wa.s so wrought up. Its a won- other than the ghosts of the murdered 01(1 der she didnt faint then, said Mrs. Gray. couple said to haunt the house in time of It would have saved her considerable sorrow and death. Of the fact of my friend trouble if she had, responded Miss Wister, having deaf-amid-dumb relatives who were rather maliciously. Quakers I hind never been nmade aware, con- I know I shant sleep a wink to-night, sequently I thought my conduct under time said pretty Grace Arcott, in an aggrieved circumstances excusable. Mr. Archer agreed tone, an(l Im really afraid to go up stairs with me, and promised to explain to his aunt alone. I dont l)retend to have strong and uncle the niotives that immipelled amy cx- nerves. traordinary comluct, which lie did most I~erhaps, chinmed in the clear voice of faithfully, and the 01(1 couple very gener- Bernard Liston, who bad not hiitlmerto ously forgave me. But from freqimemit shakes spoken, you will not all of you entirely of the head and pitying glances that they overlook the coumplete absence of vanity bestowed upon me, I feel comifident they shown by Miss Lemmiton. She tells her story never fully believed him amy sanity. They all as a matter of course, yet it seenis to mime returned shortly afterward to their suburb- that few young girls would dare, as she did, an home, amid I never heard any thing fur- to brave coimtagion, and spend voluntarily ther about them. such a. terribly lommely vigil, and then speak There is little more to tell. The house of it as if it were merely an ordinary every- was sold at a great sacriftce, and, I believe, day sort of thing to do. Miss Lenitoim is a was torn dowum and rebuilt by its present trump, I think, aimd I admire her immeimsely. owimer. Old Dinah receiveul a very liberal Mr. Liston was always noted for his reward for her faithful services, and went straightforwardness, and this open and emim- back to time village, where she doubtless phatie statement of his selitiments was still tells to open-mouthed listeners about most actively and indubitably re-emiforced the ghosts tIme yoimng leddy saw that awful during time imext few (lays. There was no stormy night in time haunted house; for that faimit heart about lUau, and I think that, I did see them was her firm and unshaken froum present appearances, ere the summumer conviction, is over, the fair lady mimay be won, and My young heddy wouldumt ha tunibled Miss Leniton may be iuuduced to become down a-faintin all in a heap if she hadmmt Mrs. Liston, braving tIme old adage about ha seen riml sperm-its, Im sure, she reiterated, changing the naumme, an(l miot the letter. and I could not but feel nratefuml for her Amid may we all be invited to dance at the confidence in me. wedding! Mr. Arelmer soon wemut abroad to live, to ____________________________________________ seek, amidst foreign scenes, (histraction for his grief. Apparently lie foummid it, for I THE ART OF DJNJNG. heard. some tuvo years ago that lie had lIT E are by no meaims time first to ac- wooed amid won a blooming widow for his kumowledge time iveighity claim which bride. Theres muothiug further to say, cx- the above subject has made good upomi an- cept that from that meumorable night niy tiqumity aui(l civihizatioum. Eveim iii these hair assumed its present sober hue, and I later days Owen Meredith has sung melodi- have never since believed iii ghosts on ously iii praise of a dinner, while from omit principle, of time musty past of old English proverbs And now my storys domme, said Miss there issues a voice warning us that tIme Lemmiton, rising. It has been a very long heart of uman lies in time stonmachi! Be this omme, and I thank you all for your kimud at- as it may, it is true that a kind iuiteuit is tention. Remember, Mr. Britten, she add- ofttinmes warped, a geimerons instinct repress- ed, laughing, on time next rainy evening I ed, a merry speech transformed into a biting shall look for you to do your share in time criticism, by that awful American night- eatertaimumnent. Do you know it is really mare, dyspepsia. It is a fact as well knowum very late? and so I will wish you all good- as it is lamentable that the great American

Julie Verplanck Verplanck, Julie The Art of Dining 134-137

134 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. incomprehensible energy. They endeavor- night, and l)leasant dreams, undisturbed by ed by signs to tell you that they had come phantom figures in any shape. for kind purposes, hut all in vain, and they Miss Leniton left us, nmidst loud expres- were finally forced to conclude that you sions of thanks, and then our comments fell were out of your mind, when, fortunately, freely and fast. you called me to the rescue. Thus much So it wasnt a ghost story after all; liii my uncle has told me in sign-langnage, quite disappointed, said Miss Wister. which I understand quite well. And now, But she told it uncommonly well, and my dear child, why did you treat these es- really I becanme quite excited. flow luck p y timable people with such inhospitality I she was ! commented Harry Britton, entha- I then gave Mr. Archer my version of siastically. the story. I told of my earnest appeal to It was as much as I could do to keep the figures to speak, if human, and of my back a loud screani when the figures first forced conclusion that they could be no appeared, I wa.s so wrought up. Its a won- other than the ghosts of the murdered 01(1 der she didnt faint then, said Mrs. Gray. couple said to haunt the house in time of It would have saved her considerable sorrow and death. Of the fact of my friend trouble if she had, responded Miss Wister, having deaf-amid-dumb relatives who were rather maliciously. Quakers I hind never been nmade aware, con- I know I shant sleep a wink to-night, sequently I thought my conduct under time said pretty Grace Arcott, in an aggrieved circumstances excusable. Mr. Archer agreed tone, an(l Im really afraid to go up stairs with me, and promised to explain to his aunt alone. I dont l)retend to have strong and uncle the niotives that immipelled amy cx- nerves. traordinary comluct, which lie did most I~erhaps, chinmed in the clear voice of faithfully, and the 01(1 couple very gener- Bernard Liston, who bad not hiitlmerto ously forgave me. But from freqimemit shakes spoken, you will not all of you entirely of the head and pitying glances that they overlook the coumplete absence of vanity bestowed upon me, I feel comifident they shown by Miss Lemmiton. She tells her story never fully believed him amy sanity. They all as a matter of course, yet it seenis to mime returned shortly afterward to their suburb- that few young girls would dare, as she did, an home, amid I never heard any thing fur- to brave coimtagion, and spend voluntarily ther about them. such a. terribly lommely vigil, and then speak There is little more to tell. The house of it as if it were merely an ordinary every- was sold at a great sacriftce, and, I believe, day sort of thing to do. Miss Lenitoim is a was torn dowum and rebuilt by its present trump, I think, aimd I admire her immeimsely. owimer. Old Dinah receiveul a very liberal Mr. Liston was always noted for his reward for her faithful services, and went straightforwardness, and this open and emim- back to time village, where she doubtless phatie statement of his selitiments was still tells to open-mouthed listeners about most actively and indubitably re-emiforced the ghosts tIme yoimng leddy saw that awful during time imext few (lays. There was no stormy night in time haunted house; for that faimit heart about lUau, and I think that, I did see them was her firm and unshaken froum present appearances, ere the summumer conviction, is over, the fair lady mimay be won, and My young heddy wouldumt ha tunibled Miss Leniton may be iuuduced to become down a-faintin all in a heap if she hadmmt Mrs. Liston, braving tIme old adage about ha seen riml sperm-its, Im sure, she reiterated, changing the naumme, an(l miot the letter. and I could not but feel nratefuml for her Amid may we all be invited to dance at the confidence in me. wedding! Mr. Arelmer soon wemut abroad to live, to ____________________________________________ seek, amidst foreign scenes, (histraction for his grief. Apparently lie foummid it, for I THE ART OF DJNJNG. heard. some tuvo years ago that lie had lIT E are by no meaims time first to ac- wooed amid won a blooming widow for his kumowledge time iveighity claim which bride. Theres muothiug further to say, cx- the above subject has made good upomi an- cept that from that meumorable night niy tiqumity aui(l civihizatioum. Eveim iii these hair assumed its present sober hue, and I later days Owen Meredith has sung melodi- have never since believed iii ghosts on ously iii praise of a dinner, while from omit principle, of time musty past of old English proverbs And now my storys domme, said Miss there issues a voice warning us that tIme Lemmiton, rising. It has been a very long heart of uman lies in time stonmachi! Be this omme, and I thank you all for your kimud at- as it may, it is true that a kind iuiteuit is tention. Remember, Mr. Britten, she add- ofttinmes warped, a geimerons instinct repress- ed, laughing, on time next rainy evening I ed, a merry speech transformed into a biting shall look for you to do your share in time criticism, by that awful American night- eatertaimumnent. Do you know it is really mare, dyspepsia. It is a fact as well knowum very late? and so I will wish you all good- as it is lamentable that the great American THE ART OF DINING. 135 nation does not, as a rule, dine well. To cleverly combine the various elements of a repast so that each successive one shall play upon and harmoniously efface the last, is au art with which we are only just be- coming acquainted. It were curious, even interesting, for a student of his kind to note the effect of climate upon the characteristics of nations in this respect. In Russia, Sweden, and Norway, where prolonged and biting win- ters necessitate action and large supplies of animal heat, meals are frequent and of great duration. Five hearty repasts per diem, among which dinner is the chief one, are the common allowance in those Northern localities. This principal meal is heralded by a cold collation partaken of en route for the dining-room. In a small anteroom the guests pause before a small table spread with articles creative of appetite and thirst, such as redlierring, sardines, caviare, cheeses, sharp pickles, and arrack, the native whisky. Thus stimulated, a much larger repast is made than would otherwise be possible. When this custom, however, is introduced regardless of climatic requirements, it is prone to conduce to sluggishness, as in some parts of Germany. Again, the ~lowin~ moth- er earth and ardent skies of Italy furnish her children with their best preservatives a~ainst their coml)ined intensity of heat. Fruits and salads, succulent, refreshing, cooling, form the national breakfast and the chief staple of other meals, being freely par- taken of with results which might be much less favorable under a cooler sky. Nature, amidst these wondrous adaptations, is not neglectful of the needs of animals, a.s may be brie~y instanced by a Norwegian custom. Within the arctic circle, where the winters are a long twilight, and the high lands so barren that people subsist upon bread made from the tender bark of the birch-tree, the cattle are fed upon dried fish caught in those storied fords, whose waters, the For- tunatus parse of Norway, stretch far inland by dusky forests of pine. We would not be understood as intending to dilate upon the pleasures of the table. Our plea is this: all things may be well or lily done; we may (line badly, just as we may act or work badly, and the three are closely connected. Thus, without treading upon the debatable land of epicureanism, or falling into that Slough of Despond ycleped. gluttony, we desire to set down in order a few well-established rules for the inspection of American housekeepers. We only delay in order to add that the aI)petite may be taught to crave improper food, just as it is susceptible of being trained to do its proper share toward sustaining the phys- ical well-being of man, and even affording him gratification. The purveyors of our rising generation should bear this well in mind. Much more might be said upon this branch of the subject, but it lies beyond the scope of the present article, whose proposed limitations are the general rules of dinner- giving. These rules take as a basis what is really the cosumopohitan dinner, known as the din & hr Purse, in which the courses are handed in rotation to each guest without having been placed upon the table. The quick- witted Russians are the greatest appreci- ators of the sway which imagination has over appetite, both becoming speedily cloyed by the sight of dishes heaped with food cov- ering tIme table. A tastefully adorned board pleases the eye, and such decorations may 1)0 carried to a great extent. Fruit and flowers are always obtainable; fine linemi, glass, and china are almost necessities. In European families, whose china is an heir- loom, graceful figures arc placed along tIme table, sometimes useful (as when holdimm~ baskets with salt, or violets if you will), sometimes merely ornamental. Even hugo vases worth their weight in silver are so I)laced, or flowers growing in S~vres pots, or strawberry plants each with three or four berries, one plant before each guest, as fash- ion dictated for two winters at a certain European court. The chandelier may be hung with flowers, but wax-candles in china or silver candelabra give a richer look to the table, and a softer light as well. A round table is also snore graceful, and tends to make the conversation snore general, and hence more lively. To the personal super- vision of the hostess the guests are most frequently indebted for such graceful sug- gestions of art as are but too rarely seen in tIPs country upon similar occasions. This is chiefly to be deplored, because such ar- tistic treasures challenge attention, and lead the conversatiomi to a higher . and more in- teresting ground than the ordinary chit- chat of the day. The laws governing the repast itself are unalterable as those of the Medes and Per- smans. In countries where oysters abound they may be served before the soup, upon the half shell, with a slice of lemon cut lengthwise, to the number of four (small) upon each plate. These, and small crabs in summer, are alone admissible before the ar- rival of soup, and form the only course placed upon time table, being there when dinner is announced. Souphur view of the many heavy courses to follow, time most elegant soup is a clear bouillon, although richer ones are seen. The better rule appears to be that the repast, be- ginning with an. appetizer, should increase in richness to a certain point, and themmee decline. Such a soup as mock-turtle, for instance, appears too rich between oysters and fish: the appetite should be gradually tempted. 136 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. Fish follows next, anti with it the invari- able boiled potato, mealy and white, au naturel. With salmon, boiled rice is fre- quently used, served as a garnishing. Care should be taken to see that the fish chosen is in season. Entr6es to the number of one or two are de rigue~rr after fish. In serving, the courses should be handed from alternate ends of the table each time. A dinner may be made long or short by adding or retrenching en- tr6es and reler6s, as the lighter dishes are called. The soup and fish should never be omitted. A roast with vegetables follows the first entr6e, and after a second the game course is in order. In this connection it is a mooted point whether to serve currant jel- ly, which harmonizes with the game flavor, or dressed salad, which accentuates, just as many hesitate between contrast and har- inony in dress. Either is in good taste; both iuay be offered; only one should be accepted. The vegetables with game should be very (lelicate ones, so as not to predominate what is considered the finest course. Boiled cel- ery with cream sauce, rice eroquettes, and mushrooms are all suitable, the first being a favorite dish in France. The substantial part of the dinner may end here with one more eutr6e, which at the best tables is fre- quently some vegetable of decided flavor. Among those most used in this way are cau- liflower, artichoke, green pease, macaroni an qratin (baked with cheese). In this connec- tiou it is well to state that olives may be l)assed about between the courses, their pe- culiar flavor renewing the delicacy of the palate, and throwing all others into strong relief. In the cosmopolitan dinner, cheese is the line of demarkation between dinner and dessert, being served after the table has been brushed in preparation for the latter. Black German bread is suitable with strong cheeses, white with more delicate ones, but gentlemen prefer hard crackers. One of these should also be placed at each plate, with the orthodox roll, when the table is set. Dessert usually opens with some hot dish, called in France piat doux, or, if pastry, plat solant. Ices, jellies, m~ringues, etc., etc., fol- low, fruit and nuts being last. When the ladies retire at this juncture, the ucutleluen being left to their wines, coffee is served to the former in the parlor, and to the latter with brandy and liqueurs at the table. This coffee should be without cream. Such is the English innovation (approved in Amer- ica) upon the cosmopolitan dinner. In oth- er countries all the guests leave the table toe, ether, coffee, etc., being served in the drawing-room, after which gentlemen who wish to smoke retire to the library or con- servatory. This is (leemed much better taste, and is so, according to the French and the Swedes, most polite of nations. Occa sionally we see the coffee served at the ta- ble, but this should be confined to informal occasions. We now enter upon the subject of wines, certain of which are assigned to each guest with precision. Thus: With oysters, Sauterne. soup, Madeira or sherry. fish, hock. eutrfe, Claret. It is customary, among those whose means are equal to their taste, to have two clarets a good one for the first entrec, and a smaller supply of very fine (say, Lafitte or Cbs Vougeot) to serve with game. Pro- ceeding, therefore, upon this basis: Roast, Champagne. Relev~, Game, (hest) Claret. Hereafter the guests are offered their choice between the Burgundies and Champagne, until the coffee introduces liqueurs. With but one claret, it may be continued until the game course, when Champagne is served; or, as in England, a fine port may be passed with the roast, anti continued until game and Champagne come on. Claret is the best wine in a small dinner where only one wine is to be offered, and a more liberal in- troduction of the excellent brands of Bur- gundy near the end of a dinner would meet with the approbation of connoisseurs. To- kay is a standard dessert wine in Europe; it is of Hungarian growth, and rarely met with in this country. Chianapagne should be cooled by being laid upon ice, but never l)y putting ice in the glasses, as no one de- sires to mix it with melted snow-water. A refined custom is that of offering Seltzer water with Claainpagne (napkins around both bottles), for at that stage of the din- ner an increasing thirst is apt to require somethaing cold and yet not strong. It is also preferable to see ladies weaken their Champagne. When frapp~ this wine has been kept upon ice and salt until half frozen. Claret should be slightly warmed to remove all crudeness, either by being plunged into warm water or laid in a warm place, and should be nboiat the temperature of a grape in the sun. We knew a genthe~ man, who had gained for himself the sobri- quet of Lucullus, who was so particular upon this qeaestion of temperature as to carry a thermometer to test his wines. Such over- eagerness is only excusable when a host is solicitous about his giaests. Sauterne should be cooled; all other wines are left to them- selves. Vichy water, offered either after the game course or when the ladies have left the roo~~, affords relief to those who may be an- noyed by a light indigestion. At some ta- bles (usually foreign) frozen punch is hand- ed before the game course. This decided diversion renews thae appetite, jiast as some color which has palled upon the eye recov THE SIGN OF THE CROSS. 137 ers all its brightness when one has turned for an instant to another. The above rules are all that can well be given in the space of an article such as this. With regard to sauces, combinations, etc., where a cook has not a discriminating taste, the English edition of Mrs. Beeton and the French Cuisinier des Cuisiniers are the best guides to a housekeeper. We subjoin two menus, which may inter- est and serve as examples. The first is a l)reakfast given by a queen dowager to the Prince and Princess of Wales. Ornaments of rare beauty in S~vres and majolica adorn- ed the table, and the musiciamis were con- cealed behind orange-trees in flower. Windsor soup. Madeira. Fresh salmon garnished with Marcobrunner. raw oysters. Roast beef. Belgian cabbages. ~- Port. Artichokes. ) Chickens in cream. V Veuve Clicquot. Mushrooms. Pheasants breads. with sweet- } Lafitte. French pease. } Harlequin ices. Tokay. Cakes. Caf3 noir. Liqueurs. The second menu, of a private American dinner, is selected from a mass of such for its dainty excellence, to point our moral and adorn our tale. It is dated April, 1871. Chevalier Montrachet. Chltean Yquem, 1S64. Frozen oysters. Soup S Ia reine. Salmon with lobster sauce. Tenderloin with mush- Sillery, dry, 1867. rooms. Green pease. Tomatoes. Potatoes. Sparkling Sharzberg, 1867. English snipe, larded. Chambertin, 1864. Sarato~a potatoes. Dressed terrapin. V Joharnisber~ 1801 Lobster salad. Roquefort cheese. Port, 1825. Frozen coffee. Cakes, fruit, cigars, and Chartreuse, 1864. Black coffee. It will be seen at a glance that this is an orP4nal menu, and contrary to usnal ens- toins. Only those who pO55~55 oh wines and are accurate judges of their respective flavors can combine them in unusual order with the courses, as above. In conclusion, we would remind our house- keepers that in connection witla the art of dining is another art upon which this first, as well as many others, is dependent for suc- cess. This is the art of self-forgetfulness. She wlao in planning her dinner has before her mental vision a high moral standard, a perception of the beautiful, a desire to l)lease and interest her guests, she who will put on smiles which are truly cordial and wislacs which are sincere to receive them us she puts on her laces and flowers, will indeed be the most desired hostess and the most perfectly accomplished lady. THE SIGN OF THE CROSS. ~ ~arrathie ~ece. (LIEUTENANT SELFRIDGES EXPLORING EXPEDITION, CENTRAL AMERICA, 1869.) I. LEAVING our ships in the bay, We advanced (clearing our pathway day hy day) Far throngli the forests and jungles of Central America. II. In time (twas toward night-fall), After a long days journey, A day of toil and danger, of hope and forlorn hopes, We reached a savannah, And in the distance saw signs of life and of man. III. Onr coming stilTed a gronp of Indians, The ancient red native, wild and naked, Who never yet had seen the white mans face, Who knew not of hais ways or power: The white man, whose mysterious apparition Raised wonder, if not fear. Iv. The group advanced to meet us: With it one who looked the chief, proud though a savage.

John Swinton Swinton, John The Sign of the Cross 137-139

THE SIGN OF THE CROSS. 137 ers all its brightness when one has turned for an instant to another. The above rules are all that can well be given in the space of an article such as this. With regard to sauces, combinations, etc., where a cook has not a discriminating taste, the English edition of Mrs. Beeton and the French Cuisinier des Cuisiniers are the best guides to a housekeeper. We subjoin two menus, which may inter- est and serve as examples. The first is a l)reakfast given by a queen dowager to the Prince and Princess of Wales. Ornaments of rare beauty in S~vres and majolica adorn- ed the table, and the musiciamis were con- cealed behind orange-trees in flower. Windsor soup. Madeira. Fresh salmon garnished with Marcobrunner. raw oysters. Roast beef. Belgian cabbages. ~- Port. Artichokes. ) Chickens in cream. V Veuve Clicquot. Mushrooms. Pheasants breads. with sweet- } Lafitte. French pease. } Harlequin ices. Tokay. Cakes. Caf3 noir. Liqueurs. The second menu, of a private American dinner, is selected from a mass of such for its dainty excellence, to point our moral and adorn our tale. It is dated April, 1871. Chevalier Montrachet. Chltean Yquem, 1S64. Frozen oysters. Soup S Ia reine. Salmon with lobster sauce. Tenderloin with mush- Sillery, dry, 1867. rooms. Green pease. Tomatoes. Potatoes. Sparkling Sharzberg, 1867. English snipe, larded. Chambertin, 1864. Sarato~a potatoes. Dressed terrapin. V Joharnisber~ 1801 Lobster salad. Roquefort cheese. Port, 1825. Frozen coffee. Cakes, fruit, cigars, and Chartreuse, 1864. Black coffee. It will be seen at a glance that this is an orP4nal menu, and contrary to usnal ens- toins. Only those who pO55~55 oh wines and are accurate judges of their respective flavors can combine them in unusual order with the courses, as above. In conclusion, we would remind our house- keepers that in connection witla the art of dining is another art upon which this first, as well as many others, is dependent for suc- cess. This is the art of self-forgetfulness. She wlao in planning her dinner has before her mental vision a high moral standard, a perception of the beautiful, a desire to l)lease and interest her guests, she who will put on smiles which are truly cordial and wislacs which are sincere to receive them us she puts on her laces and flowers, will indeed be the most desired hostess and the most perfectly accomplished lady. THE SIGN OF THE CROSS. ~ ~arrathie ~ece. (LIEUTENANT SELFRIDGES EXPLORING EXPEDITION, CENTRAL AMERICA, 1869.) I. LEAVING our ships in the bay, We advanced (clearing our pathway day hy day) Far throngli the forests and jungles of Central America. II. In time (twas toward night-fall), After a long days journey, A day of toil and danger, of hope and forlorn hopes, We reached a savannah, And in the distance saw signs of life and of man. III. Onr coming stilTed a gronp of Indians, The ancient red native, wild and naked, Who never yet had seen the white mans face, Who knew not of hais ways or power: The white man, whose mysterious apparition Raised wonder, if not fear. Iv. The group advanced to meet us: With it one who looked the chief, proud though a savage. 138 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. V. As we drew near, he led his side, I mine, Each gazing forward with keen inquest, To see if the intent were hostile, To discern the nature, each of each, the spirit and the purpose. VL He bore his war weaponsspear, and bow and arrows; From his head rose feathers; Battle-scarred were his face and breast (seen through our glass). We to him were strange, bearded and white. VIL Now, when within due range of visible si~nal He halted, doubtful, wary, Looked toward us, and then, with questioning mien, He made the SIGN OF TIlE Ciloss. VIII. The SIGN OF THE CROSS: Raising aloft his warlike spear and bow, And crossing his bow upon his spear. Ix. Discerning quickly his inquiry, The like sign for rel)ly I gave Crossing two bamboo canes at hand. x. Now, hastening forward, he loftily saluted us, Accepting this high sign As proof of friendship, brotherhood, humanity. XI. He led. us to his tents, Where we were feasted on strange game and fruits; And after being guarded through the night, On the morrow were sped upon oar way. XII. This savage chief had never known of Christ, The Child of Bethlehem, the Man of Calvary, The Son of God who sits at Gods right hamm(l; I-Ic knew not of redemption through the CIloss, Of everlasting life through Christs hearts hioo.l He worshiped unknown gods in Cloud or Sun. XIII. But some way, From some other age, some dim tradition, He had learned the Cross Was sign of amity, of peace. Thus, by TillS SIGN, our lives were saved. XIV. And as the Cross revealed new mystic powers, Displayed its life to savage as to saint, To Heaven I raised acclaim: XV. O wondrous Cross of Calvary! O symbol high and great! Eternal Cross! of universal love the sign! Mans hope in life, Lifes hope beyond the skies! JOHN SwINTON. As the holiday season returns, the old look back as curiously as the young b~k for- ward, and how many of utir more ancient read- ers will recall, as they turn over tl)e mabnificent gift books of this veat, the modest little Anun ds and Tokens and Souvenirs of the days ~vhen they ~vent gypsving There is somethin~ very delicate and innocent in the name Annu- als, ~vhich was given to those little books, for it suggests an evanescence which they illustrated, the life of a day or of a season. 1Io~v brief their bloom ~vas ilow feebly dainty they ~vere And yet some of the perennial flowers of our lit- erature first opened in that fleeting guise. Ihere lately fell into the hands of the Easy Chair one of these firstlings of holiday literary gifts. how many of them are lying at this moment in secret dravers, sacred relics of youth and love and hope and all the gay promise of sprin~! jo how many venerable grandmothers do they not recall The songs of maids heneath the moon, With fairy laughter hient, ~vhen they were the youngest and merriest of all! It is not possible that any copy of The At- lantic Souvenir for 1826 can be more carefully l)meserved or have retained more of its original freshness than that which serves as the text of this little discourse, and ~vhich was given by a young husband to his young wife fifty years ago. It is contained in a pale straw-colored case, upon which is pasted a copy of the engraved outer titlepage, and upon this, in a firm, handsome hand, is written the affectionate inscription to the ~vife. 1he leciotis little book is drawn front the case by a 1001) of green silk, and when it appears it is a daintylooking volume, and upon the side of the cover, which is of a delicate green color, is the engraved title, with floa:ing lines, Atlantic Souvenir furl 826. Philadelphia: l)ublislte~l by II. C. Carey and I. Lea, and a de- sign of four of the Muses addressing a sitting Minerva while the other outer side of the cover shows an imperial Juno. It is evidently a book intended to be, as a certain author said of his lit- tle stor~, pleasing to God and entertaining to the ladies. But the pretty and elegant green cover opens unfortunately lih)Ofl a paper whuich is poor aud thin, and a print which is too suggest- ive of the newspaper. The binding, too, is de- fective, hut we hasten to the l)reftce. Ihe publishers of the present volume, it says, h)reseimt to the public a work which, ud though on a plan by muo means novel in other countries, has never yet been introduced among us. Nothing would seem more naturally to sug- gest itself as one of those marks of remembrance und affection which old custom has associated with the gayety of Christmas than a little volume of lighter literature, adorned with beautiful spec- imens of art. rho preface proceeds to inform us that such a volume has been hon~ known upon the continent of Europe, and that the shops of Germany and France nl)ound ~vith them every winter. In London the same design has 1)een adopted with no less approbation. It remains to be seen if it ~vihl be approved in Amem-ica; and while it would be unbecoming (such was the simplicity of tIme trade half a century ago!) fur tIme publishers to remark upon the contributions which they have received, yet they may be al- lowed to mention that every article is the prodmic tion of 0111. omvn citizens, several of thiema already highihy distinguished in this and foreigmi cotmutries ho their ~vritings, and embracimig among othmers tlme names of Pauldiug, Bryamint, Barker, Sedg ~vick, and Waln. Not does the prethce onmit a good ~voi-d for time embellishments, sayimi,,, ~vitlm modest complacency, It is believed that some of the designs will lint injure the relmuta lion ~vhuich an American paiimter ins attaiiied in the academies of Europe. Ihis is aim udhmsiomt to Leslie, from whose ~vorks the Souvenir con taimins two or three most lamentable engravings. The little book has three hundred and fifty- three pages, and tventy four commtribrmtiomms in prose amid rem-se. Ihie first of them is a tale ~vithu a title of momauitic promise, TIme Eve of St. Johim; or, thie Om-acle of tIme Secret Water. it is a story of Gi-eece and Iurkey, as becuime the iimterest of the time. [linen commues Ihue l)meamn. Inscribed to Miss * * ~~ lIme name of ~mlmat famotms belle and fairest fair is lost forever in that tt-il)le asterisk! Yet what reader, and especially ~~hiat editor, does miot recognize tIme strain thimut follows? Whinat a vast amid ever-sivellimna stream of this molasses and wuttem has beeum floivimng. is fiowin ~, and, unless pe~ give out, will comitiimmie to flow ! What comtbrt it gives to thue ~vould of Tmippeu-! Still was the umiglut, and not a sound Save murmurs from time patterimug rain Broke the sweet cumlmn that breathed around, And lmuslud the hummuming haumits of men. Twas mimlniglmtsacrcd to time soul, To soothimig thoughts, to dreams of love When emudless visions brightly roll, Amud fancy decks time joys stun wove. Time dream is of a Qumeen of Beaumly nvliom vari- ous lovers woo. Ihme first sings: Know, sweet maiden, that for then India pours its cemuselese treasnure; Riches have 110 bommmuds for mae: Take the gift, and live tim pleasure. Time second simings: Blesed with time noble blood of gallant sires, Amid stamupd with honor by patrician birth, He, of long line of ancestry, asl)irrs jo woo thy virtues to huts muotfie hearth. rIme third sings: Then say not time offerin_ of sommh can not move thee, That nature simumli l)eim(l to time triumph of art Simmeerity soars omu its minions to love thee, And hmahlows time riches that flow fromn time heart. It would be mueme crumelty not to reveal tIme (IC cisiomi of this (Iream-scen Portia. As this last lovers soming eminded, no sound ~vas heard in tIme crowd, But every ear, enraptured, caught Time ehoquemmce of honest thuoughut. A ~vai-mer smile thman tIme climhhles of the maid hmati ever known, a sweeter glance, a rosier bloom, and muichi else, spoke to ntmnmber three more rapt mires thumun ever did fond lover sip From dearest womans coral lip.

Editor's Easy Chair Editor's Easy Chair 139-144

As the holiday season returns, the old look back as curiously as the young b~k for- ward, and how many of utir more ancient read- ers will recall, as they turn over tl)e mabnificent gift books of this veat, the modest little Anun ds and Tokens and Souvenirs of the days ~vhen they ~vent gypsving There is somethin~ very delicate and innocent in the name Annu- als, ~vhich was given to those little books, for it suggests an evanescence which they illustrated, the life of a day or of a season. 1Io~v brief their bloom ~vas ilow feebly dainty they ~vere And yet some of the perennial flowers of our lit- erature first opened in that fleeting guise. Ihere lately fell into the hands of the Easy Chair one of these firstlings of holiday literary gifts. how many of them are lying at this moment in secret dravers, sacred relics of youth and love and hope and all the gay promise of sprin~! jo how many venerable grandmothers do they not recall The songs of maids heneath the moon, With fairy laughter hient, ~vhen they were the youngest and merriest of all! It is not possible that any copy of The At- lantic Souvenir for 1826 can be more carefully l)meserved or have retained more of its original freshness than that which serves as the text of this little discourse, and ~vhich was given by a young husband to his young wife fifty years ago. It is contained in a pale straw-colored case, upon which is pasted a copy of the engraved outer titlepage, and upon this, in a firm, handsome hand, is written the affectionate inscription to the ~vife. 1he leciotis little book is drawn front the case by a 1001) of green silk, and when it appears it is a daintylooking volume, and upon the side of the cover, which is of a delicate green color, is the engraved title, with floa:ing lines, Atlantic Souvenir furl 826. Philadelphia: l)ublislte~l by II. C. Carey and I. Lea, and a de- sign of four of the Muses addressing a sitting Minerva while the other outer side of the cover shows an imperial Juno. It is evidently a book intended to be, as a certain author said of his lit- tle stor~, pleasing to God and entertaining to the ladies. But the pretty and elegant green cover opens unfortunately lih)Ofl a paper whuich is poor aud thin, and a print which is too suggest- ive of the newspaper. The binding, too, is de- fective, hut we hasten to the l)reftce. Ihe publishers of the present volume, it says, h)reseimt to the public a work which, ud though on a plan by muo means novel in other countries, has never yet been introduced among us. Nothing would seem more naturally to sug- gest itself as one of those marks of remembrance und affection which old custom has associated with the gayety of Christmas than a little volume of lighter literature, adorned with beautiful spec- imens of art. rho preface proceeds to inform us that such a volume has been hon~ known upon the continent of Europe, and that the shops of Germany and France nl)ound ~vith them every winter. In London the same design has 1)een adopted with no less approbation. It remains to be seen if it ~vihl be approved in Amem-ica; and while it would be unbecoming (such was the simplicity of tIme trade half a century ago!) fur tIme publishers to remark upon the contributions which they have received, yet they may be al- lowed to mention that every article is the prodmic tion of 0111. omvn citizens, several of thiema already highihy distinguished in this and foreigmi cotmutries ho their ~vritings, and embracimig among othmers tlme names of Pauldiug, Bryamint, Barker, Sedg ~vick, and Waln. Not does the prethce onmit a good ~voi-d for time embellishments, sayimi,,, ~vitlm modest complacency, It is believed that some of the designs will lint injure the relmuta lion ~vhuich an American paiimter ins attaiiied in the academies of Europe. Ihis is aim udhmsiomt to Leslie, from whose ~vorks the Souvenir con taimins two or three most lamentable engravings. The little book has three hundred and fifty- three pages, and tventy four commtribrmtiomms in prose amid rem-se. Ihie first of them is a tale ~vithu a title of momauitic promise, TIme Eve of St. Johim; or, thie Om-acle of tIme Secret Water. it is a story of Gi-eece and Iurkey, as becuime the iimterest of the time. [linen commues Ihue l)meamn. Inscribed to Miss * * ~~ lIme name of ~mlmat famotms belle and fairest fair is lost forever in that tt-il)le asterisk! Yet what reader, and especially ~~hiat editor, does miot recognize tIme strain thimut follows? Whinat a vast amid ever-sivellimna stream of this molasses and wuttem has beeum floivimng. is fiowin ~, and, unless pe~ give out, will comitiimmie to flow ! What comtbrt it gives to thue ~vould of Tmippeu-! Still was the umiglut, and not a sound Save murmurs from time patterimug rain Broke the sweet cumlmn that breathed around, And lmuslud the hummuming haumits of men. Twas mimlniglmtsacrcd to time soul, To soothimig thoughts, to dreams of love When emudless visions brightly roll, Amud fancy decks time joys stun wove. Time dream is of a Qumeen of Beaumly nvliom vari- ous lovers woo. Ihme first sings: Know, sweet maiden, that for then India pours its cemuselese treasnure; Riches have 110 bommmuds for mae: Take the gift, and live tim pleasure. Time second simings: Blesed with time noble blood of gallant sires, Amid stamupd with honor by patrician birth, He, of long line of ancestry, asl)irrs jo woo thy virtues to huts muotfie hearth. rIme third sings: Then say not time offerin_ of sommh can not move thee, That nature simumli l)eim(l to time triumph of art Simmeerity soars omu its minions to love thee, And hmahlows time riches that flow fromn time heart. It would be mueme crumelty not to reveal tIme (IC cisiomi of this (Iream-scen Portia. As this last lovers soming eminded, no sound ~vas heard in tIme crowd, But every ear, enraptured, caught Time ehoquemmce of honest thuoughut. A ~vai-mer smile thman tIme climhhles of the maid hmati ever known, a sweeter glance, a rosier bloom, and muichi else, spoke to ntmnmber three more rapt mires thumun ever did fond lover sip From dearest womans coral lip. 140 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. Then a lily hand was outstretched, which he morning by the young females who daily visited sprang to grasp, and so, the spot. But intense grief had made an hn With downcast eye and throbbing breast pression never to be eradicated. his noble mind She bade the rich in love be blest. was l)rostrated, and he became a wanderer of the valley, with a heart as simple and innocent There are many tales in prose, two of which as a babes. Colonel Lametlie, in passing from are AtnericanA Revolutionary Storx~, and a one island to another in a small boat, ~vas ~vreck- Tale of Mystery. 1his last is designed to open ed, and every sotd perished. ~vmmhs brmsk humor, and begins, so to speak, ~vit1m Such vere the literary deliglmts of our parents a meaning wink. One fine day in the merry at the holiday season. Aud the embellish- month of Jtinethe May of our lagging North- ments are equally stimulating. There is a view era climatethe gallant steamboat Chancellor of Paris from P~me la Chaise which is as faith- Kent ~vas gayly wafting a cargo of live stock up ful to nature as the exclamations of Charless the stream of the majestic Hudson Ihe boat flither, and a picture of the Falls of Montmorenci was fitlh of people, who, excel)t titat they belong which wottid have satisfied Cecilia in the 1ale ed all to the sovereign genus, man, consisted of of Mystery. There is Rebecca in the prison at almost as gleat a variety in physiognomy and hem hJhestomve, of ~vhmich the accomupanying text ah)pearance as the freight of Noahs ark. Some says, This beautifmml illmistratioms of one of thie of titese were deeply engaged in poling ovem~, fittest incidents of modetn romance is now for amidst time gatitering shades of twilight, those thte first time presented to the public. No ~von micep newspaper speetmhations whmich wommid doubt der that the hemmmplar immured iter in pure me less make people mucim wiser than they are if veuge for Itaving thmouglmt hint lovely. And theme iltey did not till differ from each other, and not is also Bertha. This is mite heroine of time unfrequenthy from themselves some were as Waldatetten: a Swiss hale, and these ate the deeply engaged imi discmmssing thin hresidentimml words which time artist has chosen to embellish: qmtestion, for that awftml crisis had not then hap Many a timne, when the air was more than mmsu ply passed soman smoking at thin bo~vs, some ally maild, maighit site be seen pensively seated at tippling a little, and some buried in the semiti- the open lattice, as time moon, whit lovely and muental luxuries and high-seasoned antics of Don majestic step, stole along the heavemis, and tipped Jean. hhmese Inst were principally romantic ~vithm ethereal silver time summits of thin groves, young ladies, enthusiastically fond of the beau- amid pouted her soft flood of light omi hill and ties of nature, which they alivays study in noy dale arotmud. Ihe Somueaim- was plainly meant, ehs. There was like~vise a store of fashionable as we said, not only to be pleasimig to time high young gentlemen, whioni it is quite impossible to em po~vers, bitt enmertainimig to time ladies. Amid class under amiy head but that of the people ~vhmo ~vere timey emitertaitmed, time yommmm~ lovers and pam- were doing miothming. They yawned frequently, emits of fifty yeats ago? amid did they haze upon ~vimich is all that can be said of the muatter. this dreadftml Bertima ~vithm rapture, and agree that hhse mystery is that of a young man at Sara thin design wommld not injmmme thin meputatiomi which toga, who seemns to a semitimemital youn,~ woman thme American paimiter hind acquimed in thin acad- to be so unhappy amid romantic that lie mmmst cer ninnies of Ritrope? Above all, did they smmspect, tainly be Lord Byron, aud after mmmcli moonlight as they tmmrned these modest pages, and hmmmig and fittling tmpon the lake, lie titrus omit to be over time fomtmmnes of hhe Spanish Gui of thin Mr. Jacob Stump, of Dogs Misery. The ammthmor Comdihheras, or A Legend of thin Forest, that had evidetitly read Irvimi gs Stommt Gentleman, time little poem called Jimmie would be known amid had heard, perhaps, of Lambs AIr. H , fifty years hater as one of thin sweetest strains in and remembemed them. Thin hmmmmor throughout American literature? is as sprighihy as that of time opemming. Fom~ among all thin tales and verses and em A Revoltmmiomiary Story is of this kind : behhishments thimit make us feel, as we ionic at Kind Ileaveti, lie exclaimed, ins imiterposed them amid smile, as if ommr foteruttimmems of that to save us froma impenditig deatit ; amid lie piess timne ~~eme boys amid girls at a motnantic boamding ed thin semisehess girl to his breast, ~vhiile lie ad school, we tmmrn thin sixty-foutthi page and limid dressed a thammksgivin~ to thin Disttibutor of all Biva mits benittiftil poem, thiemi, we presume, for good. Here, also, is an unusual study of 01(1 thin flmst time pmimmted. It is without a sigmiatmmre, Continental times amid manners, ~vith a nice de- yet its tone is so simple and pmmre mind nianhy, its ramigement of eiuitaphs amid a choiceness of Ian- patimos so restmained and trite, that if thin young gmta~e that wommid have chiammed Mts. Malaptop: ~vife to whom this copy of time Atlantic Soacenir Somne fleetimig momiths took their witmged course ~~as givemi hind mtmsic itt bet soul, it must instantly to thin goal of time, when Charles, omi his return have responded to this atmaimi fiom a visit to his old fiiend, was suddemilv call- ed imito thin hibinry of his fathiet. Faithless, I know, I ktiow, I should mint see he exelaimeml, has not thy fa The sensomis glorious staimi, umnivorthi box, Nor would its brightinmess slime for me, thems cup been bittet enomigh bmmt that thou mtmst Nor its wild music flow; add more nauseous drugs to it? hiast thou ever But if aroummid my place of sleep Time friemids I love should conic to weep, emitertained a hope that Sohihmia Lamethie shah rhey mni~tit tint haste to go: be thy bride? If so, that hope mtmst instantly Soft airs amid song amid ti~ht atid bloom un mesigned. While tiiy fmuther lives it can never Should keep theta limigeriug by my toumib. be. Remiounce such an idea imom thus moment, These to their softened hearts should bear or leave my plesence forever. Sophtia at inst Tha thought of what has beemi, shies in Fmimichtal. Charles, far fiom memmoumucimig And spenic of one who cami imot share thin idea, pitrammes hem thithmem. lie finds butt her The gladness of the scene; lie thmmows himself upon the giottuid, Whose part iii alt the pomp that fills gmave. The circuit of thin sumnimner hilts overcoame by his feehimigs, and ~vas fotmad next Isthat his grave is greemi. EDITORS EASY CHAIR. 141 Bryant was then thirty years old, but his Muse was already mature, lie contributed to the Souvenir, besides th~ June, the two familiar poems, Oh, & irest of the rural maids, and I broke the spell that held me long, The dear, dear witchery of song, so that when ~ve have done smiling at the amusing ~~ant of humor in the humorous sketches, and our hearts have thrilled to the utmost with the woes of Charles Boyd and Sop hia Lamethe, we must be truly grateful to the modest and pretty little Atlantic Souvenir for 1826 for admitting us to the first appearance of these delightful verses. And as we go through the sl)lendid shops of to-day and examine the treasures of every kind ~vhiich are piled ill) to tempt holiday generosity, we may bravely challenge gilded hook and opulent maga- zine to show anonymous poems superior to those which, after all the patronizin~ affability of mod- ern times toward the Annuals, the Atlantic Sonvenir for 1826 contains. THE other day a friend, anxious lest the Easy Chair in its bnsy conteml)lation of the minor morals should forget some of the major, said, with great earnestness, that no man should now omit to attend to his political duties, because the issues were now sim~)ly between honest and dis- honest men. And lie read ~vith animation an article in a newspaper which declared the great question to be whether we should have honest men or thieves in office. The Easy Chair was at the moment engaged in studying a plan of the great Centennial buildings for the Exhibition of next year, and meditating upon the glories of our national achievements as it smiled at the effete despotisms ~vhich would gaze in dumb despair up~u the accumulated evidences of our greatness and goodness which we have invited the wholc world to admire and emulate. But this abrupt announcement that the great political question of the Centennial year was ~vhether we should ha governed by honest folks or thie~ves was a little startling and humihiatin~. Is that the result of a hundred years of popular self- government ? it asked its friend. If a man should recommend a clerk to a mer- chant by telling 1dm that the chief excellence of the friend ~vhiom he commended ~vas that lie would not forge the merchants name, or an en- gineer should offer as his credentials trustuvor- thy evidence that he would not steal, or a car- penter should be l)ressed upoti a man about to build a house because lie was miot a pickpocket all these suggestions would be thought excellent fooling. But an employer ~vonld fall into very gm-ave thinking if, ~vhen he said that lie wanted men competeiit to do his work, he should be told that that ~vas a secoudai-y consideration to the question ~vhiet~ier they would steal. lie ~vould probably come out of his thinking to re- mark that if he had come into a community of sharpers, lie vould go elsewhere and find people uvho were at least and of course honest. A man may- ~vell be aghast if he is told that die inipor taut poimit in voting for a judge is to be sure to find one who will not be bribed, and that in call- ing a physician the essential question is not if lie can cure, but whether he will poison. If a hundred years have brought mis, in casting about for officers and magisti-ates of every kind, to as- sume that only very great care can secure com mon honesti, and that if we elect to office men ~vhio will not forge, or steal, or commit burglary, or set flue to houses, ~ve ought to rejoice amid celebrate the great victory, ivhmat have we invited all mamikimid to come and look at? if ~ve shouv them great brmildimmgs, is there no fear that they may discover them to be monu- ments of great rascality and jobbemy? If we heap up imuventions and machines of every kind, if we display tIme exquisite fineness and elaborum tion of our unammufactures, magnif~ the mesults of oumm- immdumstm-y, carry them do~vu into the mines, whirl them from sea to sea upon a cloud of va- por, unroll oni- dazzling statistics, and challenge the universe to shmo~v so mnmmcb done in so little time, is theme no dangerif the issue be ~~hat we are toldthat the ~vorld may admuire and ap- plaud, and agree that such mowers and meapems and tedders and sowers, such cloths and silver and copper and coal, smuch notions and kumick- knacks and comfouts amid conveniences and lux- ummies, such school-houses amid sleeping cam-s amid North River steamboats, ~vere never known, amid am-c evidently the best of their kimid, and thuemi ask, since the things are so excellent, ho~v about the people? an(l ame they as imitelhigent amid, above all, honest as ~vith such aduantages they naturally ought to be? Wouldnt it be auvkuvam-d to have to reply that, siunultaneously with the ma~miiflcemmt results of machiiuiemy amid eutem-pi-ise and inventive genius which we had the pleasure to pi-esent to tIme umiivei-se, we ~vere emugaged in a ti-emendous stung- gle to fill our pumbhic offices with mema who would miot steal? If that be the fact, them-c seems to be a good opportunity for humility as ivell as comi- gi-atulation. If our l)ohitics have become mamum- hy ami effoit to secumue hiomiesty imi office, it is something of ivluich we ought to be thoromughily ashamed. Yet there is no doubt that it is laugely true. In his eumlogy upon Mr. Seivuird befome the Le~islatmum-e of New Yom-k, Mm-. Chmam-hes Em-amucis Adams said Our fom-efathiers ivotuld marvel comuld they imn agimie it possible for me to claim credit for Mr. Seuvaid on the scome of his hiomiesty as a public man. Yet the time has come when ive mmmst honor one who never bought mior sold a vote or a pluice, and who miever permitted mis pumbhic mine- tioa to be contamimiated ima the atmoshihieme of coruom-ation infimuemice. No one can demiy it, amid the omie chief comutrihutiomi that we can bring to the Centennial Exhibition is time mesolution that it shall be tumme no lomuger. At tIme end of omum centumy we mnumst begin again at the beginning, amid take care to secumme u-hat ouught to be takemi fou gm-amited. It is thim-ty years simice a ivise amid sememme obsem-ver of Americummi life said, imi words whose melancholy music appeals to every noble heart Who that sees the meanness of oumr pol- itics bmmt imuly cougi-atuhates Washington thmat lie is long ahi-eady wi-mupped imi his shroud, and fom ever safe ; that he was hmuid sweet in his gm-ni-c, the hope of hmmumanity not yet suibjuigated in Imini ? Amiul if now, after a hundred years, we adduess nuim-selves to mevive that hope by a contest mint for lofty ability in affuuims, not to shininy that imm a free govemumemut the best am-c of miecessity the most honored and most trusted as pumbhic headers, but to puove that by a mighty detemmination amiul gemmemal co-opematiomi it is possible mint to choose thici-es foi otir rulers, we do uvhumut is hulainly nec essamy to save oumi national life and honor, but 142 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. also something to ~vhich it is not wise loudly to call public attention. THERE is an annual ~vail for the Italian opera in Nev Yoik, as if it ~vere some celestial boon denied by a cruel destiny. Yet the Italian opera is always a lamentable failure, and by the ne- cessity of the case its presentation has all the disadvanta~es and crudities of an occasional en- terprise instead of the satisfactory case of an es- tablished instittition. Indeed, it has every where something of the frail air of an exotic. It re- quires so great an otitlay of money and the har- monizing of such infinite discords that it exists only as a luxury and by the subsidies of aristo- cratic governments. The enthusiasm for a fe- vorite singer is so overpowering, and her audi- ences so stiie, that every manager fears to lose his chance by the high otter of his rivals, so that the singers demand the most extrava~ant sums, and they are allowed. This may be endured when the state pays the hills, but ~vhen the man ager depends upon his receipts from the Iliblic, his conduct must be re~ulated by the size of theatres and halls aud the prices that people are willing to pay. In this country, moreover, a certain Puritan cast of civilization must be con- sidered. The hostility to the playlouse ~vhich was brought over by the most powerful element in the original settlement has long survived, and is still strong. Every manager sees also that the most tri- umphant musical career in the history of the country, that of Jenuy Lind, was ~~holly of the concert hall, and not of the opera-hotise. There ~vas the least trouble and risk, with the itiost profit. It is very much more agreeable to a manager to have charge of the voice of one per- son only than to have an operahouse ~vith cho- ruses, orchestras, and the army of necessary as- sistants, and the complex cares and alarms ~vhich belong to them. And ~vhatever the theory may be, the fact is conclusive. The Italian opera of recent times really begtsn in the old theatre in Chambers Street, that was afterward Burtons, an(l was lately the United States Marshals office. From Chambers Street it went tip town to Astor 1~lace and the belli giorai of Truffi an(l l3eiie- (letti. Thence to Fourteenth Street atid the 01(1 house which ~vas burned, and followed by the present Academy. But in these sl)acious and sIlendid quarters it has never been what it ~xas in its modester days of Chambers Street and Astor Place. Company after company, singer after singer, have lassed across the stage, and all have left the feeling that the Italian opera was a mere fugitive, dwelling in the tent of a night. And this impression is now amply confirmed by testimony from behind the scenes and from the box-office. Mr. Max Strakoseb, one of those gentlemen whom Heaven raises up from time to time to bring famous singers to this country, has this year introduced to America one of the most justly celebrated of the great living singers, Ma- (lame Titiens. She is not in the early bloom of life, as Jenny Liud was, but her voice is still ad- mirable and her art is superb. Her chief renown is un(lolihtedly that of a dramatic or, as the phrase is, lyrical artist. But her great vocal power and accomplishment make her equal to any occasion; and if the hearer thinks how fine she wotild be in Semiramide, it is not because she does not sing In verdure clad inconiparably. Some of the papers, however, said, What a pity ! Ihev suggested that here was a po~ver ttiat could dra~v a ship, merely pariiig Ru apple. Here is a prima donna, a (:antatrice, a tragedienae, a lyrical ar- tiste, ~vho can do ~vhat no living sinner can rival, and ~ve have her, they exclaimed, with anguish, only in concerts, only warbling pleasant mnelo dies! Is, then, the Italian opeia gone forever? Is there no hope? () Italian opera, vi ravciso, return, return Thereul)otu Mr. Max Strakosch, so to speak, took the platform and made an exceedingly ener- getic speech, and directly to the point. The general desire in New York of the establish ment of opera on a permanent basisto use the sanctified and technical phraseI believe to be all gammon and moonshine, so munch so as to h)artake of the nature of an unmeanimug expres~ sion. having studied the history of opera in Ne~v York for the past t~venty-five years, and having in addition sadly reflected upon my owiu exl)erieiice in the same hue, I venture the opin- ion that the peol)le of New York do not consider opera a necessity, aiid have never shown a true desire for that oral luxury lie does not rest on general assertions, but marshals his evidence solidly. Mr. Max Maretzek has couustantlv lost in ~e~v York, it appears, the fortuites that lie made in Mexico and Havana, and is no~v reduced to the necessity of giving siuugiiug lessoius. Mr. Maurice Strakosehi, the elder brother, after a gal lan t suxuiggle to establish the muchdesired opera in New York, fled, almost ruined, to Europe, amid succeeded very differently there by his ability. Mr. UlIman, another of the early mar tyrs, was forced to quit America in destitute circumstances, and has made an independent fortune in Europe huy merely jobbing in oper- nile matters. Anti Mr. Strakoseht himself, as lie adds, has made a fortune iii concerts ivhich hue has lost iii opera. Ihere could be nothing more conclusive. It should seem improbable that, with such a record of experience before him, any muusictul mumnager ~voumld undertuuke Italian opera in Neiv York un- til he saw its smuccess assured by actual subscrip- tions paid iii. But the charm of theatrical mann agemeut, like that of fotuuudiuug a newspaper, is resusuhess to some mimuds. [lucre is always a cer- tain numuber of persomus who will risk their for- tunes iii those enterprises, and a certain number more when these have lost. It is the burned child who fears tIme fire, not the child whom the fire fascinates, and who has ant learmued that it ~vihl burn. The operatic Mareizeks, Ullmnans, anul Struukosches whom ~ve have kumowut tumay hold tip blistered fingers of warnitug, but the kiuug uuever dies. Mr. Muix Strakoseht may tue viutut aims, but there u~ilh still be lyrical cakes amid ale. Ihue opera seems to many luhuihosoPhuers an illog- ical absurdity, amul it iuivites delightful satire. But the human miuud is very comhulex. lf it reas~uus with Ne~vton and Kehulem, and creates ~vithm Shakespeare and homer, it listens ~vitlm de highmt to mIme at de poitriae, amid melts ~vithm pen- sive sympathmy whueui Mario sobs (tel alma as hue dies. THE loiterer along the North Shore of Staten Islatud, in the Bay of New York, winding around EDITORS EASY CHAIR. 143 its coves and points, still keeping by the Kill von Kull, as the strait is called that separates the island from New Jersey, sees Lw the old far iv landing at Port Richmond a large ~vooden house which has a historic interest. It is the honse in which Aaron Burr died on the 14th of September, 1 836, in his ei~htvflrst veal. The room is in the second story, at the northeast cor- ner, and the honse is little changed since that time. If the scene of the close of a life so event- fril and suggestive should awaken the cnriosity of the spectator, he would soon find that the isl- and which the New Yorker has long heen in tlle habit of dismissing as the haunt of mosquitoes and the domain of fever and agile has some unique and romantic historic interests. If he tnrns the corner near which tile hotel stands, and walks a few steps up the road that leads from the ferry wharf to the interior of the island, h~ ~vill see a very plain brick church standing directly upon the highway, with the graveyard on both sides ; and that l)lain church is the link that connects Staten Island with the slaughtered saints of Miltons magnificent sonnet, Avenge, 0 Lord, thy slaughtered saints, whose bones Lie scattered on the Alpine mountains cold. And not only does it carry the story of the is!- and back to the Waldenses and the Iluguenots, hut to the stern old Scotch Co~el~ante1s, in w hose comalunion the pastor was bred who for forty years has been the minister of this parish. But in his duty prompt at every call, lie watchd and wept, he prayd and felt for all; And as a bird each fond endearment tries To tempt its new-fledged offsprin~ to the skies, lie tried each art, reproved each dull delay, Allured to brighter worlds, and led the way. The late Gabriel Disoswav, in his appendix to Smiless Ilegeenots in England end Ireland, liriefly sketched their early story in this country. Before 1630 several Wahloon families arrived with Minuit, the I)utch Director, and settled on St~iten Islaiid, hnildiiig a church, as tradition relates, at Richmond, the present county seat. lh~v after~vard removed to XVahle Bocht, no~v called Wallabout, the Bay ofForeigners. But the address of the Rex. Dr. James Bro~vnlee, on the fortieth anniversary of his settlement in the Reformed church at Port Richmond, is the most complete account of the early ecclesiastical his- tory of the island. Its settlement, like that of Ne~v England, sprang mainly from reli~ions per- secution. 1wo hundred years ago the French Iluguenot refugees came in large numbers, and there are families of French descent still living upon the estates where their ancestois settled at that tune. Old 1)r. De Witt, of Ne~v York, the venerable clergyman of the Reformed Church, who was probably the last that preached some- times in the Dutch language, and ~vho was a fond student of the old history of his Church, ~vrote Dr. Browulee that as early as 1660 there was a settlement of the Waldelises ui~ott the isl- an(1, and that the Rev. Samuel Drisius, one of his o~vn predecessors, used to cross the bay once a month to preach to them. Dr. De Witt says that there ~vas a Huiguenot settlement a short time afterward, hut does not allude to that of the Walloons earlierand lie adds that the French church gradually disappeared, and its members mingled witla the Dutch in the Reformed church. It was evidently the day of small things, for the churches of those early times upon the island had no settled ministers. 1hey were visited and supplied, and the good dominies came across the bay from Neuv Amsterdam; and at last, 1697, clue Freiich Huiguenots obtained a pastor of their own, the Rev. I)r. Bonrepos, whose liame ~vould have become the parish of Acadie, home of the happy, and might have imeen that of Evangelines l)astor. In 1 713, the twelfth veal of Anne, St. Andrews English Epis- copal church was erected in the hamlet of Rich- mond, and 1)r. Browulee ~viihu quiet humor quotes a feiv passages from the Ilistnrical Account (f the Society for propagating the Gospel in the British Colonies, which had sent out I)r. MKen- zie, a clergyman of the English Church, as a missionary. 1his worthy man u~as clearly of opinion that nil ~vhocn lie met who were not of his own denominationWalloons, iluguenois, ~Yaldeuses, 1)uitclu, French, and Indian savages were equally pagaci barbarians. The English were but a third of the small population, niud had 110 convenielut place for religious worship, ivhile the French had a church niud their good pastor, Bonrepos. They generously gave the use of their church to Missionary MKenzie for sev- en years, and until St. Andreuvs ~vas built. 1lie 1)uitch heathen were at first averse to the En- glish liturgy, hut Dr. MKenzie was shrewd, auud sent to Euughand for a supply of Prayer-books in thie Dutch language, after ~vhuich ,savs the his- torical Account, they found no fault with the lit urge, and began to have a just esteem for our excellent form of ~vorship. Meanwhile thin Eiighishmiug of the popumla tion and of the form of worship ~ient on, and in 1 712 the justices of Richmond County, the hugh sheriff, the clerk, and the commander-in-chief of hier Majestys militia, all being of the faith us by law established, return thutults to the Venerable Propagating Society in London, justly and warm- ly praise their miluister, and then puoceed to say, with all thue comhuhacent arrogance of an estab- lishment, that upon his first induction there were not above four or five in thin xhole county who knew any thiimg of our excellent liturgy and form of worship, and many of thiem kneiv little moie of any religion thian the common notion of a I)eitv; and as thieir igmuorance was great, so was their practice irregular and barbarous. But now, by the blessing of God attending his labors, our Church increases, a considerable reformation is ~vrouught, and somethuiuug of thin thce of Chris- tianity is seen among us. Well may 1)r. Brown- lee say, That is delicious. Ior, as lie observes, the high official personages say all this whille as vet they had no church of thueir own, and were still occupyilig thue French church by suffer- ance, as thuny thueunselves confess. For at least fifty years there had been Christian worshuip upon tlue island; for more than thirty years there had been at least thuree Cluristian chiurches, sustained by the nohuhest Christians, chuildren of thue Ilmuguue nots and the Waldenses. One of them hind givemu shelter to the Eughishi churclu members for seven years, and whuile thue are still in it thuey shout acuoss the ocean tluuut since they huave come, somechujuig of the face of Churistianicy is seeiu among us. 1here is no more ludicrous and 144 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. characteristic episode in the annals of any es- tablishment, and Dr. Brownice says, slyly, In the grand division of wise as serpents and harmless as doves, onr church unfortunately has al~vays been content to accept the rdle of the doves. Abont a century ago the Reformed society had for pastor Mr. William Jackson, who, after some years of most successful preaching, during which his eloquence made him another Whitefield, fell into a state of mental disorder which afflicted him to the de~ree of joking in his sermons, and of saving strange things in the pulpit, by which the gravity of his hearers ~vas sorely disturbed. Also, he never seemed willing to stop ~vhen preach- inga form of the disorder ~vhich has been ob- served in other cases ~vhere there seemed general mental soundness. And once in Ne~v Bruns- ~vick, when he had transcended all reasonable limits, his friend Mr. James Schuremnan (~uietly gave the preacher a hint by holding up his watch. Schureman, put up your watch, said the do WHAT position is to be assigned to Mr. DARWIN as a theorist, the future alone can determine; but as a patient and painstaking investigator of facts, he is without a peer. his Insecticoroas Plants (D. Appleton and Co.) is a model of what such a book should be: in the previous preparation, over fifteen years of orig- inal study of the phenomena described; in the careful examination of these phenomena, exem- plified by countless curious experiments; in the spirit of caution displayed in testing the facts and accepting the results to which they point; and in the clearness and sim})licitv of the descriptions. 1he latter render the book fhscinating to readers who are without any special scientific knowledge, but not without an interest in the curious and the romantic asl)ects of nature. The title of the book indicates the nature of the phenomena de- scribedplants that live on insects, vegetable carnivora, capturing, eating, and digesting ani- mal food. Ihe sun-dew is one of the most re- markable of these plants. It hears from two or three to five or six leaves, commonly a little broader than long. 1he whole upper surface is covered ~vith gland-bearing filaments or tenta- cles, each leaf averaging about 200. The glands are surmonuded by large drops of a viscid secre- tion. Ihis secretion, Mr. I)ar~vin is inclined to think, possesses an odor which attracts insects to the leaf. However this may be, they alight upon it in great numbers. 1hey are caught by the viscid secretion much as flies in a pot of mo- lasses; the filaments then gradually bend over and clash) the insect on all sides. If the insect adheres to the glands of only a few of the exte- rior tentacles, these, bending over, carry their prey to the tentacles next succeeding them in- ward; these then bend forward, amid so onward until the insect is ultimately carried by a curious sort of rolling movement to the centre of the leaf. All the tentacles then bend forward and inclose the prey. The secretion nomv not only increases in qnantity, hut becomes changed in quality. It becomes acid; it possesses the pow- minie Paul preached till midnight. It is not often in these days that a clergyman preach- es in the same pulpit for forty years. It is a fact which is mutually honorable to preacher and people. how plainly it shows that the re- lation between them is not one of sensation and entertainment, but of deep and sweet character! I am here to-day, after forty years among you, says this pastor, to say that there was never a minister blessed ~vith a kinder or more consider- ate people. Ihere is something in this long and cordial relation which recalls the happy simplic itv that we associate with the religious bodies by whom the island was settledthe Walloons, the Waldenses, the hlugnenots, and that other good, devout, peaceable, and heavenly-minded people, as Benjamin lugham, one of the early Methodists, called the Moravians, ~vho early came to the island, and ~vho have still a mission chapel and a chnrch there, around which lies a cemetery full of sunshine, and sloping gently sonth~vard toward the sea. ers and performs the functions of gastric juice in the stomach; it has the power of dissolving an- imal matter, which is subsequently absorbed by, and serves the ~urpose of food for, the plamit. Mr. Darwin tried repeated and successful experi- meats, feeding the humugry plant with bits of roast beef, lie tried its digestive powers ~vith various substances, noting carefully the result, and find- ing that as a general princil)le those substances which are indissoluble in the human stomach, such as human nails, hair, quills, oil, flit, etc., are equally indigestible to the plant. When the digestion is completea process which requires several daysthe tentacles expand, time glands become temporarily dry, ally useless remains are thus liable to be blown away by the wind, tile giamids begin again to secrete the liquid, and the tentacles are ready to seize a miew pley. Quite as curious, in some respects even more s~ is the action of time Venmis fly-trap, found only in North Carolina. The leaf consists of tivo lobes standing at rather less than right angles to each other; they are armed with spikes, extending from the upper side of each lobe; these spikes stand in suich a position that when the lobes close, they interlock like the teeth of a rat-tmap. When an insect alights between the lobes of this leaf, time lobes immediately bend together at the top, time spikes interlock, the insect is captured; time lobes then press firmly against hmimn, a juice answering to gastric jumice is exuded, and the animal is eaten and digested much as in the ease of time sun-dew. A very extraordinary fact is that a drop of liquid falling upon the leaf pro- duces no effect ~yhatever; and while any dis- turbance from any other cause excites a move- ment of the leaf, any blowing upon it does not cause the shighest change in time lobes. Neither rain nor wind is able to produce the action of the plant, which is endowed with a kind of sub- stitute for intelligence in its power to discrimi- natO between solid and liquid substances,with- out which it would be constantly opening and shutting its mouth to no purpose. These two

Editor's Literary Record Editor's Literary Record 144-148

144 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. characteristic episode in the annals of any es- tablishment, and Dr. Brownice says, slyly, In the grand division of wise as serpents and harmless as doves, onr church unfortunately has al~vays been content to accept the rdle of the doves. Abont a century ago the Reformed society had for pastor Mr. William Jackson, who, after some years of most successful preaching, during which his eloquence made him another Whitefield, fell into a state of mental disorder which afflicted him to the de~ree of joking in his sermons, and of saving strange things in the pulpit, by which the gravity of his hearers ~vas sorely disturbed. Also, he never seemed willing to stop ~vhen preach- inga form of the disorder ~vhich has been ob- served in other cases ~vhere there seemed general mental soundness. And once in Ne~v Bruns- ~vick, when he had transcended all reasonable limits, his friend Mr. James Schuremnan (~uietly gave the preacher a hint by holding up his watch. Schureman, put up your watch, said the do WHAT position is to be assigned to Mr. DARWIN as a theorist, the future alone can determine; but as a patient and painstaking investigator of facts, he is without a peer. his Insecticoroas Plants (D. Appleton and Co.) is a model of what such a book should be: in the previous preparation, over fifteen years of orig- inal study of the phenomena described; in the careful examination of these phenomena, exem- plified by countless curious experiments; in the spirit of caution displayed in testing the facts and accepting the results to which they point; and in the clearness and sim})licitv of the descriptions. 1he latter render the book fhscinating to readers who are without any special scientific knowledge, but not without an interest in the curious and the romantic asl)ects of nature. The title of the book indicates the nature of the phenomena de- scribedplants that live on insects, vegetable carnivora, capturing, eating, and digesting ani- mal food. Ihe sun-dew is one of the most re- markable of these plants. It hears from two or three to five or six leaves, commonly a little broader than long. 1he whole upper surface is covered ~vith gland-bearing filaments or tenta- cles, each leaf averaging about 200. The glands are surmonuded by large drops of a viscid secre- tion. Ihis secretion, Mr. I)ar~vin is inclined to think, possesses an odor which attracts insects to the leaf. However this may be, they alight upon it in great numbers. 1hey are caught by the viscid secretion much as flies in a pot of mo- lasses; the filaments then gradually bend over and clash) the insect on all sides. If the insect adheres to the glands of only a few of the exte- rior tentacles, these, bending over, carry their prey to the tentacles next succeeding them in- ward; these then bend forward, amid so onward until the insect is ultimately carried by a curious sort of rolling movement to the centre of the leaf. All the tentacles then bend forward and inclose the prey. The secretion nomv not only increases in qnantity, hut becomes changed in quality. It becomes acid; it possesses the pow- minie Paul preached till midnight. It is not often in these days that a clergyman preach- es in the same pulpit for forty years. It is a fact which is mutually honorable to preacher and people. how plainly it shows that the re- lation between them is not one of sensation and entertainment, but of deep and sweet character! I am here to-day, after forty years among you, says this pastor, to say that there was never a minister blessed ~vith a kinder or more consider- ate people. Ihere is something in this long and cordial relation which recalls the happy simplic itv that we associate with the religious bodies by whom the island was settledthe Walloons, the Waldenses, the hlugnenots, and that other good, devout, peaceable, and heavenly-minded people, as Benjamin lugham, one of the early Methodists, called the Moravians, ~vho early came to the island, and ~vho have still a mission chapel and a chnrch there, around which lies a cemetery full of sunshine, and sloping gently sonth~vard toward the sea. ers and performs the functions of gastric juice in the stomach; it has the power of dissolving an- imal matter, which is subsequently absorbed by, and serves the ~urpose of food for, the plamit. Mr. Darwin tried repeated and successful experi- meats, feeding the humugry plant with bits of roast beef, lie tried its digestive powers ~vith various substances, noting carefully the result, and find- ing that as a general princil)le those substances which are indissoluble in the human stomach, such as human nails, hair, quills, oil, flit, etc., are equally indigestible to the plant. When the digestion is completea process which requires several daysthe tentacles expand, time glands become temporarily dry, ally useless remains are thus liable to be blown away by the wind, tile giamids begin again to secrete the liquid, and the tentacles are ready to seize a miew pley. Quite as curious, in some respects even more s~ is the action of time Venmis fly-trap, found only in North Carolina. The leaf consists of tivo lobes standing at rather less than right angles to each other; they are armed with spikes, extending from the upper side of each lobe; these spikes stand in suich a position that when the lobes close, they interlock like the teeth of a rat-tmap. When an insect alights between the lobes of this leaf, time lobes immediately bend together at the top, time spikes interlock, the insect is captured; time lobes then press firmly against hmimn, a juice answering to gastric jumice is exuded, and the animal is eaten and digested much as in the ease of time sun-dew. A very extraordinary fact is that a drop of liquid falling upon the leaf pro- duces no effect ~yhatever; and while any dis- turbance from any other cause excites a move- ment of the leaf, any blowing upon it does not cause the shighest change in time lobes. Neither rain nor wind is able to produce the action of the plant, which is endowed with a kind of sub- stitute for intelligence in its power to discrimi- natO between solid and liquid substances,with- out which it would be constantly opening and shutting its mouth to no purpose. These two EDITORS LITERARY RECORD. 145 illustratiuns of insectivorous plants may suffice to show the nature of the phenomena ~vhich Mr. Darwin has been investigating, but only a care- fiti perusal of his book can give the reader any idea of the variety and interest of his curious experiments. The Alight end Mirth of Literature (Harper nad Brothers) is a much better book than its overcrowded title-page and its ettlogistic prcface led us to expect. It would have been better if the author had left the critic to announce the fact that his volume is on an entirely new plan, and discusses its theme far more thoroughly than ever has been done. We are bound, ho~v- ever, to say that the author has made good the claim which a better taste would have suppress- ed. Mr. MACBETIt is unmistakahly an enthusi- ust in literature, lie is apparently an enthusiast in that particular branch of literattire to ~vhich he here addresses himself. Considering that all true eloquence consists in the successful use of figures, that nufigurative language is dnll, unsug gestive, unkindhing, and that ill-chosen figures constittite the very shortest step from the sublime to the ridiculous, it is difficult to believe that there is no other single treatise devoted to figu- rative language. Mr. Macbeth, however, assures us that this is the case, and we have no reason to (houht his assurance. From the days of Quin tihian clown we are unable to recall any one who has devoted an entire ~vork to tite discussion of figttre, and scarce one ~~ho has stibjected it to a searching scientific analysis. This constittites the value of Professor Macbeths ~vork, the real significance of which is concealed, not conveyed, by its alliterative title. lIe divides figures into three general classes, figtires of etymology, figures of syntax, and figures of rhetoric. 1he first em- braces all alterations, for rhetorical purposes, of the original spelling of words, and includes such changes as the cutting off of the first syllable, as ghast for aghast, fore for before; cutting off a middle syllable, as in our common substitution of dont for do not; or cutting off the last syllable, a device almost wholly confined to the poets. Ihe second class, figures of syntax, embraces all alter- ations of the original construction of sentences, as the omission of words grammatically necessary, or the insertion of words not grammatically neces- sary, most frequently a superfluous pronoun. rhe third class, figures of rhetoric, includes a host of deviations from the ordinary use and application of~vords, emhracin~ the simile, the metaphor, the trope, of which our atithor famishes a new def- inition, and others too numerous to be mention- ed here. Otir authors classification is discrimi- Bating; and though somewhat undtdy elaborate, so that the reader gets mazed in the divisions and subdivisions, it is always clearly put, and always marks a real distinction. Ihe titlepage tells us that t~vo hundred and twenty figures are illus- trated; in more than one case Mr. Macbeth has grouped together more than a score of sub-va- rieties of a single class. 1hie danger of such an elaborate study of style he illustrates in his o~vn, which is always vigorous and clear, but sometimes strained and unnatural; e.g., Pope Gregory First refuses us not a noble antithesis ; Drydens character of the Duke of Buckiugham let next flit before yotir vision. But against this danger the student may easily guard him- self, and, indeed, the more thorotigh his study of Yoi. LuNo. 331.i 0 the science, the less likely will he be to seek such variety of form at the cost of simplicity. Quite as valuable is Professor Macbeths volume as a thesaurus of quotations. But unhappily his qtio- tations are sometimes incorrect. His reading and study must have been omnivorous. Not only the student ~~ho really comprehends and familiarizes himself ~vith the classes and varieties of figure here set forth will find this book useful, but he who simply reads it can hardly fail to find his mastery of language largely increased, his forms of expression more varied, and his imaginatioti greatly quickened; and he will be almost hope- lessly dull if the result be not to make him a much more careful and observant reader of the best of boths prose and poetic writings. The Theistic Conception of the lVorld, by Pro- fessor B. F. COCKER (harper and Brothers), will be commended for breadth, independence, and scholarly research to all those who are familiar with his previous and cognate volume, f& hristien- ity end Greek Philosophy, lie begins by defin- ing the fundamental l)loblems of life as they are presented by modern forms of thought. These, which he enumerates under seven divisions, all relate to the origin of things. lied the universe an origin? Was that origin outside itself? has the Originator now aught to do ~vith the universe? Is there atmy mom-al omder in tIme universe, and any moral relation between the Originator and the creature? These questions lie back of all religion, of all moral and spiritual life. Athe- ism, which involves the denial of all spiritual ex- istence, and pantheism, which involves the deni- al of all spiritual individuality and freedom, are alike fatal to moral responsibility, to the very no- tion of obligation. lie shows, by reference to t~vo of the most radical thinkers of the age, George henry Lewes and herbert Spencei, that these pioblems can not be dismissed as unworthy of thought or incapable of solutionnay, that the soul must and will have some answer to them. lie then presents the four possible theories of the origin of the universe fist, that it began in matter, which, with its immanent force, is regarded as immortal and indestructible; sec., ond, that it began in fom-ce, mounting up from the lowest forms to the highest, viz., that which ~ve call mental action ; third, that it began in thought, that is, in the higher type of force, working down into and tuanifesting itself through all various force forms; and fourth, that it be- gan in ~vihl, absolute, unconditioned, infinite, btmt intlividnal. The first two theories are those of atheism and materialism, the third that of pan- theism, the fourth that of theism. The first two say, There is no God; the third, All is God; the fonith, There is one absolute, infinite, per- sonal God. To pi-ove that time lattem affords the only rational and mudequate explanation of the facts of the univem-se is the object of the book. We shall not attempt to follow time course of Professor Cockems augument; a condensation could hmaidhy present in intelligible form a dis- emission which he has rendered as compact as is compatihle with clearness, it must suffice to say that he undertakes to meet rationalism on its own grounds, to lest time belief in a personal God, the momal govemnom of time nuiveise, not upon the intuitive beliefs of men, which is the real and seemet cause of that universal belief in a Divine Being ~vhich no argument has ever been able 146 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. to shake, but upon a purely scientific basis; that is, he undertakes to show that the facts of the universe can not be accounted for upon either of the other hypotheses. The service which Dr. Van Lennep has ren- dered to the students of Biblical times and his- tory by his Bible Lands is rendered to the stu- dents of classic life and literature by The Lf,fe of the Greeks and Romans (D. Appleton and Co.). The ~vork is a reprint from the English, and a translation from the German of H. GUHL and W. KONER. It is elaborately illustrated with 543 wood-cuts. The life of the two nations is sepa- rately treated. The authors begin with an ac- count of the ancient temples, pass to other edifices walls, gates, roads, bridges, private houses, the- atres, etc.thence to furniture, utensils, dress, music, and musical instruments, and finally the life itself, the athletic games, ships and shipping, meals, dances, religious ceremonials, burials: this for the Greeks. Much the same order is follo~v- ed and the same subjects treated in the second division of the hook, concerning Roman life. The student will find much here that he has al- ready become familiar with through such ~vorks as Smiths Dictionarq of Greek and Roman An- tiquities; some of th,e illustrations, perhaps a considerable proportion of them, will be measur- ably familiar. But we do not kno~v of any vol- ume which treats the whole subject so compre- hensively and at the same time so compactly, or comprises so much minute detail. For students of the classics in our colleges and higher semi- naries it will be an invaluable text-book, giving them that sort of familiarity ~vith ancient life which is indispensable to any enjoyable reading of ancient literature. All readers will find in it no little curious and interesting information, even if they have no kno~vledge of the classics, and no purpose to study them. They will per- haps be surprised to find the modern horse rail- way traced back to tram-ways cut in the rocky road in ancient Greece, and the modern camp- stool modeled almost exactly after the Grecian diphros. His conception of Grecian glory will be materially modified by the description of a Grecian d~velling-house, small and modest, not to say mean, with an opening in the smoky ceiling which served to let out the smoke, and the Grecian meal, with the meat brought in on large platters, divided into portions by the stew- ard, and put on the bare table before the guests, who, for want of knives and forks, used their fin- gers.~ The style of the work is clear and sim- ple, unusually so for one of German origin. It is pleasant reading, and the insertion of most Greek and Roman words in parentheses; and the customary employment of their English equiva- lents, render it available to those who are not ac- quainted with the Greek and Latin languages. As we read Miss BLIADDON5 last novel, has- tages to Fortune (Harper and Brothers), we ~von- der whether she has not embodied in it something of her own experience. Autobiographical it cer- tainly is not; but if the personal experience of the author is incorporated in the literary conver- sion of Herman Westray, this story would inter- pret, if not explain, the very remarkable differ- ence between Miss Braddons earlier and her later novels. If our dim recall of her first hooks does not mislead us, the Miss Braddon of ten or fifteen years ago believed in the philosophy of the cynical Westray before love had taught him a higher wisdom. Goodness from an iesthetic point of view is the re- verse of interesting. Faust is not good; Mephistoph- eles is candidly execrable. But where can you match these for interest? Othello is a grand and faulty be- ing, overshadowed by the splendid iniquity of lago, for whom he is little more than a foil. Macbeth be- longs to the criminal classes. Virtue is so simple a matter that it affords few opportunities for art. Vice and crime are complex, many-sided, and offer infinite scope for the literary anatomist. There is no ground for speculation in the fact that a man does right; it is only when he errs that he becomes enigmatic and in- terestinc~. That Miss Braddon no longer believes in this popular but false philosophy respecting time uses of fiction is evident from her latest novels. Her last, hostages to Fortune, is as pure and health- ful a story as we have ever read; simple for the most part, in no sense artificial, wholly un- marred by straining for effect. The scene be- tween Editha and Hamilton Lyudhurst, when the strong wrath of an aroused though defense- less woman dares the strong passion of the sen- sual brute who apparently has her in his merciless power, from which his sudden death interferes to defend her, may, indeed, be regarded as belonging to the sensational in literature. Highly wrought it certainly is, but not more highly wrought than such a battle between the highest and the lowest, the holiest and the basest, passions would be; nor is it more sensational, or more highly wrought, or more intrinsically improbable than the scene, which it recalls but does not resemble, between Edith Dombey and Mr. Carker in Dombeg and Son. The interest of the story centres, however, in the power of a strong and noble woman over an ill-disciplined though not ignoble man. Edi- thas character sufficiently refutes the fidse phi- losophy that virtue is so simple a matter that it affords fe~v opportunities for art. 1here is, in truth, no higher art than that which so por- trays love and purity as to make them an inspi- ration to our better nature. Miss Braddon is to be congratulated on her discovery of this. Her talents as a novelist have never been questioned; her characters are never weak or vapid; her plots never commonplace; her incidents nevgr tame. And in consecrating her pen to nobler uses, to the delineation of characters that are not a mere enigma, but an inspiration, to the work not of a literary anatomist, but of a literary constructor, she has placed herself, if not in the front rank of modern novelists, at least among the first class. So long as she continues to write such stories as Strangers and Pilgrims and Hostages to Fortune she may be commended, not only to the readers of fiction as one of the most enter- taining of story-tellers, but to parents and teach- ers as one whose power is employed in the cause of truth, of simplicity, and of purity. Mm.. H. P. ROE displays an originality in the titles of his stories which leads time reader to ex- pect originality in their construction, and in this he is not disappointed. his plots are never commonplace, and the materials of which they are composed are the life and society with which he is familiar. rime name of his latest and best story, From .Jest to Earnest (Dodd and Mead), piques curiosity because it suggests a purpose; and in this, if in nothing else, it is better than the avemage American fiction, that it is not a meme aimless love-story, dependent for its inter- EDITORS LITERARY RECORD. 147 est on the separation of loving hearts hy those conventional barriers which have little or no real existence in American society. Like the pre- vious stories by the same author, it is intense- ly religious ; unlike most religious stories, it is not didactic. It does not present religious phi- losophy in the guise of a conversation, in which the orthodox al~vays wins the victory, and the heterodox is always worsted. This expedient Mrs. Charles and the Misses Warner have em- ployed with considerable success, hut it cais nev- er convert an essay into a true novel. Mr. Roe realizes better than when he wrote Barriers Burned Away the difference hetween preaching and novel-~vritiug, and he preaches all the more effectively for that very reason. The story is a very simple one. To afford amusement for some fashionable friends, Lottie Marsden, wild, reck- less, hut good-hearted, resolves to play the part of a well-meaning, unguided girl, and seeks spiritual guidance and instruction from Frank Hemstead, a tall, awkward, ungainly theological student, just from the seminary, and self-dedicated to the life of a home missionary. Her jest grows into ear- nest; it ends in her becoming a Christian girl, and giving up her fashionable and frivolous life to share with him the privations of his chosen lot. In the development of her jest into an ear- nest reality she Inellows him, and he strengthens and develops her: this is the story. Its interest all centres in these two, and in the play of their life upon each other. Hero and heroine are original conceptions, not horrowed from litera- ture; and the change in Lotties character is well delineated, and with a naturalness and an artistic skill ~vhich we do not often find in the so-called religious novels. There is some genu- ine humor in the hook, tooan element lacking in Mr. Roes previous stories. VIRGINSA W. JOHNSON, who has heretofore ~vrought out her superabundant fancies only in novels for the elders, gives them forth in a very attractive volume for the children The Catskill Fairies (Harper and Brothers). Her pen alone would have sufficed to have made the volume at- tractive, hut ALFRED FItEDEIcKs has added the charm of his pencil, and the combination is quite irresistible. Miss Johnsons genius is of a kind that peculiarly fits her for the production of such a collection of weird fancies. Her very fault an over-luxuriant fancyhere becomes a virtue. Joh, his old grandfather, the lonely old farm- house, the blocking sao~v-storm: all these are true to nature. But these make only the frame for the pictures, which are mere fancies that know no law. A very charming set of fairies they are to whoni Miss Johnson introduces us, and they will while away many an otherwise long winter evening for scores of boys and girls who need their cheering presence less than did poor lonely Joh. The three volumes of Ancient History from the Mionuments (Scribuer, Armstrong, and Co.) Egypt, Assyria, and Persiapresent in a con- veniently compact form the results of the most recent archteological investigations in these lands, and render available to the ordinary reader much information hitherto inaccessible except through the large lihraries. The authors are specialists, and the works trustworthy. Fuller illustration ~vould have greatly increased hoth their attract- iveness and their valueThe fifth volume of the Bible Gomnmeatary (Scribuer, Armstrong, and Co.) embraces the books of Isaiah, Jeremi- ah, and Lamentations. The notes on the two latter are prepared by the Dean of Canterbury. As a condensed commentary for ready reference, this work is important to the theologian, but it lacks the elements required for lay use.I)r. AN- DREW ThOMSON, of Edinburgh, furnishes anoth- er book on Palestine, in the Holy Land (A. D. F. Randolph and Co.). It is a pleasant book of travels, but adds nothing to the apl)aratus of the scholar. The omission of an index is a seri- ous faultThe tiacts of Mr. GLADSTONE on Rome, The Vatican Decrees, Vaticanism, Speeches of the Pope, are re-issued in a con- venient form in one volume, entitled Rome and the Newest Fashions in Religion (Harper and Brothers). Mr. Gladstone will be known in the future by no single act of his life more widely than by his vigorous campaign against Vatican- ism. It requires no prophet to foresee a conflict in this country with the same foe to liberalism. A study of this book is a good preparation for it. The third series of Dr. TALMAGES sermons derives its title, Every-day Religion (Harper and Brothers), partly from the opeiiing discourse, partly from the general tenor of most of the thirty-three sermons reported. It is easy to criticise these, but it is also easy to read them; and that is more than can be said of some less amenable to literary criticism.Mr. HENRY CAItYS translation of the Select Dialogues qf Plato (Harper and Brothers) is literal; it will therefore be more useful to the student than Pro- fessor Jowetts; for the same reason, it will be less attractive to the general reader. The Phi- losophy of Natural Theology, a prize essay, by Rev. WILLIAM JAcs~sON (A. D. F. Randolph and Co.), is reprinted from the English. It par- tially undertakes to solve the same problems dis- cussed by Professor Cockers Theistic Conception of the World. It is less original in treatment, less independent in thought, and less strong and vigorous in its conception of the subject; but it is more popular in style, perhaps because less com- pact and condense.Mr. LEWES completes his Problems of Life and Mind (J. R. Osgood and Co.) ~vith the second volume. We are devoutly thankful thsere are to be no more. rho first vol- unse was difficult to understand; there are parts of this volume which beloiig to the unkno,va- ble, if not to the unthinkable. This work is in its essence a protest against all unverified hypotheses, by ~vhich the author appears to mean those not verified by a process of external inves- tigation. He employs such hypotheses, however, himself, without hesitation, when they ~vill serve his purpose. Positivism will require for popular acceptance certainly a clearer and, it seems to us, a more vigorous and self-consistent exponent than Mr. Lewes proves himself in these t~vo for- bidding vohnmes.The Geological Story briefly Told, by JAMES D. DANA (Ivison, Blakeman, Phsinney, and Co.), is a capital introduction to the study of geology, an excellent guide to the practical student of the rocks, and by virtue of its illustrations, ~vhich partiahly supply the place of specimens, a serviceable substitiste for the study of nature for that considerable class who desire to kao~v something of the science, but have not the leisure to pursue it as a study.Gonstaati- nople, by THiOPIIILE GATITIESt (Henry Holt and Co.), has the flavor of its French origin. The 145 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. author writes in sympathy with the people whose tour from Chinese Thibet to the Indian Cauca- litb he describes, and thus his book possesses the sus, through the upper valleys of the himalayas. interest which belongs only to an inside viev. The writer has the advantage of writing con- The details are graphic and accurate. They cerning a region about which comparatively little show keen observation, and even careful study. is known; his book of travels is thus, in a sense, A queer cosmopolitan metropolis is Constanti- original; his descriptions are graphic and even nople, and the I)ictuies of its life are full of quaint pictorialso much so that the reader feels a sense and curious interest.The Abode of Snow, ic- of disappointment that such opportunities for art printed from Blackwoods Mc~qaziae (G. P. Pot- should be wholly lost, for there are no illustra- nams Sons), carries the reader on a romantic tions. A valuable map accompanies the volume. SUMMARY OF SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS. Astrononzy.During September numerous as- tronomical liublications have been received from Europe, most prominent among ~vhich are the sixth volume of the magnificent series of the Pulkova Ol)servatiOns and the valuable special memoirs that issue from that imperial institution. Of these latter, Dollens second paper on the use of the transit instrument ia the vertical of the pole-star should be in the hands of every Amer- ican geographer, geodesist, or astronomer. Dr. Doberek, of the Markree Observatory, Ire- land, has published the results of his ~vork upon the orbits of the binary stars Zeta Aquarii and Gamma Leonis. The former of these was meas- ured by Sir William Herschel in 1781, and it is only by virtue of this old observation that we are enabled to obtain a good approximation to the time of revolution of this binary, which is about 1500 years. Gamma Leonis has a much more rapid motion, as it completes a revolution in 402 years. Dr. Dobereks elements agree very closely with observation during the entire period 180065, the average discordance between the distance as measured and the distance as com- l)uted being less than a quarter of a second of arc. Mr. Alvan Clark, of Cambridge, calls attention to the rapid change of position of the binary star Mu Herculis. Appearancesseem to indicate that this binary has a shorter period than any known double star except, perhaps. Delta Equulei, and this fact, as ~vell as the intrinsic interest of this pair (originally discovered by Mr. Clark), should recommend it as an object for observation to those who possess telescopes of sufficient po~ver (twelve inches aperture and above). The observa- tions at the Naval Observatory indicate a change of about 150 in position-angle in the past year. In our last months Record we had occasion to notice the beautiful series of drawings of planets and nebulre published by the Harvard College Observatory under the direction of the late Pro- fessor Winhock. Mr. L. Trouvelot, the artist to whom the making of these drawings was con- fided, has h)repared, from late observations with his own telescope (six and a quarter inches ap- erture) and with the Harvard refractor (fifteen inches), a set of pastel drawiu~s, on a large scale, of Saturn, the nebnla of Andromeda, sun spots, and others. The Harvard College drawings were abotit eight by ten inches in size, ~vhile Mr. Troim- velots are about twenty-four by thirty-six inches, and they are of great fidelity and beauty. M. Terby, of Brussels, has undertaken a new discus- sion of drawings of Mars, and in order to make his data as complete as possible, requests that any person having drawings of Mars of amiy date may send them to hum at 124 Rue des Bogards, Lou- vain, Belgium. Dr. Fuhg hias published a discussion of all the observations of the suns diameter made at Greenwich from 1836 to 1870, with the particti- lar object of discovering the difference, if any, l)etween the polar and eqnatorial diameters, lie finds that no proof of aiiy such difference can be drawn from these Greemiwich observations, and from the whole number (6827) made between 1836 and 1870 lie concludes the mean apparent solar diameter to be 32 2.99. Airy previously found, from the observatiomis of 183647, 32 3.64, and this value is adopted in the English Nautical Almanac. It is known that the experiments of Foucault on the velocity of light, when combined with the value of the constant of aberration of Struve, give a value of the solar parallax (8.86) which is veiny close to the best recent determiminatious, and which ~~ill not be far from the results from the recent transit of Venus. The recent exper- iments of Corno on tIme velocity of light, cam- bimmed with this value of the solar parallax, indi- cate, however, that the value of tIme constant of aberration deduced from Bradleys observations by Bessel is the true one, and this value differs from Struves by 0.2. Villarcean has examine(l the question of the proper value of the constant of aberration under the 5up1)ositiou that the whole solar system has a ~roper motion, and he gives the outline of a h)lami for determining both the true constant of aberration and tIme direction of thie solar motion. This plan requires simmiltane ous observations to he made at points in each hemisphere where the latitude is 35C 16. lime expense of such expeditions ~vonld not be large, and important results might be expected from the carrying omit of this project. M. Flammarion has, during 1874 and 1875, observed thie changes of brightness of the 4th satellite of Jupiter with a view to determine its period of rotation. his principal conclusions are, first, the 4th satellite varies between the sixth an(l the tenth magimitmide; second, there is a probability (but not a certaimity) that it turns on its axis like our own moomin, so as to ahmvavs present the same thee to Jupiter; third, this hiy pothiesis will not account for all the vamiatiomus of brightness observed. Its reflecting power (al- beda) is, on thie whole, iuuferior to that of the thuree other satellites. M. Tisserand, of Toulouse, has made an inter- esting discussion of hiis observations of the shoot- ing-stars of time 9th, 10th, and 11th August, 1875.

Editor's Scientific Record Editor's Scientific Record 148-151

145 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. author writes in sympathy with the people whose tour from Chinese Thibet to the Indian Cauca- litb he describes, and thus his book possesses the sus, through the upper valleys of the himalayas. interest which belongs only to an inside viev. The writer has the advantage of writing con- The details are graphic and accurate. They cerning a region about which comparatively little show keen observation, and even careful study. is known; his book of travels is thus, in a sense, A queer cosmopolitan metropolis is Constanti- original; his descriptions are graphic and even nople, and the I)ictuies of its life are full of quaint pictorialso much so that the reader feels a sense and curious interest.The Abode of Snow, ic- of disappointment that such opportunities for art printed from Blackwoods Mc~qaziae (G. P. Pot- should be wholly lost, for there are no illustra- nams Sons), carries the reader on a romantic tions. A valuable map accompanies the volume. SUMMARY OF SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS. Astrononzy.During September numerous as- tronomical liublications have been received from Europe, most prominent among ~vhich are the sixth volume of the magnificent series of the Pulkova Ol)servatiOns and the valuable special memoirs that issue from that imperial institution. Of these latter, Dollens second paper on the use of the transit instrument ia the vertical of the pole-star should be in the hands of every Amer- ican geographer, geodesist, or astronomer. Dr. Doberek, of the Markree Observatory, Ire- land, has published the results of his ~vork upon the orbits of the binary stars Zeta Aquarii and Gamma Leonis. The former of these was meas- ured by Sir William Herschel in 1781, and it is only by virtue of this old observation that we are enabled to obtain a good approximation to the time of revolution of this binary, which is about 1500 years. Gamma Leonis has a much more rapid motion, as it completes a revolution in 402 years. Dr. Dobereks elements agree very closely with observation during the entire period 180065, the average discordance between the distance as measured and the distance as com- l)uted being less than a quarter of a second of arc. Mr. Alvan Clark, of Cambridge, calls attention to the rapid change of position of the binary star Mu Herculis. Appearancesseem to indicate that this binary has a shorter period than any known double star except, perhaps. Delta Equulei, and this fact, as ~vell as the intrinsic interest of this pair (originally discovered by Mr. Clark), should recommend it as an object for observation to those who possess telescopes of sufficient po~ver (twelve inches aperture and above). The observa- tions at the Naval Observatory indicate a change of about 150 in position-angle in the past year. In our last months Record we had occasion to notice the beautiful series of drawings of planets and nebulre published by the Harvard College Observatory under the direction of the late Pro- fessor Winhock. Mr. L. Trouvelot, the artist to whom the making of these drawings was con- fided, has h)repared, from late observations with his own telescope (six and a quarter inches ap- erture) and with the Harvard refractor (fifteen inches), a set of pastel drawiu~s, on a large scale, of Saturn, the nebnla of Andromeda, sun spots, and others. The Harvard College drawings were abotit eight by ten inches in size, ~vhile Mr. Troim- velots are about twenty-four by thirty-six inches, and they are of great fidelity and beauty. M. Terby, of Brussels, has undertaken a new discus- sion of drawings of Mars, and in order to make his data as complete as possible, requests that any person having drawings of Mars of amiy date may send them to hum at 124 Rue des Bogards, Lou- vain, Belgium. Dr. Fuhg hias published a discussion of all the observations of the suns diameter made at Greenwich from 1836 to 1870, with the particti- lar object of discovering the difference, if any, l)etween the polar and eqnatorial diameters, lie finds that no proof of aiiy such difference can be drawn from these Greemiwich observations, and from the whole number (6827) made between 1836 and 1870 lie concludes the mean apparent solar diameter to be 32 2.99. Airy previously found, from the observatiomis of 183647, 32 3.64, and this value is adopted in the English Nautical Almanac. It is known that the experiments of Foucault on the velocity of light, when combined with the value of the constant of aberration of Struve, give a value of the solar parallax (8.86) which is veiny close to the best recent determiminatious, and which ~~ill not be far from the results from the recent transit of Venus. The recent exper- iments of Corno on tIme velocity of light, cam- bimmed with this value of the solar parallax, indi- cate, however, that the value of tIme constant of aberration deduced from Bradleys observations by Bessel is the true one, and this value differs from Struves by 0.2. Villarcean has examine(l the question of the proper value of the constant of aberration under the 5up1)ositiou that the whole solar system has a ~roper motion, and he gives the outline of a h)lami for determining both the true constant of aberration and tIme direction of thie solar motion. This plan requires simmiltane ous observations to he made at points in each hemisphere where the latitude is 35C 16. lime expense of such expeditions ~vonld not be large, and important results might be expected from the carrying omit of this project. M. Flammarion has, during 1874 and 1875, observed thie changes of brightness of the 4th satellite of Jupiter with a view to determine its period of rotation. his principal conclusions are, first, the 4th satellite varies between the sixth an(l the tenth magimitmide; second, there is a probability (but not a certaimity) that it turns on its axis like our own moomin, so as to ahmvavs present the same thee to Jupiter; third, this hiy pothiesis will not account for all the vamiatiomus of brightness observed. Its reflecting power (al- beda) is, on thie whole, iuuferior to that of the thuree other satellites. M. Tisserand, of Toulouse, has made an inter- esting discussion of hiis observations of the shoot- ing-stars of time 9th, 10th, and 11th August, 1875. EDITORS SCIENTIFIC RECORD. 149 The tracks of eighty-eight meteors ~vcre careful- iy mapped, and as there seeme(l to be a prepon- derance of meteors in certain azimuths, these were united so as to give fourteen distinct tra- jectories, each of which was the result of three or four individual observations. These fourteen vere then treated as deserving great confidence, and from them the place of the radiant point ~as sought. The principal radiant was in right ascension 460 41, declination 560 7; ~vhile two secondary radiants were found, one of them in right ascension 570 20, and declination 510 40 and the other in right ascension 6{~ 0, and dec- lination fi30 0. These values satisfy the origi- nal observations very exactly, and this multiplic- ity of radiant points is a fact of great interest in the theory of shooting-stars. The little-known sabject of the zodiacal light has been studied for many years by Schmidt at Athens, and Heis at Milaster, the latter of whom has just published in full his own observations made in the course of the past thirty years. It is to be hoped that the observations made at Quito by the Rev. George Jones, of the United States navy, may some day also be published. rhe erection of the magnificent solar observa- tory at Potsdam, near Berlin, is being steadily carried forward. This establishment will em- brace more than twelve difrerent buildings, six of which are ohserviug domes, and one a fine Ihysical laboratory; the magnetic and meteoro- lo~ical observatory and the Zolluers horizontal pendulum will be also specially provided for. The erection of an observatory at Trieste has been determined upon by the Austrian govern- ment. A large telescol)e by Alvan Clark, of Cambridge, ~vill be its principal instrument. A very iml)ortant work in theoretical astron- omy has just been terminated by M. Leverrier in his investigations into the theories of the ma- jor planets, a work which he began with his re- searches into the perturbations of Uranus. The tables of the motion of Saturn are now com- pleted, and theory and observation have been compared from 1751 to 1869, with a very grati- fying accordance, except for the period 183944, during which time the discordances, though not large, are yet more serious than any from modern observations. M. Leverrier says that the the- ory is not to be charged with these discrepancies, and seeks for an explanation of them in personal l)ectlliarities in observing an olject so comi)lex in figure as Saturn. Sir William Thomson has re-examined La- l)laces theory of the tides, as developed in the M6caniqne C~leste, and comes to the concla- smon timat the objections which Airy brought against some of Laplaces analytical processes, and the interpretation of them in numbers, in his Tides and Waves, are not well taken and that the method of Laplace, although quite ob- scure, was nevertheless essentially correct. rhe pamphlet of Mr. John N. Stockwell, of Cleveland, on the Theory of the Moons Motion, will be likely to give rise to controversy, as it is a further extension of previous papers ~vhich we have noticed. Mr. Stockwell, after referring to the fact ~vhich has already called forth reply, that the present lunar tables do not satisfactori- ly represent the moons place, finds the explana- tion of this in the very outset of the lunar theory itself, where he claims that a fundamental error has been made, and in this work lays the foun- dation for a lunar theory on what he considers correct bases. In the sudden death (September 13, aged six- ty-four, by heart-disease) of Professor I. A. Lap- ham, of Milwaukee. American science has lost one of its warmest friends and supporters. To Mr. Lapham more than to any other one per- son the country owes the establishment of the Weather Bureau at Washington. lie was also intrumental in securing for Wisconsin its State survey. In Physics, tIme month has been characterized by the appearance of some valuable papers. Dc Luvues and Feilthe fommer well known from his researches on the Prince Ruperts drophave made some experiments on the hardened glass of M. De ha Bastie. They find that this glass presents many points of analogy with the Prince Ruperts drop, as well in tIme mode of production as of fracture. Thotigh it is not ordinarily pos- sible to cut a piece of this glass with a saw, a drill, or a file without its flying in pieces, yet in some cases it may be done. A disk, for exam- ple, may be drilled through its centre without fracture, though not elsewhere. A square plate of St. Gobain glass thus hardened showed in po- larized light a black cross, the lines of which were parallel to the sides. It is always possible to saw such a plate along these lines without fracture, though beyond them, either pamallel or transverse to them, any attempt to etit the plate fractures it. If the two fragments of a plate thus cut be examined in polarized light, the arrangement of the dark bands and colored fringes sho~vs the molecular state to have altered by tIme division. Placing the one l)latO directly upon the other in the original position, both bands and fringes dis- appear; while if reversed and superposed, the ef- fect is increased, being that due to a plate of double thickness; hence the tension in the plate is symmetrical with reference to the saw cut. We may conclude, tlmerefore, that while harden- ed glass is in a state ot tension, it may always be cut in certain directions wlmen tIme resulting pieces can take a condition of stable equilibrium. This is easily determined by examination with polar- ized light. In the case of fractrmre tIme fragments are always symmetrically amranged with melation to the point wlmere tIme eqmmilibrium was first de- stroyed. The authoms Imave also examined into the cause of the babbles so generally seen in hardened glass. rhey find them to be produced at tIme moment of hardening, and to disappear, or nearly so, when the glass is annealed. rhey Imeuce conclude that they are due to the impris- oning of minute masses of gas in tIme glass, these masses becoming enormously dilated when the glass is hardened; tlmis dilatation, which is act- ually 1700 or 1800 times the original volume, being caused by the contraction of the surround- ing glmmss produced in the process of hardening. Pfaff has made some experiments upon the plasticity of ice, in order to throw additional light recorded motion. In none of the hitherto observations is any mention made of the amommnt of pressmmre necessary to change the form of ice, though Moseley obsemved that to pull apamt an ice cylinder a weight of 5~ to 9 atmos- pheres was required to the square inch, and to fracture it a pressmmre of 7~ to 9 atmospheres. Pfafflmas sought to determimme the minimum press- 150 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. ure at which ice yields, and has proved that even the slightest pressure is sufficient if it act contin- uously, and if the temperature of the ice and of its surroundings be near the melting-point. In one experiment a hollow iron cylinder 11.5 milli- meters in diameter sunk into the ice 3 millimeters in two hours, it being surrounded with sno~v, the temperature varying from 1~ to 0.50. XVhen the temperature rose above the melting-point, it sank 3 centimeters in one hour! scarcely a trace of water resulting. A steel rod a square centi- meter in section, when pressed with one-third of an atmosphere, sank into the ice 14 millimeters in three hours, the temperature being 2.50. The flexibility of ice was shown by placing a parallelo- piped 52 centimeters long, 2.5 centimeters broad, and 1.3 centimeters thick upon wooden supports placed near its ends. From February 8 to 15, the temperature varying from 190 to ~~35O, the middle portion sank only 11.5 millimeters. But the succeeding twenty-four hours the tem- perature was higher, and the middle of the bar sank 9 millimeters. From 8 A.M. to 2 P.M. the increase was 3 millimeters, when the bar broke, the temperature being +30. The whole bend- ing was 23.5 millimeters. Similar experiments were made upon the ductility of ice; it elongated by traction. From these results it is easily seen why a glaciers motion increases with the tem- perature. Decharme has communicated an additional pa- per on the sonorous flames previously described hy him, in which he gives experimental reasons for believing that the air which is blown against the flame, and which he supposed to act solely mechanically, plays also a chemical part. He finds that using a Bunsen burner, the sound is extremely feeble unless the air openings be closed and the flame be luminous. Moreover, neither carbon dioxide nor nitrogen gases ~vill produce the sound unless oxygen be mixed with it. The author hence believes that the sound results from the small explosions which are in- cessantly produced by the combination of the oxygen of the air with the carbon and hydrogen of the flame ~vhen the combustion of this is al- ready incomplete. That the sound should be ~vell pronounced, therefore, the presence of air or of oxygen mixed with some inert gas is nec- essary. Bresina has described a simple method of comparing the rates of vibration of two sounding air columns by means of oscillating flames. To the jets supplying two ordinary singing tubes are affixed lateral branches, by which the gas from each may also be supplied to a second burner supported on a convenient lateral stand. When the flames in the tubes sing, those outside vi- brate in unison with them; and by means of a revolving mirror the ratio of the two may easily be ascertained by counting. If the two singing flames are connected to the same exterior flame, the combined vibration is seen in the mirror. Lesneur recommends strongly the use of zinc to prevent the formation of incrustations in steam- boilers. His attention was called to the subject by observing that the brass stays of a surfimce condenser in a steam-vessel were reduced, after a fe~v years of service, to a mass of spongy cop- per, the zinc having entirely disappeared. This having occurred repeatedly, the constructors of these condensers placed zinc in the condensers, and observed that not only was the brass no lon- ger attacked, but the boilers supplied from these condensers were entirely free from incrustation. Direct experiments of the authors have confirm- ed this fact. The explauation of it he finds either in the electric current thus generated in the boiler, the zinc being positive and the iron negative, or more probably in the hydrogen con- tinually set free in minute quantity on the iron surface, thus preventing the adherence of scale. (The author does not seem to be aware that this same device is not ne~v, having been employed for this purpose for many years in the United States.) Mayer has proposed a simple mode of obtain- ing thermographs of the isothermals of the solar disk by the use of Meusels double iodide. [bin paper, smoked on one side, is covered on the oth- er with the iodide, and is exposed to the suns image, formed by a telescopic object-glass, the aperture being at first only that necessary to give the smallest area of blackened iodide with a sharp contour. This he calls the area of maximum temperature. On enlarging the aperture, the black area gradually extends, forming a series of new isothermal lines with the successive en- largements. Some interesting conclusions have already been reached, and it is the authors in- tention to make a thorough investigation of the vast field thus opened. Troost and Hautefenille have made a calori- metrical investigation on iron and manganese silicides. They conclude, first, that silicon in com- bining with manganese evolves considerable heat, and hence that the compound thus formed is very stablea fact already proved for carbon. Sec- ond, that the similarity of these two substances, carbon and silicon, appears also when their action on iron is considered; they both act as if they ~vere dissolved in the metal. Lundquist has given the results of his calcula- tions to determine the distribution of heat in the normal sun spectrum, founded on certain meas- uremnents of Lamanskys. He represents the in- tensity of this heat graphically, and gives curves in which the ordinates represent intensities, and the abscissas wave lengths. It appears from these curves that in the normal spectrum of the son the maximum of heat is situated about in the middle of the luminous spectrum, and diminish- es on both sides of this point, thus confirming entirely the experimental results obtained by Dr. John W. Draper in 1872. In the electric spec- trum, ho~vever, assuming Tyndalls results as data, calculation gives a curve in ~vhich the max- imum of heat is near the line A. In this case the distribution of heat is not equal in both halves of the visible spectrum. Rayet has published a paper on the conical solar dials of the ancients, particularly that of Heraclens of Latmos, with a viev to bring to light the amount of knowledge possessed by their constructors. The interior surface of these dials constitutes a cone, the section of which by the upper horizontal surface being a curve of the second degree, either an ellipse (dials of Herac- lens and at Naples), a hyperbola (dial at Athens), or a parabola (Phenician dial). The latter curve requires that one of the generatrices of the cone should be rigorously horizontal, and has been only once observed. Bat the dials were not made in this way; the cone was traced with any EDITORS SCIENTIFIC RECORD. 151 convenient proportions, stbject only to the con- dition that its summit should be on a perpendic- ular from the centre of the base. Bunsen has given an account of some ne~v methods in spectrum analysis, in which he has sought to render the use of the spark for obtaining spectra as easy and as general as that of the gas flame. The first portion of his paper is devoted to a description of the battery coil and spark ap- paratus required; the second gives the results of his investigations in this way, particularly with the rarer elements. The memoir is accompanied by three spectrum plates, uncolored, sho~ving the spectra of thirty elements and compounds. Watts has described a ne~v form of microme- ter for use with the speetroscope, in which one of the lines of the spectrum itself is substituted for the cross wires. This line may be the sodi- tim line, which is almost always present in gas- flame spectra, a hydrogen line with vacua tubes, or a Fraunhofer line in solar work. This stand- ard line is displaced by a micrometer screw, by which the amount of motion necessary to move it from one point of a spectrum to another may be ascertained. The micrometer screw is at- tached to the upper half of a divided lens placed between the prism and the observing telescope, nnd moves this half over the lower, which is fixed. Adams has devised a new polariscope for ex- amining the rings of crystals, the objects had in view being (1) to obtain a large field, (2) to secure the means of measuring both the rings and the axial angles, and (3) to be able to immerse the crystal in liquid. The peculiarity of the optical arrangement is that the crystal section is placed at the common centre of curvature of two nearly hemispherical lenses, so that its relation to these is unchanged when the crystal and lenses are rotated about any axis parallel to its surfaces and passing through this centre. In General Gliemistry a few important addi- tions have been made to our knowledge. Dela- chanal and Mermet have prepared a compound of platinum, tin, and oxygen analogous to the gold compound known as the purple of Cassius. When the brown liquid which is obtained when a solution of platinic chloride is mixed with one of stannous chloride is diluted with water and boiled, a brown substance is precipitated which, when well washed with hot ~vater, contains no chlorine, but only oxygen, tin, and platinum. The authors have also prepared the same sub- stance by placing a strip of tin in platinic chlo- ride. Its composition somewhat varies with its mode of preparation. Friedel has produced a direct union of methyl oxide and hydrogen chloridea body which, since both of its constituents can exist free, must be classed with the molecular compounds of Ke- kul~. But Friedel shows that this body is not decomposed when converted into vapor, and hence argues that the ordinary rules of chemical tinion should be extended to it. This can only be done by supposing its oxygen to act as a tet- md or its chlorine a triad. Since hydrogen chloride and methyl chloride do not unite even at ~18o to ~2Oo, the author inclines to the for- mer view, and supports it by other cases, such as water of crystallizationa view of the mat- ter which was taken some years ago by Wolcott Gibbs. Ramsay has examined the properties of ethyl- thiosulphate of sodium prepared by the action of ethyl bromide on soditim thiosulphate. He finds that it is exceedingly unstable, decompos. ing spontaneously in a few weeks. The precip- itates produced in its solutions by silver, lead, or barium nitrates are even more rapidly decom- posed, only a few hours being required. When distilled with phosphoric chloride a complex re- action takes place, ethyl disulphide being, one of the products. Deering has noted some points ~vorthy of no- tice in examining waters by the ammonia meth od. He observes that the tint after the addition of the Nessler solution increases constantly in depth; hence he makes a caramel solution after ten minutes to imitate the distillate, and uses that for comparison. He also notes that dis- tilled water contains ammonia; that potable wa- ters yield ammonia in the second, third, and fourth fractions; that commercial stick potash gives ammonia when distilled with water; and that an aqueous extract of peat gives much am- monia when distilled with sodium carbonate. Griffin describes his new form of portable gas furnace, in which a pound of cast iron can be melted in thirty-five minutes, and the new metli- od of supporting crucibles in it. In Organic Chemistry, Prevost has given a new and simple method of preparing epieblor- hydrin, ~vhich consists in ~varming dichlorhydrin in a capacious retort attached to a receiver, and adding pulverized sodium hydrate to it in the proportion of 250 grams to 550 cubic centimeters of dichlorhydrin, the temperature beitig kept be- low 1300. Almost pure epieblorhydrin distills over. Stenhouse and Groves have shown that by the prolonged action of chlorine upon pyrogallol, two new bodies are formed, which they call respect- ively mairogallol and leucogallol. The former is produced by a long-contintied action of the gas, and crystallizes from boiling glacial acetic acid, or from mixed ether and glacial acid, in brilliant orthorhombic prisms. Leucogallol forms crystalline crusts composed of minute colorless needles. Miintz and Rataspacher propose to determine tannin in its solutions by filtering these, under pressure if necessary, through a piece of fresh hide. This combines with the tannin, arid the filtrate is entirely free from this substance. A section of the skin afterward sho~vs a line in the middle, above which the skin has thus been con- vetted into leather. Microscopy.XVe find in the August number of the Journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club the description of an ingenious arrangement for cleaning very thin covers without breaking them. It consists of a small tube of brass or steel, about an inch in diameter, and the same in height, into ~vhich fits loosely a weighted plug. To the low- er end of this plug is cemented a piece of chamois leather. Another piece of leather is stretched upon a fiat piece of wood or plate glass to form a pad, which completes the apparatus. The tube being placed upon the pad, the moistened thin cover is dropped into it, and the weighted plug placed on it; holding the tube well down on the pad, one can rub as much as necessary without any danger of breaking, the weight of the plug giving sufficient pressure to clean the

Editor's Scientific Record Editor's Scientific Record 151-155

EDITORS SCIENTIFIC RECORD. 151 convenient proportions, stbject only to the con- dition that its summit should be on a perpendic- ular from the centre of the base. Bunsen has given an account of some ne~v methods in spectrum analysis, in which he has sought to render the use of the spark for obtaining spectra as easy and as general as that of the gas flame. The first portion of his paper is devoted to a description of the battery coil and spark ap- paratus required; the second gives the results of his investigations in this way, particularly with the rarer elements. The memoir is accompanied by three spectrum plates, uncolored, sho~ving the spectra of thirty elements and compounds. Watts has described a ne~v form of microme- ter for use with the speetroscope, in which one of the lines of the spectrum itself is substituted for the cross wires. This line may be the sodi- tim line, which is almost always present in gas- flame spectra, a hydrogen line with vacua tubes, or a Fraunhofer line in solar work. This stand- ard line is displaced by a micrometer screw, by which the amount of motion necessary to move it from one point of a spectrum to another may be ascertained. The micrometer screw is at- tached to the upper half of a divided lens placed between the prism and the observing telescope, nnd moves this half over the lower, which is fixed. Adams has devised a new polariscope for ex- amining the rings of crystals, the objects had in view being (1) to obtain a large field, (2) to secure the means of measuring both the rings and the axial angles, and (3) to be able to immerse the crystal in liquid. The peculiarity of the optical arrangement is that the crystal section is placed at the common centre of curvature of two nearly hemispherical lenses, so that its relation to these is unchanged when the crystal and lenses are rotated about any axis parallel to its surfaces and passing through this centre. In General Gliemistry a few important addi- tions have been made to our knowledge. Dela- chanal and Mermet have prepared a compound of platinum, tin, and oxygen analogous to the gold compound known as the purple of Cassius. When the brown liquid which is obtained when a solution of platinic chloride is mixed with one of stannous chloride is diluted with water and boiled, a brown substance is precipitated which, when well washed with hot ~vater, contains no chlorine, but only oxygen, tin, and platinum. The authors have also prepared the same sub- stance by placing a strip of tin in platinic chlo- ride. Its composition somewhat varies with its mode of preparation. Friedel has produced a direct union of methyl oxide and hydrogen chloridea body which, since both of its constituents can exist free, must be classed with the molecular compounds of Ke- kul~. But Friedel shows that this body is not decomposed when converted into vapor, and hence argues that the ordinary rules of chemical tinion should be extended to it. This can only be done by supposing its oxygen to act as a tet- md or its chlorine a triad. Since hydrogen chloride and methyl chloride do not unite even at ~18o to ~2Oo, the author inclines to the for- mer view, and supports it by other cases, such as water of crystallizationa view of the mat- ter which was taken some years ago by Wolcott Gibbs. Ramsay has examined the properties of ethyl- thiosulphate of sodium prepared by the action of ethyl bromide on soditim thiosulphate. He finds that it is exceedingly unstable, decompos. ing spontaneously in a few weeks. The precip- itates produced in its solutions by silver, lead, or barium nitrates are even more rapidly decom- posed, only a few hours being required. When distilled with phosphoric chloride a complex re- action takes place, ethyl disulphide being, one of the products. Deering has noted some points ~vorthy of no- tice in examining waters by the ammonia meth od. He observes that the tint after the addition of the Nessler solution increases constantly in depth; hence he makes a caramel solution after ten minutes to imitate the distillate, and uses that for comparison. He also notes that dis- tilled water contains ammonia; that potable wa- ters yield ammonia in the second, third, and fourth fractions; that commercial stick potash gives ammonia when distilled with water; and that an aqueous extract of peat gives much am- monia when distilled with sodium carbonate. Griffin describes his new form of portable gas furnace, in which a pound of cast iron can be melted in thirty-five minutes, and the new metli- od of supporting crucibles in it. In Organic Chemistry, Prevost has given a new and simple method of preparing epieblor- hydrin, ~vhich consists in ~varming dichlorhydrin in a capacious retort attached to a receiver, and adding pulverized sodium hydrate to it in the proportion of 250 grams to 550 cubic centimeters of dichlorhydrin, the temperature beitig kept be- low 1300. Almost pure epieblorhydrin distills over. Stenhouse and Groves have shown that by the prolonged action of chlorine upon pyrogallol, two new bodies are formed, which they call respect- ively mairogallol and leucogallol. The former is produced by a long-contintied action of the gas, and crystallizes from boiling glacial acetic acid, or from mixed ether and glacial acid, in brilliant orthorhombic prisms. Leucogallol forms crystalline crusts composed of minute colorless needles. Miintz and Rataspacher propose to determine tannin in its solutions by filtering these, under pressure if necessary, through a piece of fresh hide. This combines with the tannin, arid the filtrate is entirely free from this substance. A section of the skin afterward sho~vs a line in the middle, above which the skin has thus been con- vetted into leather. Microscopy.XVe find in the August number of the Journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club the description of an ingenious arrangement for cleaning very thin covers without breaking them. It consists of a small tube of brass or steel, about an inch in diameter, and the same in height, into ~vhich fits loosely a weighted plug. To the low- er end of this plug is cemented a piece of chamois leather. Another piece of leather is stretched upon a fiat piece of wood or plate glass to form a pad, which completes the apparatus. The tube being placed upon the pad, the moistened thin cover is dropped into it, and the weighted plug placed on it; holding the tube well down on the pad, one can rub as much as necessary without any danger of breaking, the weight of the plug giving sufficient pressure to clean the 152 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. glass. The manipulation is quite easy, and it is difficult to break the glass. In the same number of the journal is an inter- esting paper, by Mr. W. F. Woods, on the rela- tion of Bucepkalsss to the cockle, lie states that, in contradistinction to the opinion of M. Lacaze- Duthiers, who has described it as a cercarian form of some unknown Distoma, that either,first, the Bucepholus is the larva of the cockle (and if not, it remains an interesting question for solution what is), or, second, the Bucep/ialns is a l)arasite; but if so, it does not render the cockle sterile, as asserted by Lacaze-Duthiers, and, third, the con- nection of the tube with the ovisacs, as established by presence of eggs in both, proves that it is not nit independent sporocyst, but an organ of the cockle, while,fourt/i, if this connection be denied, the Buce1dsnlus must still be developed from eggs seen in the tube. In contradiction of a third assertion bvLacaze- Duthiers, Dr. Wallich writes as follows in the Lnncet (June 12) on the subject of nutrition of the protozoan, lie states that for fifteen years lie has stood alone in maintaining that the law of nutritiols which l)revails in the case of the higher orders of the animal kingdom, and con- stitutes the fundamental distinction between it and the vegetable kingdom, fails in the case of the simplest and humblest creatnres and lie ex- presses a belief that the lower rhizopods provide for their nutrition and growth by eliminating from the medium in which they live the inn, (Innic elements that enter into the composition of their protol)1555m, and that there is no hard and-fast line between the two extremes of the two great kingdoms, but a gradual transition and overlapping from both sides. The results of sleep-sea explorations, and especially the exam- ination of the Tuscnrora soundings, do not con- firm this view; the vegetable growths, even at extremest depths, proceed pan pnssu into the an- irnal, and we see as yet no reason why the same provision that holds good in the case of the high- er and terrestrial organisms should not be ex- tended to the humblest marine or aqueous forms. We learn from a contemporary that in order to facilitate the microscopical examination of the eve in cases of disease, M. Monover has con- trived a modification of Siebels oplsthalmoscope, so arranged that three persons can make sinsul- taneous observations. In the .Montlslq Micro- scopical Journal for September, 1875, is an in- teresting paper by Worthington G. Smith on the resting spores of the potato fungus, or the new~ potato disease, as it has been called, and he sho~vs that it is no other than the old enemy in disguise, Peronospora infestans, in an unusual and excited condition. The article is ~vell illustrated, and worthy the attention of microscopists interested in the study of these parasitic organisms. In the same josirnal is the conclusion of Dr. Bastians address on the microscopic germ theory of dis- ease, in ~vhichs he insists that the facts already known abundantly suffice to displace the narrow and exclusive vital theory, and to re-establish a broader physico-chemical theory of fermentation, and that the original notion, borrowed from the vital theory of fermentation, that all the organ- isms met with in a fermenting mixture are strict- ly lineal descendants of those originally intro- duced as ferments, must disappear with the vital theory itself, and with it the old explanation of the mode of increase of coistagiuma within the body. While connected for a few ~veeks with hay dens United States Survey of the Territories, 1)r. A. S. Packard, Jun., discovered on the shores of Great Salt Lake a new cave-insect fauna an- alogous to that of Mammoth Cave. A new blind white thousand-legs, a myriapodous insect, and a singular harvest-man, a spider-like form, bosh new to science, were discovered in a cave about two hundred feet above the present level of thin lake, on the bottom of ~vhich vere fossil fresh water shells. We no~v know that thsis cave was made during the phiocene-tersiary leriod, and we have some data in ascertaining tlse length of time necessary for tIme origination of these pecul- iar cave forms. This discovery throws light on the probable geological age of the cave fauna of Mammoth, Wyandotte, Weyers, and other caves in the Atlantic States. 1)r. Packard also studied tIme fauna of Great Salt Lake, finding a new insect larva living in the brine, lie also studied the development of the brine shrimps (Arteniin), discovering the lar- va. The entire history of the Eplsydra fly, so abundant in the lsske, was also ascertained. Among injurious insects, the Unloptenus spre- tus has been found on the grounds of the State Agricultural College at Amherst, Massachusetts. On comparing specimens withs some received from California through Mr. henry Edmvards, of San Francisco, no differeusces in size of body or wings were discovered on careful comparisons made by Dr. Packard. The phylloxera has also occurred for the first time in thin vineyard of tIme Amherst Agricultur- al College, while tIme Colorado potato beetle is abundant and destructive within eighteen miles of Boston, and in other parts of Massachusetts as ~vell as Connecticut. The American Naturalist for September con- tains an illustrated article on the crocodile of Florida, by Mr. W. T. Ilornaday. Much infor- mation concerning the habits of this animal, which was first discovered in 1870 by the late Professor Wyman, is given in the present article. Professor G. Bromvn Goode notices in the Amer- ican Naturalist the occurrence of an albino had dock and an albino eel, and it seems that speci- mens of albinos of both of tlsese fishes occur in the musesum of thin Peabody Academy of Science at Salem. BotanyThe lover of trees will welcome the report on tIme trees and shrubs growing naturally in the forests of Massachusetts, by Mr. George B. Emerson, which is enriched ~vith a number of finely executed plsstes by Mr. Isaac Sprague. A new feature consists in colored views of tIme leaves of the dithorent species as they appear in the fall. We learn that the muchmvishmed-for Flora of Gulifornia, by Professor W. II. Brewer, is fast approachsing completion, and will be giveim to the public probably during time coming winter. In the .Journal of Botanu~ Mr. J. Cosmo Mel- ville describes some new algrn found by him at Key West. I)e Bary, in the Botunisclie Zei- tunq, gives an account of the formation of the protlmalus in C/sara, with some interesting re- marks on parthmeno-genesis in Chara crinita. Under the head of Agricultural Science we have previously reported the results of observa- tions by Fautrat, in France on tIme influence EDITORS SCIENTIFIC RECORD. 153 of forests upon rain-fall. From these it appear- ed that the air above a forest is more nearly sat- urated with moisture than at the same elevation above cleared laud, and, further, that the fall of rain was greater in the former than in the latter situation. Fautrat has since shown, however, that the amount of rain actually received by the soil is less under the cover of the forest than on the open land. Of the rain-water received a part is evaporated, arid only the remainder con- tributes to the sup~)ly of streams. By compar- ative observations Fautrat finds the evaporation only one-tenth as great from the soil of the for- est as from that of open land. So the forest soil is actually much more moist, and furnishes to springs aiid streams more ~vater from rain than the same area of cleared land. Again, there is more moisture above forests to be carried over cultivated land and deposited as dew upon die cooled earth at night. Forests are therefore in a double sense uscful as retain- ers and furnishers of moisture to the earth. Simon claims to have settled the vexed ques- tion whether humic acid contains nitrogen or not by showing that when first prepared from non-nitrogenous bodies it is free from nitrogen, but that it takes on nitrogen from the air, at the same time becoming soluble in water. lie states dint huniic acid kept out of contact with air, and especially nitrogen, is insoluble in water and remains so. On exposure to air, however, it absorbs nitrogen with evolution of carbonic acid and tormation of humate of ammonia, ~vliicb is soluble in water. In this view, peat and muck are valuable not only as amendments and for the fertilizing niaterial they contain, but also as pur- veyors of atmospheric nitrogen to the soil. Some time ago Grandean prol)ounded the nov- el theory that the fertility of soils depends not upon the absolnte amount of their mineral plant- food, but chiefly upon the amount ~vliich was combined with organic substances, and cited a number of experiments with a very fertile Rus- sian black earth soil in defense of his view. Simon has lately sought a confirmation of this theory in the artificial preparation of organo- mineral compounds such as are assumed by Grandean to exist in-nature, lie has succeeded in obtaining several quite strongly marked com- pounds of phosphoric acid with organic matter from huinic acid. It is probable that by such investigations very valuable light may be thrown upon the action of humus in vegetable nutrition. The fact has become tiniversally recognized that in many suh)erphosphates the phosphoric acid ~vhich has been rendered soluble by addition of sulphuric (or hydrochloric) acid to tribasic phosphate of lime reverts after a time to an insoluble or less soluble form. This process of reversion of phosphoric acid has been variously explained. Most comnfuonly, ho~vever, it is re- garded as a formation of either dibasic (neutral) Ihospliate of lime with the lime or of phosphate of iron or alumina ~vith the sesqnioxides of iron and alumina present. Millot has published in the Goniptes J?eadus some accounts of investigations ~vhich lead him to infer that in siuperphosphates in which enough sulphuric acid has been added to unite with the whole of the lime this reversion is not to be sought in the formation of a dibasic phosphate of lime, but rather in that of phos- phates of iron and alumina. The reversion of soluble luhiosphoric acid of su- perphosphates ~vhen applied to calcareous soils has been studied by Ritthansen. lie concludes that the process is more or less rapid in proportion as the calcareous material is more or less loose and finely divided; that the final product of the ic- action of the phosphoric acid and tIre lime is neutral or dibasic phosphate ; arid finally dint the actual loss from the reversion of the phosphoric acid to this dicalcic phosphate is not so great as might at first seem, since the latter is not ~vhuolhy insoluble in pure water, and is quite soluble in ~vater containing carbonic acid. An interesting contribution to our kno~vledge of the composition of such roots as beets and turnips has been made by Schnultze an(h Urich in investigations on field beets. (llunlcelriibcn, Beta ra,nacee elba ~) In the analysis of fodder mate- rials it hues been customary to assume that all the organic nitrogen occurs in the form of albumi noids. Schultze and Urich found, however, that only 21.6 to 38.9 per cent, of the nitrogenous material of their beets ~~as present in the form of albuminoids, and that 34.0 to 45.7 per cent. existed in the form of amides. Asaparagin was not detected, but betain was fotund iii couisider- able quantities in the beets. Chin has given a method for the prepauntion of crystallized monobromearuphor, beiu~ camphor in ~vhrich an atom of bromine has replaced one of hydrogen by the ditect action, at 1000 C., of bro- mine upon camphor. [he specimens shown to the French Academy ~vere magnificently crystallized. Bouurnevihle fluids that monobromeamphor (I) lessens the numhuer of beats of tIre heart, (2) lessens the number of insl)iratious, (3) lowers the temh)erature of the body, (4) possesses pow- erful sedative l)ropertres, and (5) pro(huuces ordi- narily no disturbance of the digestive ni-gaas. It has been used with good effect in nervous affec- tions, even in cases of long standing. Engiaeer-iaq. Ihe board of cuigineers cour- ~eued by Captain Ends to examine nuid pass judg- ment upon his plans for the improvement of the month of the Mississippi has, after a caueful con- sideration of the subject in all its details, emphuat ically indorsed the feasibility of this great work. With respect to details, a niumber of minor mod- ifications to tire plan proposed au-c recommended. Of these perhaps tIre most important is the icc ommendation that tire proper line for the east- ward jetty shall begin about 6380 feet from tire Lands End, arid about 1080 feet beyond tire mattress laid September 1, aur(h on tIre hue sub mitted by Cnuptairi Ends. A slight modification of its cur~ature is likewise suggested, so as to render the action of the emuri-ent nuou-e effective, and secure gi-eater solidity, and also thrat this jetty should overlap the end of the ~vest jetty by at least 300 feet. As to tIre pi-oper ~vidthr between the jetties at their oruter ends, the board recoin mends that it remain as designed by Captain Ends, at 1000 feet at due water surface at ordi- nary high tide. Upon the question of priority of construction of different parts of tIre work, it is recommended that the foundation of tire east jetty be secured omit to a depth of thirty feet, and of the ~vest jetty to twenty feet, and dint the east jetty be carried up to the water-line before rais- ing the mattress wall of the west jetty to the same level, leaving the construction details of tire pier- heads for future consideration. Upon tIre gen 154 HARPERS NE~~ MONTHLY MAGAZINE. & ral features of the improvement l)lan the board States-General of the Netherlands for re-exam- reports as follows: After attentive examination ining into the possibility of draining the Zuyder~ of the plan of construction, consisting of a coin- Zee, and for soundings to determine the charac- hination of willo~v mattresses and stone, now in ter of the soil at its bottom. execution by Mr. Eads, the board finds it to be a It is proposed to establish a subterranean pneu- modification of methods long in use in Holland matic postal service bet~veen Versailles and Paris, and elsewhere. It is essentially the same as that in order to facilitate communication bet~veen the applied to the jetties of the month of the Odem, seat of the government at the former and the and also to the jetties at the new mouth of the general service of the government departments Mans, so satisfactorily as to draw from the legis- at the latter place. The line proposed will be lative body of Holland the expression that their double, permitting the carriage of twenty kilos coml)lete success has removed all doubts as to of dispatelses an hour in both directions. the possibility of making piers at sea on our From the annual report of the Secretary of the coast. It is, moreover, the same essentially as American Iron and Steel Association, which has that adoptcd by the recent commission [1874] for just appeared, we learn that the total production these works. of rolled iron in the United States in 1874, in- The government works at Ilalletts Point hay- cladiug Bessemer steel rails, was 1,839,560 net jug for their purpose the removal of the hell tons, as coml)ared with 1,966,445 tons in 1873, Gate obstructions to the navigation of New York a decrease of only 126,885 tons. This decrease harbor are now very near completion. The was all in rails. The home production of Bes- work of excavation is completed, aud comprises semer steel rails in 1874, from the same authori- a surface of two atid a quarter acres. At the in- ty, ~vas 144,944 net tons, against 129,015 tons in tersection of the headings and galleries columns 1873, a gain of 15,929 tons. The production of or piers are left standing, aud by these, which Bessemer mails in this country since the inauga- number 172, the roof of rock, some ten feet in ration of the industry in 1867 has been as fol- thickuess, is snpl)orted. Some ten or fifteen lows in net tons: holes of two and three inches diameter are now 1867 2,250 ~ ~ 250 being bored by steam-drills in each of the col- ls~s. 7,225 1872 94 070 nmns, and three-inch holes, about five feet ap~trt 1869 9,650 1873 129,015 in the roof. 1hese holes will contain eight and 1870. 34000 1874 144,944 ten POund charges of nitro-glycerine, aud will be The Railroad Gazette places the extent of all counected together by gas-pipe filled ~vith the ne~v railroad constructod in the United States in same explosi~e. These borings are about half 1875, up to September 25, at 746 miles, against completed, and will be finished in a mouth or 1025 miles reported for the same period in 1874, two. When all is ready, the water will be let 2507 miles in 1873, and 4623 in 1872. into the excavation and the whole series of In our monthly record of Mechanical novel- charges exploded simultaneously by electricity, ties we may note that the ponderous 81-ton gun It is calculated that if only half the charges are has just been ceml)leted at the royal gnu tite- exploded, the work will be effectually accom- tories at Woolwich. Its length is thirty-three pushed. The filliug of the holes will occupy feet, and its diameter varies from t~vo feet at the some time during the coming winter, and the muzzle to about six feet at the breeeh; while fining of the mine is looked for about June or internally the bore measures twenty-seven feet, July next. and ~vill just admit a projectile of fourteen and a The ne~v ~vork at Flood Rock is now in prog- half inclines diameter. ress, and a shaft has been sunk to the depth of A lately invented street mail for horse-cars is fifty feet in the solid rock. The same system designed to do away with the battering of the will be pursued here as at IIalletts Point, save rail ends and the jolting of passengers. The that the excavations will be much greater in ex- novelty consists in its having the head and the tent; and the time occupied in their completion flange separate, and in the flict that tIme upper will depend chiefly upon the appropriations made and lower pieces are laid down in such a maimer by Congress. The removal of the reef at Hal- as to break joimints. This novel combination, it letts Point will materially lessen time dangers of is claimed, gives a smooth, coinutinuous rail line, the Hell Gate passage, and will prove of perma- having unusual rigidity. The lower piece, or neat advantage to commerce. flange, is so designed that it amay be reversed The laying of the direct United States cable when ~vorn, thus offering a ue~v surface for ~vear. was completed on September 5. At the last meeting of the Franklin Institute FmoIn a paper read before the British Associa- a resolation was adopted appointing a commit- tion at its late meeting it appeals tlmat work tee to test the strength of irons and steels em- upon tIme Severn Tunnel, a project andertaken ployed in the construction of boilers and bridges, by tlm~ Great-Western Railway Company to con- and appropriating $1000 for the expenses of nect their system at Bristol with that in South conducting tIme tests; also a resolution indorsing Wales, is being pushed forward. llme tunnel the proposition for the establishment of a 1~Iuse- will be about four and a half miles in length, am of Indminstrial Art in the city of Philadelphia. one-half of which will be nuder the river Severn. The plan proposes a museum similar to the South It will connect in the most direct manner tlme Kensington Mmuseum of London, to develop art populous disti-icts of South Wales with the south industry of every kind by the best examples, free of England, and when completed will form tIme lectures on technical subjects, amid schools. The express route between London and South Wales. projectors of this important enterprise nine desiromis At the same meeting the Channel Tunnel scheme of securing the Memorial Building of the Centen- was the subject of considerable discussion, which nial Exhibition for this purpose after the close of was in genemal favorable to its feasibility, the Exhibition. The enterprise has the indorse- A sum of 8000 forms has been voted by the meat of all the Philadelphia scientific societies. POLITICAL OUR Record is closed on the 21st of October. The Ohio State election, October 12, re- sulted in the election of hayes, the Republican candidate, by a majority of nearly 5000. Elec- tions were held the same day in Iowa and Ne- braska, the Republican majority in the former State being over 30,000, and in the latter about 10,000. rhe new Constitution of Nebraska was ratified by the people. The Massachusetts Republican Convention at Worcester, September 29, nominated Alexander H. Rice for Governor. At the reunion of the Army of the Tennessee at Des Moines, Iowa, September 30, President Grant made a speech memorable for its length anil for the stress laid upon the question of sec- tarian schools. lie said: If we are to have another contest in the near fo- tnre of our national existence, I predict that the divid- ing line will not he Mason and Dixons, hut between patriotism and intelligence on the one side, and snper- stition, ambition, and ignorance on the other. Now the centennial year of our national existence, I be- lieve, is a good time to begin the work of strengthen- ing the foundations of the structure commenced by our patriotic forefathers one hundred years ago at Lexing- ton. Let us alt labor to aid all needful guarantees for the security of free thought, free speech, a free press, pure morals, unfettered religious sentiments, and of equal rights and privileges to all men, irrespective of nationality, color, or religion. Encourage free schools, and resolve that not one dollar appropriated for their support shall he appropriated to the support of any sectarian schools. Resolve that neither the State nor the nation, nor both comhined, shall support institu- tions of learning other than those sufficient to afford to every child growing up in the land the opportunity of a good common-school education, unmixed with sectarian, pagan, or atheistical dogmas. Leave the matter of religion to the family altar, the church, and the private school supported entirely hy private con- tributions. Keep the church and the state forever separate. The President has appointed ex-Senator Zach- ariah Chandler, of Michigan, Secretary ot the Interior, to succeed Mr. Delano, resigned. In the town elections of Connecticut, October, the constitutional amendments changing the time of holding the State election from spring to fall, making the term of office of the State officers two years instead of one, and empowering the Legislature to restore forfeited rights to an elect- or, were carried by a large majority. The Constitutional Convention of North Car- olina has completed its work and adjourned. The proposed amendments number thirty-one. Among these are the following: The number of Supreme Court judges is reduced from five to three; of Superior Court judges from twelve to nineall to be elected by the people. Both Supreme and Superior Court judges are to he elected for eight years. The principle of rotation of judges is adopted, and no jnd~e can hold the courts of any district twice in succession, except at intervals of four years. The General Assembly is empowered to allot and distribute the judicial power, regulate the juris- diction of the Supreme Court, all matters of appeal, practice, etc. The provision in the constitution of 1776, by which, upon a two-thirds vote of each House of the General Assembly, judges of the Supreme and Superior courts may be removed from office for phys- ical or mental inability, is re-enacted. This power is in addition to that of removal by impeachment. The article on suffrage and eligibility is amended in one important particular. Hereafter persons convicted of felony or other infamous crimes are denied the right to vote until restored to respectable citizenship by due course of law. The article on education is so amend- ed as to retain all fines, penalties, and forfeitures in the hands of the respective county oflicers, together with the poll-tax, and such property tax as is collected on that behalf. Separate schools for the two races are to be provided. The article on penal institutions, punishments, etc., is so amended as to give the Legis- lature power to farm out penitentiary convicts oii pub- lic works, public roads, etc. Intermarriage between whites and negroes is prohibited to the third genera- tion. The English Admiralty, in obedience to the indignant demands of the people of England, have suspended the circular of July 31, ordering the surrender of fugitive slaves found on board of British ships. A violent debate occurred, October 14, in the Bavarian Chamber of Deputies on the address introduced on the 8th by the ultramonuaiie party calling for the dismissal of the ministry. Depu- ty Freitag (ultramontane) reproached the gov- ernment with displaying insufficient independence in its relations with the Imperial government. He stated, also, that if the government displayed less fear of being domineered, they would easily find allies in the Federal Council in opposition to Prussia. Finally, the address was passed by a vote of 79 to 76. The king refused to accept the resignation of the ministry. The Spanish note in reply to the Vatican in- sists upon the maintenance of lie constitutional provision for religious toleration. The Old Catholics in Germany have decided to abrogate the celibacy of the priesthood. DISASTERS. September 26.A dummy train near Pliila- delphiia was run into by an excursion train on the Pennsylvania Railroad. Fiye persons killed and about twenty injured. September 17.Advices from St. Thomas of a severe hurricane. The British ship Codfisk went ashore on St. Vincent, and twelve of her crew were drowned. September 26.The steamer Adler came in collision with the Swedish steamer King Oscar II. near Grimshy, England. The latter sunk, and fourteen persons on board were drowned. September 28.At Sorel, in Canada, a train on the Richmond, Drummond, and Arthubaska Railway ran off the track. Eleven persons kill- ed, and twenty-four seriously injtured. October 4.The Swedish steamer L. .J. Poager, running het~veen Liibeck and Copenhagen, burned in the Baltic. Twenty-four of the passengers and eleven of the cre~v perished. OBITUARY. September 28.By drowning, at Sea Cliff, the Rev. George B. Porteous, pastor of All-Souls Church, Brooklyn, about forty-five years of age. October 7.Near Charlottesville, Virginia, Colonel Thomas Jefferson Randolph, grandson of Thomas Jefferson, aged eighty-three years. October 21. At Concord, Massachusetts, Frederic Hudson, the ~vell - known journalist, aged fifty-six years. October 13.In Paris, France, Jean Baptiste Carpeaux, the sculptor, aged forty-eight years. October 20.In Paris, France, Sir Charles Wheatstone, F.R.S., aged seventy-three years.

Editor's Historical Record Editor's Historical Record 155-156

POLITICAL OUR Record is closed on the 21st of October. The Ohio State election, October 12, re- sulted in the election of hayes, the Republican candidate, by a majority of nearly 5000. Elec- tions were held the same day in Iowa and Ne- braska, the Republican majority in the former State being over 30,000, and in the latter about 10,000. rhe new Constitution of Nebraska was ratified by the people. The Massachusetts Republican Convention at Worcester, September 29, nominated Alexander H. Rice for Governor. At the reunion of the Army of the Tennessee at Des Moines, Iowa, September 30, President Grant made a speech memorable for its length anil for the stress laid upon the question of sec- tarian schools. lie said: If we are to have another contest in the near fo- tnre of our national existence, I predict that the divid- ing line will not he Mason and Dixons, hut between patriotism and intelligence on the one side, and snper- stition, ambition, and ignorance on the other. Now the centennial year of our national existence, I be- lieve, is a good time to begin the work of strengthen- ing the foundations of the structure commenced by our patriotic forefathers one hundred years ago at Lexing- ton. Let us alt labor to aid all needful guarantees for the security of free thought, free speech, a free press, pure morals, unfettered religious sentiments, and of equal rights and privileges to all men, irrespective of nationality, color, or religion. Encourage free schools, and resolve that not one dollar appropriated for their support shall he appropriated to the support of any sectarian schools. Resolve that neither the State nor the nation, nor both comhined, shall support institu- tions of learning other than those sufficient to afford to every child growing up in the land the opportunity of a good common-school education, unmixed with sectarian, pagan, or atheistical dogmas. Leave the matter of religion to the family altar, the church, and the private school supported entirely hy private con- tributions. Keep the church and the state forever separate. The President has appointed ex-Senator Zach- ariah Chandler, of Michigan, Secretary ot the Interior, to succeed Mr. Delano, resigned. In the town elections of Connecticut, October, the constitutional amendments changing the time of holding the State election from spring to fall, making the term of office of the State officers two years instead of one, and empowering the Legislature to restore forfeited rights to an elect- or, were carried by a large majority. The Constitutional Convention of North Car- olina has completed its work and adjourned. The proposed amendments number thirty-one. Among these are the following: The number of Supreme Court judges is reduced from five to three; of Superior Court judges from twelve to nineall to be elected by the people. Both Supreme and Superior Court judges are to he elected for eight years. The principle of rotation of judges is adopted, and no jnd~e can hold the courts of any district twice in succession, except at intervals of four years. The General Assembly is empowered to allot and distribute the judicial power, regulate the juris- diction of the Supreme Court, all matters of appeal, practice, etc. The provision in the constitution of 1776, by which, upon a two-thirds vote of each House of the General Assembly, judges of the Supreme and Superior courts may be removed from office for phys- ical or mental inability, is re-enacted. This power is in addition to that of removal by impeachment. The article on suffrage and eligibility is amended in one important particular. Hereafter persons convicted of felony or other infamous crimes are denied the right to vote until restored to respectable citizenship by due course of law. The article on education is so amend- ed as to retain all fines, penalties, and forfeitures in the hands of the respective county oflicers, together with the poll-tax, and such property tax as is collected on that behalf. Separate schools for the two races are to be provided. The article on penal institutions, punishments, etc., is so amended as to give the Legis- lature power to farm out penitentiary convicts oii pub- lic works, public roads, etc. Intermarriage between whites and negroes is prohibited to the third genera- tion. The English Admiralty, in obedience to the indignant demands of the people of England, have suspended the circular of July 31, ordering the surrender of fugitive slaves found on board of British ships. A violent debate occurred, October 14, in the Bavarian Chamber of Deputies on the address introduced on the 8th by the ultramonuaiie party calling for the dismissal of the ministry. Depu- ty Freitag (ultramontane) reproached the gov- ernment with displaying insufficient independence in its relations with the Imperial government. He stated, also, that if the government displayed less fear of being domineered, they would easily find allies in the Federal Council in opposition to Prussia. Finally, the address was passed by a vote of 79 to 76. The king refused to accept the resignation of the ministry. The Spanish note in reply to the Vatican in- sists upon the maintenance of lie constitutional provision for religious toleration. The Old Catholics in Germany have decided to abrogate the celibacy of the priesthood. DISASTERS. September 26.A dummy train near Pliila- delphiia was run into by an excursion train on the Pennsylvania Railroad. Fiye persons killed and about twenty injured. September 17.Advices from St. Thomas of a severe hurricane. The British ship Codfisk went ashore on St. Vincent, and twelve of her crew were drowned. September 26.The steamer Adler came in collision with the Swedish steamer King Oscar II. near Grimshy, England. The latter sunk, and fourteen persons on board were drowned. September 28.At Sorel, in Canada, a train on the Richmond, Drummond, and Arthubaska Railway ran off the track. Eleven persons kill- ed, and twenty-four seriously injtured. October 4.The Swedish steamer L. .J. Poager, running het~veen Liibeck and Copenhagen, burned in the Baltic. Twenty-four of the passengers and eleven of the cre~v perished. OBITUARY. September 28.By drowning, at Sea Cliff, the Rev. George B. Porteous, pastor of All-Souls Church, Brooklyn, about forty-five years of age. October 7.Near Charlottesville, Virginia, Colonel Thomas Jefferson Randolph, grandson of Thomas Jefferson, aged eighty-three years. October 21. At Concord, Massachusetts, Frederic Hudson, the ~vell - known journalist, aged fifty-six years. October 13.In Paris, France, Jean Baptiste Carpeaux, the sculptor, aged forty-eight years. October 20.In Paris, France, Sir Charles Wheatstone, F.R.S., aged seventy-three years. ALLUDING to the lion. S. S. Coxs inter- estiug Legislative humors, in the Oc- tober nnmber of this Magazine, a friend at De- troit sends the following, of John Randolph, which Mr. Cox omitted: Mr. Clays fondness for whist was ~vell known. In reply to Mr. Clays charge that Randolph was an aristocrat, Randolph retorted, ~vith pistol finger aimed at Mr. C., If a man is known by the company he keeps, the geittleman from lien- tucky is the veriest aristocrat in the house, for he spends his nights in the company of kings, queens, and knaves. A FRIEND in Des Moines, Iowa, sends to the Drawer an account which was recently brought up in court in that city, which may be service- able as a guide to young accountants elsewhere: Mr. James Davison To John Benton, Dr. For 3 iron wheelbarrows C $15 00 $45 00 For 1 wooden do is eo Mr. Davison returned the hill as incorrect. Mr. Benton sued. When called in court, Mr. Da- vison said it wasnt right; first, because he never bought a wooden wheelbarrow, and second, if he had, the bill would have been $60 instead of $30. Mr. Benton, when called upon to ex- plain his account, said, I made three iron wheelbarrows for Mr. Davison for $45, but for one that wooden [wouldnt] do I deducted $15, and I reckon thats right. That was what the Court thought, and so ad- judged. SHOULD any of our readers hmappen to be going down to Rio do Janeiro, we can confidently com- mend to them as a l)lace of comfortable refuge the establishment named in the following card, which we copy cerbatiam: TUE BOTH WORLD HOTEL auM. 80 SAN IONAOIO STREET. ILAZA vIEJA. In this establishment set as the European style re- ceives lodgers which will find an spleuded assistance so in eating ss in habitation, theretore the master count with the elements umecessary. QUITE sure are we that our clerical friends will al)preciate the following, taken from a scholarly book recently published in England, and not likely to be reprinted here, entitled, Scripture Procerbs, Illustrated, Anaotated, and Applied. By Francis Jacox. In the chapter on A Time to Laugh allusion is made to a Mr. Robinson, an inmate of Shirley hall Asylum, who would burst into violent fits of laughter in church and at fu- nerals. Discharged from confinement as cured, and asked whether he considered himself perfectly safe from a return of the habit of laughing at seri- ous subjects, he declared himself confident about it except C)fl one point. On the subject of laugh- ing in church lie was still aplirehensive, and for this reason: he had once heard a clergyman de- plorimug the total absence in a congregation of conventional signs of the effect which the ser- mon is producing. The jester knows the effect of his jest by the laugh that follows it, the act- or gets his applause or hisses, the orator his cheers, but the preacher has no index whatev- er and this clergyman had expuessed a wish that his congregation had tails, which they could ~vag ~vitlmout distumbing the silence of the place or the solemnity of the scene. Mr. Robinson could .never get over this; every sermon lie aft- erward listened to was for him sl)oiled by it. If a pet parson entered the pulpit, I immediately saw all the feminine tails wagging; if he spoke of the duties of children to their parents, all the senile male tails wagged; aud m~mer a bug dull sermon, ~~hen all beut forivard to offer up their last prayer, there apluenred a simultaiieous wag gimig of all the tails of the congregamion. SPEAKING of the Prince of Waless trip to Imi- dia, and the numberless apl)hicumtions of special correspondents who desired to go along, time fol- lowing is good, aud the better for being strictly true: A certain very zea louis special called upon Sir Bartle Frere, and veliemnently imupuessed upon him the necessity for the press beiuug fully rep- resented on the persouial staff of the Primuce. B mit why, asked Sir Bartle Frere, are you so anxious to be constantly iui such close prox- imity to the Prince in Imidia? Surely youu nuiglit travel independently, amid yet be frequently near him ? The special grew excited. What, Sir Bar- tle, what 2hmould I do if any thimug were to Imap pen to Imis Royal Iligluness wimile I was absemmt from his side? I really dont know, answered Sir Bautle Frere; I suppose youd be sormy, like all of us. Sorry, Sir Bartle ! exclaimed die special; I should simply die ! MANY are the anecdotes that Imave been pub- lished of the late John Van Bmmren, but the fol- lo~vimug will be new to tIme readeus of the Drawer: Durimig his fatluers Presidential teum, Prince John, then a very youung man, imudmulged im] many playfumi performances tlmat were riot altogether a delight to time patermial. On one of his visits to Waslmington time Prince stopped at Willards, where his father came, and, after a kindly gucet- imig, said, Jolmn, I lund hoped you would some time puove to be a wouthy representative of omum family, bmmt I fear y oum never ~vill ; in fact, I armi convumiced that von ~vihl brimug disgrace rather timaum reflect credit umpoum it. Fathem, said John, you may thuimik, because youu happen to be Piesidemit of tIme Ummited States, thuat youu nine something more thmnum mm oudinary man, but permit me to say that you will never be kuiown in history except as the father of Johmum Vami Buren. AMONG the many imuterestimig peusonal sketches and anecdotes in the Memoirs ~f Sir Georqe Simm- ciaira book not likely to be republished in the Umuited Statesis the folbowimig of Sir Charles Wetherell, an eccentric of the fimat class, whose abilities as a lawyer won for 1dm a seat in Par- liament and the Attorney-Genemahship. lie was uniquue in relation to his dress and his deport-

Editor's Drawer Editor's Drawer 156-160

ALLUDING to the lion. S. S. Coxs inter- estiug Legislative humors, in the Oc- tober nnmber of this Magazine, a friend at De- troit sends the following, of John Randolph, which Mr. Cox omitted: Mr. Clays fondness for whist was ~vell known. In reply to Mr. Clays charge that Randolph was an aristocrat, Randolph retorted, ~vith pistol finger aimed at Mr. C., If a man is known by the company he keeps, the geittleman from lien- tucky is the veriest aristocrat in the house, for he spends his nights in the company of kings, queens, and knaves. A FRIEND in Des Moines, Iowa, sends to the Drawer an account which was recently brought up in court in that city, which may be service- able as a guide to young accountants elsewhere: Mr. James Davison To John Benton, Dr. For 3 iron wheelbarrows C $15 00 $45 00 For 1 wooden do is eo Mr. Davison returned the hill as incorrect. Mr. Benton sued. When called in court, Mr. Da- vison said it wasnt right; first, because he never bought a wooden wheelbarrow, and second, if he had, the bill would have been $60 instead of $30. Mr. Benton, when called upon to ex- plain his account, said, I made three iron wheelbarrows for Mr. Davison for $45, but for one that wooden [wouldnt] do I deducted $15, and I reckon thats right. That was what the Court thought, and so ad- judged. SHOULD any of our readers hmappen to be going down to Rio do Janeiro, we can confidently com- mend to them as a l)lace of comfortable refuge the establishment named in the following card, which we copy cerbatiam: TUE BOTH WORLD HOTEL auM. 80 SAN IONAOIO STREET. ILAZA vIEJA. In this establishment set as the European style re- ceives lodgers which will find an spleuded assistance so in eating ss in habitation, theretore the master count with the elements umecessary. QUITE sure are we that our clerical friends will al)preciate the following, taken from a scholarly book recently published in England, and not likely to be reprinted here, entitled, Scripture Procerbs, Illustrated, Anaotated, and Applied. By Francis Jacox. In the chapter on A Time to Laugh allusion is made to a Mr. Robinson, an inmate of Shirley hall Asylum, who would burst into violent fits of laughter in church and at fu- nerals. Discharged from confinement as cured, and asked whether he considered himself perfectly safe from a return of the habit of laughing at seri- ous subjects, he declared himself confident about it except C)fl one point. On the subject of laugh- ing in church lie was still aplirehensive, and for this reason: he had once heard a clergyman de- plorimug the total absence in a congregation of conventional signs of the effect which the ser- mon is producing. The jester knows the effect of his jest by the laugh that follows it, the act- or gets his applause or hisses, the orator his cheers, but the preacher has no index whatev- er and this clergyman had expuessed a wish that his congregation had tails, which they could ~vag ~vitlmout distumbing the silence of the place or the solemnity of the scene. Mr. Robinson could .never get over this; every sermon lie aft- erward listened to was for him sl)oiled by it. If a pet parson entered the pulpit, I immediately saw all the feminine tails wagging; if he spoke of the duties of children to their parents, all the senile male tails wagged; aud m~mer a bug dull sermon, ~~hen all beut forivard to offer up their last prayer, there apluenred a simultaiieous wag gimig of all the tails of the congregamion. SPEAKING of the Prince of Waless trip to Imi- dia, and the numberless apl)hicumtions of special correspondents who desired to go along, time fol- lowing is good, aud the better for being strictly true: A certain very zea louis special called upon Sir Bartle Frere, and veliemnently imupuessed upon him the necessity for the press beiuug fully rep- resented on the persouial staff of the Primuce. B mit why, asked Sir Bartle Frere, are you so anxious to be constantly iui such close prox- imity to the Prince in Imidia? Surely youu nuiglit travel independently, amid yet be frequently near him ? The special grew excited. What, Sir Bar- tle, what 2hmould I do if any thimug were to Imap pen to Imis Royal Iligluness wimile I was absemmt from his side? I really dont know, answered Sir Bautle Frere; I suppose youd be sormy, like all of us. Sorry, Sir Bartle ! exclaimed die special; I should simply die ! MANY are the anecdotes that Imave been pub- lished of the late John Van Bmmren, but the fol- lo~vimug will be new to tIme readeus of the Drawer: Durimig his fatluers Presidential teum, Prince John, then a very youung man, imudmulged im] many playfumi performances tlmat were riot altogether a delight to time patermial. On one of his visits to Waslmington time Prince stopped at Willards, where his father came, and, after a kindly gucet- imig, said, Jolmn, I lund hoped you would some time puove to be a wouthy representative of omum family, bmmt I fear y oum never ~vill ; in fact, I armi convumiced that von ~vihl brimug disgrace rather timaum reflect credit umpoum it. Fathem, said John, you may thuimik, because youu happen to be Piesidemit of tIme Ummited States, thuat youu nine something more thmnum mm oudinary man, but permit me to say that you will never be kuiown in history except as the father of Johmum Vami Buren. AMONG the many imuterestimig peusonal sketches and anecdotes in the Memoirs ~f Sir Georqe Simm- ciaira book not likely to be republished in the Umuited Statesis the folbowimig of Sir Charles Wetherell, an eccentric of the fimat class, whose abilities as a lawyer won for 1dm a seat in Par- liament and the Attorney-Genemahship. lie was uniquue in relation to his dress and his deport- EDITORS DRAWER. 157 ment. No Jew old- clothes man would at _____ - any time have given half a crown for his whole wardrobe, lie was never known to have a new suit of clothes, and conse- quently the prevail- ing belief was that he I must have dealt in the apparel line with some second- hand clothes man. And to make matters worse in the ~vay of his costume, lie never wore braces. his aversion to them was intense. It look- ed as if it had been a part of his religious creed never to have any thing to do with braces. The natural consequence of this l)ersistent hostility ~~as that he had constantly to give a shrug to his whole body in order to raise his nether gar- ments to their proper position on his person a manrnuvre which frequently called forth bursts of laughter in the House of Corn- mons. his matter was in keeping with the odd- irv of his ma umier. Though a man of em- inent talents, he used to make strange hiun- ders in his language. lie reminded one of Lord Castlereagh,who in 1820 was the leader of the House of Com- mons, and who used to make such blunders as steadiag prostrate at the feet of royalty, and turning his back qo himself. One of his best blunders occurred in court. As Attorney- General, he had to prosecute John Frost and the other Monmouthshire Chartist rioters, and, of course, to make out the strongest case he could against the prisoners. After hurling his invectives in no niggard measure at the heads of the l)risoners at the bar, he wound up his fo- rensic indignation to ~vhat he thought the high- est point it could reach, and which grammarians ~vould call a confusion of metaphors, in the fol- lo~ving words: Yes, my lord, these daring reb- els, these desperate men, these enemies of all law and social order, came rushing down the mountains side like a flock of sheep, each with a hatchet in his hand. ANOTHER character described in the Memoirs is the Duke of Sutherland, who ~vas a man of singularly easy mind. Events of the greatest importance to himself personally did not for a moment disturb his equanimity. One remark- able and amusing instance of this was furnished on the most interesting day of his life. On the morning of the day of his marriage a friend of his found him carelessly leaning over the railing at the edge of the water in St. Jamess Park, and throwing crumbs of biend to the ducks. His friend, surprised at seeing him at such a place and so engaged within t~vo hours of the time appointed for his marriage to one of the finest women in Englandone in whose veins the blood of the Howards flowedexclaimed: What! you here to-day? I thought you were going to be married this morning ? Yes, was his answer, given with time most perfect aonclielonce, and thro~ving a few mom-c crumbs to the ducks, without moving from the railing on which lie was leaning yes, I believe I am. Another instance is given of the same easy- mindedness. A nobleman, no~v a duke, but then a marquis, had asked a friend of his, who was a better judge of carriages than himself, to accom- pany him to Long Acre, to advise him iii refer- ence to the purchase of a carriage. A day was fixed on for the two to go together to make the intended purchase; but on the day preceding the one appointed the then marquis ~vrote to I I ~. ~i~r I / (. I J ~N ~~ \ I Th~I II K _________ ~- ;~z~ YOURE AN AGOERWATIN LiTTLU TuiNe, SO YOU ARE, AN TiiE~E5 NO COIN NOTIIINK WiTu YER. LOOK AT YEll SISTEa THERE, 110W NIOR AN ClEAN su~ LOOKS ALONGSIDE 0 TEE I 158 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. his friend the following brief note: It will not be necessary to meet me to-morrow to go to Long Acre to look for a carriage. From a remark made by the duke [his father] to-day, I fancy I am going to be married I Not only had the marquis left his father to choose a bride for him and to make the other matrimonial arrangements, but when the intimation was made to him by the duke that the future marchioness had been fixed on, he seemed to view the whole affair as if it had been one which did not concern him in the least. IN a recent number of Blackwoods Magazine is an article on the London police conrts, in which many curious incidents of London life are described. One of these illtistrates the great power devolved upon the police magistrates over vagrants and beggars. It is as follo~vs: We heard the following case narrated not long ago by the magistrate at whose conrt it oc- curred. Jnst as he was leaving the bench an old blind man and a little girl were placed in the dock. A constable stated that while he was on duty in the street a gentleman had directed his attention to the little girl, had called the child and given her a half-penny, and then ordered him to take her into custody. I could not leave the old blind man in the street, said the officer, so I brought them both before your worship. The magistrate inquired whether the old man was known to the police as a habitual beggar. Oh no, was the reply. He has been about for many years. lie gets his living by fiddling for the sailors. The little girl is his gr~child, and leads him about. He may have beg~ed no~v and then when hes very hard up, but its very seldom, if at all. The magistrate discharged the prisoners, mid almost immediately afterward the gentleman who had given the half-penny to the child, and then given the child into custody, entered ana took his seat by the side of the magistrate, who told him he had dismissed the ease. I am sorry for it, he said. It ~vonld have been a very good thing for that child if you had sent her to an industrial school. And what would her grandfather have done without her ? asked the magistrate. lie might have got a dog, was the reply. Such is benevolence when it runs mad. MANY are the stories of John Randolph of Roanoke, and here is another one that has just cropped up from some source that does not seem hitherto to have been tapped. He had employed an excellent man named Clopton to preachto the negroes in a chapel on his plantation. One cold Sunday, while Clopton was giving out his hymn, two lines at a time, he observed a negro put his foot, with a new brogan, on the red-hot stove. Turning to him, he said, in measured voice. You rascal you, youll burn your shoe. As this rhyme was in exact metre of the hymn, the negroes chimed in and sang it. The preach- er smiled, and mildly exlllained, My colored friends, indeed youre wrong; I didnt intend that far the song. This being also in good measure, the negroes sang it with pious fervor. Turning quickly to his congregation, he said, sharply, I hope you ~vill not sing again until I have time to explain ; but this only arotised them to repeat his last words with increased vigor. Mr. Clopton, finding his tongue ~vns tuned to rhyme, then abandoned explanation and ~vent on ~vith the other services. WE are indebted to Mr. Boucicault for tIme last and best anecdote about the life-insurance alan. In alluding to certain comments on the originality of his plays, he says: Another re- proach is that I have deserted the field of legiti- mate comedy (to which I contributed such works as London Assurance and Old Heads and Young hearts) to cultivate a lower diama, as the (ei- ieee Bawn and Arrals-na-Pogue; that I owed it to my fame to maintain the standard of my rep- utation. I write to the taste of the times. I dont care a button for posterity, nor ~vrite to amtmse unborn generations. Posterity is a bad audience. It reminds me of what an old Cali- fornian replied when a life-insurance company was first introduced into San Francisco, and he was asked to support it: Well, said be, Ive no opinion of a speckelation whar a man has got to die to realize. So it is with poets who write for posterity. Tue follo~ving anacdotes of the late Judge Martin Grover are told by a gentleman who knew him long and intimately, and who appre- ciated him not only as an able lawyer an(l judge, but as one of the most genial and witty men of Western New York. his self-possession never deserted him, lie was once trying a cause be- fore Judge Dayton. After a time the judge be- came impatient at what he believed the unneces- sary detail of the facts in the case. This case, Mr. Grover, said he, is in a nut-shell. Gro- ver cont~mued the case without regarding this remark. Mr. Grover, said the judge, some- what sharply, this case is in a nut-shell. You are taking up too much time with it. It may be in a nut-shell, your honor, said Grover; hut then, I think this Court is bound to take judicial knowledge that nut-shells are of all sizes, from an Alleghany County beech-utit up to a cocoa-nut. And this case, with all re- spect to your honor, is in a cocoa-nut shell, and if von dont let me try it in my own way, Peck there will make beechnuts, and small ones at that, of my client. The judge took this mcliv pleasantly, and Gro ver continued in his own way. WHEN Judge Grover succeeded Judge Mullett, as a justice of the Supreme Court in the Eighth Judicial District, he was noticeable for patience in sitting through tile dullest and dreariest of trials. l3ut there were tinles ~vhen lie was di- rect, positive, and sententiotus, approaching rough- ness. When a crimimlal whom lie believed real- ly guilty was on trial, he was irritated if he es- caped through tile negligence of tile prosecuting attorney, or wamit of understanding on tile part of the jury. This ~vas illustrated in the case of the People c. Weight, tried before him at an Al- leghany Coumlty Oyer and Terminer. Time pris- om~er was brought to the bar for stealing valu- able sheep. The case was very clear agaimlst him, btmt Ilis counsel, by some ingenious manage- meat, caused several of the jurors to believe lIe was mlot guilty, and after an absence of an hour or two they came imlto coturt amId amluounced that EDITORS DRAWER. 159 they were unable to agree. The judge, with a look of surprise, inquired if they failed to agree on the facts in the case or on the effects of the facts. [he fore- man replied that they were ima- ble to agree on the main feat- ures of the case that a num- ber of the jurors did not think the man guilty. Well, said the judge, when you went out, the Court thought yoti would agree in ahout fifteen or t~venty min- utes, the facts of N the case being simply these: This fellow had no mutton of his own at a certain time the proof shows he had plenty of mnt- ton; about that time the com- plainants sheep were missing. When the fel- low was asked where he got his mutton he lied ahout it, as the proof shows. Now, gentlemen, you can retire, and if you can not agree on this evidence, come in and the Court will discharge you; but we shall consider it our duty to tell you to go home and build your sheep-pens so high that sheep thieves cant crawl over, because if you dont, between incompetent jurors and sheep thieves, you will lose all of your sheep. It is needless, perhaps, to add that after this supplementary charge the jury agreed. SOON after a smart little earthquake in a neighboring city a party of friends were discuss- ing the various incidents attending it, and, among other things, the effect it had upon the several re- ligious congregations, as it occurred during serv- ice hours on Sunday. After reciting the scenes at various churches and the general consterna- tion it produced, a person mentioned the fact that a certain Baptist society were not at all disturbed, but quietly kept their seats; at which a lady noted for her esprit remarked, Oh, I suppose they were the Hard Shells. A DISTINGUISHED stock raiser in this State, preparing a herd-hook, had provided lithograph- ic portraits of all his leading animals. A gen- tleman happened to be sitting in his cabinet one afternoon, when his daughter, a bright young married lady, came in and began looking over the hook plates. By-and-by she came to the picture of an exceedingly rough-looking Spanish jack, and raising it up to full view, and addiess- ing the gentleman, who was a familiar acquaint- ance, said, How very like this picture is to you, Sir! lie was a little confused, but replied, Ah, madam, I am flattered you should discover a likeness to me among your family portraits. HERE is a good one on the Episcopalians, which, so far as the writer is aware, has never yet appeared in print, and therefore he contrib- utes it for the benefit of the Drawer. Away out West in State, in the valley of the Mississippi, at a time not very remote, ~vhen men were more intent on raking in the filthy than in securing an interest in the hank of glory everlasting, a zealous missionary of the persuasion aforesaid found himself in a commu- nity whose religious views were no less manifold and contradictory than was to he expected from persons representing every phase of denomina- tional life. Finding out the three or four com- municants belonging to his Church, the mission- ary gave notice of an Episcopal service for that evening in the school-house, and cordially invited every body to attend. Of course to the large majority of the inhabitants this was some- thing entirely novelindeed, the passage of a cir- cus through the village, or the actual halt of a 4 1 4- P1 C // / \ \ TIlE PAIILOTI ORATIIESS. TWINKLE, TWINKLE, LITTLE ST Ul. 160 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. minstrel tronl)e, could not have created a pro- founder sensationand so at an early hour they commenced gathering in knots of two or three, discussing as to vhat kind of a durnd thing it was a-goin to be. Prominent among the female portion of the throng was an aged sister, who enlightened the others by stating it was a reglar sarmint they were a-goin to have, and no confounded nigger tumblin. But the sarruint was to be after the Piscopal fashion, of ~vhich she had hearts tell when a girl, but had never seen; and as it was something bad, she believed, she was there to in- terrupt him if he didnt preach orthodox. Seating herself on the front bench, she eyed the preacher closely, and just before he com- xnoiiced the service, and ~vhile arranging his robes, she beckoned him to her, and informed him that she was there to interrupt him if he didnt preach orthodox. Well, madam, lie replied, you wont in- terrupt me if I do preach orthodox ? Oh no! that I wont, she earnestly ex- claimed, but if you dont, though, Ill interrupt and expose you for sure! Now to make the exercises go off with some degree of Episcopal decorum the congregation was liberally supplied with prayer-books, and the few communicants ~vere instructed to circulate among the people, find the l)laces for the un- initiated, and lead in the responses. Then rose the minister, and with the prodi- gals resolve, I will arise and go to my father, etc., commenced the service, and won the old ladys heart, for it was her favorite passage, read and prayed over often hecause of a wayward boy. Next in order ~vas the exhortation, in ~vhich she heard nothing objectionable; and then came the confession of sins. Right behind her one ~tt me~~ ~ e bore it deft 2QNovI~GO, & estorben dej1. /4 Octo, I~46 orthodoxy was in no mood to be trifled with, and so, while her hand firmly grasped her umbrella, she said, in tones sternly emphatic, Look a-Isv as, you durnd cuss ! didnt I tell you that was all right? an hyar you have been a-chatter in every blessed minit since. Now you ought to be ashamed of yourself, and I dont want you to jaw any more to - night. Thats orthodox enough for any body! The minister took in the situation, and being a practical man, pitched in, and gave them a red-hot extempore discourse, which the old lady, before she was aware, had indorsed with a whole series of honest ametis. At the conclusion she felt bound to apologizc for her conduct before and durin~ the service, and so, seizing both his hands, she thanked him for his Gospel sermon in language as uniqtie as her manner was hearty: You see, mister, ~ve warnt sure of you; we only had beam tell of you Piscopals afore, an we ~vcre kind of skeered like ; but its all sight now, an I want to tell voti that I had tsotliing to do with those ro~vdies back there who interrupted the seivice. Now weve hind Locus preachers here, an weve hind Circus preachers here, lint weve never had atly of you Piscopus preachers afore; an you do preach orthodox, an yoms can come back here any time you want to, an preach all night if you chooseif you (10 ~vear your shirt outside your breeches. IN Greenmount, Baltimores beautiful city of the dead, there stands a monument erected by the B family, in the rear of ~vhich is a lot belonging to Mr. L J , who has been t~vice married and twice a widower, atid ~vlvs has placed three tombstones in Isis lot, arranged as follows ~ litei I J ~eLoren, l~ eslod cit deii& 14 chud lEd ~JJ~ G1 borert C esiorbe~., of the conimuisicants aforesaid united hiis voice with the mituisters, and had gotten as far a~ We have erred and strayed from rhy ways hike lost sheep, etc., when the old lady turned, and its ams audible whisper said, Hush ! hush thats all ri~ht ; let the man have a chance to spe~k ! Lowering his voice, he kept com- parativelv quiet until the creed was reached, and huere lie thought, In the credo I must set an example, and cotsfess Christ before men itt the magnificent yet simhule I believe of all the Christian centuries. By this titne the sclf-usppoiisted conservator of Mr. J is vet living, hut with prudent fore thought has purchased and planted his tomb- stotie at the head of the grave lie expects his body to occupy when lie shall have been gath- ered into the hand where Isis fisthiers hmave gone hiefore him. Ihe here rests tnv man of the first wife seems almost jeidotishy rehilied to by the second with lie was mine also, and Mt. J , living, interposes, with a disposition to keep the peace, Both of these were mine. Ihse question sstggests itself, Rosy would he dis~ PO5C of the land to designate tIme grave of his third wife. should lie have oue?

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Harper's new monthly magazine. / Volume 52, Issue 308 International monthly magazine Harper's monthly magazine Harper & Bros. New York January 1876 0052 308
Constance Fenimore Woolson Woolson, Constance Fenimore The Oklawaha 161-179

HARPERS NEW ONTHLY MAGA INE. No. CCCYIILJANUAI{Y, 1876.Yoi. III. THF OKL. WAHA. p1 OVERNOR ? ai Iris Go ~ernor. But I thought Governors vere She paused. 014 1 I added, smiliun. Not in this (~ Se, child. He was our ardent young war overnor, a title that stands b itself. Bat Iris was still onbtful. Let me tell you somethin~ else, then, said Ermine. When we vere in Virginia last year, the fancy came to us to go an see certain rained Gothic to ver by moonli ht. Tue usual objections were made, of cour~e: tirst, no one ever went to the tower by iiioonlight; second, no one ever went to the tower ny way; third, there wasnt an tower. But the Governor calmly marshal- ed us to the very spot; bright moonlight all ready, eld-glasses, chocolate-creams, Ia- grams of the country drawn on the bricks, poetical qnotations, (lescriptions of colonial times, the loveliest complimeuL, nd safe home nainall in tvo hours, Charming ! said Iris, I love such people. The Duke regarded her ith gr~ vit ~. It was iccess, ry, then, to climb up Gothic to v- ers, armed with poetical quotations an chocolate-creams. He had not thought of that. But he reflected that there vere no Gothic towers on the Oklawaha, at any rate, 1ALMS 0 TILE ST. JOHN Entered accordin. to Act of Con~,ress, in the ear 18Th, by Harper aad rothers, in the Office of the Libra- ri~n of con~ress, at Washington. Von. LII.--No. 308.i 1 162 IJARPEWS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. and postponed the consideration of the sub- and two grave Baptist brothers from Geor- ject for the present. gia. With our party, in addition to Yander- lyne Banyer (whom we had nicknamed the For we were sailing up the St. Johns River, Young Duke) and the Governorboth chance 1)onad for the mouth of the Okiawaha, a accretionswas George, our generalizer, so wild tributary with an Indian name, which called from his habit of generalizing every flows into the broader stream a hundred thing, throwing unimportant details to the miles above the ocean bar, the desolate sand right and the left, and presenting you with village of the pilots, and the two light- a succinct statement on the spot: one day houses, so familiar to Florida travelers. Our of George would have driven Mr. Casaubon couiical little steamer, not unlike a dwarfed (eternal portraiture!) mad. Our little steam- two-storied canal-boat, had started boldly er was fullnay, more than full; we fairly out from the Pilatka dock that morning swarmed over her miniature decks, crowded with its fall quota of twenty passengers on her wee cabin, and almost, I was about to board, six feet by three of shelf having been say, hung on behind, so entirely did we till carefully engaged in advance by letter or every inch of her space. Every body heard telegram for each person. Our accommo- what every body said; we dined in detach- (lations, whatever that may Iuean, consist- ments, not being able to get into the cabin e(l of this shelf andnothing more. Our all at once; and when we were folded up on Uellow - travelers were, besides ourselves, a our shelves for the night, we could hear naturalist, the mother of a family and the each other breathe all down the row: one himily, a general who fought in the Sem- dream, I am sure, would have sufficed for mole war, two school-girls, two anxious- all of us. eyed ladies voluminous in trimmings, Miss The St. Johns is a tropical river of the Treshington (Greek draperies) and maid, dreamy kind; its beauty does notto use OUR BOAT. THE OKLAWAHA. 163 the expressive assaulting termstrike you, but rather steals over your senses slowly, as moonlight steals over the summer nirht Palms stand along the shore in groups, out- hued against the sky, which has here a soft- ness unknown at the North, even June mornings and August afternoons seemino hard in comparison; the strength of the gi- ant live-oaks is veiled by the sweeping tresses of the silvery 111055 that clings to their great hranches and caresses them into slumber and farther inland rise the single feathery pine-trees of the South, which, in the absence of hills anti mountains, always seem so purple and so far away. Vander- lyne Banyer regarded all this beauty in si- lence, his slow-moving blue eyes fixed upon the shore. If von had asked him what he saw, lie would have promptly rel)lied, Trees. They were trees, werent they ? I Then why should a man bother himself al)out kinds? How beautiful it must be away over therefarther on, I utean, where the pine- trees are, said Iris. It is always beautiful beyond, remarked the Governor. Doimt you know how, iii walking, the shady places are always Thr- titer on ? But I would not give up the fancy, if fancy it is, for all the realities you can urns- ter, said Ermine, who always tried her lance against the Governors. Beyondbeauti- fumi beyond! Human nature journeys hope- fully in that Delusion, said our generalizer; like the horse that wemit fifty miles on a run to get the bag of 6ats fastened one foot in front of his own head. No! Did he though ? said the Duke, laughing. In the mean time the Governorwas quoting to Iris George Eliots grand Positivist hymn: 0 may I join the choir invisible Of those immortal dead who live again In minds made hetter by their presence: live Iu pulses stirred to geuerosity, In deeds of daring rectitude, in scorn For miserable alms that end mvith self. his is the life to come, Which martyred men have made more glorious For ns who strive to follow. Oh no, Governor, I said; that is too hard doctrine for our little Iris. This long- ing for the beyond, of which we were talk- ing, must have a waramer coloring in her case. Very well. How will this do, Miss Iris? -another land of beyond, which is near you, I thiuk: 0 land, sweet land! new world, my world! No mortal kno~vs ~vhat seas I sail With hope and faith which never fail, With heart and ~vill which never quail. The sea is swift, the sky is flame; My low song sings thy nameless name. Lovers who love, ye understand This s~veetest world, this sweetest laud! Iris blushed charmingly under the gaze of the handsome brown eyes; but Ermine charged down the lists with, No, auot so. We must arrive some time in that lovely land, we can not be always on the way; and thenwhat do we find? Listen to this: Where art thou, beloved To-morrow, Whom young and old, and strong and weak, Rich and poor, through joy and sorrow Ever seek? In thy place, ah! well-a-day, We always find, alas, To-day! During this conversation the trimnued la- dies sat uucar and listened, that is, iii the in- tervals of scanning the Greek draperies of Miss Treshington. Were they wrong? was sIte right ? they anxiously won(lere(l. The Greek, nmeauwhile, having discovered tlmat a Banyer was on board, bestowed ill)Oll hint a modicum of well-regulated smiles. The mother of a fammtily nuarshaled her brood oma the little unguarded deck helow, where they had a series of time most thrilling an(l uuar- row escapes; the school-girls giggled to- gether over the deeply anysterious jokes of their age; ammd the Baptist hrothers had rather the best of it, after all, sitting on the roof with their feet haminging over. So passed tIme summuer afternoon; for although it was March, the heat was like our July. Toward sunset our little craft turned sud- denly in toward the shore, and ran her low bow into a mass of floating green. The bonnet-leaf, a species of lotus, an- nounced the miaturalist. It lives in the dead water where two currents meet; when U I, -Q K V VANI)EUIYNE BANYJmi. 164 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY JAGAZINE. -ou see it a1on~ shore ~ou ma know some creek comes in there. But here is no creek__ I began, when t ic steamer sharply turned the corner of a live-oak, and, behold, we were in a river, a majestic expanse of twent ~-eight feet, with the trees on the dark banks ue~ ny meeting )verhead but a river none the less, naviga- ble for two haudre and fifty niiles, an [he famous Okiawaha in person ! Ermine was glad it beg n so ci ssically with the lotus, but denied that it vas fa- r ousyet. Oh yes, it is Oh no Yes. We will take he sense of the meetin 0 hi our generahizer, promptly. Mr. Ban- yer, what do you say l The Duke had never hear of it until he came South. liss Treshingtou ditto. If it had been the Arno, now, or the dear G ronne. But here (a shrug). The General thought that if not known, it ou~ht to be, An important treaty with the Indians was drawii up on its banks; hun- dreds of our soldiers were afterward picked o alon~ the same banks by the same In- dians. In the fastuesses near by lived he celebrated Hallak Tustenugge In short, the Seminole war, interrupted the generalizer, sumn~ing up. The General agreed, but slowly. He had several other items to produce, but the con ~ers~ tion had already swept by, and left hini on the shore. The school-girls had heard of it Oh yes, lots of times ! and the trimmed ladies spec- ified with precision that they had heard of it at the Grand National Hotel, Jackson- ville. They liked tIme Grand National. lie Baptist brethren bad rca a very spir- itu 1 description by a fellow-worker who ha taken the trip the previous year; but the naturalist had known of it from his earliest childlmoo (with scorn). We were rather cas down by this froni the natural- ist: none of us had known of it in our ear- liest childhood, whatever may have happen- ON THE OKLAWA1IA, THE ORLAWAHA. 16o ed in our latest. Bat Ermine brought up re-enforcemnents in the shape of a sketch of the river by Dyer, whose Interior of St. Marks, Venice, was, she said, one of the lovely pictures of last springs exhibition at the Academy. This little sketch of the river was so poetically beautiful in the ar- rangement of the tropical foliage, so full of time very spirit of untamed Florida, that the moment I saw it I resolved to come here before the wild wood gods were driven from their last hiding-places, she said. Wood gods ? asked the school-girls. Alligators, of course, replied the gener- alizer; and at that moment we saw one, a huge fellow at least fifteen feet long, which canine up from the swamp alongside, climbed slowly over a log, and lay there eying us, his head and tail in the water, but a hill of back exposed over the log, tempting us, had we been (lisposed to shoot. But, thank For- time, we were not. By some remarkable chance we were without the inevitable boy with a pistol, who may be called the nui- sance of the Okiawalma, and also without time complacent man with a shot-gun, who wounds uselessly and cruelly all the beau- tiful birds and wild creatures of the forest alongside that have not yet learned to fear him, and leaves them to die slowly on the banks, he himself shooting meanwhile safe- ly from the deck of the steamerthe Inst TIme effect was strange, for the glow was as brilliant as though a conflagration raged outside, and yet, above, the darkness of the cypresses loonmed heavier than ever; the water sparkled, and the little ripples mna(Ic by the steamer enried goldenly against the near shore, where time wild flowers felt a passing glory for a moment as the brilliant light swept over them. It was now night, and the steamer had stopped. TIme great trees towered al)ovc on each side, no longer distinct, but ~valls of darkness, like the sides of a well to the lit- tle earth grub that has fallen in and vainly looks aloft, clinging to his bit of twig as he floats. No one spoke; we sat in silence, awed by the darkness and the wild forest, which seemed all the more wild because we could not see it. Suddenly flared out a red light from above, and, as if by magic, the woods grew red, and showed us their vistas and glimmering pools again. Birds cried from their near nests and flew past our faces; the steamer started on, carrying the magic with her. Pitch-pine fires had been started in braziers on the top of the boat to light the way, and, tended by a negro boy, they burned brilliantly all night, sending a red glow over tIme dark waters ahead, show- ing the sudden turns, the nariow passes, the bent trees, amid a lonely little landing, where we left a barrel for a solemn 01(1 luau, probably, to venture on a real Florida mule which came dowim and inspected us as hunting expedition, where there is danger, the steamer ran her bow on shore the or- a fair field, and hunger to justify the de- dinary way of landing on time Okiawaha. structiomi. I suppose the barrel is for the mule, As the sminn sank low in the west time red said Iris; at least, there is no one else to glow, which we could not see in the sky receive it. above through time dense umbrella-like tops After a time, as the boat umoved onward, of time cypresses, penetrated the open spaces she began whistling at intervalsa bug below, and rested on the claret-colored wa- melancholy call with a silence after it, as ter, as though the sun had stooped and shot though waiting for an answer. Orplmeus umuider time trees, determined that the dark on his way to Hades, calling Enrydice! river, which he con7ld not reach through time Emirydice ! I suggested. day with all his shimming. should yet feel his Do you renmeumber that musical little power ere he stepped below the horizon. poemn of Jean Ingelows called Divided, ALImeATomus. 166 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. where one in sport steps over the tiny rivu- let, which grows wider and wider until they can no longer call across, and finally lose even sight of each other entirely l said the Governor. Iris remembered it, and very sweetly, at his request, repeated the closing verses, the wortis of the one left on the far shore, walk- ing desolate day hy day : And yet I know past all doubting, truly A knowledge greater than grief cau dim I know, as he loved, he will love me duly, Yea, better, ecu better, than I love him. And as I walk by the vast calm river, The awful river so dread to see, I say, Thy breadth and thy depth forever Are bridged by his thoughts that cross to me. I made a new ending once in place of that, said Ermine ; it is much more true to nature, as I should tell Miss Ingelow if I knew her: Au, no, sweet poet, not this the ending: The love of man acer rests iu the past; With thoughts of thee soon new love was blending, Gre~v, budded, and blossomed, and conquered at last. Dream not, dream not, with pale lips that quiver, Hes thinking of thee as he walks afar: I loved her once, butwidened the river And he wafts thee away ~vith his evening cigar. Thou art but the ghost of a love departed us ne peuvent revenir, ces panvres morts; Remember, no man ever died broken-hearted; Remember, les absents out toujours tort! Ermine, I said, you are a cynic. Not at all, Miss Martha. I apl)eal to Mr. Banyer if I ant not right. But the Duke con- fessed frankly that he had no idea what we were talk- ing about. He had been watching those remarkable long- legged birds that kept flying up along- side and shrieking at us limpkins, lie believed they were called. The generalizer immediately laid be- fore him an abstract of the case: Poet- ry, you knowJean Ingelows Divided. Two lovers sel)ara- ted for good; girl sure lie will think of her forever; Miss Ermine sure lie will aiot. What do you say ? Separated forev- er? Of course not. What would he the use ? said our honest young Duke, lighting a fresh cigar. At this nioment we heard in the distance a far sound in answer to our doleful cry. The other steamer, said the Baptist breth- ren on the roof, who passed dowii bulletins gathered from the pilot. They have to warn each other in order to find a broad place to pass in. We soon saw a gleam up the river high above the trees, glancing from side to side in the air, for the boat was still sonic dis- tance off, aiid the course of the stream tortu- otis. In the mean time our little craft had crowded herself ignontinionsly so close to the shore that one side was tilted up like a l)ilggy turning out for another on a iiarrow nioumitain road. She clawed the bank so desperately that involuntarily we drew our very skirts back, as if to make niore room in the channel, thereby, as the generahizer said, affording a lovely exanaple of that femninimme desire to help which makes a woman always hold back when the horses are going dow-u hill. At length the light darting and flick- ering above the tree-tops disappeared, and a sudden glare shot out over the river in front of us. Round a curve canine the other steamer, her pitch-pine fires h)lazing high on top, and the little (leeks below crowd- ed with passengers. Effete blosj travelers who have seen it all, sai(l George. Let mis give them a cheer to wake thieni up. So we cheered lustily, answered by the effete A LON nv LANimiNO. THE OKLAWAIIA. 167 ones with a sort of a roar which was much more impressive than our effort. They leariied that from Hallak Tiastenugge, said George, kindly accounting for our defeat. In the mean time the two boats were passing each other gingerly, scra~)ing the shores on each side, the respective cooks exchanging a few whispered confidences from their little windows as their black flices were carried slowly past each other only a few inches apart. Then we watch- e(l the blare glide on down the river. First the whole forest lighted up, theu a gleaming through the white trunks of the cypresses, then the same high-np flickering light over the tree-tops, and finally nothing save dark- ness. That was behind, however. In front we had onr own glow, and journeyed on- ward into stranger and stranger regions, the lionrs shortened by the songs of the ne- gro crew, who, assembled on the little deck below, dave ns, one after another, those wild unwritten melodies, the despair of routine mnsicians in their violation of all rule, yet as wildly sweet and natural as the songs of a bird. In a char-note ob fire Elijah he went UI) to die, Ole Moses lie took de hire, An de wind ble~v em np in de sky, sang our sable-faced choir in their rich voices, the words floated by the melody, which we conld not catch on account of the unexpected pauses, long minor cadences, and sudden beginnings again with which it was filled. Just as we thought we had it, off it flew, floating along in a time peculiar to itself, as wild as the wild forest along- side. Miss Treshington, who never (lesceuid- ed from the heights, musical or other~vise, found. nothing to admire in this untntored singin ~, and went inside to play cribbage with the Duke on a beautiful inlaid board bronght out by the niai(l; the trimmed. ones followed, fascinated still; the family retired for the nhrht; the school-girls began to eat candy, and the brethren to read relhrions weeklies~ the naturalist and the General remembered. that it was (lamp; and final- ly, our five were left alone outside. When the singing cease(l we sat almost in silence, watching the lights stretch forward, gleam throngh the forest, fill it with radiance for a moment, then leave it to blackness again while it reddened new vistas ever opening ahead. We seenmed. to have grown into a new fellowship when at last we separated. Our (inlet good.-nights were gentle an(1 sweet. It was as though we had passed throngh an experience of which the others ilisi(le knew nothing. Goodnight, sai(l the Governor, almost in a whisper, as Iris slowly left her seat beside him to follow us. The light from time open door fell upon his face. Iris saw the expression of his eyes. And so did I. Brown eyes, I announced. to Ermine, ought, for the general good of mankimad, to be suppressed. (We were in our tiny state-roona, and. I had. the floor.) When they deepen and. darken and soften, they mean really no niore than the calniest blue or the coldest gray, and yet I defy you to pass unmoved. under their glances. You neednt defy, said Ermine ; we like it. To be so deceived ? I said, indignantly. Not so munch (leceived as you think, Miss Martha. But we like to feel the depths stirred once in a while, even if it is, as you say, only a stir. That night I was wakened by a sharp blow on the little shuttered window, fol- lowed by a long scrape down the side of the boat. This was repeated again and again, and at last I recognized the sound of bramich- es. We were brnshing the trees as we pass- ed. It was two oclock. Wrapping myself in my cloak, ~ lacelmed into the cabimi no one was there, am I I ventnred out on the forward deck. We were moving slowly onward. TIme fires oma top were hnrning brightly. The river had. grown very nar- row, and as we passed the cnrves we seem- ed to be plunging into the thickets along- side, the bemat tree branches nmaking tIme sounds I had heard. We had come to the region of palnis. Their tall slender trunks shot upward, leaning slighatly forward over the river, and below on tIme bushes bloonmed a nmaze of Ilowers, standing out clearly for a monmemat as the light fell upon them, theui vanishuimug into (larkuless again. Vines ran np the trees and swung downward in fami- tastic coils, and tIme air was heavy with fra- grance. Every now and then a white crane flew up from tIme green thicket and slowly sailed. away up stream, flapping his great wings, whmile the brown bird we had noticed, the ever-present limpkin, multiplied. himself; amid nmade sarcastic remarks abbut us from the bushes as we passed, emuding in a shrill hoot of derision as we left him behind. Save the bird cries there was mio s(immnd. Onward we glided thrommghm the still forest, tIme light ever reddening in front amad fading behind, like a series of womaderfumi dissolving views set map by sonme wizard of thue wilderness. After a while I went back to my slmelf and tIme sweep of tIme braimclmes agaimist the sides of tIme boat grew imato a familiar soummud, an(l lmmlled me to sleep. But it was amever safe for mms to stand near our open wimudow: Ab- saloms fate miirht have been ours. Paynes Landing, said Geor~e, the next morning, as we passed a landing, amud thue General knows all about it. Come, Gen- eral. Tlmums adjured. tlme Gemieral began the sto- ry of a war whose mumemnory has faded in the redder struggles thmat came after, but wlmose elmaracteristics were perhaps nmore peculiar 168 HARPE S NE V MONTHLY MAGAZINE. an(l distinct than the broader later cont sts like ne old sketches to which ye turn a~ain after a surfeit of cry p~ intings ablare ~ith color. Paynes L~ nding was named after Kin P yne, a Seminole chief beran the Gen~ cral. Seminolesname signifying vild wan- dercrswcre originall runa~ ~ays from the Creeks of Georgia, commented the gener- alizer, rapidly. Ia 1750 a number of them settled in Florida under chief named Sc- coffee. They were never very nnmcrons, bn ocen ied a ~ast exten of conntry. Sc- coffee left two sons; one of them ~as called Payne. Go on, Gener~ 1. Payne, a Seminole cliief said the Cen- eral, going hack an beginning over again. He seems to ha re been possessed of more wisdom than belongs nsually o the Indian character, for lie labored to unite all the separated bands into one tribe under one head. He lived here upon the Okiawaha (which tool its name from the Okiawaha Indians, who were a darker-skinne race, descended from the Ycmasccs), and he was PALMETTO THIcKET. TIlE OKLAWAHA. 169 called kind the title and aCConl~Ia11Yi11g WI\X~C1 (lesCell(liIIg to his 5011 llll(l gIall(15011, the latter the Micanope of the Seniiiiole war, who also lived in the Oki awaha coon try, northwest of Orange Lake. The semi nole war began or rather 1 5110111(1 say the Seiiiiiiole war was caused by One moment. Uncle Sam ilonglit Flor- ida from Spain, you know, in 1521, said the (remleral jier. The Spanish settleiiients iiaol mlever exteml(leIl far from tile coast, alI(l the Ililliamis had tIle whole interior to tiiemmi selves. But (If course the new American settlers were not (OlliOr to stall(l that. dawn to tile everglades amid stay there, 01 else emnirrite they sai(l. Lo wonlllnt re suit, a row. Take it imp at the treaty, Geit eral you kiiow all. about that. The General, ilot (plite sure 110W that lie knew all about any thing, rallied his fbrces, and I legall again it tImo (II ored poi mit: The secoulli treaty IX ithi tile Jiioliamis the first hiaviuig beeu (l1sre(r~rI1ed was illadI2 at Pavues Lamidnur XvhlchL we are 110W 11a55 lug, iii May, 183~ In it the Imidiauis agree(l to exehailge thieii I lorid lamills for ~iul elinal ~ (ENIR IL. ilnIlmnIt west ot the MiNsissippi, together - with a certammi sum (If money, a certain there, for six bug years, said the gemier ulmimniler ot hi imiL P nid a fair price for alizer, ilmimigimig the war IllIwli ailllther P1111 their cattle. I in N ~ eie to remove withiimi himimidmell ~lages at a j uuuii~1. Comiie, General, three years, and imi the menu timmie a coin give the ia(lieS ami idea (If the hifesomue uiiittee of their owmi chiiefh was to expl(Ire thimig flint ~(lli saw, ilIIXv. the miew conmitry amid report 1111(111 it. The Gemieral, hilIweXer, himi giveil up all wem it, were absemit six mnomithis, jllca (If lily thiimig filat lie s:iw. lInt he had They touluill t lie climiiate cold, 110 ilitchiili mie, amid a retemi ii VI miilmliOl7I, amiol (P11 5II1Il~ IlIlisill ArkailSIS geuierally a (lel isiomi amid a 5iiare, (rat 1(111 (allIIXveIl liimii hIy the gemleralizers miterlllllatell the geiieraiizer. The treaty, ilIl Ximlg 11(111 Illileli ((ft tIl 1(111k at a iiiocca~ii~ sirileil. hIX ti tteeii liii smiake omi tue 111111k) hlIIXve vel, iiad inemi , lie lilIW IaVIIie(l us XVitli liouibted Semn iuicIle crossmiiarks, 11111 the Lii it two (1lmotatiIIiis (Iii I lie sumi jIct. My Iimst, Ill States lIlePalIll herself to execnte it. lie said, iegiiiiiiiig like a (ilaralil, is as fol hull up hot i lId kimi itady troI)IIS semit ; l(IWs : Iruijiless lX11(ditioiis milarIhiell (lilt war. amill ret himmilIl, a mill Ia iled tIl Ii mid the enemuiy. \Vhiile the G n ii XX ~s tiansportimig him Thie (liii (It slirprisl amili illassa(ie still Xvemit sit tol this iieXV stirtuuir 11(Iillt, Eruuii 10 il Oil ily imlYiSihIll ilamilis, XVIl(I struck the iIilIXv illarkell : ii\IX hiistoi I CIluiNists lIt a serIes lIt 111111 II isallileamed. Thie (Iluumitmy 11115 (his(Oiul statuies an(l f 11111 mx st ituies of the great agelh. the tmo(IhIs Ihishlearteuieli, amill the huh 11111, tableaux (It the reit evemits : I refns~~ his uimlmllIIl(5t1lh. A p1111s1. My se(omi(1 tIl kul(IXv ulillre VI eli. thcie amiv such iii the 111111 lhhitils XVIi( (hiXIstlIl (It ilh the at tri Seuiii millIe ~~ar ilultes (It Il sIIllhi(i, illit filly XXemit res(Ilulte [lie Gemieral iiot haX-imig arriXed yet, the ly t(I XXlIrk IXithi (1111 imi((mltiXe fIl 11(1 1 hieir geuierahizei XXas hla~I~Iy tIl ieply : X(s hue (lulty. Thie (IftilIr 11111 his ((Imlumhlaill III thuiltX tlihIi(hlil aui(l tXXo st~itui(5 tue foiuuier the or toity 111(11 i(5(hlilIl(ll 111(111 Ii ilailllitti thiami l)ade Massacre, the lattlr 1-Jallak Iumstemiuigge a hIlIlly (It 5(IhIhili5 imi the s(rXi(e of their lull the gallant WIrthi - coulatry. I-Ic, at tue 1111111 lIt his little ilailli. Simnahtamieouisl V the IXhil Ile tweuity of 115, XXithl(Iult shilIls (Ii stllckimlgs, hiis iIahltal(I(1i15 naIl tIl tIlulIhi illIttIluli slImlil ~vhuere, i1115t1ul(Il suista 11111 hlv a hlelt, ill XXhiiIhl WaS thuiuust a t(I auimiouiuice that XXI kneXX lIt the gallauit illace Ilt ilistlIls, XX ithuomut Xl5t Ill ((lIlt, his X\IIrthi, aunt I gaimlell an additi)u1111 luistre cap XXitii 11 ielthlI1hl Ihilil lucilimill t(I 11 i XCit hIX- hlriulgiuig foiv~ard the itemii thiat lie XXas that liii mi tu(Imhl cIIuiisiulg hllIXvul his ilacklil the eighth comuliamiller semit mit to close the thus mini uiuier lie led his l1lthIhilhilult thilllmighi war. hIlIg amill IvIltIl, (lay 11 ttli lilly, IhIhIelillemit for Ailli lie suicceedell time mImily omie Xvlio (lid. follIll. lihIllil thie ((luiteults lIt his hlaXIrsaclI hint thie Xvhiole buisiullss IXas a tIlmi hIle XXaui 5t11l}IpIIl tol his hIalk. hue omihy stains ahIllyc Ibiluir thirouughi sXXauiilIs, NIlyagimig lull 1111 his illIlli XX(ll thue StIhis lIt ileaXImi, the (lilly kulIIXVIi ii veus, amill cuittiuig Ilatlis imitlI flu stmi IICS thilIsIl (Ill his 111(1111 tIll feet, ailli the liXyliX liamnaks after Indiamus XXIII) XXC~~ miever ouuly sIlumuill to XXehclIuuie hiimii after his toils 170 HARPERS NEW MONThLY MAGAZINE. lifted the boat arotinli l)O(lilyl)ut follow lie ic(OliiiiiO(liti Ii 0 iii 1)011 iii~ winch tiowed nit 0 the Okiawaha again a ti~v miles ibove, lot Ving only been ott iiiaking a little loop, as it were br its owii aliniseinetit. As we tiiriietl a curve 1 looked back. Eureka may grow iiito a iiietropolis it it likes, but I shall never think of it save as a wild borest, ti ti 1)b))ti of a river, a sol itarv sliatitv, and Rip Van Wiiikle sitting (iii the step gazh gaiter tis,li is (log aiitl gnu beside liiiii. Kit and few, far and few, arc the lands where the (1uote(I Ermine. I have always wanted to go, aiid 110W here we are, iii 0111 sieve. The naturalist, not catching this exactly, asked what it was. It belongs, Sir, to the saute period of art as the classic ballad of the Owl and the I ussy Cat, which you have liiohah dv hietirti, sai(1 Eriiiimie Ibit the naturalist had tiot a 11(1 Ermiiiiie, wlot loved p111) ti~iiseiise once iii a while, and always (lecl:ire(l that only a lii _ hi order (if iiiiiid (0111(1 ajipacciate it, be gaii gravely null repeated the whole ballad of the Owl, followed by the ,Jnmblies, which, she said, was peculiarly appropri~tte to (1111 (use, ((lii stettuier being a sieve, our lietols green, 1)111 veils blue, not the Lakes aiid the Torrible Zone just alietol of us. Site closed with the last verse, as follows was tlte ahutse and fault-finding of the igfo rant atiil vititlictive. We received these qitotatiomis with ai ~itii lit tweitty years they all came back, plamise amul thea Erudne asked for the re Iii i wenty years or litote, ma iii in g statue aiid the tableait. And every oiie Saill, lIio~ tall theyve grown, The 1)ade Massacre is reserved for fia For theyve beeii to the Lakes and (lie Torrihle tare ttse, said oitr generahzer, tlli(1 Hallak Zoiie, Aitd the hills of the Chankley Bore. Tustelot gge belongs to Orange Lake, which Far 111(1 feir, far and few, tire (lie lands where the we laave iiot vet reached. We I (assed lola jtiiithlies live; Tit soitae tiltie aro. All laands ready now for eli heads tire green anti their veils are blue, alidi Enaeka Laitdiltg ~ titer welit ((1 set) iii ti sieve. Of till the wild spots on the Oklawaha The naturalist listened, at first gravely, there is tiot oiie so hddden (way, 5)) like theli soniewhiat c))lililse)h, ~mnd fiutally ttttilIN bitt itself, Eiareka Lalidilto No bewi niAtltilig as ~,. hheted, its Erlltilte sw(etly tolled (tilt tho wotider they otihleil it E iarektt, alter siacha a verses witht her umnist del ictite a& celtttittiout. chase to tutu it. Our stealuer tiarited out Alt, y(s vuty, V(tX lilt), lie tttttlittitreih of the Oklawttha into a little thread of a at the close mid thieui reheated hittstil~ fit strettin, deep, tao douhit, bitt only just wide the tlhiliil )l(tk, whiere lie spetit the rest of enotghi to hold her. Thirotaghi this tiarrow the dtty iii the mote coti genii il pursuit of ribi ion of water site slowly ttdvtuiced, titli cohlectiiig 5~ieciltielis ftottt thie flowers ~ttiul tahig ashore at ciarves, taini pileil off huy the vines tis Ave hiitssiih, tiltul etitehti hg flying boatincti, weulireil between cypresses, keeled thiiitgs, or tttthter flyilig to etituht thieni, in a tap ott logs. scltlpeil, cttttghit in thie humamicitis, little hititiultiet. I caught hiliti ititee oi twice aitil wtttketl, its we suap~iuseil, a dozen tiittes looki hg duldously over it Erlni ie bitt lie in that tloweahiotdered ditch. Yet shae tul diii tiiit ventitre diuwut tigiti it. ways inainigud to start on agni it, anil, thtits Tue wutods through a~hu cli we sttiluul all hg, we caine ~t lttst to ~ solitary day wit) wilder thiti it u Nomthieiiieas wihulest little slut itty with a ptiiliukiil door, tutu tmie ultttiltl ut truipic tuit(sts the gutit. trius touw mint ii sift i ig on the step, withi ditg timtil rimmi etiit tihituve Its uimie himumiulmeuh ti iid thiirtv tuut g;ziitg at mis like Rip Vtan Wimikle whi(il lie Iii hi. uiftett mtieetiitg ovet our htiaths, sui thitit ta woke in the forest. We putt tIshiote se er tI a ( jottruiuyuul thtroumght a titighity tumhuiti a lout g 1 itixes titul hittles here, huat hilt mievur stitr( ii shtuit e timiul in thie uhtumk jituols aaithtimi stutoil thie eviuleittly they aveme miot for htimia. lit i atiut Silt eultur knees ; viuuis tmiul thitwuts, tiia mitetit iii two we stetiitieul ttwttv agalit titit huh imits amiul lhittiiig hutilhitumit huimuls, lilluul the tummiti hg tiroutmid fita thitit wotmld hitr ( lieu mi mmttu mviii i hg slau. Vugutatiuut filthy nut imupossi the, maitless ave ittiul ttll giutteit otIt owl. u ul titul we tuhuttuist exitecteul to see muoving If EUREKA LANiIING. THE OKLAWAHA. 171 about some of those strange forms of life winch l)elonged to the age when ferns were trees, and the whole land a tropic jungle. I see faces and green dingo ns peeping out every where, said Iris. It is like Dor~s imietmires. That night a thunder-storm struck us in a narrow stretch of river. I woke. The rain solin(lc(l on time little rouf like bail stones behind ns and alongside the dark- ness of the forest was intense, time blackest (larkness I have ever seen. lInt in front onr faithfnl pitch-pine tires burned steadily, and lighted up time (lark water, time wet trunks of the trees, amid the pouring rain with a distinctness that only made me feel all the more strongly how strange it was, and how lost we seemed away up that wild, far-away river on onr little steamer in the miduiTht storm. I praised the pitch-pine tires the next mormumo~ with all my heart. The Indians friend, sai(l the Governor. In their new Western homes timey missed more thami any timing else, so they said, their favorite hi4mt wood, the imiteli-pine, aim ever-ready hearth imm time wil(leruess, hmurnin g cimeerily on through storni amid mum. We passed landings here and there, swammmp - ways where rafts of cypress logs A FLORim)A CABIN. were waiting, towe(i aside to give mis tIme ehmanmiel, and at last we camime to the fair to lie imere some hours, and now it was that waters of wimicim we hind heard. Silver time Governor camime to tIme front again. Cross Sprimmg, beautiful enchanted pool, who can in canoes, and lunch on time opposite shore (lescril)e thee! About omme hmmimidred immiles lie said. fromim time mouth of the Okhawaha, a silvery Nobody saw any canoes, only muddy flat- stream emmters time river; we tuirmi out of our bottomimed boats; amid nobody knew how or cimocohate-colored tide, and s~mil up this crys- where to Net ammy hmmeim, or aumy body to tal elmamimmel, wimichi carries mis alommo between row. But time Goverimor puit imis shmoulder to opemi smivammimas covered within flowers, as diP time wheel, and tImings moved. Result: time feremit as possible froumi time dark tangled eight of us found (umirselves in two light en- forest whiere we have journeyed. This noes, wit ii boys to row; a cimarnmimm g shmmidy stream, or ruin, as it is called, has a rapid ilace appeared on time far side of time hake curremmt, amid, al thiomighm twemity feet deep, time mmmcii sprang miii timere as if by magic deli- bottommi is distimmetly visible as we pass over, cioums saudwicimes, little cakes, Cimampagume so clear is time water. Nimme immiles of timis, on ice; time very flowers we wauited grew amid we coumme to tIme sprimig-luend, a basin one timere; time very glasses omit of wimicim we himumuired feet wi(le, tifty ymmrds bug, and drumak were Ilohmenminmi (him glass, inmot in spir forty feet deep, a fairy lakelet smmrrommmmded it), amid hike imotimimig buit timemselves. Iris by tropicud foliage umuore beautiful thmaui aumy hind giveum up her hittie oppositions lon~ timiuig we Immid yet seen, time Meqmmolia qmommdi ago ; she looked at every timimig thiromighi tIme flora mimiximig with time palms and umoss-draped fringes of her bug eyelashes, amid assented hive-oaks, wild grape-vines claniberium g cv- whiemi Ermine renmarked, iii an under-tomie, cry where, time pemimmoums of tue ehiow jas that time oumly tIming yomi comild (10 within smiclm imuuume floatimig from tue trees, amid solid bamiks a maim as time Govermior was to sit dowuin and of Cimerokee roses walhiar up time simwes aduimire Imium. l)etweemi tIme low ummyrties, as if fortifyimor While (muir canoe was passing time centre thie sprimig with bbossonis. Thme water iv is of tin. I ike we seemmied to be Iloimtiumg imi so trumuisimaremit thinat we comuld see a ida omi mind sp mu e, for time water was so clear thimit time bottoumi distimietly, amid objects timere out comuld scarcely tell where it emided and were c(mated, frimiged, amid eulgeul with brill time mmr beoan tIme trees were reflecteul like inmit raimibow timits, time smimallest spray of n mhutmc~ time fish swimmmiimmg about were as mmmoss taking to itself time immies of a imrismn dmstmumct as though we hind thmeum in ominr ammul a fragunemit (if ehmimma, dro~uped in b~ i huids , mu short, with time prism - tinted soume visitor, sliimmimmg like aim opal: all this frummous every wimere alour the bottom, it was is the effect of refractiomi. Omur stemmummer iv us (mmuhimmitnineuit. Time spring water buibblc~ l7~l HARPERS NEW JONTHLY MAGAZINE. up front little silver and green sand hillocks here and there, but the main supply comes from under a limestone ledge at the north- eastern end. The generalizer had the sta- tistics all ready: Three hundre million gallons every twenty-four hours, or more than twenty times the amount consumed daily by New York city. How it wells up into its beautiful rain- 1)0w bowl ! said Ermine, leaning over the si(le. I must tell ~ou story connected with Silver Spring, sal the generalizer. To begin with, however, you must know that Ive been studying up the Seminole var eb, General l The General looked a little as though somebody had been stealing his thunder, l)lit he said notluin ~, and George went on. In all the histories and corresj)ondence connected with this war there is frequent mention of a chief name JonesSam Jones who for a number of years lived here at Silver Spring. Jones was apparently person of high importance among the Sem- inoles, prophet and a medicine - man. Jones is here, Jones is there, on the pages of the histories, now turning up as far north as our old friend the Suwanee River, now lurking in the Cretan labyrinth of the Cove, now hopelessly escape to he wa- tery fastnesses of the stretching everglades; but no one explains ho~ he came by his name. My curiosity is roused, Certainly it is not a Seminole name. Once the title of tisherman is added, and only stimu- lates my ardor. But it was only the other day, after all any searching, that by chance I learned the comic origin of the title borne cuizmitiasAN ONLAWAHA var srenv. by this grave chieftain. Before the w r broke out he had supplied one of our garri- sons wi h fish for some time, and the sutler, being of a musical turn, and given to chant- ing the billads of the day, name the sol- emn warrior Sam Jones, in a jocular mood, after Sam Jones, the sherman, the hero of a song then hi vogue in New Yorka parody on Dunois, the young and brave. It was Danois, the young and brave, Was hound for Palestine, But first he paid his orisons Before Saint Mary~ shrine And grant, almighty Queen of Heaven, Was still the soldiers prayer, That I may he the bravest knight, And love the fairest fair, chanted Iris. Mother used to sing it Yes, said George; and this ~ as the parody: It u-a. Sam Jones, the fisherman, Was bound for Sandy hook, But first upon huis almanac A solemn oath he took And grant a streak of fishing luck So ran this prayer of S~ ms That I may have good sport to-night, And catch a load of clams. Thus the chance fancy of a musical sutler bestowed a naume which has become Itistor- ic, and which will go gravely down in Amer- ican history forever. Miss Tresltington was charmed with liver Spring, with the lunch, with every thing; she regarded the Governor with something almost like interest in her serene eyes, bitt finally fell back upon the undoubted Ban- yer, who sat comfortably eating saudwielte by her side. What do you think of our host l she asked, in n under-tone. Fine fellow, s~ i the Duke, abstracted- -, Bitt I visitI wish lie ha brought some olives. At this moment olives v de their appearance at the oth- er end of the table-cloth, fol- lowed by charming little mustard-pot of tIme utost aris- tocratic nuliness. A first-rate fellowa cap- ital fellow, I declare, sai the Duke, with enthusiasm. Give me a uman who knoi s 110w to live. What mustard! superb ! Miss freshington rel psed into thought. At Silver Spring we found several houses; a stage runs back to the town of Ocala, sonie miles distant. Event- nally the beautiful lakelet must be a resort, and no doubt wonderfrd virtues will be discovered in its silvem waters. We saw an express cart st~ rting into the inte- rior, and the generalizer, hay- THE OKLAWAIIA. ldJ ng (liscovere(1 a wandering ~iliotographer, returned over the ridge willi a yell, and re caine back with an Okiawaha art study, ile conimeneed lirilir having almost certain slglIe(l aini arlalireil bY him sell a in Sistimie. 111111 So Ilial WIlY thie~ amiol rradmiallv cbs X\e 101111(1 the trimnmne(l la(lies enjoying big in aromimiol liii little foortitication until thieniselves on decic when we retnrmied to whiemi all had fallen, they entereol it in tri the ste amer the belles ol Silver Spring had uniph. Au eyewitmiess, a iiegroo who had g othiereol on the wharg openly (eyes amid followed the Imohiamis, tol(l mis that as they muonthi ) overcome by the vohmimnimious romilles. emitereda hiamiohsomiie yomimi _~ otticer (lresse(l iii It was pleasant to be appreciated evemi here. a blue frockcoat, tin omily man who was mint But 110 sooner had Miss Treshiimigtomi stepped either dea(l 01 niortally womimioled, stepped uomi board than they fell back into their old foorwarol to miieet thiemmi, amiul offere oh his sword periolexity. imi tokemi oil smmrmemider limit the Imioliami to) ]ihey seem to me to be standiiig always whioommo ho ootlemool it shoot hiimii olcail omi the oomi tihotooc on the om~tsiole walls, said Erinimie, shot. (here Iriss pretty eyes becanie smif en ihimig out, amixiously, Watchiiiiami, what fused with tears.) This voonmig ofticer was of the miirht 1 Are pnlfs to be worn, or bias Liemotemiamit Basimiger. Amioothier iooior felloiw, tolols 1 omie of the oothieeis, with booth anus broken Leaving Silver Sprimig at sunset, the early imi the tight, hail sat, soo the negro sniol, ste~imer carricol us back thiroinrh the loovelv uoro,mooeoh 10raimist I lie tree with his heid savaniias too the OkI aw~ihi a, amiol turmicol her bout, aiio I miiimiolimig mioothiimig that wemit omi hioows s(olithiwaroh agaimi, boouiiol for thin lakes arooimiol liimii, immitil at last a stray shoot killeol at the lieaol. That evemi in g, as we sat oii the 1Pm amiol a thiinoh, with omie armii ohisaholeol, haol leek, willimig to rest altor the cro)wohiiig coomitimiiieol too loouool aiiol firo miiitil lie, toooo, was Si glits oil thin day, we hicarol thin tale of thie kihleol. Alter t~ikimig tlio minus amiol soommie oil h)aoho Massacre. Thin General toold it, aiiol the cloothiimig froimn thie troooohis, the Imiohiamis toolol it well, for Geoirge was iiisiole talkimi too wemit oott too muiect thin boamiol oot Osceoula, wlioo thin sohioolgirhs, and had no holna what was had thin samiie olay aoo oomuiholishieoh thin imiassa goo iuig ono umitil it was all over. cnn at iFoort Kimig. Groat iojooicimigs wemit oon On the 25th of 1?ecember, 1833, General in thu Imioliami oaiii~i that uiirht Oui thin 20th Thiiomiihosion amiol a lieuteiiaiit heft lort Kiiig, (of 1ebonmiany foohloowimig Gemiomal Gaiiies passeol anal tlio pnoseiit site of thin towii of Ocala, (ivel thio 5;iinn ioo~oo1 ooii hiis wuoy frooiio Ilnooke soouith oil Silver Spniiig, for an aftemmioon too Kb ig,u i miol oamiie lihOOOii thin scomie of thin muias stiooll. Thin were walkimig aloiig, chiattimig sacre. I was with hiimu, amuohwe foomumiol thin aol nail siioooking, gooimig toowanol thin sutlers stone, vanceguianol lyimig whiore thioy tell, with thin when snohilenly, all umismispicioums of olanger, boooohies oil Majoon Daole amiol (ahotaimi Frasom, tliov nooiived in their boneasts thin tire oil Os thin oxemi attachicol too thin cart, ~vithi thin yokn onoohas band, ~vhoo were hiiololen in the thick still oon tliomu as if asloebo amiol theme stooioh it near by. General Thioinpsoii lehl denol, thin fooiloonui litlIe horoastwoork, thuioklv stuololed rio ii with twent yfoomir balls, Lientenamit withi balls, amid withimi it (0011 iiiOii, kmieehimig Smiiith with thirteen. This niassacre iiiay be or hyimig n~ooui thioir hoinasts joist as thiey were alleol thin opening of the bug Floniola wao ~ ho mu I ho y tineol thioir hast shoot. Imo thin ohoy [lie little garnisooii in thin font, hearing tIn iii oil thio Flooniola~ wiiiton thuny were but lit tiring, Prehialeth hlnstily loon olelemise. Thioy tIe cliimi(reoh we necoogmuizool nIh thin 1)00001 (oiuiglatulateol thieniselves 1110011 thin inen oho 01 to ihows iiuol biiiii +m ~ in ~ ly expectimig o muo ii o o s thin ohotmo toolceillomits they weie homur , . hiuuiomit uuioovnoh rooouuiol two coiiiloamiies of troohos lromn Foort l3rooooko thio hittho hironstwoork too sloow uuimusio amuol thin lauilhon. That very olay, thIn 25th, thiese tw 00 oaiimion v hiicho thin Iuuohiamus haul thiioowmo intoo oxpecteol coillopamiies, umioler thin cominanol 0)1 thin swimuilo was ioeooveneol aii(l holaceol von Major Enancis L. Daole, oof thin Foominthi Imi th sll~ it thin heaul oof thin nioimimud. Bmut I tYintry, were iiiaichiiiig northiwarol aloiug thin sli ill no em toorget thin sight oul thin nuemi lyiuug ronol whiels leol frooni Brooke to King, whiemo thuo 10 iii thinir blue clothiimug, soo still aiid si- ns they were ad~anciiig carelessly anol in k mit unolor thin hoveby Floniola sky. loerleot security, they were attackeol by o Altor thin war wi)5 over tlooy were in- Inns booolv of Indiaiis posteol in the thickets imuto ricoh mu the inuuilitary cemuintery at St. Au not thiiity yards fnomn thin roaol. Major IDnole I mmstune whuern thorn is a huauuobsoomne iuuoomumi omiol the aolvancngm~arol fell deaol at thin foist uiiemit too thunir uuinmuioony, resmumeol thin Geuueral, tire imiolneol, hal f of thin coommauud were kill oltoi o hong ~ou~muse, whiichi uioo nun senmeol ohs od. The reuuuaiuoiuig officers ralhinol thonir men hoooseoi to break. We sat in sihemuon soouuic ireol loliuiolly boack into thin thicket, anol tiuiie lomuger. It camuun too us with hloowni, tomughut olesperatehy for an hoomir, when thin there on that wihol obark nivor, a realizatinmi Imiohians retired for a cousmultatiomi. Withi of thin weary mnarohues, thin smuololeui shoots, the thin energy of a oleshoerate P1l~h005C thin for- little oletachumuinmuts emit oofl imi joist such places lonui hoauiol boegami to bomiilol a boreastwoork of as thinoose ooui shioore. logs, bout boefoore it was kneehighthnat h0O)Oin I fech, said Iris, slowhy I feel somne little unfiuuished breastwork that muimuteby way as if we hinol noot thought eiuooughu abmout toolol us smuchi a story oof desh)airthme Iuiohiamus thinmn, thue p~~ suolohiers who ohinol hunre. 174 HARPERS NEW MONThLY MAGAZINE. It would not (10 them any gooll, I said. No but still I wish I ~visli we had Miss Iris 111(0115, I tliiiik, that it wOlll(1 have (lOne us good, sai(l the Governor. Yes, lourIllure(l Iris, that is what I Illeant. Ihaiik von. And. thoughttnllv she looked out over the (lark water. The next day we eanie to the region of the lakes, Ilavilig worke(l our way with (hi heulty th rough tloatillg islalI(ls ot the Putio Sp((tl( lllotO, wiliehi ill philes covered the riv- er. obstructing the ehiannel with its tough, ropelike roots. Sonletinies they have to get out ililli saw them apart, nid tie the eIl(ls I lack to the trees 11011 shore 5li(l Georve lImit this tulle time uiaturahist was ahead ot 11i1u. hiaviiig ahmea(ly delivered tile follow ilig, from Bartramn, to a si II et iml(licIlce colli posed of Ermiiiiie, Iris, aiid mn~ s 11 A singular ~iqimatit 1)1 iuit, iSSO( iatimlg ill lauge coijiniunities or isl ~uids somo tunes sev (101 mimiles in length mmmd s pl irtei of a mile ill breadth, 011 large iix ~i5 (Ii ii t~ ~. These islamills are umourishlell 111(1 k 1(t lii place hy bug tilIromis roots, amid ill otto ii dive with alligators, snakes, 110s otters heron, unid curlew, miiitil they secum like connumuiities needing only wigwanms 111(1 a canoe to coni Illete the scene. Iu storms and high water they are ihiiven troni their moorings, 111(1 float about mumitil they secure a tooting (gull, xvhieu they flourish iii id slIrei(I thiemns(lves until agumium l(rokeu up 111(1 (lisIlersell. They are often I(lorlie(l with flowers, as the seeds (It other 1)lamits ire (lrohIh)ed li~O15 theni hy the birds, and spring up omi the mIlattell green, hearin r ldossoiii~ as composedly us though dry land was bemmeathi them imisteall (If a 11001 111(1 rallill currelit. Never immimid, said George, when Iris in- formed bun that lie was too late with his wee(l information I still have Hallak Tus tenugge. Promise me that you will he an (hence Miss Iris, when I deliver uuiy lecture upon the warrior of the Oklawahma. Thi( toll( n is light, lout the y~~imuig nian would hi i~ & los auiswei, uieveithel(ss 111(1 a \(1 N s~ u t little audience our Iris miiade whi( ii Iii lilt like it. I lii haki s w I me Grithimi, Eustis, Harris, and Dom i I mistis hi vimlg lIeeli no med tuomii Gemi eral I mistis md the rest from 110 niami know ethi w Ii it XX e hii~ e coumme to the likes amid the Tor- ii 1 he Zone, si oh Ermin lie. I)ora, at leist, ~Iresagethl a romiiamice (If 5(I1O~ ki 11(1. What is roniance I I remarked, commipre- hemisi vel N. Whereat Miss Tmeshiimmgtomm oust dowum her (ye5 amid tmmrmied sweetly imito a statume of Mehamicliolly at the deck railing (Miss Treshm imigt(Imis profile, hum, amid draperies weme such that, give lieu a hackgrouiuid, ammd iriesistiholy ~(Ii 11 thoughts tmlmmi((l at ouice to the Palmimem niamhhes) ami(1 thiemi the Duke, mioticimig aft- er a while the very (Ih)vi(Imms pathos (It her itt itmohe, .111111 1ud up w ithi colmicelIm, sayiumg, There I was a find tin smiioke of moy cigiir w((uh(l amimioy yomu ; ~ruiy 1)11(1011 it ; amid weumt helow. No mise, said Ermuimie, iii a low tomie line (holes miot c(ImIih)uehl(mi(h Gueek art at all. Nou any other art, I amiswere(l. For uny part, I like the simiihIhelmeuirte(l, bhume eyeh, bumrly y(Iummig unami lie says what lie mneamis, amid lie kmiows ~vhuu.t lie ~vamits, mmmd all the eloqumemice imi time worbl, Gmeek or otherwise cilumhIl uiot mumove hiimii. Whmemi Imo barnes, lie will muarmy 5(11110 omme whioun he reilly loves imi his owum Show way, said Eruiiine. m.u~u; mm0iiS. - /4 A TIlL OKLAWAHA. 175 slow if von like but isnt than f~ist ? We were ap~roacliiig the head of navi ,~atn)li on our Wil(l river, ~iiid, contrary to In eustoin of travelers, we felicitated our- selves oii the necessity of retnrnin~ over the saiiie riulte. liven then I shall not ha xe situ halt the wonders, said Iris, dis cout tel tedi v. IuI1ine(liatelv all the geutlemeu rallied to her assistance. What had she not seen Au alligator ? the whoopingcrane ? the ro seate curlew ? a gopher ? or the limlikiui they anxiously so esteil. But Iris lad ,eeu t\v() large alli~itors nuts in jet and ~In~ uuuher of snaIl ones she had secut the roseate curlew, iiiost heautifud hird of Florida she had seen a whioopiuugcrane six feet in length; the gojihier, however, she had uiot seen. A laud tortoise, said George; the great gopher. We saw one at the last launliug. They are about fifteen inches long by twelve ill htrea(lth, au id, use(l for soup, are said to be equal to green turtle. they hay e, for their size, enormous strength, said the General ; I remember seeing one walk oft easily with a maui standing on his hack. large lou a native Oklnwahiau puir et iotiplc, CREEK 1)RAVEIILES. however, give me the hiunpkiuu, sai(l the Governor, laughing. With what shrill de wilderness, washed by southern seas down light (10th he hoot iuitt) our windoxvs at all its slender length. It never has had uight how scornfully he iguores us by (lay, that enterprisiug pol)uulatiouu, those thiriv staul(liulg on a ucar bough nutil we can al lug towuis, that vigorous public spirit, uioo,t tout hi hiuu, an(l theu takiug flight, his with which we are all so fiunihiar hut hyiuig lens truluiu r behiuitl hiun, laughing at us at ease iuu the hulny air, it las laughed at vt s ti lx shruekiug with derisive laughter, the uuiere idea of exert on. 0 lovely, lazy is lie fit s up stream Liunpkiuu, nuireasoui Florida (iii it he flat Northern uuieu have ablE nut p~ ssubhe, bug heggeil, vociferouus at l;ist iorce(l xouu forward iultt) flue ranks t)f liunpkiui 1i x ituiti all others thou art the leg prtisaic jirogiess t entl rx bud of the Oklawahia ! the steruier sex thought it couhtl. Our rix er had uiow broatleucti nuid slual Ou the way back we did uuot go to Sil how id out into a sea of lilies, aud hinally we ver Spriuig, hut we diti go to Ornuige Lake. lost it iuu the Ii hitrida j)rairies, its birthplace. Every hoitly saith we could not, as eveui tiuur I should like to go to its very hegiuuudng, wee steamer ditl uitt atteuuihit the narrow its very first little throp, said Iris, stauudiuug creek ; 1 tuit a polebarge Intl etinie (hliwui iii tiptoe, as if to see oxer into the Gulf of xxithu the nail, auth in that barge we weuut Mexico. b:ick, piltiteth, of cituurse, hiy the Governor, Xou could never fuuutl it : there is alxx-a vs xxhuo arramigeti exery thuiuug, prexaihed upon souuietluiiig beyouutl, said Eruuuiuue. I have the captaimi to xxait fur us, nuud totik us uiever vet beeuu able ii all my hifo tti get to where muuauu (tir rather steauuuer passeui the begiuuiuiuig tif auuy thuiuig, or, for thiat uuuat geus) nexer tuid before. Orauige Lake is teu, ttu the euud either. Sluoxv uuie a siuughe eighuteeuu miles htuig 1 ty three or flour witle, oceaui hitachi, ~xill you, froun Maiuie tit Flori eutiucly suurrtoiuoled hiy orange grulves ex da, xxhiere there is not a sauutibar outside ? teuudiuig bath for uuuiles. Most tif these trees Xoui may not see it, huuut 5l)iii~ (lie h5 suite to were tuigimually the xxihd tir:uuuge, tr bitter ctuuuue along and spoil every tluiuug by telhimug sweet, as it is called, uuuud iii forIuier tines vtuu it is there. flue Iuutliauus restirted lucre oiuce a year to eat On tie lakes xve found settlementsLees the oruuuiges, xvhuichu were sit uuuumuerouus flint burg, Okahuinukee, amuti others and we said, they tlitl unit take flit triouble t(l gather xxithu regret, Florida is gr(lxviuug. them fromui flit brauuchues, lout simuu~lhy cut Why with regret ? asked the sterner tltxvuu a tree :umutl hilleil thuehi blankets, ofteui sex. rtiast iii in flue fruit hiefore eatiuig it. The In Because Fboritla has always been a far- diauus were uutit thue omuhy pilgrims to thus away hand, a beauutiful trackless tropical lovely hake: opossunus niud alligators cane 176 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. (town the shore, strolling un (ler the hulossouiing trees. The General can do it bet- ter ibau~ I can, said George, uiioodily, sitting (toWn on a stuiin1i 1(114 drawing his hat over Ins ~ves. Aini the General, who real- hy eolll(1 do it luetter, but sel- (loin lla(l the chance iiothiui loath heoun tenngge, one of the younger (hliels of the Seminole war, 01(1 the master-spirit of its (lose, was a remarkable spec hneu of Indian beauty. He Was six feet two i11(11e5 ill height, slender and gracefnl, with brilliant eyes, delicate leatures an(1 a soft smile of sweetuiess, like a woman s. V~hien the older chieftains gr: dnally yielde(l, and eith(T emigrated to Arkansas or re treate(l southward to the cv- erglades, lie ~)roul(lly refused to give up his hnntinggronnds or ids iml(tet)eul(lemlce, aunt by his own peisonal imitlnence ~)u)lou1ge(l the war for sev- eral years, keeping the whole (ouumitry, froiii ~t. Au (rustimie to forts King and l)rane here in the Oklawaha conutry, in a state of constant alanui. Aft- er every defeat it was unlInk who ralhie(l the Indians, I ml Ink who led them forwarul also in great imunsbers at certaimi seasomus to agaimi it was I lallak who appeared in flue tee(t upouu the fruit. miuuust umiexl)e(ted places, now hidden iii 5ouiue \Ve tainted omi the shore in a beautiful inaccessible huanuak, now shouting at their grove, au(h inumnediately called upon thue geul very gatesHallak, whom tIn y couuht uiever eralizer for Hallak Tnstemuuugge, thu at bold fimud, uiever couiquer. Xouung, clearheaded, warrior of the Oklawahma, who lund been kept resoluite, withi huis smnall baud of tried warn saved up all this tinie until we shoumbt staunt ors, lie l)reseiute(t the spectacle of one Indian omi Orange Lake, where his light mnoccasined kee~diug the whole armuuy at bay. his favor toot formerly trod. The Govermior proposed ite hiomne was huere omu thie shores of Orange tirst a bow-i of orauuge~nle in hiomuor of the Lake, amid lie hind hddden retreats iii thue chieftain, auud tIme Dake nuid Miss Treshiuug neighborhood to which uio track led fbi- the ton assisted imi unakimig it. I thuimuk, said Imidian wny is to deco~- youu past by a lironul, thue Duke, slowly I t/uiuuk it will be good ; plaimi trail tlueum, at sonie (listaulce, thie fore and gathamutly lie phedged thie draperies. uuuost of the humid miunkes a high, lomig steti I have a fnuicy, Ermuuimie, thuat our Greek over thue tall grass alomugside, ahiglutimig omi has conohuered after all, I said, imi an under the tip of thue toe, amid carefuilly suuuoothuing touie. out the huuishmeit blades hmehilmud huimuu. Imi fliis [hue orangeade was good ; it was iced, it uuu~umummer, stel) by step, hue reaches the hiding- ~vas sweet,it was fragrant, it was delicately pl;uce. Flue rest of the band go omi somuue strong, aum(h each glass had an orange blossom hiuumoired yar(ls further, amid then the uuext Ihoatimug in it. We drank to the mnenuory of omue mnakes his exit imi tIme s;umiue way; and so) 1-lallak with muumehi ceremony, and time gener until uuhh have reachmet the huidiuugphace, with ulizer, withudrawuu behimut a tree, stmntieol his no trail heft behuimid thiermi. Mauiy timuies ouur umote-book assioluuomusly. At length, when the troops nuade homug night marches on what last ohregs were gomue, we called huima forth. they comusidered certaimi imuformumationi, amid He cammue, but his face fell. Thuat perfidious rushed imuto souuue huamuuak at dawmi to fiat little Irisor was it thuat perfiolions Govermi- what? Nothing. Sonuetimuies sigmus of ocen- or? At any rate, there they were half a nuile pa lucy, souuietimnes a fire buuruuimug, bout umever FRUiT ANi) FlOWERS. THE OKLAWATJA. 177 Ilallak. Once he came qnietly into Fort King, and professing himself tired of the war, olmened negotiations for peace. He re- mained several days, impressing all the of- ficers by the goo(I sense he showed in the negotiation, and the feeling with which he spoke of all the blood that had been shed and then, having obtained some pow(ler and supplieS, he sn(ldenly disappeared in the night, he and his twenty memi, leaving not so much as a hairs track behind him. Grad- nally the other chiefs yielded; not so hal- lak. Talk after talk was sent to him, offer after offer; then the troops would plunge into the hamaks again, and flounder through another useless campaign. His an- swer was always the same: This is my country; here I hunted when a boy with my bow and arrows; here my father lies buried and here I too wish to die. He killed his own sister without the hesitation of an instant because she spoke of surren- (ler. At last he was taken, but not openly; we secured him by stratagem. Having in one of onr attacks captured his father-in- law, who lived in the lake country at the hea(l of the Oklawaha, and was called the Old Man of the Lakes, we sent him to Hal- lak with a request for an interview. In a few days Hahlak came in for a talk, accorn- pxnitd b\ his wives and children. He grace- fullx ssluted the officers, who had gathered in ~m body to see the man who, all alone, had ~ept their whole force at bay for nine months, and then went on to head-quarters. But ucootiatiomis failed he would not emmriqte. He ~s thea invited to xmsit lort King; and during his ab seine his band, a small inimuber at best, was enticed in by ball plays and damices, and cap- tured. Au express was sent immedi- atelv to tIme fort an- nouncing the cap- ture. Hallak was sitting with the comninan(ling officer in front of the dlmsar ters when the hag- gard, excited mes- senger appeared. lie asked the ti(l- ings, and was told that his people were dl calitured, aumi he himself a prisoner. He sank to the grouu(l, a broken- hearted man from that hour. Ia July Voa. LILNo. 80S.1 2 lie was reniovemi to Arkansas, and the next month the long Florida war was announced closed by official l)roclaiiiatiomm. The end must justify the means in this case, wrote one of our officers in relation to the taking of Haihak; he has made fools of us too oftemi. Emit, iii spite of that, I do not like it at all, sai(l Erniine ; imo, not at all. Women never do about Indians, I mean, said George, niorosely, unless they live on the border, amid then they would rather shoot an Indian than not. They fairly love it. We had iiot anf of us lived on time bor- der, and so we could miot refute this saugimi - nary statement of tIme gemmerahizer; but Miss Tresbhigtomi asked the Duke if he had ever seen an Imidian. Yes the Duke hind seen two; they were sellimig baskets. Couldnt lie make a sketch of onejust a little sketch? It would do for a souvenir of Hahlak. No, the Duke was afraid he could not; but lie thought lie hind one of tIme baskets at home. He would look it up and send it to her. Miss Tresbington was so much obliged. Returning to the steamer, we resumed our journey down the river, passing the laud- ing called Fort Brooke, a lonely,. peaceful spot. There is nothing to indicate the hard fightimig that took 1)1 ace here, said tIme C emmeral, 1 ookimmg around invohumitarily fom u~ru~:iiiNe OLiANGiS. 178 HATIPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. George; but that young mnaii was gloomily smoking cigars on the roof, niiinindfnl of historic fame or any thing else. There were three forts named. Brooke in Florida, said the General, resuming; one at Tampa, one northward on the same coast near Dead- mans Bay, and this one on the Okiawaha. in March, 1841, Hallak and his band came (lown the river and attacked. this little post, killing a corporal who had been out hunt- ing. Lieutenant Alburtis, the commanding officer, who had only seventeen men in all boldly sallied out and attacked the Indians, three times his number, driviiing them to the barrens. His amuinaition being exha uisted, Alburtis returned to the fort; but as he was expecting a provision train with supplies, lie sallied ont again, intending to meet it and bring it in safely if possible. It was a hazardous undertaking, but the little band (lid not shrink. As they were crossing Orange Creek bridge the Iudiaiis fired npon them again; they took to the trees, and returned the fire and the taunts with interest for an 1l(mur, when the provision train appeared, and they conducted it in safety to the fort. Of this fight General Worth himself report- d, If asked for an opinion, I should say, The haudsomest affair (luring the war. That was high praise, when you consider that the war lasted seven years and (overed the whole of Flori- (la remarked. I Oh, I am so glad it hap- pemied here, right on the l)anks of the Okiawalia F said Iris. Every thing al- most always happens some- where else. But there is a pathos on the Indian side, after all, said the Governor. Poor hard - pressed, long - hunted Seminoles, fighting and dy- ing, carried off strnggling to the cold West, or tlcehug to that last refuge of the (le~ spairing savage, the Great Cypress Swamp, of which one of our soldiers wrote: We have passed one or two of their camps. But what a sad reflection their appear- ance called up To what extremities must the poor wretches have been driven when they sought as a refuge such a country as thisthe alligator, sometimes a crane, and the cabbage-tree, as was apparent from the relics that remained of last nights sup- per, their only footi! That night we niet the in- coulino steamer, now And it was her turn to claw the bank, while we sailed majestically on down stream, with onr fires proudly burning on top. They gave us a cheer as we passed, and we mc- turned it with vigor. However silent ammy where else, on the Oklawaha you are ex- pected to shout, Even Miss Treshington waved her handkerchief to Peohile in whom she felt about as much interest as Mark Twain did in our friends tbe Bermudians. But the Duke stood u~i, held en to the rail- big, and cheered manfully, I liked him all the better for the hearty noise he niade, We all sat imp to see the last of our river. It was after midnight when we reached the amouth and felt ourselves carried out on to the broad St. Jolums. The moon was rising, and time scemme fair and lovely; but our pitch- pimme fires rio longer burned on top, and, look- imig back, we could not even see the lotus leaves that masked the entrance of our wild river, At Pilatha a graceful New York yacht was anchored off the towim, waiting for some- body, and hookimig very metropolitan indeed on the forest-bordered river, A trim little boat put off for our steamer as soon as she canine into view. Who can it be for ? said Miss Treslming ricaise mmci, A QUAKERS CHRISTMAS-EVE. 179 toil, the Duke having already declared that he expected llobo(ly. At that moment the Governor appeared on the little lower deck ,~ iving directions to the servallts. It Iliust be for the Governor, we ex- ehlillle(l, ~vith surprise. \Vell, said Iris, invohlllltarily, I hall no (lea The rest she stilled. We all l)ade our friend good-by with real regret, and watched the little boat early him to tile. ya cut, the sails fly up and open o tIle breeze, 1111(1 tile graceful craft glide away to tIle ilortllward tIS we, left ilellillIl, slowly stealli llJ) to tile Pilatka (lock. Iris was very silent. But ErlIl ille 511111111e(l a5 follows The beauty of snell a man 15 the Governor is that Ile carries lIboilt with 111111 a large at]nospllere. You do 11(4 entirely 11)50 your Ileart, ill silite of his cap ii vatillg illalliler, l)ecause, j 1St 115 you reacil tile 1(1111k, you always catch a savillg gliln~)se of that sanie aforeroentioned large atmos l)llereotiler ilearts to wiloIll ho is e(~ually (levoted 1111(1 110 01l~ likes to lue One of a crowd, said tile gelleralizer, briskly. Miss Tresllington followed tIle yacllt with Iler fine eyeseyes tllat were 1(egillnillg to (tisceril 50lll~ tililIgs hi life tlley lIad ilot sus i(ecte(l lueforebut tlley ca~~e (filickly hack t(( reality ill the little byplay tilat follow- e(l. For Iris, ilaving 110W notIlilIg else to (10, luore down 1111(111 tile Duke, and, witil tllree remarks aild olle slilile, swept Iliul off captive ill her traill. Tile last we saw of 111111 lIe was goilIg 011 all exdursioll, still ill her traill accessorIesFlorida carts, heel) sall(l, allll therinollleter at Ilillety. 0111 party sellarIltell. illeir ilile wor(ls 1111(1 (lee(ls will 50011 hide froul lIlY ulilId for (VOl, l(ult not tile rnei~~orv (If tile wild ilar row rivdl Il((willg 011, (Ill, flIloIlghl the (lark tropic forests of far Florida. A QUAKEWS CLI RISTMAS-EYE. how slow and soft the snowdress foils 1 1(011 tile villedesorted walls, As if 501110 graliolls souil, ilItelIt Upon tile 0110 sweet deed it nIcailt, Sillee in its grace suicli bounty lay, 8110111(1 wrap each bare thing ~n tile way, Till all thinrs wilite and whiter grow, Ex c01(t tile silallows Earth iuiust tllrow. 1110 tellIler gray, tile peaceflil wilite, A Quaker settillg Illake toIligilt And 50 tiliS 1110011511i11e, which is slla(Ie Only a. little higllter laid, Into niy heart-still 11100(1 has crept, WitIl sudll a glow as suIlrise kept Wilen y((utii and Benjaluin were unine. Ak! swift tile slowest years illdlille, AIIIl sullrise lutus 11(1 stoiy 110W To rn((ve nle like tile Iligllt and 5110W. If tilose ulliqlliet bells would (ease (lasililIg tlleir peals across tllis peace, it SOOIIlS tile iloulrs rare silelltlless VeIl worlhlly ilearts nlight ellide and bless, And lift tile lowest Ileavellwarll Fo (TOOt tile birtlldav of tIle Lord. 1 (1(11 ll((t tililuk tile loudest bells (ian utter wilat a imnre voice tells Tile Spirit Ileeds 110 brazell tone II) wiuisper triuILll)hL to His own Flue blessed healillr falls to thelll WIlo touch lulIseell tile garllleilts 11cm Aild hidden (bells are waftell iligher Filan dIlailfilIgs (If all alIgel ciloir. 1-losanna still tile toad lips ely, WIlile still tile land llands crucify [hIt alIrels watch allIl women weep, And hileirs tile Risiler after sleep. blow careth He for Christmas song To whom all (lays and songs belong Only all olbing love luas 1100(1 Its hightide reachillgs thus to 1100(1. Always the wiilillg ailgels sing TI) W011l((lit wolkels listellillg; Always ouir Cllrist is in tIle earl 11, Always Ilis love has Iliunlull blirtil, Ill ~oy that croiv~~s oulr ititer 1110111 As ill JIl(lean Cilristlllas born. And yet I ullillIl 11(1W every year, Wilen lll~ 11110 birtlldays draw aue;u, l.)ear lilItil, 110111 (lIlt 11cr gayer lifo, With worldly 110110 niud WisIlolul rifo, Coullesto tIle (1uliOt Ilest ((IlCO 111010, lIri 11 tile SlIlile 11cr fatller wore. AIld little gracious gifts, to tell Silo keeps by 5(11110 Iligil miracle The 5i111}110 Ilelurt IlelitIl costly 111(0, TIlat Ileeds a (1(1111110 grallt of grIlce. Tilolugh all tile year Rutils tellder eyes TI) IllillO 1110 o~IeIlillgs of tIle skies, Tllough love ililsIlid be love c01111(lete, I filll tile special service sweet. Amul so, perilaps, tilese louuder cluimes, Sulootilillg tIle lIrosOtoihI 1101115 to rhyuuues, Like 501110 rllre voice GoII sets thu rolilIhi TIle Jllrrillg OIlh~5 Of slIriller sound 1llese spirOS xxltll gralud and silly lit, (lillllIillg to rellcil tile Ceultral Ileart Tilese brokell lilies, and the 111511 Of feet wilere balling alIgels IlulsIl May lIe thu clearer eyes tilIlil mille Iresil s~lelli1lgs (If a tllle divine. AnhI He wIlIlse ilirtilday knew 110 lIliss Except a WO1l11l.l1~5 tronIlbehI kiss, Ma.y still furgive tile foolish art, And hide the IlleaulilIg ill His ileart. FANNW R. ROBINSON.

Fannie R. Robinson Robinson, Fannie R. A Quaker's Christmas-Eve 179-180

A QUAKERS CHRISTMAS-EVE. 179 toil, the Duke having already declared that he expected llobo(ly. At that moment the Governor appeared on the little lower deck ,~ iving directions to the servallts. It Iliust be for the Governor, we ex- ehlillle(l, ~vith surprise. \Vell, said Iris, invohlllltarily, I hall no (lea The rest she stilled. We all l)ade our friend good-by with real regret, and watched the little boat early him to tile. ya cut, the sails fly up and open o tIle breeze, 1111(1 tile graceful craft glide away to tIle ilortllward tIS we, left ilellillIl, slowly stealli llJ) to tile Pilatka (lock. Iris was very silent. But ErlIl ille 511111111e(l a5 follows The beauty of snell a man 15 the Governor is that Ile carries lIboilt with 111111 a large at]nospllere. You do 11(4 entirely 11)50 your Ileart, ill silite of his cap ii vatillg illalliler, l)ecause, j 1St 115 you reacil tile 1(1111k, you always catch a savillg gliln~)se of that sanie aforeroentioned large atmos l)llereotiler ilearts to wiloIll ho is e(~ually (levoted 1111(1 110 01l~ likes to lue One of a crowd, said tile gelleralizer, briskly. Miss Tresllington followed tIle yacllt with Iler fine eyeseyes tllat were 1(egillnillg to (tisceril 50lll~ tililIgs hi life tlley lIad ilot sus i(ecte(l lueforebut tlley ca~~e (filickly hack t(( reality ill the little byplay tilat follow- e(l. For Iris, ilaving 110W notIlilIg else to (10, luore down 1111(111 tile Duke, and, witil tllree remarks aild olle slilile, swept Iliul off captive ill her traill. Tile last we saw of 111111 lIe was goilIg 011 all exdursioll, still ill her traill accessorIesFlorida carts, heel) sall(l, allll therinollleter at Ilillety. 0111 party sellarIltell. illeir ilile wor(ls 1111(1 (lee(ls will 50011 hide froul lIlY ulilId for (VOl, l(ult not tile rnei~~orv (If tile wild ilar row rivdl Il((willg 011, (Ill, flIloIlghl the (lark tropic forests of far Florida. A QUAKEWS CLI RISTMAS-EYE. how slow and soft the snowdress foils 1 1(011 tile villedesorted walls, As if 501110 graliolls souil, ilItelIt Upon tile 0110 sweet deed it nIcailt, Sillee in its grace suicli bounty lay, 8110111(1 wrap each bare thing ~n tile way, Till all thinrs wilite and whiter grow, Ex c01(t tile silallows Earth iuiust tllrow. 1110 tellIler gray, tile peaceflil wilite, A Quaker settillg Illake toIligilt And 50 tiliS 1110011511i11e, which is slla(Ie Only a. little higllter laid, Into niy heart-still 11100(1 has crept, WitIl sudll a glow as suIlrise kept Wilen y((utii and Benjaluin were unine. Ak! swift tile slowest years illdlille, AIIIl sullrise lutus 11(1 stoiy 110W To rn((ve nle like tile Iligllt and 5110W. If tilose ulliqlliet bells would (ease (lasililIg tlleir peals across tllis peace, it SOOIIlS tile iloulrs rare silelltlless VeIl worlhlly ilearts nlight ellide and bless, And lift tile lowest Ileavellwarll Fo (TOOt tile birtlldav of tIle Lord. 1 (1(11 ll((t tililuk tile loudest bells (ian utter wilat a imnre voice tells Tile Spirit Ileeds 110 brazell tone II) wiuisper triuILll)hL to His own Flue blessed healillr falls to thelll WIlo touch lulIseell tile garllleilts 11cm Aild hidden (bells are waftell iligher Filan dIlailfilIgs (If all alIgel ciloir. 1-losanna still tile toad lips ely, WIlile still tile land llands crucify [hIt alIrels watch allIl women weep, And hileirs tile Risiler after sleep. blow careth He for Christmas song To whom all (lays and songs belong Only all olbing love luas 1100(1 Its hightide reachillgs thus to 1100(1. Always the wiilillg ailgels sing TI) W011l((lit wolkels listellillg; Always ouir Cllrist is in tIle earl 11, Always Ilis love has Iliunlull blirtil, Ill ~oy that croiv~~s oulr ititer 1110111 As ill JIl(lean Cilristlllas born. And yet I ullillIl 11(1W every year, Wilen lll~ 11110 birtlldays draw aue;u, l.)ear lilItil, 110111 (lIlt 11cr gayer lifo, With worldly 110110 niud WisIlolul rifo, Coullesto tIle (1uliOt Ilest ((IlCO 111010, lIri 11 tile SlIlile 11cr fatller wore. AIld little gracious gifts, to tell Silo keeps by 5(11110 Iligil miracle The 5i111}110 Ilelurt IlelitIl costly 111(0, TIlat Ileeds a (1(1111110 grallt of grIlce. Tilolugh all tile year Rutils tellder eyes TI) IllillO 1110 o~IeIlillgs of tIle skies, Tllough love ililsIlid be love c01111(lete, I filll tile special service sweet. Amul so, perilaps, tilese louuder cluimes, Sulootilillg tIle lIrosOtoihI 1101115 to rhyuuues, Like 501110 rllre voice GoII sets thu rolilIhi TIle Jllrrillg OIlh~5 Of slIriller sound 1llese spirOS xxltll gralud and silly lit, (lillllIillg to rellcil tile Ceultral Ileart Tilese brokell lilies, and the 111511 Of feet wilere balling alIgels IlulsIl May lIe thu clearer eyes tilIlil mille Iresil s~lelli1lgs (If a tllle divine. AnhI He wIlIlse ilirtilday knew 110 lIliss Except a WO1l11l.l1~5 tronIlbehI kiss, Ma.y still furgive tile foolish art, And hide the IlleaulilIg ill His ileart. FANNW R. ROBINSON. 180 HARPERS NEW MONThLY MAGAZINE. THE POETRY OF STEEPLES. IN the difl~rent countries of Europe more than ordinary interest is attached to the history of bells. In England few subjects receive more attention from the antiquarian than the bells of old churches; for every bell has its history, and every clanging note that is sent out from the old towers, as it quivers through the air and falls on the villagers ear, recalls some time-honored tra(litiou told and retold at his fathers fireside, and comes fran~ht with sweet associations of home and kindred. The English were really the first to make general use of bells in churches. Their affection for them in somue instances amounts, even in the present age, almost to superstitious veneration. The matter-of- fact, critical, yet enthusiastic antiquary en- courages the cultivation of this sentiment by haling out from the dusty lumber-rooms of the past the long-forgotten stories of the iron-tongLle(l singers, reviving them with the warma and kindly touch of a loving hand. His fouth o auld aick-nackets, Rusty aim caps and jinglin jackets, his Parritch-pats and auld sant-backets Before the flood, have a fascination for the collector of val- uables that are worth nothing, and recol- lector of all that Time has been glad to for- get. He will sit all day in contemnl)latioii of a statue with neer a nose, and will listen in his dreams to the ditty that was made to please Kin0 Pepins cradle. But the cracked bell in the campanile of the hamlet church, the ancient peal in the village kirk, the chime in the cathedral tower, have a charma for him that far transcends the imleasure he feels in studying the tales his munsemn treas- ures tell him. The bells sang to his fathers fathers away back generations ago; they welcomed the coming and sped the parting guest; they rang jubilant peals iii lmommor of the bride, and tolled many a sad requiem as the mourners bore to the grave tIme body of their dead. How rich in sociations of memories of the past are those English bells his bells! They are curious, may. ha1), in form, an(l bear strange inscrihitions but he never tires of stmmdyimmg them and talking of them to whomsoever will listen. He carries his hearer back to far-distant ages, when hells were first used, whemi the imriests of the Iemnple wore theni on their garments, an(l imeifornied tIme functions of their sacred office to tIme accompaniment of their silver tinkling. He quotes from Hie- rommymnus Magimis, amid descril)es the tiimtin- aebeleni, all(l the pctomus, or hatshaped bell, which invite(l tIme amicient Greeks to the fish market and the Romnamis to their pumbime baths ; the codon, with which tIme Greek sen- tinels were kept awake, amid which was the prototyj)e of tIme signal which our bell-weth- er carries around its neck; the nola, which was appended to the neck of pet dogs and the feet of pet birds; the campesma, the first turret bell; time Dodona lebclcs, or caldromms of Dodomma, by mmieans of which, according to Strabo, time oracles were sometimes con- veyed; down to time sqmuiUa, of which Hie- ronymus seemmis to have kmmown notlmimig save that it was a little bell. Our amitiquary will imitemlard his discourse with muammy a choice qmmotation frommi the classic writers of antiquity, amid will fmmrthmer vary the mmmonot ommv of his hearmIe(l recital with qumaimit stories handed down by time chroniclers of former ages. How, Pinr imistance, the gallant arniy of Clothaire II. was frighitemmed fromu time siege of Semis by time rimiging of time bells of St. Stepimemss Chmmirchm ; how, imi time year 900, Pope Johmim IX. ordered that bells should be used in time churches as a defemise against thunuier amid higlitimimig ; amid how, aml(I umider what emmmhemrrmmssiumg circmmmmmstammces, tIme first set of tummmahile bells was raise(l to the tower of Croyslamid Abbey iii 9(30 ; amm(1 how, when time sevemi bells, Gmmthmhae, J3arthmolomnew, Be- telin, Turketmul, Tatwimi, Bega, ami(h Pega, were all safely lmumig, they raining out togethmer, as Imigumiphmus says, Jiicbat nmirabilis itarmonia; ncc cref teune toni/a conmoacutia campanarurn in tote Anglia (Makimig a womm(lerfuml harimmony minor was there such a concert of bells in all

Emily V. Battey Battey, Emily V. The Steeples of Poetry 180-191

180 HARPERS NEW MONThLY MAGAZINE. THE POETRY OF STEEPLES. IN the difl~rent countries of Europe more than ordinary interest is attached to the history of bells. In England few subjects receive more attention from the antiquarian than the bells of old churches; for every bell has its history, and every clanging note that is sent out from the old towers, as it quivers through the air and falls on the villagers ear, recalls some time-honored tra(litiou told and retold at his fathers fireside, and comes fran~ht with sweet associations of home and kindred. The English were really the first to make general use of bells in churches. Their affection for them in somue instances amounts, even in the present age, almost to superstitious veneration. The matter-of- fact, critical, yet enthusiastic antiquary en- courages the cultivation of this sentiment by haling out from the dusty lumber-rooms of the past the long-forgotten stories of the iron-tongLle(l singers, reviving them with the warma and kindly touch of a loving hand. His fouth o auld aick-nackets, Rusty aim caps and jinglin jackets, his Parritch-pats and auld sant-backets Before the flood, have a fascination for the collector of val- uables that are worth nothing, and recol- lector of all that Time has been glad to for- get. He will sit all day in contemnl)latioii of a statue with neer a nose, and will listen in his dreams to the ditty that was made to please Kin0 Pepins cradle. But the cracked bell in the campanile of the hamlet church, the ancient peal in the village kirk, the chime in the cathedral tower, have a charma for him that far transcends the imleasure he feels in studying the tales his munsemn treas- ures tell him. The bells sang to his fathers fathers away back generations ago; they welcomed the coming and sped the parting guest; they rang jubilant peals iii lmommor of the bride, and tolled many a sad requiem as the mourners bore to the grave tIme body of their dead. How rich in sociations of memories of the past are those English bells his bells! They are curious, may. ha1), in form, an(l bear strange inscrihitions but he never tires of stmmdyimmg them and talking of them to whomsoever will listen. He carries his hearer back to far-distant ages, when hells were first used, whemi the imriests of the Iemnple wore theni on their garments, an(l imeifornied tIme functions of their sacred office to tIme accompaniment of their silver tinkling. He quotes from Hie- rommymnus Magimis, amid descril)es the tiimtin- aebeleni, all(l the pctomus, or hatshaped bell, which invite(l tIme amicient Greeks to the fish market and the Romnamis to their pumbime baths ; the codon, with which tIme Greek sen- tinels were kept awake, amid which was the prototyj)e of tIme signal which our bell-weth- er carries around its neck; the nola, which was appended to the neck of pet dogs and the feet of pet birds; the campesma, the first turret bell; time Dodona lebclcs, or caldromms of Dodomma, by mmieans of which, according to Strabo, time oracles were sometimes con- veyed; down to time sqmuiUa, of which Hie- ronymus seemmis to have kmmown notlmimig save that it was a little bell. Our amitiquary will imitemlard his discourse with muammy a choice qmmotation frommi the classic writers of antiquity, amid will fmmrthmer vary the mmmonot ommv of his hearmIe(l recital with qumaimit stories handed down by time chroniclers of former ages. How, Pinr imistance, the gallant arniy of Clothaire II. was frighitemmed fromu time siege of Semis by time rimiging of time bells of St. Stepimemss Chmmirchm ; how, imi time year 900, Pope Johmim IX. ordered that bells should be used in time churches as a defemise against thunuier amid higlitimimig ; amid how, aml(I umider what emmmhemrrmmssiumg circmmmmmstammces, tIme first set of tummmahile bells was raise(l to the tower of Croyslamid Abbey iii 9(30 ; amm(1 how, when time sevemi bells, Gmmthmhae, J3arthmolomnew, Be- telin, Turketmul, Tatwimi, Bega, ami(h Pega, were all safely lmumig, they raining out togethmer, as Imigumiphmus says, Jiicbat nmirabilis itarmonia; ncc cref teune toni/a conmoacutia campanarurn in tote Anglia (Makimig a womm(lerfuml harimmony minor was there such a concert of bells in all TilE POETRY OF STEEPLES. 181 England). Then if he lie not insensible to the sweet and tender influences sur- ronn(ling his suhject, he will tell how the heart of the great Napoleon was stirred when he liear(1 at Malmaison the tolling of the village hell that brought hack to him the memories of the first happy years that lie passed at Bri- (nile. Then lie will repeat, perchance for the hundredth inie, the Legend oftlie Bells of Limerick.~ The old hells that hung in the tower of the Limerick Ca- liedral were made by a young italian after many years of 7)atieiit toil. I-lie was pronil of his work and when they were piir(l~ise(l by the prior of a neighhori og convent iiear the lake of Conio, the artist nveste(l the profits of the sale iii a pretty villa on the iiiargia of the lake, where lie could hear their Angeles usa- sic wafted from the convent lift across the waters at morning, noon, and night. Here lie intended to pass his life ; but this happiness was (heliled him. In one of those tels(lal broils which, whether civil or foreign, are the un dying worm in a fallen land, lie suffered the loss of his all; and when the storiis passed he found himself without home, famiuily, friends, asid fortune. The convent had been razed to the ground, and the chefs- dwurre of his handiwork, the tuneful chime whose music had cliarsised his listenimig ear for so ninny happy days of his past life, had been carried away to a foreign laud. He be- came a wanderer. His hair grew white and his heart withered before he again found a restimig-place. In all these years of bitter desolation the meniory (if thin niusic of his bells never left him ; he heard it iii the for- est and in f lie crowded city, on the sea and liv the banks of the quiet streusus in the ba- sin of the hills; he heard it by day, and when night came, and troubled sleep, it whispered to him soothingly of peace and happiness. One day lie niet a niariner from over f lie sea, who told him a story of a won- ilrous chime of bells he had heard in Irelamid. An intuition told the artist that they were his hells. He journeyed and voyage(l tliith- or, sick anli weary, and sailed lip the Shar- uion. The ship canie to asichor in the Ilort uiear Limerick, and he took passage iii a sumall boat for the purpose of reaching the city. Before him the tall steeple (if St. I, I OLI)-TiME BELL-RINGERS. Marys lifted its tuirreted head above the mist anti snioke of tIme 01(1 towmi. He leaned back wearily, yet with a happy light beaming from Isis eyes. The angels were whispering to him that his bells were there. He pray- ed: Oh, let them 501111(1 muic a loving wel- come. Just ouie note of greeting, 0 bells! ali(I my pllgriniage is done ! It was a beautiful evemming. The air was like that of his own Italy in the sweetest time of thie year, the deaths of the spring. The hosoas of thie river was like a broad mirror, reflecting the patines of bright gold thmat flecked the blue sky, the towers, and the streets of the old towus in its clear depths. The lights of tIme city danced upon the wavelets thiat rippled from the boat as she glided along. Suddenly the stillness was broken. Frons St. Marys tower there cause a shower of silver sound, filling thse air with nmsic. The boatmen rested on their oars to listen. The old Italian cross- ed Isis arms and fixed his streaming eyes upon the tower. Thin sound of his bells horn to his heart all the sweet memories of his buried hmast: home, friends, kindred, all. I, I - 18~2 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. At last he was happytoo happy to speak, were cast at Meneelys, in West Troy, and too happy to breathe. When the rowers l)iit up in the beautiful tower two years ago. sought to arouse him, his face was upturned. They are the finest in tone aini tune. Their to the tower, l)llt his eyes were closed. The music is wondrously heautif~s1. The hells poor stranger had breathed his last. Ills of Grace, also ten in number, have a llnite(l own c/afsdwmmrme had rung his passing weigi it of 10,300 linoumils. Time largest hell, hell. cal led the Ifectors Bell, or the tolling hell, Never insinuate to tIme foind enthusiast weighs ~hS35 pounds. Tins slmlcimmli(l chime who relates these stories tb it there is a 1)5 cost $tR)00. If. you wish to enjoy a new sen- sibility that his legen(lar~ loic am m~ l)e tie sation, go up ii to time i)ell tower of Grace tective in chmroimologica.l dint If ~ on detect Clmmircim wimemi Mr. Semmia time cmmrillommmmcmo is ammachronismns, keep them to ~ ourself pr~mticimmg. lie (10(S not (lailce about aumi(lst In this age time Netheri imitis (I aiim prece(l a forest of rolmes, piilhiimg one amid them an hellrum ence among the countries of Emiropt iii imel other amm(l another, as time oldf mime fry music. There are morn clmmimmi s or car ems of Emmgiammd (lid tinmit line plays on Imis illoims in that coummtry timan am lii) otlmer. (erillomm a clemiem as they (10 iii Ilolhammd. A great nuniber of l)ells art n psmm ed Pr thmis Thieve timey are, teim chmimme riimgimmg levers straimge kimid of amusic, u ho Im is smuimmetimmies rammged iii a row like time keys of a piano- of a very elalmorate aii(1 iiitmmc ite cli mracter. forte. Those hmmige keys require the whole Time cemillomis & chmmiem are 1)1 in~ yd like a jmi stremigtii of his arimin aimd hmamm(l to lulOVO them. amioforte. Time keys are hiamimihes comimmectemi To each of the levers is al fachied a role, with time bells by rods or cords. The cavil passi hg thmromighm time ceilimmg to time tower loaner emmiploys both hands ammd feet in ex above, wimere it ct)mimiects wit ii its particular ecutimmo the ails which chmarmmm time inhabit bell. Up it the highmt, airy, latticed tower, amits of time Low Coumitries. rime petlals far above tue roofs of time tallest houses, comiimuimiiicate within the larger hells for the iiaag the teim huge witlemnomithed mutessen- bass. TIme keys omin wimicli time treble motes gems of sound, that oily await time inmmasters depemol are struck with time linand, which is touch ttin fill the aim within mmielodv. casemi in a thick heatumermm stall. It is record Trimmity chmimiies are, imerlialis, uiext to those eti that a cemillemomeumr of Ermiges was so ex of Christ Church, Philadelphia, thie oldest hi pert line eveum executeil fuigumes on those fa- this country. Bmmt, strammge to say, almost minisus hells that haming in the cathedral of ii(ithiiiig is katinwn of their history. Even that aumelemut city. Mr. Ayhiffe, the accommiphishmeol ctoilloinmneer The rapidly developing . sthetic taste tuf wino has rmmng time changes omi thiemIm for nearly omir people is gradually brimiging the misc of tweminty years, cami tell limit little about thiema. clmiames ~tmmi1 peals unto oumm~ Amumericaum church Time chiurchiwardemis ammd rector tuf Truinnity es in the place of simighe bells. Iii New York parish counfess to almuost total igmnorance omi thieve are three sets tf chnimmine hellsthose the subject. Fromin various sources, lmdded of St. Thomass Church, on Fifth Aveimie to time iimscrihitit)mis on time hells, I have and Fiftythird Street, time chiinmes of Grace, hearmied that live (if the bells were cast iii on Broadway, above Temithn Street, amid of Lomidomm by Mears prior tt 1845. As time Trinity, on Broadway, opposite Wall Street. sectuid Trimmity Church was built with a The hells of St. Tumonmass, temin in inimininminber, hiamutisomute steeple in 1788, it is macro tlmami innE BOATMEN miaSTa) ON TiiEii~ (mAma TO LmSTEN. TIlE POETRY OF STEEPLES. 188 probable that at least one of the hells caine over from England about that time. At any rate, when, in 1~45, the church e(litlce was taken (iowa to make way for the pres- ent beautiful structure, there were six 0141 hells in the steel)le. The largest of these was cracke(I, and so it was sent to Meneely, in Iroy, to he recast, and at the same time four more were or(lere(1 to complete the chinie. The largest bell weighs 10~1 poun(1s, the smallest 700. The ten hells have an a(r(rrerate wei~bt of ahont 15000 pounds. They are luing in a frame-work of wood so heavy as to deaden the sonud to a great ex- tent and the vestry are now (lelillerating as to the necessity of having them renmuimt cml aiid rehiiiig. As they are souiewhat out of tune, owing to t lie constant striking of the clappers iii one place, it will be tomimid necessary, likewise, to repair the Imarts ~vom away, if that he 1mossible. The bell (ham her is umot, a~ ninim y suppose, near the top of the steejmle. It is rather nearer the bot- tom. The bells hang very near the rough floor, nuimi all the machinery for ringing is rude and primitive compared with that of Grace or St. Thomass Church. Several years ago a gentleman from Georgia ~vent lip iimto the steeple of Trinity Church late iii the afternoon. He climbed up tIme three hnmolred and eight steims to the observatory under thu ta}meri img spire. En TuE OARiiLON A CiAViEmI. 184 HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. c xanted with the magnificence and extent of the birds-eye view, he lin~ere until the shadows of twilight began to obscure the andscape. He found the staircases very .t rk as he descended, and the darkness dcepened every nioment. When he reached the bell chamber he could not fin the next descending staircase. He groped around a tong tinie, an finally gave lip, and spent the night lost among he bells. There are two sets of mon~ stery bells in New York. A peal of four in the Gerui~ n Capuchin fathers Church of Oar Lady of Sorrows, in Pitt Street, the largest of which veighs 1423 pounds, and the four to~ether I ~0 pounds; and a half chime of six bells, wei0hing about 12,000 pounds, in the steeple (If the Church of the Most Holy Redeemer, in ast Third Street, sometimes known as the edemptorists Church. The four bells of the Capuchin church ~nd the two largest of the Redemptorists were cast in West Troy by Meneely in 1868 an 1S6~. Four of the Redemptorist bells w ~re c~ t at Con- t~ ace, in Switzerland, pror to 1869. All of there be~ r figures cast in bass- elief. On the largest, which unfortunately has been cracked, is a figa e of Jesus in the attitude of en- ediction. This is called the edemptorist Bell. It is also the tollingbellwhich strikes the hours. Surrounding the figure of the Redeemer is the legend in relief, B demptori aerum Signurn, S. Saw. ThL bell weighs 5274 pounds. It is over five feet in height nd between four and five in diameter. The second bell is called the Immacu- lata. It bears on its side in relief the image of the Vir- gin Mary, encircle by the inscription, B. F~ 31., Con- ce tion Irnmaculatai sacrum Signum. The other four bells are named for St. Mi- chael, St. Aiphonsus Lignori, Raphael, and Gabriel. E ch bears on its side the gare of the archan0el or sam after whom it was chris- tened, an on the opposite 5l e appropriate inscrip- tions. The view from the l)ell chamber of the e- demptorists Church is more Ilicturesque than that from Trinity steeple, although net so extended or varied. The ascent to the chamber is dark, difficult, and danger- ous. Brother Gabriel, the lay brother who answers the door-bell, was very unwilling for me to make the ~scent. No, you must not go up; your head will get dizzy, ~nd you vill fall. Father Rector says he dont care to have our church ad- vertise in to-morrows newspapers as the scene of dreadful ccident. Finally, however, I prevailed on the car- ileilter to show me the way up. When I returned, covered with dust and flushed with the pleasure that accomplished enter- prise always brings, Brother Gabriel thre up his hands and exclaimed, Holy Mary! and you did go up l I woul not have be- lieved it! Its a miracle that you came back alive! In St. M~ rys Church of the Assumption, in West Forty-ninth Street, hang three bells, whos& united weight is 2387 pounds; and ii Triiiity Chapel, in West Twenty-fifth Street are also three bells. They were formerly in the steeple of old Trinity, and ~ crc probably brought from England. St. Ann Chnrch, on Twelfth Stree , has a fine pee. of foi r b lL,intended a the foundation ~ ILLSTENVN TO HE Ti [NiTY CHRISTMAS CHIMES. THE POETRY OF STEEPLES. a chime. They were cast at West Troy in 1570. The largest is (le(licate(l to the Bless- ccl Trinity, and bears the legend, Gloria in cxcelsh Dro. It weighs 1519 pounds. The sccond is dedicated to the Blessed Sacra- meat. Its legend is, Laucla Sion Sairato rem. On the tllir(1 bell, which is dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, is the inscription, Sub teem ))rcsiclinm coufugimus Soucta Dci Genitrix. The fourth, (ledicated to St. Jo- seph, bears on its side the legend, & uiuctis .0 (((C JOseph, protector uuoster, ora pro uuobis, a nec (1 in bore ueuortis uuostrcc. These four bells weigh 2930 io)uuui(15. Full and partial chimes are now to be found in all I)arts of the country. Away off in Eureka, California, is a chime in the steeple of Christ Chnureh. There are three hinues of bells in Troy, New York. The (huireli of the Good Shepherd, in Hartford, the gift of Mrs. Samuel Colt, has a chime. St. Jamess Cinureli, in Birmingham, Connect- ~cut, 01(1 St. Johns, in Savanumab, Georgia, and churches of various ulenominations in I unhiaaapolis, Petersburg (Virginia), Cleve ~uud (Ohio), Concord (New llanupshire), York (Pennsylvania), Rochester, and New Bruns- wick all have chimes. St. Anns chimes iii Brooklyn, St. Johns in Newark, Grace Church and St. Patricks in Buffalo, the Ca- thedral of the Immaculate Conception iii Albany, St. Pauls in Reading, Pemmusylva- .ia, and the bell tower of Cormuell Universi iv, all have sets of chime bells ~ve1l worth muentionin The only set of ciuinues to which historic macrest attaches in this country is that which peals forth every Snnday morning from the steel)le of 01(1 Christ Church, Phil a(iehl)hia. Those bells were brought from England, a present from Queen Anne of blessed memory. During flue Revolution, when the Quaker City was iii danger of falling iiito the han(1s of the British, the precious bells were takeui down and sunk n the 1)elaw are by some luatriotie members of the old cluurclu, who feared timat if flue enemy got puussessuon of tlmeun tluey wouuld be nuelted (l(uwmu amud cast into cannoinuballs. Afterward they were drawuu up from tlucir watery bed and semut to Allentown, where tluey found shuelter for a long tinue in flue loft of an old Lutlueran (f) church on flue thor ouglufare now kuuo~vu as Ilaunilton Street. Whuen the war cammue to a chuse, flue bells were removed t(u Pluiladelphia, an(1 hunug again in the olul luelfry, wluerefromuu on every holyday amud luohiday they send fuurtlu thucir welcormue mu otes of joy arid glaubuess. The lualf ehuinues auni peals in the Uruited States are very umumerous. Outside of New 1 TIlE FYLFOT (auG55. Ii l8ii HARPERS NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. I)EOOI]AT[ONS ON OLn BELLS. Yoik, they are found in Jersey City, Newark, Wi I iiamsbnrg, Brooklyn, Rochester, Gail isle, NV hi tel] all, Rome, Fort Wayne, Ann apol is, (Juniherland, Baltimore, Boston, Phila(lel phia, Washington, St. Paul, l3ulihlo, West Roekport, Trov, Erie, Milwaukee, Pittshnrg, Cincinnati, Louisville, New Orleans, MobiL, and even dowii in Texas, at Castroville an(l San Antonio. The custom of consecrating church hells is still universal among Roman Catholics, and it is not infrequent in Protestant coinnot nities to dedicate them. The custom dates l)ack to a very early period. In Charle Inagiuc s en ~uitnlary of 787 is found the l)w liilotion at cloccc boptizentur, and iii the old Catholic Church litanies is a form of consecration directing the priest to wash the hell with holy water, anoint it with oil, anti mark it with the sign of the cross in the name of the Trinity. This ceremony is still retained and practiecti. As early as names were given to bells, the first 50 nu~& tked heing the great l)ell of the Lateran Chunchi, ildlne(l for John XIII. The Roman Catholic ceremony of conse- crating hells in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. washing them with holy water nl(l anointing with holy oil was pro- hibited in England at the time of the Refer- mation. In its l)lace another cereIlloily was ulse(l, which partook of the nature of a Bac chmanaliami orgy. Time hell was turned up- si(le dowum, filled with hunch, amid baptized anil(lst the profane shontings of a (Irlumiken rahhle. 1mm recent I unes, however, lIme hisim 01)5 of Oxford, Salisbury, and other sees have set the example of dedicatimmg the hells of their elm mirehmes with a simple ceremony and the following Pii~.Yei5 Let uS pray.Almmehty God, who by the mouth of Thy servant Moses mlidst coummamid to make two silver trumpets for the Convocalion of solemn assemblies Be pleased to accept our offering of this the work of our liaiols and grant that through this generation, and through tlO)se that are to Come after, it may cos- timimially call together Thy faithful people to l)raise anil worship Thy holy name; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. Grant, 0 Lord, that ~vhosoever shall be calleil by the soiini1 of this bell to Thin house of prayer may enter into Thy gates will] thanksgiving ami(l iuito Thy courts with praise, and finally may Inn-c a liortloum in the new song, ami(1 aniomig the harpers harping witb their harps in Thine house not m~ide with hands, eter- nal in the heavens; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. Grant, 0 Lord, that whosoever shall by reason of sickness or auiy oilier necessity be so let and liimidered that he can not come into the house of the Laid, may in heart and mind thither iscemumi, a!i(1 have his share in the communion of Thy saints ; through ,Jesims Christ our Lord. Amen. Grant, 0 Lord, that they who with their outward 1 THE POETRY OF STEEPLES. l~37 i~ / / \~ / ears shall hear the sound of 1 The most usual ornament this hell m:iy l)e aroused in / wir(hly iii their spirits, and I / / is the cross. Another (Iraw nigh unto Thee, the God o very commonly used is thefteer eir salvation through Jesu~ ~ / Christ our Lord. Aiiien. dcus, an(1 another the crown. Grant, 0 Lord, that all they for __ ________ ~\ The lions head, Tudor badges, whose passing away from this ~vorhil I ______ heads of kings aiiul (flittttfls, hishi this hell shall sound ma he receiv ops ahl(l saints, are frcqneii fly ml into Thy liaradise of Tlitne elect met avitli. On page 156 are a and hiiid race, light, and everlast few ing rost through Jesus Christ on of the hliOSi iiotieettble. hail, to xvhona with Thee and th IFIR fbhhlOleis nIaPICS 5(inhe holy Ghost he all liouior and glory for ever and ever. Amen. times liistiiriettl evi(leflCes of the highest iuuipnrninee OVO Ihe cotisectation of bells i often niere elaborately tiinsh la the early aini inedutival e(1 than due decorations them gus led also to the adoptioti selvesas witness the ilinstra on hells of an itiitial cross as tion OH iicxt ~tag(, which is ~11W a part. of the legend. Souse posed to tie the think this was the fotanders mark of Ricla- a ark. Two fomiliar foritis ani idraysier, of of winit ale comtiioitly Neil liwi ck. known as the fvltbt cross Peal relying is are given on ~)age iSo. saiti to 1)0 a pe- This mystic symbol is ei culiarly English thor four Ganmias joined in institntioia of tue centre, or it is formed great age. As of the two words sic anti osti early as 1550, it is well. The when Patti term was used by the I7lentzner tray Br:dmins and Buati eled iii England, dhists, atid is known he arrohe The nt the titythiology of pet)l)le of Lit the North its tile TilE MEChANiCAL cALitILON. gland are vast- hammer of Thor the ly toii(1 of great Thunderer, and is sometimes called the titian- noises that fill the ear, such as firing caitnon, tierbolt, beating of (IritIns, and rulgilig of bells ; so Steno of the (lecorations on old bells are that it is conunoit for a nitniher of thent particularly elegant and beaut~ifu1 in desigit; that have got a gl~tss in their heads to get others, though more simple, are still highly up ittto tile belfry and ring the bells for characteristic and graceful in conception, hours together br the sake of exercise. HARPERS NEW MONThLY MAGAZINE. Change ringing does not appear to have leei invented until the latter part of the sixteenth or first of the seventeenth centu- rx-. We Ii iid recorils of the following socie- ties of ringers, established for the study of the art of ringing : The Company of the Seliollers of Cliepeside was founded in 1603; the Conipanie of Ringers of Our Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincolne. in 1614: the Society of College Yonths ,in 1637 the Western Green Caps, in 1683; the Society (If Cnmberlands, takiiir their name lenin the Duke of Cumberland, in 1745; and :i long list of others in regular succession lown to The ~Vestniinstcr and Prince of Wales Youths, in 1780, besides numerous Ino(lerli societics existing at the hireseilt day. Chime ringing, or the ringing of a set of eight hells or miiore by one person, the ce- iillon.s 4 cia icr, is of coiu~)aratively modern origin, an(l the invention of carillon ma- chinery of still more recent date. Our en- graving on the previous page shows an ad- muirable contrivance, the invention of the Messrs. Warner, of England. It will be seen that by simply turning a barrel, larger but similar to that of a music-box or hand-or- gall, one person can,with faultless precision, ehime eirlst or any other number of bells. The inscriptions on old European bells are too quaint to be passe(l by. Some are epigrainmatie gems, as, for example, this on a village bell cast centuries ago: Geudennu gaudentibus, Doleieiis deleotibmcs. We rejoice with the joyous, We sorrow with the sorrowing. This one is very 01(1 and comunmon: I to the church the living call, And to the grave do summuomi all. Tlae following are quaint and curious. a bell in Derbyshire, 1622: I sweetly lolling men do call To taste on meats that feed the soul. On one in Wiltshire, 1628: Call a soleme assembliegather the people. On another, 1582: Be muec and inly toe heare the worde of God. On one in Yorkshire, 1656: When I do ring, Gods prayses sing; When I do tonle, pray heart and sonic. On a fire bell in Dorsetshire, 1619: Lord, quench this furious flame; Arise, run, help, lint out the 5ame. On a church hell in Wiltshire, 1619: Be strong in faytlme, praise God well Frances (onuks lierttords bell. On another, in Warwickshire, 1675: I ring at six to let men know When to and from Iheir worke to go. On a peal of six, in Canibridgeshire, cast in 1607: Of. all. the.bells.in.Benet.I. am.the.best. And. yet. for, my. casting. tue. parish. ilaid. lcst. On the smallest of a peal of six, in Wilt- shire, cast in. 1666: Though I am the least, I will be heard as well as the reast. On one hi Dorsetshire, 1760: All you of Bathe that hear me sound rhamik Lady Hoptomis hundred ponmid. On oiie in Northaniptonshire, 1601 1lionas Morgan Esquier gave me To the Church of Iletford frank and free. On one in Hampshire, 1695: Samuel Knight made tills ring In Binstead steeple for to din~ Here is a queer inscription, of a late date, on a bell iii Devonshire Recast by John Taylor and Son, Who the best prize for church hells won At the great Ex-hi-hi-ti-omi In London, 185 and 1. On the great bell of Ronen, France, pie- sented to St. Marys Church by George, Arch- bishop of Ronen, is this inscription: Je smefa nemin& Ucerge dA rnbeise, Que plus que trente-six mule peis; iFf si qui bieu rae peysere, Quaranfe mule y trenecre. I am called George dAmboise, who weigh over thiirly- six thousand poumids. If somne one would weigh me well, lie would find me forty thomusamid. Amid this Lamede Demim rermem, plebem rece, cenjmege clerum; J)efiencfes plere, peetere liege, feefa dccore; ~ plange, fuulgara frange, Sabata pange; Excite ceutes, dissipate reef es, pace crucentes. One of three bells ima Orkney, Scotland, I praise the true God, I summon the people, I as- in 1528 bears the followiiicr semble the clergy; I moouirn flue dead, I put the plague cast us flight, I grace the feast; I wail at the fumieral, I Maid he master robert maxvehi, bisehop of Orkesy, abate (lie lightning, I proclaim the Sabbath; I arouse y second zier of his coiisecration v~ zier of God I v~ utw indoleuit, I disperse the wimuds, I appease the re- Xxviii, ~ xv. zier of Kymug Juimes y~ v. lie robert vengeful. Borthvyk; nuald al thre in y~ castel of Edynhuurgh. mumeilAmni miulAYsuemus MARK. THE POETRY OF STEEPLES. 189 On the great bell in Glasgow cathedral is this: In the year of grace, 1583, Marcus Knox, a mer- chant in Glasgow, zealous for the interest of the Re- formed Religion, caused me to be fabricated in Ilol- land for the use of his fellow-citizens of Glasgow, and l)laced me with solemnity in the Tower of their Cathe- tiral. My function was announced by the impress on my bosom: Me audito venias doctrinam sauctain ut discas, and I was taught to proclaim the hours of uli- bee(led thue. 195 years had sounded these awful warn- ings when I was broken by the hands of inconsiderate and unskillful men. In the year 1790 I was cast into the furnace, refounded at London, and returned to my sacred vocation. Reader! thou also shall know a res- urrection; may it l)e to eternal life. Thomas Mears fecit, London, 1790. At Bakewell, England, is a peal of eight l)CIIS, each of which hears its own inscrip- tion, thns First Bell. When I begin our merry din This band I lead, from discord free, And for the fame of human name May every leader copy me. Second Bell. Manicind, like us, too oft are found Possessed of nought but empty sound. Third Bell. When of departed hours we toll the knell, Instruction take and use the future well. Fem-fh Bell. When men in hymens bands unite, Our merry peals produce delight; But when Death goes his oveary rounds, We send forth sad and solemn sounds. Fsfth Bell. Through Granfisires and lrlples with pleasure men range, Till death calls the Bob, and brings on the last change. Sixth Bell. When victory crowns the public weal, With glee we give the merry peal. Seventh Belt. Would men like me join and agree, Theyd live in tuneful harmony. Eighth Bell. Possessed of deep sonorous tone, This belfry king sits on his throne; And when the merry bells go round, Adds to and mellows every sound. So in a just and veil-poised state, Where all degrees possess due weight, One greater power, one greater tone, Is ceded to improve their own. The more modern inscriptions on church bells are commonplace dedications to the Saviour, the Virgin, the Trinity, or some on