awh1 notes

For a brief overview on beginning research at the Library of Congress, see "Using the Library of Congress" above. For a detailed explanation of each reading room and Library procedures, consult the Library's Web site at <>.

The Library's Reference Referral Service acts as a clearinghouse for inquiries from outside the Library about the General Collections and about the Library of Congress in general.


101 Independence Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20540-4665

Telephone: 202 707-5522

Fax: 202 707-1389


Items in the General Collections may be accessed from the following reading rooms in the Thomas Jefferson Building and the John Adams Building. The researchers' entrances to both buildings are on Second Street, SE. General Collections materials may also be requested through the European, Hispanic, African and Middle Eastern, and Asian Reading Rooms, hours and access information for which are given in chapter 12.

Regulations vary from reading room to reading room, but researchers in the Jefferson Building must check almost all personal possessions, including large handbags, at the free cloakrooms in the building. Reference staff members are on duty during all hours the Library is open and should be consulted regularly for assistance.


Thomas Jefferson Building, 1st floor, room LJ 100


Thomas Jefferson Building, ground floor, room LJ G42


Thomas Jefferson Building, 1st floor, room LJ 139B


John Adams Building, 5th floor, room LA 508

Hours: For the above reading rooms: Monday, Wednesday, and Thursday, 8:30 a.m. to 9:30 p.m.; Tuesday, Friday, and Saturday, 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Closed Sunday and federal holidays.

Access and use: Appointments are not required. Reading rooms are open to those over high school age, but you must show a Library-issued reader identification card (see "Using the Library of Congress") to request materials. The Library's bookstacks are closed to the public. Books and bound periodicals are delivered to patrons in the reading rooms (delivery time is approximately forty-five to ninety minutes).

Most juvenile literature is housed in the General Collections, but there is a separate center with a specialist and a reference collection for those doing research on children's literature.


Thomas Jefferson Building, lst floor, room LJ 100

Hours: Monday through Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.

Closed weekends and federal holidays.

Telephone: 202 707-5535


Web site: <>

Access and use: Appointments are recommended. Children's books can be requested from the General Collections through the other reading rooms listed above.

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: To locate bibliographies on a given subject, refer to the many standard printed bibliographies of bibliographies, especially Patricia K. Ballou's Women: A Bibliography of Bibliographies, 2nd ed. (Boston: G.K. Hall, 1986; Z7961.B32 1986 MRR Alc) and Women, Race, and Ethnicity: A Bibliography, edited by Susan Searing and Linda Shult (Madison: University of Wisconsin System Women's Studies Librarian, 1991; Z7961.W63 1991 MRR Alc). Bibliographies of women's studies usually include sections useful to historians, and general U.S. history bibliographies contain references to materials on women.

SAMPLE LCSH: Usually the word "Bibliography" can be combined with any LC subject heading when searching the Library's catalogs. A few examples include: Women--United States--History--Bibliography; Women's studies--United States--Bibliography; Women and religion--United States--Bibliography; African American women--Psychology--Bibliography; Women architects--California--Bibliography; Lesbian artists--Bibliography; Indian women--North America--Bibliography; Asian American women--Social conditions--Bibliography; White women--United States--History--Bibliography; and Working class women--United States--Bibliography.

SEARCH TIPS: Recent secondary sources are rarely mentioned in this chapter because they are often available at other libraries around the country, and they are usually easy to find through specific LC subject headings and published bibliographies. See "Library of Congress Subject Headings" and "Library of Congress Call Numbers" above. See also the previous section on bibliographies.


Books in Series. New York: R.R. Bowker, 1977-89. MRR Alc volumes shelved in Z1033.S5 B66 1982 and .B67. Also, look for a "series" name when examining the full record of a book on your topic. The Library's online catalog can be searched easily by series title in the "Guided Keyword" search method.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The online version of A Guide to the Microform Collections in the Humanities and Social Sciences Division of the Library of Congress (Washington: Library of Congress) is updated regularly at <>. For collections cataloged before 1996, you can consult the print version in most reading rooms: Z1033.M5 L53 1996.

There is limited subject access for microform collections in the online catalog, and no online record exists for most individual items within such collections.

Most guides to individual Microform Reading Room collections are shelved in the Main Reading Room reference desk area.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: There are three indexes to dissertations: the print index, Dissertation Abstracts (with title changes, supplements, and cumulations) (Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1938-; Z5053.D57 MRR Alc, and other call numbers), and the two subscription databases, ProQuest Digital Dissertations and Dissertation Abstracts. Subject access is by very broad descriptors or by keyword searches of the title and, since 1980, of the abstract. A researcher must diligently try all synonyms, plurals, and broader and narrower terms that might yield results. Both databases cover the same materials, but only Digital Dissertations indicates which dissertations are available in full text online.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: To look specifically for congressional documents, search the Congressional Information Service indexes in print form (MRR Ref Desk, MRR Alc, LAW) and on CD-ROM, CIS Congressional Masterfile I and II (1789-, CCC). With the numbers found in the indexes, items may be requested in the Microform Reading Room or the Law Library.

SAMPLE LCSH: Print editions of many congressional documents are fully cataloged and can be found in the online and card catalogs using LC subject headings.

SEARCH TIPS: The only way to know whether an index includes articles published within books is to read the introduction to the index. Occasionally, the Library of Congress catalog record for a collection of articles includes a note section with the titles and authors of each individual article. These are searchable online by keyword or as a note.

SEARCH TIPS: Primary custody of periodicals is shared between the General Collections and the Newspaper and Current Periodical Reading Room, although some periodicals can be found in most reading rooms. The general rule is that periodicals published in the past eighteen to twenty-four months are housed in the stacks of the Newspaper and Current Periodical Reading Room; older issues are bound and kept in the General Collections. There are three major exceptions to this rule: serials published before 1801 are accessible through the Rare Book and Microform Reading Rooms, law journals of all dates are held in the Law Library, and music journals of all dates are in the Performing Arts Reading Room. Many older titles in all subjects are held only in microform and can be found through special guides in the Main Reading Room. Consult the online catalog and reference librarians to determine the locations of periodicals. See chapter 2 for further advice on how to identify which periodicals exist and for assistance on the history of magazines. See the next section for suggestions on how to locate articles within periodicals.

Some of the sections below also discuss periodicals. For missionary journals see "Travel Accounts," and for household magazines see "Cookbooks, Domestic Manuals, Journals."

SEARCH TIPS: Periodical indexes vary. Read the introduction to determine how to use a title efficiently and to learn what journal titles are covered, whether all articles in a journal are indexed, and whether other kinds of materials such as articles in books are included. When casting a wide net, search periodical indexes that focus on subjects that seem unrelated to your topic. For example, Applied Science and Technology Index (formerly Industrial Arts Index, 1914-, Z7913.I7 SciRR, MRR Alc; online 1983-) leads to articles on "Advertising--Women, Appeal to," and "Glass ceiling."

BIBLIOGRAPHY: For a subject guide to periodical indexes in the Main Reading Room, see Abstracts, Indexes, and Bibliographies: For Finding Citations to Periodical Articles (Humanities and Social Sciences Division, Research Guides, no. 5, 1993). Available online (<>) and at MRR Ref Desk.


Kelly, R. Gordon, ed. Children's Periodicals of the United States. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1984. PN4878.C48 1984 MRR Alc.

LC CALL NUMBERS: AP200 (pre-1880), AP201 (main call number for general children's magazines), AP222 (Jewish), AP230 (African American).


There are no subject headings for most general children's periodicals.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: For recent titles, consult the National Trade and Professional Associations of the United States and Canada and Labor Unions (with title changes, 1966 -, HD2425.D53; latest ed., MRR Ref Desk, BusRR Ref Desk, N&CPR).

SAMPLE LCSH: It is crucial to consult the Library of Congress Subject Headings for the names of goods and industries as they have changed over time.

Search for either the name of the industry or the item produced. For labor unions, combine subject keywords "Labor unions" and "Periodicals" or search by the name of a union or industry. For older journals search by subject: [Name of industry or item]--Periodicals. Examples: Textile industry; Woolen goods industry; Knit goods; Knit goods industry; Boots and shoes; Corsets--Periodicals; Meat industry and trade--United States--Periodicals.

LC CALL NUMBERS: HD6350 (labor union periodicals). Each industry has a different call number.

SAMPLE LCSH: Fashion--Periodicals; Dressmaking--Periodicals; Dressmaking--Pattern books--Periodicals.

LC CALL NUMBERS: Since many of these journals lack subject headings, they can be searched only by call number. Most fashion and clothing journals are arranged alphabetically by original title under TT500.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The following volumes are good sources for the names of groups and individuals.

Blair, Karen J. The History of American Women's Voluntary Organizations, 1810-1960: A Guide to Sources. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1989. Z7964.U49 B53 1989 MRR Alc.

Davis, Elizabeth Lindsay. Lifting as They Climb. Washington: National Association of Colored Women, 1933. E185.5.N278 D3 MRR Alc.

Register of Women's Clubs. 1907-33, incomplete. HQ1406.R4. Lists many women's organizations by state and town.

Scott, Anne Firor. Natural Allies: Women's Associations in American History.

Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991. HQ1904.S28 1991.

SAMPLE LCSH: To locate publications by women's groups, search the catalog for the name of the group as either a name or a corporate name. For books about a group, search its name as a subject. Women--United States--Societies and clubs--History; [Name of the organization].

SEARCH TIPS: Since 1964, most state historical journals are indexed in America: History and Life (Z1236.A48 MRR Alc, online 1964-). For earlier years, consult the annual Writings on American History (1902-90, Z1236 .L331 MRR Alc, LH&G), although the references to women in it are not always easy to locate. The subscription database Periodicals Contents Index, available at most Library of Congress terminals, gives tables of contents of many state historical society journals; so you can rapidly scan the titles of articles and authors in each issue, but not the full text. Sometimes this is the best way to locate articles by and about women.


Directory of Historical Organizations in the United States and Canada. Biennial.

E172.D5 MRR Ref Desk and other reading rooms. State historical associations can usually be found under the state's name in the index. The full entry lists each organization's publications.

SAMPLE LCSH: There is no single subject heading for state historical society publications. The best search is "[Name of state]--History--Periodicals," but this produces many periodicals published by other groups. A keyword search for "[Name of state]" and "state historical" often yields good results.

SAMPLE LCSH: The subdivision "Biography" is not used after individual personal names; it is added to classes of people, ethnic groups, and occupational headings, such as: Women--Biography; Hispanic American women--Biography; Women composers--Biography.


Genealogies in the Library of Congress: A Bibliography. Edited by Marion J. Kaminkow. 4 vols. With supplements. Baltimore: Magna Carta Book Co., 1972-87. Z5319.U53 LH&G, MRR Alc.

Neagles, James C. The Library of Congress: A Guide to Genealogical and Historical Research. Salt Lake City: Ancestry Publications, 1990. Z1250.N4 1990 LH&G, MRR Alc. This volume lists LC holdings for city directories, and a looseleaf notebook at the LH&G reference desk adds directories microfilmed since the book's publication. City directories do not exist for all places.

Telephone and City Directories in the Library of Congress: A Finding Guide. Compiled by Barbara B. Walsh. Humanities and Social Sciences Research Guides, no. 37.Washington: Library of Congress, 2000. Available at MRR Ref Desk and LH&G and online at <>.

United States Local Histories in the Library of Congress: A Bibliography. Edited by Marion J. Kaminkow. 5 vols. Baltimore: Magna Carta Book Co., 1975-76. Z1250.U59 1975 LH&G, MRR Alc, N&CPR.

SAMPLE LCSH: For genealogies, search: "[Last name] family" as a subject. For local histories, search by name of the geographical location (town, county, state, region). For city directories, search: "[Geographical location]--Directories."

LC CALL NUMBERS: There are no call numbers for U.S. telephone books and city directories. Request by name of town, state, and year. Many are selfserve in the Microform Reading Room.

PATHFINDER: Biographical Sources

To locate sources that might help you find biographical information in the General Collections, follow whichever steps are appropriate for the woman you want to know better.

1 Library of Congress Online Catalog. Search for the woman as both name and subject. For published genealogies, search under "[Last name] family" as a subject.

2 Biography and Genealogy Master Index (Detroit: Gale Research, 1980 and supplements; Z5305.U5 B57 MRR Biog, BusRR, LH&G; online at terminals throughout the Library). An extremely useful cumulative index to hundreds of biographical reference works and a required stop in most biographical searches. This set indexes many standard biographical sources such as Who's Who in America, Biography Index, Notable American Women, and Dictionary of Literary Biography, and so you do not need to search these titles separately.

A similar work, IBN: Index Bio-Bibliographicus Notorum Hominum (Osnabrück: BiblioVerlag, 1973-; Z5301.L7 MRR Alc), indexes thousands of international collective biographical volumes and includes women from the United States. By 1999, only names beginning with the letters A-G had been indexed. Most of the biographical volumes covered are not in English.

3 Personal Name Index to "The New York Times Index," 1851-1974 (Z5301.F28 1976 MRR Biog and other reading rooms) and supplement 1975-1984 (CT104.F35 1986 MRR Biog, N&CPR).

4 American Biographical Index (CT213.A64 1998 MicRR). Index to a microfiche set containing the full text of more than three hundred collective biographical volumes.

5 Biographical Dictionaries and Related Works (Z5301.S55 1986 MRR Ref Desk, SciRR, BusRR). A two-volume bibliography of more than 16,000 collective biographies.

6 Abstracts, Indexes, and Bibliographies: For Finding Citations to Periodical Articles (Humanities and Social Sciences Division, Research Guides, no. 5, 1993). Available online (<>) and in print at MRR Ref Desk.

7 Online sources, such as Internet searches, FirstSearch databases, or CD-ROM networks in various reading rooms, may supply biographical data or lead to printed works in the Library's collections. Online sources are often best for current information.

8 Directories of relevant associations and occupations.

9 Book reviews if the woman sought was an author.

10 Histories of the towns, counties, schools, churches, or organizations with which the woman was connected. (See "Genealogies . . . .")

11 City directories, if the reader has an idea of the dates and cities in which the woman resided. (See "Genealogies . . . .")

12 Librarians in the Local History and Genealogy Reading Room, for specialized genealogical materials.

13 Biographical sources about other women and men in her life.

14 Subject Guide to Women of the World (Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 1996; Z7963.B6 P45 1996 MRR Biog, SciRR). Useful index for identifying names of women by occupation (hospital founders, crafts, mothers of prominent men), industry, area of fame, geography.


Davis, Gwenn, and Beverly A. Joyce, comps. Personal Writings by Women to 1900: A Bibliography of American and British Writers. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1989. Z1229.W8 D38 1989 MRR Alc. Search the index under "Memorial volumes."

SAMPLE LCSH: As a rule, the only subject heading for memorial volumes is the name of the child or woman, so they must be searched by call number or through bibliographies.

LC CALL NUMBERS: Mostly in BR1714-BR1715 (for children) or CT275 (for women and men). Others on women have call numbers for specific occupations, such as nurses (some in RT37) or teachers (some in LA2317).


Davis, Gwenn, and Beverly A. Joyce, comps. Drama by Women to 1900: A Bibliography of American and British Writers. London: Mansell, 1992. Z1231.D7 D38 1992 MRR Alc.

------. Poetry by Women to 1900: A Bibliography of American and British Writers. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1991. Z2013.5.W6 D38 1991b MRR Alc.

Mainiero, Lina, ed. American Women Writers: A Critical Reference Guide from Colonial Times to the Present. 5 vols. New York: Ungar, 1979-94. PS147.A4 MRR Biog.

Yellin, Jean Fagan, and Cynthia D. Bond, comps. The Pen Is Ours: A Listing of Writings by and about African-American Women before 1910 with Secondary Bibliography to the Present. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. Z1229.N39 Y44 1991 MRR Alc.

SAMPLE LCSH: The subdivision "Fiction" can follow more recent subject headings, for example, "Man-woman relationships--Fiction." Most older literary works do not have any subject headings. The following terms help locate authors in reference and collective literary works: Women authors, American; American literature [poetry; drama; fiction]--Women authors; American literature--[Arab American authors; or, Asian American, Chinese American, Catholic, etc., authors. . .]; African American women authors; Indian women in literature; Feminism and literature; Feminist literary criticism; Children's literature, American--Bibliography.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: See "Travel Accounts" below for other bibliographies.

Arksey, Laura, Nancy Pries, and Marcia Reed. American Diaries: An Annotated Bibliography of Published Diaries and Journals. 2 vols. Detroit: Gale Research, 1983-87. Z5305.U5 A74 1983 MRR Alc, LH&G, BusRR.

Briscoe, Mary Louise, ed. American Autobiography, 1945-1980: A Bibliography. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1982. Z5305.U5 A47 1982 MRR Alc, LH&G.

Cline, Cheryl. Women's Diaries, Journals, and Letters: An Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland, 1989. Z7963.B6 C55 1989 MRR Alc.

Davis, Gwenn, and Beverly A. Joyce, comps. Personal Writings by Women to 1900: A Bibliography of American and British Writers. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1989. Z1229.W8 D38 1989 MRR Alc.

Goodfriend, Joyce D. The Published Diaries and Letters of American Women: An Annotated Bibliography. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1987; Z5305.U5 G66 1987 MRR Alc.

Rhodes, Carolyn, H., ed. First Person Female American: A Selected and Annotated Bibliography of the Autobiographies of American Women Living after 1950. Troy, N.Y.: Whitston Publishing Co., 1980; Z7963.A8 F57 MRR Biog.

SAMPLE LCSH: Although there are many subject headings for first-person accounts, bibliographies often provide the best access. American diaries--Bibliography; Diaries--Women authors--Bibliography. You may combine the following subject headings with proper names or regions or with the term "Women": Oral history; [Name of person]--Interviews; [Name of person]--Correspondence; [Geographic location]--Description and travel; [Name of war]--Personal narratives, American [these are mostly by men].

BIBLIOGRAPHY: See "First-Person Accounts" above for other bibliographies.

Robinson, Jane. Wayward Women: A Guide to Women Travellers. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. Z6011.R65 1990 MRR Alc. Mostly British women, some of whom traveled to America.

Smith, Harold Frederick. American Travellers Abroad: A Bibliography of Accounts Published before 1900. 2nd ed. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 1999. Z6011.S5 1999 MRR Alc.

Tinling, Marion. Women into the Unknown: A Sourcebook on Women Explorers and Travelers. New York: Greenwood Press, 1989. G200.T55 1989 MRR Biog, G&M.

SAMPLE LCSH: Women travelers--United States; Travelers--United States; Visitors, Foreign--United States; Travelers' writings, American--Bibliography; Voyages and travels--Bibliography; [Name of country or state]--Description and travel.

LC CALL NUMBERS: BV2612 and BV2350 (for some missionary journals).

SEARCH TIPS: Works of etiquette and advice published before 1801 will be found in the Rare Book and Microform Reading Rooms.


Dixon, Penelope. Mothers and Mothering: An Annotated Feminist Bibliography. New York: Garland, 1991. Z7963.M67 D59 1991 MRR Alc.

Hodges, Deborah Robertson. Etiquette: An Annotated Bibliography of Literature Published in English in the United States, 1900 through 1987. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1989. Z5877.H6 1989. Includes articles and books.

Newton, Sarah E. Learning to Behave: A Guide to American Conduct Books before 1900. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1994. BJ1547.N48 1994 MRR Alc.

SAMPLE LCSH: Books on these topics have many varied subject headings and call numbers. Searches with broad subject headings such as "Woman" or "Conduct of life" are occasionally necessary. Girls; Young women; Conduct of life; Etiquette; Woman--Health and hygiene; Beauty, personal; Love; Courtship; Marriage; Wives; Mothers; Motherhood; Home; Home economics; Domestic economy; Housewives; Cookery; Cookery, American; Food.

LC CALL NUMBERS: For conduct of life and etiquette: BJ1651; BJ1681; BJ1853. For courtship, marriage, health, and motherhood: HQ759, HQ801; For medical works: RA778; RG121.


Campbell, Patricia J. Sex Education Books for Young Adults, 1892-1979. New York: R.R. Bowker, 1979. Z7164.S42 C35.

Sahli, Nancy Ann. Women and Sexuality in America: A Bibliography. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1984. Z7964.U49 S26 1984 MRR Alc.

SAMPLE LCSH: Sex instruction for women [girls, youth, lesbians]; Woman--Health and hygiene; Women--Health and hygiene; Hygiene, sexual; Gynecology--Popular works; Sexual ethics; Women--Sexual behavior; Birth control; Contraception; Abortion; Beauty, personal.

LC CALL NUMBERS: HQ31, HQ46, HQ51 for many sex-advice titles.


Faxon, Frederick W. Literary Annuals and Gift Books: A Bibliography, 1823-1903. 1912. Reprint. Pinner, U.K.: Private Libraries Association, 1973. Z6520.G4 F3 1973 MRR Alc.

Kirkham, E. Bruce, and John W. Fink, comps. Indices to American Literary Annuals and Gift Books, 1825-1865. New Haven, Conn.: Research Publications, 1975.AY10.T52 K57MRRAlc, MicRR. Includes full tables of contents and lists of illustrations from the almost five hundred titles listed in Thompson's bibliography, with author, engraver, title, and other indexes.

Thompson, Ralph. American Literary Annuals & Gift Books, 1825-1865. 1936. Reprint. Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1967. AY10.T5 1967 MRR Alc.

SAMPLE LCSH: Gift-books (Annuals, etc.) [former heading]; Gift books [current heading].

LC CALL NUMBERS: Many gift books and annuals are in class AY11.


Axford, Lavonne B., comp. English Language Cookbooks, 1600 -1973. Detroit: Gale Research, 1976. Z5776.G2 A9 MRR Alc. Provides a useful chronological index.

Dyer, Annie Isabel. Guide to Literature of Home and Family Life: A Classified Bibliography for Home Economics. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, 1924. Z5775.D98 MRR Alc. List of magazines and trade journals, pp. 218-31.

Lowenstein, Eleanor. Bibliography of American Cookery Books, 1742-1860. Worcester, Mass.: American Antiquarian Society, 1972. Z5776.G2 L68 1972 MRR Alc.

Newman, Jacqueline M. Melting Pot: An Annotated Bibliography and Guide to Food and Nutrition Information for Ethnic Groups in America. 2nd ed. New York: Garland, 1993. Z7914.F63 N48 1993 SciRR.

SAMPLE LCSH: Cookery; Cookery, American; Domestic economy; Home economics; Food; Home; Housewives; Family.

LC CALL NUMBERS: TX1 (cookery and housekeeping periodicals).


Remley, Mary L. Women in Sport: An Annotated Bibliography and Resource Guide, 1900 -1990. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1991. Z7963.S6 R45 1991 MRR Alc.

Shoebridge, Michele. Women in Sport: A Select Bibliography. New York: Mansell, 1987. Z7963.S6 S56 1987 MRR Alc.

Wilmeth, Don B. American and English Popular Entertainment: A Guide to Information Sources. Detroit: Gale Research, 1980. Z7511.W53 MRR Alc.

SAMPLE LCSH: Leisure--United States [or name of state]; Hobbies; Handicraft; Games; Games for girls; Sports for women; [Name of sport] for women [or for children or girls]; Physical education for women [or children]; Sex discrimination in sports.

LC CALL NUMBERS: GV439 for physical education for girls. GV1201 and GV1203 for books and periodicals on games and hobbies. These classes also include non-U.S. materials and books for men and boys. For many topics there are no subject headings solely for works on women and girls.

SEARCH TIPS: Similar works, especially those published before 1801, can be found in the Rare Book and Microform Reading Rooms.

SAMPLE LCSH: Primers; Readers; Readers and speakers.

LC CALL NUMBERS: PE1117, PE1119-21, PE1123-24 (religious readers), and a few titles in PE1130.I6 (Native American readers) and PE1130.N4 (African American readers).

SAMPLE LCSH: College catalogs rarely have subject headings. For all items published by educational institutions, search for the name of the institution as a corporate author. For alumni directories try: [Name of institution]--Registers


1 Consult with reference librarians regularly for advice on your search strategy.

2 Search Library of Congress Subject Headings("Red Books") for the best subject headings.

3 Look for published bibliographies on your subject.

4 Ask for appropriate microform collections.

5 Don't stop your research with the General Collections. Wonderful sources exist in the special collections.

I would like to thank my colleagues in the Humanities and Social Sciences Division who cheered me on through the long months I concentrated on this guide and who also worked extra hours on the reference desk so I had time for research and writing. The following people read sections of my chapter, suggested sources, and provided valuable comments: Cheryl Adams, Paul Q. Baker, Betty M. Culpepper, David J. Kelly, David Kresh, Thomas Mann, Ardie S. Myers, Marilyn K. Parr, James P. Sweany, Barbara B.Walsh, Kathy Woodrell, and Abby Yochelson. For the sections on Library of Congress subject headings and classification, I am grateful to Thomas Mann (again), Thompson A. Yee, and Lynn M. El-Hoshy for excellent suggestions based on expert knowledge. Susan Ware gave some good advice at a crucial moment. Janice E. Ruth and Barbara Orbach Natanson commented on numerous drafts of this chapter, to its great benefit, for which I am grateful.