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Volume 51 / Social Sciences

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS: BOLIVIA, PERU, AND CHILE


WILLIAM R. GARNER, Associate Professor of Political Science, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale

BOLIVIA

THE MOST VALUABLE MATERIALS PUBLISHED since HLAS 49 concern developments in remnants of the MNR still viable because of the policies and personalities of the venerable pragmatists, Víctor Paz Estenssoro and Hernán Siles Zuazo, the latter head of the populist UDP. Both Malloy items are strongly recommended in this regard (items bi 90011435 and bi 89001525). Additional important contributions evolve out of the constant use of MNR factional politics, including two sympathetic treatments of the political demise of miners' union leader Juan Lechín (items bi 90011422 and bi 90011423) and a work on the general health of the Bolivian labor movement (item bi 89001547). Human rights organizations have focused on both the Siles Zuazo (item bi 90011432) and Paz Estenssoro (item bi 89002514) Administrations. The biennium's sole study of former dictator García Meza (item bi 90011434), covering his Administration and trial, appears to have put the military period of the 1970s-80s to rest. The drug trade is discussed in two works published by a group called Movimiento del Bolivia Libre (items bi 90011437 and bi 90011438): both studies indicate the gravity of the threat posed by the mammoth industry to this, one of the most promising political eras since the 1950s. The military potential for action in what appears to be a solidly civilian period is seen in Galindo Anze's study of Acción Democrática Nacionalista, the partisan vehicle by which General Hugo Banzer now seeks a return to power from the extreme right (item bi 90011431). In the area of political theory, note Echazú (item bi 89002515) on fascism, and Democracia a la deriva (item bi 90011427), a compilation dealing with the relationship between economic development and political participation.

PERU

Although traditionally strong, this biennium's collection of Peruvian materials is the most significant I have seen in the past 12 years as contributing editor. Jaquette (item bi 90011465) and Stephens (item bi 90011482) have produced two major works on the military docenio (1968-1980) and the second Belaúnde period is the subject of two solid analyses as well (items bi 89001527 and bi 90011492). The current Aprista Administration of Alan García, whose 1990 electoral prospects appear increasingly dim, is the subject of several sympathetic studies (items bi 90011441, bi 88003184, and bi 90011458) and a valuable set of speeches by the President given over an eight year period (item bi 90011463). Note APRA's proposals for future policy (items bi 88000682 and bi 90011477) as well as APRA and the democratic challenge in Peru (item bi 90000384). See also Taylor (item bi 90011484) and Thorp (item bi 90011485), in which both scholars appear to measure García's success solely in terms of his staying power after inheriting the appalling legacy of the second Belaúnde period. One of the few and certainly the strongest pro-García statements may be found in León Alvarez (item bi 90011468).

Examples of good general coverage may be seen in several studies, the best of which is Raúl Saba's Political development and democracy in Peru (item bi 90011479). Also note Bourricaud (item bi 90011447), an excellent compilation by French Peruvianists, and Werlich's Current History overview (item bi 90011490), which is predictably thorough. Stallings' use of Peru as case study of international banking practices is a major contribution (item bi 90011481). Peter Gaupp's treatment of the Limeño black market (item bi 88003152) and Chang-Rodríguez's 1985 study of the ideological orientations of political parties and movements (item bi 90011457) are also worthy of note. Schmidt's Donors and decentralization in developing countries: insights from AID experience in Peru (item bi 89006431) gives a solid introduction to Peruvian geography, center-periphery relations, and Lima's overwhelming importance within the country.

For studies in political theory, López Chau's El Hayamariateguismo (item bi 88000953) probes the more subtle and psychological qualities of the two fathers of the Peruvian left. Two works by Julio Cotler are of value: 1) a compilation of papers on major aspects of current Peruvian life (item bi 90011444) - with fully one-third of the volume devoted to the issue of human rights; and 2) Democracia, sociedad y gobierno en el Perú (item bi 89001541) which, as is usually the case, treats democracy from the substantive or policy-definition perspective. Juan Ansión's Anhelos y sinsabores (item bi 90011442) is an interesting neo-Marxist analysis of what the author calls the "cultural assets of State power."

Sendero Luminoso, officially El Partido Comunista del Perú, has received far better treatment than usual. Note especially Favre (item bi 89003740) and Berg (item bi 90011445), the latter tracing the movement back to its Mariateguist/"Maoist" roots while giving an excellent description of the cultural and historical soil within which it has tended to thrive, using one small village in the Dept. of Apurímac as case study. Raymond Bonner's important piece (item bi 90011446) describes Sendero as the result of traditionally dysfunctional Lima-periphery relations. Note also Degregori (item bi 88000598), McClintock (items bi 90011469), Mercado (items bi 90011471 and bi 90011472), and Taylor (item bi 90011483). Granados (item bi 90011516) traces SL back to its formative years at the Univ. of Ayacucho, and Orrego Moreno (item bi 90011473) emphasizes the peculiar environment of Ayacucho as producing structural dislocations upon which the movement's support is based. Major critique and disavowal are presented by the rival Partido Comunista Peruano (item bi 89002518). Note should be taken of two rival Communist Party-Izquierda Unida publications critical of Shining Path in Bernales (item bi 89001528) and Jorge del Prado's Moscow-published Sin la lucha no hay unidad de la izquierda (item bi 90011460). Three other studies by or on Izquierda Unida are available: Wise's interview with Alfonso Barrantes, IU's winning Lima mayoral candidate in 1985 (item bi 90011491), and two IU platform statements, one on labor policy (item bi 90011466) and the other on municipal government (item bi 89002516). See also Anderle's Los movimientos políticos en el Perú entre las dos guerras mundiales (item bi 89001548) and two short pamphlets, one by the Partido Comunista Revolucionario (item bi 90011474) and the other by the Partido Unificado Mariateguista (item bi 90011475).

As usual, there are some major studies of electoral law and election statistics. See, for example, Tuesta Soldevilla on both the 1983 municipal elections (item bi 90011486) and the 1985 national vote (item bi 89002519). On the 1985 races, compare Tuesta Soldevilla with García Belaúnde (item bi 90011464) and, from France, the solid analysis of Saint Geours (item bi 90011480). Rojas Samanez provides an excellent description of ideological orientation, leadership, and historical background of major Peruvian parties and political movements in Partidos políticos en el Perú: manual y registro (item bi 90011478).

Materials on human rights are more prominent in this year's collection. See especially the final report of a Peruvian congressional commission's work in investigating the scandal caused by 250 prison deaths attributed to the Peruvian national security police (item bi 89001524). A novel comparative contribution is seen in the compilation on the state of emergency in Andean nation-states (item bi 90011462). García's first year in office is the subject of a 1986 Americas Watch publication (item bi 90011470) and a later one which points to increasing violations of rights in Andean areas of the country especially in and around Ayacucho (item bi 89001580).

CHILE

The literature since HLAS 49 has become far more anticipatory (but less optimistic) than ever before during the military period. In large measure, both specific and general coverage is concerned with "the transition" from dictatorship to "redemocratization." An excellent overall treatment of events through the end of 1986 is given in the Current History survey by Constable (item bi 90011565). Whether a "transition" as "redemocratization" is to be expected at all is the question raised in two studies by Brian Loveman. In "Government and Regime Succession in Chile" (item bi 89000723) he points to the transparently authoritarian nature of the 1980 "transitional constitution;" in "Military Dictatorship and Political Opposition in Chile, 1973-1986" (item bi 90011591) he is somewhat more optimistic. After an important analysis of the mental and behavioral processes by which the military took over Chile's traditionally democratic institutions in the name of anti-communism, Loveman describes those groups that still remain as a potent opposition to military rule and are (presumably) prepared to govern once the military relinquishes power. On the 1980 constitution, compare Loveman with Geisse and Gumucio (item bi 89001546); on opposition groups and, specifically, public opinion, see the outstanding FLACSO survey results (item bi 89001521) which indicate, among other things, that while a democratic opposition does exist, it is nonetheless fearful of what it feels might develop into democratic excess. A Council on Foreign Relations study by Falcoff, Valenzuela, and Purcell (item bi 88002507) offers a guarded, if not negative, appraisal of the potential for democratic transition. As of the mid-1980s, an abundance of material exists on individual political parties, including their leadership and specific ideological position. See Acuña on Alianza Democrática (item bi 90011529); on Christian Democracy, see Aylwin (item bi 88003262) and former President Frei's perception of the party and a formal response by the Chilean Communists (item bi 89001544) and former party president Valdés' 1982-86 speeches (item bi 90011630). Description of Unidad Popular's evolution from Sept. 1973 through 1984 can be found in a strong article by Benavente (item bi 90011533). Note should be taken also of 89/90: opciones políticas en Chile (item bi 90011623) and Hacia un nuevo concepto del partido (item bi 90011619).

A solid history of the Chilean party system with important statistical data from past elections is given in Huneeus (item bi 89000403). Muñoz's study (item bi 90011615) of the international connections of Christian Democrats, Socialists, and Communists during the dictatorship period, with scenarios for the roles such parties might play with international assistance, represents a novel type of discussion. An interdisciplinary publication by the Chilean Association for Peace Studies (ACIP) presents plans for transition based on cross-national analyses of other polities that have made the change (item bi 89001537). An article by Campero (item bi 90011534) explores the future role of the AFL-CIO and AIFLD in the reconstruction of Chilean unions, while another work focuses on the necessity for strong local government (item bi 89001543) and Correa and Serrano (item bi 89002508) examine techniques by which extreme right-wing groups can be re-socialized to democracy. Papers given at a Kellogg Center/Notre Dame conference on the "Bases for Stable Democracy in Chile," given mainly by those from the Chilean center and center-left, represent solid contributions to the literature (item bi 90011639). Alejandro Foxley's emphasis on political consensus is also important (item bi 90011570). Three studies by Manuel Garretón Merino are of value in that they describe those problems germane to democratic transition that stem from imbedded, unresolved crises left over from the Frei and Allende periods (items bi 89002511, bi 90011572, and bi 90011573). Leiva sees the nuclei for a "new democracy" in the huge, largely decentralized, slum organizations that grew up during the military period and which now serve a major proportion of the population (item bi 90011582). The future of "the left" and of socialism in particular is investigated in Siete ensayos sobre la democracia en Chile (item bi 90011626). Arturo Valenzuela, in one of the most valuable studies in this section, discusses the feasibility of a Chilean parliamentary system when procedural democracy once again becomes the norm (item bi 90011634).

Pinochet era politics are covered in several studies. For the economic assumptions of the contemporary system, note references to "classical liberalism," "monetarism," or "Reaganomics" in Alvayay (item bi 89000401), Lahera (item bi 90011577), Patricio Silva (item bi 90011627), and Arturo Frei, son of the former President, who criticizes the "fruits of the neo-liberal model" (item bi 90011571). Notions of a "new bourgeoisie," continued economic polarization, and the negative results of monetarist economic policies are sharply criticized by Lagos Escobar (item bi 90011575) who, at the same time, urges "more humble" ideological and political stances on the part of all parties and political movements.

Remmer's Military rule in Latin America (item bi 90000383), one of the most significant works to appear in years, includes an outstanding treatment of the Chilean military government under Pinochet. On intra-military politics, see Arriagada Herrera (item bi 90011531). Douglas Payne (item bi 88002971) notes that the military's goal has always been the "'politics' of 'anti-politics'" and predicts that the Church will again be one of the most powerful forces in post-Pinochet, democratic Chile. Interestingly, Payne discerns a shift in Reagan Administration policy assumptions: namely, right-wing authoritarian regimes are no longer viewed as barriers to Communism, but as "opportunities" for Marxist strategy. Public policy during the military period is the subject of several good studies. See, for example, the position of unions and the Chilean sindicalist tradition as addressed by Barrera (item bi 90011532). Press behavior and, in particular, the cooperation of El Mercurio with the military regime is noted by Sunkel (item bi 90011628). Daniel Levy's major study of Chilean University policy (item bi 90011583) should be read by Chileanists in all fields. The role of the Church is reviewed in Boye (item bi 89002507), Brown (item bi 89001551), and Seguridad nacional (item bi 90011625).

As always, solid work in the area of political theory merits mention. Most of the writing is now devoted to the topic of democracy, however. Note, for example, Concertación social y democracia (item bi 90011566) as well as Molina V. (item bi 90011594), who has produced one of those rare essays on democratic theory which emphasizes a process definition rather than one based on policy. Lahera has produced an intriguing set of propositions concerning the interrelationship among social structure, the State, and social groups, with comparison of the Pinochet and Allende periods (item bi 90011578). The 1980 Constitution's restriction of political activity to "non-Marxist" parties is the subject of a good study by Larraín Cruz and Núñez Tomé (item bi 90011580). And, from the far-right, note Lira's perception of a corporatist "Christian philosophy of politics" capable of leading to a "truly Catholic political order" (item bi 90011584). Two volumes by Nogueira emphasize, respectively, Duverger's perception of a strong presidency (item bi 90011617), and more appropriate institutions for Chile's renewed democracy (item bi 90011616). Tapia Valdés has noted the interrelationship of the national security State to neoliberal domestic policy and the resulting weakness and ultimate destruction of Chile's union movement (item bi 89001552).

In the area of human rights, there are more published studies this biennium than for any previous edition of the Handbook. In this 13th year of the dictatorship, Amnesty International reports that torture is now the major form of rights abuse while disappearances and mass murder are seen less frequently (item bi 89002509). Bitar (item bi 89001549) also provides a novel description of his own internal exile on Dawson Island and in other Chilean detention centers. Americas Watch has published a report for all of 1987 and half of 1988 (item bi 89001579), as well as a special report for May, June, and July 1985 (item bi 89002506). Collyer has written a memorial biography of José Carrasco, editor of Análisis, who was abducted and killed by government agents in 1986 (item bi 90011564). ¿Dónde están? (item bi 89002505) gives detailed information on 57 Chilean women who are "disappeared" and presumed dead at the hands of the regime. Harrington and González (item bi 90011574) have done an important job of investigative reporting in their study of the deaths of Gen. and Mrs. Carlos Prats in Buenos Aires (Sept. 1974), almost two years to the day before the bomb-murder on embassy row in Washington of the former Allende Administration's Ambassador to the US, Orlando Letelier. Sánchez addresses the question of how to rehabilitate local police forces after years of military misuse of this form of local authority (item bi 89001531). Patricia Verdugo (item bi 90011636) has produced a fairly emotional tribute to Rodrigo Denegri and Carmen Gloria Quintana Arancibia, who were burned alive by the Chilean military on 2 July 1986. Vidal (item bi 90011637) speaks of Chile having adopted torture as official State policy as early as the period immediately after the Sept. 1973 coup.


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