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Volume 62 / Humanities


John Britton, Gasque Professor of History, Francis Marion University

THE GENERAL HISTORY SECTION OF HLAS 62 devoted much attention to publications on the role of markets in economic development, and a related but contrasting trend emerged in the current biennium. This new tendency stresses the place of governments in economic development from the colonial period into the modern era. For example, Romano produced a synthesis on the colonial economy (item #bi2005005450#), and Náter contributed an article on the Spanish colonial tobacco monopoly of the 17th century (item #bi2001003286#). The fiscal policies of several governments in the 18th and 19th centuries were covered by Lavallé, Naranjo, and Santamaría (item #bi2003001920#) and also by Sánchez Santiró, Jáuregi, and Ibarra (item #bi2003001707#). Marichel completed an authoritative examination of the financial problems of New Spain in the last decades of the empire (item #bi2003006170#). Coatsworth and Williamson analyzed a large quantity of statistics in a succinct article on the prevalence of protective tariffs from the 1820s to the 1930s (item #bi2004002763#). An article by Marichel and Topik examined the role of the state in economic development from 1880–1920 (item #bi2004002311#). Problems in Latin American economic history formed central themes in publications by Vidal Olivares (item #bi2004002307#) and Rossi (item #bi2003001725#), while Menegus Bornemann edited a book on comparative economic history (item #bi2002003381#).

The presence and/or absence of the fragile institutions of democracy emerged as an important theme. Forment provided a longitudinal survey on the achievements and shortcomings of democratization that focused on Mexico and Peru in the independence era and the 19th century (item #bi2003006169#). For the colonial period, Sanz Tapia examined practices in filling middle level government positions (item #bi2002006962#) and Pérez Hererro studied the sociocultural bases for political authority (item #bi2003001694#). Guerra explored the roles of public opinion and propaganda during the independence era (item #bi2002006964#). Two publications probed the impact of political ideas and governmental reform in the late 19th and early 20th centuries: an article by Morales Moreno (item #bi2002005979#) and a book of essays edited by Malamud (item #bi2004003816#). Twentieth-century trends were covered in articles on Afro-Colombian politics by Rausch (item #bi2002004584#), "crisis and reform" by Colomer Viadel (item #bi2004003805#), fascism and anti-fascism by Bertonha (item #bi 00005572#), dictatorial terrorism by Padrós and Azambuja Marçal (item #bi2003005439#), and the resilient phenomenon of populism by Aelo (item #bi2003004231#).

The study of gender, sexuality, and the family saw important scholarly contributions. Hall's synthesis on the influence of the image of the Virgin Mary extended from the colonial era into contemporary times (item #bi2004003603#), as did the articles assembled by Rodríguez on the history of the family (item #bi2004003835#). Saether examined the reform of marriage law in the late colonial period (item #bi2004002349#). Caulfield's historiographical survey of gender studies is essential reading (item #bi2003003743#), and Nesvig provided a much-needed historiographical assessment of homosexuality in Latin America (item #bi2002005816#). Luna explored female participation in the political movements inspired by Evita Perón and Jorge Eliecer Gaitán (item #bi2001000453#). Two publications illuminated the lives of two important women: Chambers' article on the writings of Manuela Sáenz (item #bi2001003948#) and the republication of Mariana Coelho's 1933 book on the feminist movement (item #bi2004003829#).

Military history drew considerable attention. Restall added depth to the history of the conquest in his article on black conquistadors (item #bi2001001387#). The impact of the War of Spanish Succession in the Americas was prominent in a volume of essays issued by Jornadas Nacionales de Historia Militar (item #bi2003001706#), and Cervera Pery's article focused on the naval aspects of that conflict (item #bi2001004879#). The Congreso Internacional Nueva España y las Antillas produced a volume of articles on warfare in the 1750–1898 period. Scheina's reference book covered 19th-century wars in Latin America (item #bi2003006182#), while González Espul's interpretive essays discussed several wars of that century and also the Chaco War (item #bi2004003822#). Salum-Flecha concentrated on biographical portraits from the War of the Triple Alliance (item #bi2003001711#). Two articles focused on the War of the Pacific: Chou researched the role of the Chinese (item #bi2002005981#) and Beleván Tamayo examined the secret pact between Bolivia and Peru (item #bi2003000618#). Boot's analysis of military policy and tactics emphasized US interventions in the circum-Caribbean in the early 20th century (item #bi2005005451#). Friedman examined the US government's pursuit and detention of suspected Nazis in Latin America during World War II (item #bi2003006183#), and Nieto's study examined US military efforts in the region through the Cold War (item #bi2004003801#). Finally, Archer, Ferris, Herwig and Travers' survey of world military history includes several Latin American wars (item #bi2004003872#).

Three studies deserve special mention. Riquelme's well-researched, thought-provoking book focused on the lives and professional activities of doctors under the military dictatorships in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay in the late 20th century (item #bi2004003797#). Carmagnani wrote an articulate synthesis centered on the complex theme of the Westernization of Latin America from the colonial period through the 20th century (item #bi2004003827#), and Voss' stimulating general history of the "middle period" (1750–1929) went beyond the level of sophistication of most textbooks (item #bi2003001702#).

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