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SOME OF THE MORE INNOVATIVE RECENT SCHOLARSHIP on colonial Brazilian history focuses on Africans and indigenous peoples. James Sweet's outstanding work (item #bi2006000903#), for example, documents the survival of Africa in a Brazil fashioned by slaves who not only maintained their own traditions but also changed the European culture brought to America by their masters. Luiz Felipe de Alencastro (item #bi2002002423#) carefully addresses the role of trade in shaping a "South Atlantic" world linking Brazil and Africa. He argues convincingly that, although tied to Portugal, the South Atlantic developed characteristics all its own which must be taken into account in order to understand developments in Brazil. Maria Regina Celestino de Almeida (item #bi2006000901#), on the other hand, examines the emergence of "colonial Indians" in her study of aldeamentos in southeastern Brazil. And Hal Langfur (item #bi2003006629#) demonstrates that late colonial changes in the Portuguese crown's Indian policy culminated in war on the Minas Gerais frontier, ultimately opening that region to settlers.
On the role of Africans and their descendants in Brazil, a number of scholars continue to examine how black confraternities fostered both cultural and economic independence among their members. The statutes and minutes of these irmandades, housed not only in Brazilian and Portuguese archives, but also in some of the churches where they were active, provide rich material for historians and are being mined by Brazilian graduate students. Of particular note are the published theses of Antonia Aparecida Quintão (item #bi2004000980#) and Mariza de Carvalho Soares (item #bi2005000933#). Others have addressed the role of black saints in fostering devotion (item #bi2004003986#); and the possibility that other institutions, such as black militias, may have provided comparable opportunities for construction of African identity in Brazil (item #bi2004003989#).
The resistance of Africans to slavery as well as to the threat of acculturation to Portuguese ways in Brazil is beautifully demonstrated in Silvia Escorel's essay on the clothing choices of slaves and free blacks, in which she uses artists' depictions as historical sources (item #bi2003002499#). The more readily recognizable resistance to captivity found in the quilombos continues to garner scholarly attention (items #bi2003002498# and #bi2003006859#); African slaves living along Brazil's borders appear to have taken advantage of international political tensions to claim their freedom.
For more than two decades, scholars have used wills and post-mortem property inventories to illuminate Brazilian social history. Márcio de Sousa Soares (item #bi2004003988#) and Eduardo França Paiva (item #bi2005000938#), for example, use these sources to address diversity and social mobility among Brazilians of African descent. Linda Lewin's magisterial work (item #bi2004003405#) on changes in Portuguese inheritance law now provides an indispensable resource for students of the Brazilian family. Unraveling the complex web of Portuguese family law, clarifying who could (as well as who must) inherit and why, and explaining transformations in inheritance law as part of historical political processes, Lewin has made it possible for scholars to place in historical context the documents with which they work.
In the area of regional history, interest in Amazonia is growing. Scholarship dealing with slave labor (item #bi2004000965#), Indians (item #bi2004003170#), agricultural production (item #bi2004003132#), town planning (items #bi2004000972# and #bi2004000981#), and the significance of international boundaries (items #bi2003002498# and #bi2004000982#), all turn attention to northern Brazil. And yet the Amazon basin remains the region about which we know the least, particularly during the colonial period.
Publishing on the diverse roles of Jesuits in colonial Brazil has increased substantially of late (items #bi2003002480#, #bi2003002483#, #bi2003003810#, and #bi2004000546#). Not to be missed is the group of essays in the special volume of the Luso-Brazilian Review (item #bi2004002078#) that grew out of a 1997 conference at Yale University, organized to commemorate the 300th anniversary of Father António Vieira's death. The essays incorporate some of the best recent scholarship on Vieira's views of Indians, New Christians and Jews.
Colonial Brazil provides rich topics and resources for those interested in the history of Jews in Latin America. Anita Novinsky's annotated list of those detained by inquisitors in Brazil and sent to Portugal provides a good starting point for further research (item #bi2005000940#). The period of the Dutch occupation of Pernambuco, when Jews practiced their faith openly in Recife, allows for a counterpoint to the Inquisition's repression of Judaism. David Weitman's work on the lives of two rabbis and their congregations portrays a thriving Jewish community in Dutch-occupied Recife (item #bi2005000923#).
Recently two seminal works by leading Brazilian scholars have been published for the first time. Celso Furtado's 1948 doctoral thesis (item #bi2004000964#) demonstrates the intellectual path he trod on the way to writing his influential Formação econômica do Brasil. And Maria Luiza Marcílio's pioneering work in historical demography (item #bi2005000925#), written in 1974, deals with sources and concerns that continue to capture the attention of scholars. The significance of changes in population and production, documented in the detailed censuses taken for the province of São Paulo between 1765 and 1830, leading up to that region's coffee boom, are also the focus of recent work by Luna and Klein (item #bi2003005784#). Other previously published works have been made available to a wider public. We now have, for example, a welcome translation into English of Laura de Mello e Souza's groundbreaking work on popular religion in colonial Brazil (item #bi2003005775#). And Evaldo Cabral de Mello's indispensable work on Pernambuco following the expulsion of the Dutch (item #bi2005000929#) has been published in a new edition.
Collaboration between the governments of Portugal and Brazil, which gained momentum in the build-up to the commemorations of the Portuguese voyages of exploration and Cabral's landfall in Brazil, continues to expand access to research resources. Besides print editions (item #bi2005000922#) of state correspondence, the long term microfilming project at the Arquivo Histórico Ultramarino (for example, item #bi2004000976#), frequently in collaboration with Brazil's Biblioteca Nacional, promises to make available to scholars around the world an immense variety of rare documents (not only on microfilm, but now also on CD-Rom). This bodes very well indeed for the future of scholarship on colonial Brazil. [JM]
NEW RESOURCES FOR TEACHING BRAZILIAN HISTORY continue to appear. One-volume histories of Brazil by Smith and Vinhosa (item #bi2006000495#), Meade (item #bi2006003450#), and MacLachlan (item #bi2005003300#) remain in the conventional present-oriented and univocal narrative mode. Fausto (see HLAS 58:3139) still stands out for considering competing interpretations. Ironically, the collection of eccentric life stories in The Human Tradition in Modern Brazil (item #bi2006003314#) provides a more convincing introduction to the complexities of life in Brazil than most surveys.
Digitized databases and document collections for historical research have reached a critical mass. Web resources such as the Center for Research Libraries project that digitized 19th-century Brazilian government documents have now been supplemented by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística's distribution of the complete 20th-century tables from the Anuário estatístico do Brasil (see http://ecollections.crl.edu/ and http://www.ibge.gov.br/seculoxx/default.shtm/). The political documents edited by Bonavides (item #bi2005001778#) have been posted on the Brazilian Senate's web pages (http://www.senado.gov.br/sf/). A digital edition (available on DVD from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística) of the 1957 Enciclopédia dos Municípios Brasileiros (item #bi2006002079#) could transform this unwieldy hodgepodge into a pliable tool for historians. There has been a publishing boom in beautifully illustrated books such as Brasiliana da Biblioteca Nacional (see HLAS 60:3125), a collection of essays on Brazil's history emphasizing primary materials available in the Biblioteca Nacional, or Amed and Negreiros (item #bi2002002508#) displaying coins, stamps, seals, and receipts related to taxation. It coincides with free distribution of excellent images of Brazil via the web, such as the New York Public Library's Digital Gallery posting of engravings from Jean-Baptiste Debret's Voyage pittoresque (see The Luso-Hispanic World in Early Prints and Photographs Collection at http://digitalgallery.nypl.org/). The admirable guide to Brazil in British and Irish Archives (item #bi2006003304#) caught many archives in the midst of digitizing their guides and holdings. Print bibliographies are by no means obsolete: the judicious chapter on Brazil in Societies after Slavery (item #bi2006000489#) provides an introduction to slavery as well as postemancipation society.
Among the publications directly related to the 2000 quincentenary of Cabral's discovery are the exhibit catalogs Brazil: Body and Soul (see HLAS 60:314) and the multivolume Mostra do redescobrimento (item #bi2006003326#). Articles from the Brasil-Portugal (item #bi2005001771#) meeting of historians propose agendas for transnational research. Coelho (item #bi2006003305#) describes the ongoing Portuguese-Brazilian Projecto Resgate Barão de Rio Branco to microfilm colonial documents in Portugal's archives. Though not solely inspired by the quincentenary, there has been a boom of syntheses with a long-duration perspective such as the quasi-encyclopedic História da cidade de São Paulo (item #bi2005001758#), and the essays in Brasil: Um século de transformações (item #bi2003002372#). Iglésias (item #bi2003002415#) surveys historiography by Brazilians. The proceedings of the 1999 ANPUH congress of historians, História-fronteiras (item #bi2002002470#), sample current trends in research.
In a shift from the recent past, this year politics rather than slavery provides the greatest number of entries for the 19th century. Within politics, the Independence period draws particular attention: Berbel (item #bi2002006201#), for example, finds in the Cortes' debates the beginnings of a "Brazilian" consciousness among some of the colony's delegates and Santos (item #bi2002006207#) examines the gradual emergence of agreement among such political elites for a "monarchial solution," a solution which, Leite (item #bi2002006191#) argues, even republicans agreed was the best available. Lustosa (item #bi2002006210#), Basile (item #bi2003006454#), and Neves (item #bi 00006515#, use newspapers and pamphlets to dissect the political language of the time. Oliveira (item #bi2002006198#) focuses on the writings of a group of "liberal" intellectuals gathered around Joaquim Gonçalves Ledo and bent on educating the political population, while collected studies on various aspects of the origins and development of early-19th-century Brazilian "liberalism" produced at both the State (item #bi2004000232#) and Federal (item #bi2002006177#) Universities of Rio de Janeiro evidence broad interest in the topic.
Mosher's research on postindependence Pernambuco (item #bi2001001249#) and Bieber's (item #bi2001004050#) on the sertão of Minas Gerais dispute the common idea that 19th-century political parties had no significant ideological differences, and Needell (item #bi2001003949#) complements their work with a nuanced study of the origins of the Conservative Party. Ribeiro (item #bi2001002467#) finds that Rio de Janeiro's "garrafadas" riot involved more than simply anti-Portuguese sentiment, and at the other end of the century Freire (item #bi2002006180#) shows the changing relationship of the city of Rio de Janeiro to the nation as it went from "Município Neutro" to capital of a federal republic. Other studies of politics at the national level include an examination of the dissatisfactions of the "Generation of 1870" (item #bi2004000230#) and a short piece by Prado (item #bi2003003809#) on efforts to build a Brazilian national consensus by defining an inferior Spanish American "other." Carvalho (item #bi 00004888#) compares Rebouças and Nabuco to trace the boundaries of reformist liberalism at the end of the empire. Representing regional politics is Carneiro's look at the origins of Rio Grande do Sul separatism (item #bi2002006175#). And Kirkendall (item #bi2006003352#) describes the training and socialization of the provincial presidents condemned to ride herd on the rowdy politics of the interior. Finally, Beattie (item #bi2006003314#) discusses the army's efforts after the Paraguayan War to change its image from a "protopenal institution" to a guardian of patriotism and honorable masculinity.
Studies of 20th-century history turned toward politics, too. Studies of the Old Republic dealt less with the transition from Empire to Republic, and looked more to the overlap of the 1920s and the early Vargas regime. Perissinotto (items #bi2002002431# and #bi2004001527#) examines São Paulo bureaucracy to revive the debate over planter class rule in São Paulo and Viscardi (item #bi2005001768#) returns to the question of São Paulo and Minas Gerais' interstate alliances in the Old Republic. Rangel (item #bi2005001788#) asks how far ideological battles of the Old Republic in Rio Grande do Sul extended into the early years of the Vargas regime. Frank on Mato Grosso "oligarchies" (item #bi2006003309#) and a collection on "coronelismo" in Goiás (item #bi2002002467#) remind us that in most states power pertained more to families than to a social class. Malatian on Oliveira Lima (item #bi2003002390#) as intellectual-diplomat and Garcia on the League of Nations (item #bi2002003552#) illuminate the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Possibly the contemporary importance of television in Brazilian elections has turned historians' attention toward media in past politics, and even to the cultural policies of dictatorships. Studies at the border between political and cultural history made some of the biggest advances in understanding the Vargas era. Williams (item #bi2005003304#) on national heritage policies and Souza (item #bi2005001793#) on censorship and propaganda give a sense of the complexity of competing politicians and improvised policies inside Vargas' increasingly authoritarian regimes. Silva (item #bi2005001786#) on the framing of Antônio Conselheiro, Minorias silenciadas (item #bi2005001765#) on the long-duration traditions of censorship, Grunspan-Jasmin (item #bi2003002374#) on images of Lampião, Bertonha (item #bi2003002380#) on Italian Fascist propaganda, Silva (item #bi2005001785#) on anti-Communist propaganda and Woodard (item #bi2003006630#) on an American advertising agency show images and opinions being manipulated from inside and outside the state, even before the 1930s. Cytrynowicz (item #bi2002002500#) reads São Paulo's home front campaigns in World War II as propaganda manipulations. Simões (item #bi2003002398#) on Kubitschek's images as governor of Minas Gerais and McCann (item #bi2005001446#) on Carlos Lacerda's use of "volatile" rhetoric in newspapers and radio both trace changes in style from Vargas-era politicking to 1950s electioneering. Os intelectuais e Canudos (item #bi2005001759#) suggests why the 1897 rebellion remained a resonant, disruptive symbol at its centenary in 1997.
Racist ideology and racial discrimination has become an ancillary theme of virtually all US historians and many Brazilian historians, whether they write on political or social history. Williams (item #bi2005003304#) shows how public art and exhibitions represented "the citizen" or the legacy of slavery, and Smallman (item #bi2003002362#) questions the military's claim of equal opportunity. To pinpoint the significance of race remains difficult. Several historians examine whether the postemancipation state subtly institutionalized racial discrimination, particularly in the 1920s–30s: Dávila (item #bi2006003307#) examines eugenic ideology in Rio de Janeiro education, and Cunha (item #bi2006003306#) demonstrates persuasively that race science became institutionalized in São Paulo and Rio police practices of "identification" of criminal vagrants. Yet looking at Rio court cases in the following period, 1930–64, Fischer finds racism among some jurists, but no clear impact of a defendant's race on outcomes (item #bi2005002464#). The anthropologist Sheriff, studying everyday language in a Rio favela, suggests why, for different reasons, both white and nonwhite Brazilians euphemize race and idealize "racial democracy" (item #bi2006000488#).
Sustained electoral politics since 1989 has refocused interest on mass politics and politicians, 1930–78. Biography is by far the best-selling genre of history in Brazil, but many of the biographies published for the trade market are underdocumented and patently partisan. We have celebratory political biographies of Capanema by Badaró (item #bi2002002382#), Kubitschek by Bojunga (item #bi2003002366#), and most notably, a three-volume hagiography of Vargas by Ribeiro (item #bi2003002358#). Adequate footnoting elevates a flat chronology like Dulles (item #bi2003002361#) on Sobral Pinto or a quirky essay like Couto (item #bi2005003310#) on Kubitschek as the father of Brasília to the plane of verifiable research. Moniz Bandeira (item #bi2005001782#) rewrote his 1978 account of Goulart's government to include new declassified documents and ample footnotes, so that it could contend in a debate that has risen to a sophisticated level of argument. By contrast, Otero (item #bi2005001798#) on Goulart is an unverifiable fog of dialogues from decisive moments.
Well-documented, brilliantly written with a sense of the Machiavellian contingencies of politics, and by far the best of the biographies and histories by journalists is Gaspari (items #bi2006003311#, #bi2005001611#, #bi2003002365#, and #bi2003002418#) on the military dictatorships as experienced by Geisel and Golbery. Departing from the biographical focus on the 1945–64 republic, Johnson (item #bi2002002427#) performs quantitative analysis of parties. The opening of archives of the military, censors, and political repression is leading to a new historiography, such as Smallman (item #bi2003002362#) on military officers and Rose (item #bi2006003453#) on espionage in the Vargas era. Studies of the armed resistance to dictatorship such as Betto (item #bi2002002419#) on Marighella and Rollemberg (item #bi2003002432#) on Cuban training of guerrillas remain an important genre.
Studies of 19th-century slavery continue, of course, if apparently at a rate somewhat reduced from past years. Together with two comprehensive histories, one of slavery in Ceará (item #bi2004000222#) and a more limited one for Juiz de Fora (item #bi2004000225#) there are interesting pieces by Mahony (item #bi2003000826#) on the use of slavery in Ilhéus cacao and Motta (item #bi2002006197#) on slave ownership and demography in early-19th-century Bananal. Much attention has focused on control and resistance. Holloway (item #bi2001003782#) compares police treatment of slaves with that of the free poor also in Rio de Janeiro, Couceiro (item #bi2003006645#) reveals informal negotiations over labor conditions common among slaves and masters on post-1850 São Paulo coffee plantations, Mendonça (item #bi2004000979#) analyzes the use of the courts by slaves and their supporters to seek freedom under the 1871 and 1885 laws, and Azevedo (item #bi2002006181#) provides a biography of the lawyer and abolitionist Luiz Gama. Soares (item #bi2003005339#) finds that urban collective residences of ex-slaves and free blacks served as centers of resistance to slavery and kept links with rural quilombos. Klein (item #bi2001001250#) surveys employment possibilities for "free coloreds" and those who escaped slavery. Naro (item #bi2006003300#) for the Paraíba Valley, Passos Subrinho (item #bi2003002585#) for Sergipe, and Moreira (item #bi2003005425#) for Espírito Santo examine closely the effects on agriculture of the collapse of slavery and the shift to free labor.
Looking at the international slave trade, Rodrigues (item #bi2002006194#) and Needell (item #bi2002002233#) agree that internal factors, as well as British pressure, brought the traffic to an end but they disagree on what factors these were. An effect of the trade still evident today were the communities of ex-slaves, slave traders, and their descendants surveyed by Guran (item #bi2002006219#) and Law (item #bi2002002905#) that established themselves in the Bight of Benin.
After mid-century, and with the looming disintegration of slavery, free migration to Brazil surged. Narrowly antiquarian studies of immigrant communities (mostly histories of the município founded by a settler colony) continue to proliferate. But few works on immigration are able to illuminate the revolutionary consequences of modern mass migration or rise to the level of an older monograph such as Holloway (item #bi2006003312#) on land and mobility in São Paulo. On the 19th century, Monteiro (item #bi2002006200#) and Scott (item #bi2001000764#) examine the geographical and socioeconomic origins of Portuguese emigrants leaving for the ex-colony. German immigrants settled in rural colonies (items #bi2002006216# and #bi2002006182#), pursued artisan and manufacturing activities in the capital (item #bi2003002486#), and dominated Salvador's tobacco export trade, as well as financing many of the small growers (item #bi2002006966#). Açorianos no Brasil (#bi2005001763#) massively documents Azorean migrant families in late 18th and early 19th centuries. Studies on 20th-century immigration that stand out include Lobo (item #bi2002003519#) periodizing Portuguese migrations, Morski (item #bi2006003451#) documenting Ukrainians, Yamashiro's (item #bi2003002378#) memoir of Japanese social mobility, and Bloemer (item #bi2005001774#) comparing Italian and "Brazilian" rural households.
The tension between urban plans and the long-duration ethos of cities has been the concern of notable works in Brazilian studies, such as Morse (see HLAS 22:3816) on São Paulo, Needell (see HLAS 50:3771) on Rio, and Holston (item #bi2006003313#) on Brasília. Urban history revived this year with the rich collection História da cidade de São Paulo (item #bi2005001758#), Campos (item #bi2005001760#) on urban planning for São Paulo, Eakin (item #bi2006003308#) on the industrialists of Belo Horizonte, and Risério (item #bi2002002507#) on Salvador. Pratta (item #bi2005003308#) on education in Descalvado shows that small towns can offer insights into institutions and culture.
Ironically, perhaps, with the PT (Partido dos Trabalhadores) presently in power in Brazil, interest in the history of the industrial working classes diminished, being represented only by Vitorino's (item #bi2003002590#) study of the failure of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo graphics workers' attempts to organize in the early 19th century, Lopreato (item #bi2005003309#) on the 1917 general strike in São Paulo, Alexander (item #bi2006003303#) on unionism after 1930, and Trabalho e tradição sindical (item #bi2002003533#) on Rio de Janeiro metalworkers.
Looking at 19th-century capitalism from the top down, on the other hand, Villela (item #bi2002005327#) provides a useful account of Brazil's attempts to stay on the gold standard and Triner (item #bi2006003302#) argues that, at least after the turn-of-the-century, Brazil enjoyed a banking system more modern and efficient than most imagine.
Apart from Souza's (item #bi2001005281#) short discussion of food supply for Juiz de Fora, most attention to 19th-century agriculture continues to be on export commodities. Bacellar (item #bi2003006211#) demonstrates how the spread of coffee cultivation changed land holding patterns in Ribeirão Preto, and Marcondes (item #bi2001003975#) examines the roles that land speculation and the manipulation of credit played in the accumulation of wealth in two São Paulo municipalities. Shifting to the Northeast, Neves (item #bi2003006206#) argues that exceptional rains lured commercial cotton planters into marginal areas of the sertão, contributing to the conditions that brought on the 1877–78 drought that Greenfield (item #bi2006003351#) describes.
In addition to natural disasters, problems that Brazil's 19th-century elites and the state saw as holding back national development included poor transportation and disease. El-Kareh (item #bi2003006777#) and Machado (item #bi2003002591#) discuss efforts to develop steam navigation, and Siqueira (item #bi2003002150#) and Summerhill (item #bi2004000483#) offer studies dense with statistics indicating the generally positive performance of railroads. The poor caused problems in Rio de Janeiro, with their resistance to Positivist progress (item #bi2004000484#), and, more generally, to a "modernity" that had little use for them (item #bi2002006213#).
History of medicine and society yielded insights into state attempts to direct and control society. Artes e ofícios de curar no Brasil (item #bi2005001795#) is an outstanding collection of essays on healing and power in the 19th and 20th centuries. Sampaio (item #bi2002005306#) looks at the activities of the well-known feiticeiro Pai Quimbombo, while Sousa Soares (item #bi2002004715#) argues that the poor sought folk curers because they could not afford and did not trust "qualified" medical personnel and because these neglected the spiritual aspects of healing. For their part, doctors sometimes found themselves caught between science and social restrictions, as, for example, when they attempted to treat women (item #bi2002005311#). Forward strides in treating epidemic disease, according to Blake (item #bi2004001525#), initially animated Northeastern elites, but a subsequent awareness of endemic problems, together with racism, soon alienated them from the general population. Weber (item #bi2005001773#) on 20th-century Porto Alegre describes tensions between official and unofficial medical practice; Cunha (item #bi2006003306#) describes the infiltration of racist medical ideology into police practice.
The historiography of indigenous groups hit its stride. In 19th-century Rio Grande do Sul (item #bi2002006206#) and Paraná (items #bi2001003926# and #bi2002006203#), indigenous groups continued to demonstrate a lack of patriotism by resisting economic expansion at their expense. Histories of specific groups that extend into the 20th century, such as Gomes (item #bi2005001779#) on the Tenetehara and Garfield (item #bi2006003310#) on the rapid political learning of the Xavante after 1930, provide case studies of relative success that can be framed in the concluding, 20th-century volume of Hemming's masterful trilogy on Brazilian Indian history (item #bi2005000095#).
The study of the popular culture of 19th-century Brazil showed some activity. Esteves (item #bi2002006208#) and Kraay (item #bi2003006453#) both identify public festivals as sites of political and social struggle, Butler (item #bi2002002920#) shows how Afro-Brazilians used candomblé to help construct postemancipation identities, and Soares (item #bi2005000846#) suggests the same for capoeira, though by mid-century the bands were admitting mixed bloods and even Portuguese immigrants. In English Chvaicer (item #bi2004000259#) surveys the development of capoeira in the capital and government efforts to repress it. Lewin's (item #bi2003005195#) study of inheritance highlights the legal consequences of the failure to control female sexuality, but for the poor with scant property this was less of a problem, as Costa (item #bi2003006871#) demonstrates in her study of female-headed households in Campinas.
Much of Brazil's history always has been written as seen through the eyes of foreigners, and recent publications include an illustrated account of the mid-century travels of the English geologist Charles Frederick Hartt (item #bi2003002584#), a survey of how English visitors "saw" Rio de Janeiro (item #bi2002006214#), Stepan's analysis of 19th-century images of "tropicality," (item #bi2006003301#) and two studies of the activities of the Danish archeologist Peter Lund at Lagoa Santa (items #bi 00006545# and #bi2003002175#). Finally, an item worth special note: Martins (item #bi2003006229#) employs an "anthropology of landscape" to the historical evolution of the Passeio Público in Rio de Janeiro. [DB and DM]