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Volume 54 / Humanities

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES: A Decade of Progress and Promise

HAROLD COLSON, Head of Public Services and Latin American Librarian, International Relations and Pacific Studies Library, University of California, San Diego

THE FIELD OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES is in the midst of profound and quickening advances in scholarly information dissemination via electronic means, a virtual revolution in technologies, resources, and linkages that has already transformed our capabilities for seeking and obtaining knowledge about the region. During the past decade, Latin America has progressed from being a minor presence in most computerized databases to serving as perhaps the top Third World and Western Hemisphere arena for improved bibliographic and full-text coverage, new product development, and electronic networking. Specifically, in response to market demands for more news and business information from and about Latin America, many leading commercial files and systems have begun to strengthen their regional coverage. In addition, our community can now draw upon a small but increasingly powerful set of new databases that focus on Latin American affairs and stress current news and much-needed core bibliographic coverage. Finally, the diffusion of compact disk technology and Internet connectivity throughout the hemisphere is helping bring many heretofore isolated resources to the electronic mainstream.

This contribution will examine the recent evolution and present state of the computerized database environment for Latin American studies, surveying representative sources available as of early 1994 rather than citing every known product. Given that the global database market includes over 8,000 separate files (up from 300 in 1979), and that most of these products likely contain at least some references, texts, or data on Latin America, it would be rather impractical to attempt a comprehensive inventory of all relevant "electronicana."[1] Furthermore, chapters in subsequent Handbook volumes will treat social sciences and humanities databases in greater detail, and the existing surveys of Latin Americanist resources online can be tapped for additional background and leads. Of particular note as starting points are the works by Colson and Stern (item 10) and Levison (item 17). The former describes the database scene for Latin American studies as it existed through early 1990, highlighting key products across several disciplines and formats. In order to help make room for annotations of new files, databases listed in Colson and Stern's article will not be annotated in this chapter unless they have changed significantly in the past few years. Levison's article reviews various resources in news, business, and current affairs, the areas of most substantial expansion since 1990.

The online database industry emerged in the 1960s from various US government-funded projects to provide computerized bibliographic storage and retrieval for burgeoning technical literatures in medicine, aerospace, education, and other fields of national policy interest. Once allied with contemporaneous advances in mainframe computing power and global packet-switching links, these large files of abstracts formed the core of the commercial database system that went online to the public (principally university libraries and the defense-industrial-scientific research community) in the early 1970s. Early vendors (or "hosts") such as Dialog, ORBIT, and BRS provided subscribers with remote, interactive, and fee-based access to growing collections of bibliographic files or databases, largely in scientific and technical fields. Eventually, however, the commercial market expanded beyond its sci-tech beginnings to include major discipline-based indexing tools in the social sciences and humanities, along with large numbers of law- and business-related databases and computerized newspapers, magazines, newswires, and newsletters. In addition, the late 1980s witnessed the rise of the CD-ROM (compact disk-read only memory) format as a convenient and often less-expensive alternative to the dial-up database for storage and retrieval of bibliographic and text files. Among other advantages, compact disk databases offer purchasers unlimited local use for a set cost, unlike the per-minute and per-citation pricing that effectively bars some individuals and institutions from taking full advantage of most online systems. Many databases originally available only via remote connection were quickly brought out in CD-ROM versions, and the disk medium has given several specialty files an electronic outlet that was denied by the market-driven calculations of the major online systems. Although dial-up session rates and CD-ROM purchase prices vary considerably, many database investments pay for themselves by saving time otherwise expended on tedious and sometimes fruitless manual searches through indexes, newspapers, and other publications. Most databases enable users to generate customized retrieval sets that cannot be produced using counterpart print resources, and many key products (e.g., library union catalogs, some new article indexes, and wire services) are produced only in computerized form.

The present contours of mainline database coverage for Latin America are much changed from 1980, when Veenstra compiled his pioneering list of "Data Bases Relating to Latin American Studies" (item 27), but they remain substantially similar to the portraits offered at the close of the 1980s. The leading commercial systems continue to provide online versions of familiar disciplinary abstracting and indexing tools, including Historical Abstracts, MLA International Bibliography, Sociological Abstracts, Psychological Abstracts, Journal of Economic Literature, Index of Economic Articles, United States Political Science Documents, Art Index, Religion Index, ERIC, and Geographical Abstracts. These resources provide varying levels of Latin Americanist content, with the largest numbers of records found in the history and literature files. In addition, attractive multidisciplinary coverage of the region is available through such files as Social SciSearch, PAIS International, Dissertation Abstracts Online, Social Science Index, and Arts & Humanities Search. Of these, PAIS deserves special commendation, for it pioneered strong regional content by providing article citations from some 100 important but otherwise unindexed Latin American journals in economics, political science, and related policy fields. A noteworthy companion product with similar Latin Americanist strength is the new IntlEc CD-ROM (item 52), which indexes global journals and research report series in international economics, development, and finance.

One recent trend concerning bibliographic databases has been the rise of new distribution channels, products, search interfaces, and pricing options through nonprofit library consortia such as the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC), the Research Libraries Group (RLG), and the Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries Systems (CARL Systems). OCLC has some 40 standard and specialty databases on its EPIC and FirstSearch systems, including an exclusive mega-catalog representing over 30 million book, periodical, map, score, recording, and manuscript holdings in member libraries worldwide (item 62). On the basis of total Latin Americanist entries, this online union catalog or "Worldcat" ranks as the largest available anywhere, as these sample subject heading retrievals attest: "Mexico," 182,388 items; "Argentina," 69,511; "Latin America," 65,824; "Guatemala," 20,847; and "Ecuador," 19,188. The new Article1st database (item 31) is another OCLC exclusive that provides citations from over 15,000 leading journals and magazines, principally from North America and Europe but with considerable coverage of Latin American topics. In similar fashion, the Eureka system from RLG contains a massive library union catalog with over 23 million records (item 68), along with unique research files like Anthropological Literature (item 29) and Index to Foreign Legal Periodicals (item 47). CARL Systems offers UnCover (item 71), a database providing article indexing and tables of contents for some 14,000 periodicals received by its contributing libraries. Like CD-ROM products, these systems are intended for direct access by students, faculty, and other "end users" unfamiliar with the usual arcana of traditional online command syntax, so the database interfaces feature more on-screen prompts and menus than are found on their commercial predecessors. In addition, the systems offer flat-fee or "subscription" pricing that helps take the financial worry out of large-scale or time-consuming searches, and gives institutions the freedom to offer widespread, unmediated access. FirstSearch, Eureka, and UnCover also offer easy online links to allied document delivery services, enabling users to request fax or mail delivery of specific items for a fee.

When used together, the mainline bibliographic files can help lead searchers to much published information on Latin America, with cumulative strength that may be characterized as very good for books, excellent for recent periodicals published in North America and Europe, and fair to poor for periodical articles from Latin America. The years covered by available bibliographic databases differ considerably; most files reach back at least through the early 1980s, and a few have retrospective depth back to the 1960s and beyond. In most cases, the files are updated with additional records on weekly, monthly, or quarterly schedules. Given the bibliographic nature of these files, actual retrieval is accomplished primarily through searches for author names or words from titles, abstracts, or subject headings (often called "descriptors"). Both Social SciSearch and Arts & Humanities Search have the special feature of cited reference searching, which permits the retrieval of articles based on their bibliographic references to previous works. Many of the commercial files listed above have also been issued in CD-ROM versions, and most are available via dial-up from virtually every college, university, government, and major public library in the US.

Although bibliographic databases formed the initial core of the commercial online industry, they were joined and eventually surpassed in number by products containing entire articles and other complete texts rather than mere citations. These "full-text" files consist primarily of online legal resources (e.g., legislation, regulations, court rulings, law reviews) along with thousands of computerized newspapers, magazines, newswires, newsletters, and transcripts covering general news, national and international events, government and law, and especially business. Leading full-text vendors include WESTLAW and LEXIS for legal information, NewsNet for newsletters, Dow Jones News/Retrieval for business, and NEXIS, Dialog, DataTimes, Data-Star, and FT Profile for newspapers and other publications in many topical areas. Full-text databases are generally updated daily or weekly, with some wire service files refreshed several times per day for very current access to breaking stories. In many cases, the electronic works are available on their host systems before the print versions of the same titles reach subscribers, and long runs of specific publications can be searched to display articles mentioning certain names, words, or phrases anywhere in the text. Signing up with one or more of the full-text vendors can thus give institutions access to a large and timely "virtual library" of specialized publications, many of which would be too expensive or even impossible to acquire in print form.

Interestingly, one of the oldest computerized publications is the well-known Latin American Newsletters Ltd. family of weekly and monthly reports on the region, but through most of the 1980s Latin America was largely a marginal or background presence in the world of full-text newspapers, wire services, magazines, and such. Certainly, online coverage of Latin American affairs could be found on full-text electronicana ranging from The New York Times and The Economist to the BBC Summary of World Broadcasts and the Inter Press Service newswire, but nearly all of the available publications were generalist sources produced in North America or Europe. It was not until sufficient "northern" political and later economic attention shifted to Latin America in the late 1980s that the region began to receive dedicated coverage by the full-text market. Nowadays, owing to hemispheric developments in free trade, integration, privatization, and environmental protection, Latin America is perhaps the top global arena for improving full-text information coverage, with major database hosts and producers seeking to fill the gaps for timely political, economic, and business news and information on the region by bringing additional files and publications online. Among the specialty publications that have appeared online within the past few years are such titles as Environment Watch: Latin America, Mexico Trade and Law Reporter, Latin Finance, Latin American Telecom Report, LDC Debt Report/Latin American Markets, Americas Trade and Finance, and Brazil Watch. Although nearly all established and new full-text coverage is still provided by North American and European sources, there have been a few arrivals from south of the Rio Grande. For example, the powerful PROMT business database (item 64) now provides English-language abstracts of stories appearing in several leading trade journals, general newspapers, and business dailies from Argentina and Brazil. Likewise, regional newswires such as Notimex (item 61) from Mexico and the Spanish-language feed from Agence France-Presse have appeared on some hosts.

The present boomlet of improved bibliographic and full-text coverage for Latin America is an encouraging development for librarians and researchers who struggled through the prior lean years, but the commercial progress outlined above actually trailed some crucial database undertakings from the government and academic sectors. Between 1989 and 1993, four major Latin Americanist databases of unprecedented bibliographic and news strength debuted outside commercial channels to form the present electronic core for our field. In order of appearance, they were INFO-SOUTH for current newspaper and magazine article abstracts, Latin America Data Base for electronic news, HAPI Online, for journal article citations, and the Handbook of Latin American Studies for book and article annotations. Offering direct access to scholars and libraries along with budget-friendly pricing, these new electronic resources filled major gaps in existing database coverage of Latin America, brought key area studies resources closer to the researcher's work space, and attracted considerable attention from commercial online systems eager to offer improved regional content. Indeed, without the pacesetting contributions of these "four tigers" of the Latin American database world, there would be little cause for this Handbook chapter, for the overall coyuntura electrónica would likely be as mixed and pessimistic as it was in the last published review before INFO-SOUTH and the rest appeared.

The INFO-SOUTH Latin American Information System (item 49) offers selective indexing and abstracting for articles appearing in over 1,500 periodicals dealing with contemporary political, economic, social, and business affairs in Latin America and the Caribbean. Although some earlier online products treat certain academic journals relating to Latin America, INFO-SOUTH is the first system to provide basic coverage of current newspapers and magazines from the region, long the richest yet least accessible periodicals of all. At the present time, INFO-SOUTH staff abstract selected articles from approximately 60 newspapers and magazines published in some 20 Latin American and Caribbean countries large and small, along with items published in hundreds of additional sources from Europe and throughout the Americas. With the bulk of its 75,000 records drawn from news sources, INFO-SOUTH offers initial "one-stop shopping" for published information on current affairs across Latin America, although the delays inherent in periodical receipt and processing mean that it cannot provide yesterday's or even last week's articles from, say, Argentina or Mexico. Nevertheless, for recent background information drawn from important but previously untapped regional news publications, INFO-SOUTHhas no peer. Coverage dates back to 1988, with new records added weekly. Drawing from its in-house paper archive of every item selected for database treatment, the Miami operation also offers a responsive, relatively inexpensive, and quite essential article delivery service for individuals and institutions wanting more than just the online abstracts.

Like the very first online databases covering aerospace and medicine, INFO-SOUTH was conceived and built with funding from the US government, and it operates today largely on the basis of federal support. The Foreign Relations Authorization Act for fiscal years 1988 and 1989 called for the Dept. of State to lead an effort for "the establishment of a Latin American and Caribbean Data Base" with online bibliographic features not "significantly duplicative of existing services." The Congressional sponsor of this provision noted that rapid access to Latin American information is "one key to successfully advancing our own national interests," but that "much of the information we need for adequate analysis is not readily available." By collecting timely and hitherto elusive information for government agencies, business and industry, the scholarly community, and the general public, he continued, a specialty Latin American and Caribbean database "offers immense potential for contributing to sounder decisions in areas of public policy, private investment, trade, and finance."[2] The Univ. of Miami garnered the million-dollar contract for this bibliographic project, entered the first records online in Sept. 1988, and unveiled INFO-SOUTH to the Latin Americanist community in a hotel suite at the 1989 Latin American Studies Association (LASA) conference in Miami. Over two years later, online industry leader Dialog added INFO-SOUTH to its repertoire of some 400 files in a rather belated commercial move to ameliorate the Latin American information gap.

The government-university role in the development of INFO-SOUTH is significant in at least three ways. First, federal sponsorship has helped keep the price of a direct, unlimited subscription to the system well within the grasp of most institutions with strong interests in Latin America, unlike the cost per-minute rates associated with many commercial databases. Second, given the stated legislative intent and an original customer base heavy with federal agencies, INFO-SOUTHfirst concentrated on providing Latin American information with operational relevance to policymakers and analysts in the Washington community, the "political, economic, and social" triad so pronounced in its early literature. (More recently, Miami staff have begun adding business-related abstracts in response to needs from their growing corporate clientele.) Third, the commercial database industry was slow to provide increased Latin American coverage on its own, demonstrating a long-held bias against area studies resources as being market losers. Indeed, the industry did not really warm to the Latin American scene until the early 1990s, when obvious market opportunities, rising customer demands, and attractive off-the shelf files made the region too compelling to resist any longer.

The second key online arrival was the Latin America Data Base produced by the Latin American Institute of the Univ. of New Mexico, which debuted in 1986 as a set of topical electronic newsletters on current regional affairs. By 1991 the newsletter issues were available as a unified searchable file (item 54), and today LADB stands out as the most commercially widespread Latin Americanist resource of all, with loads on Dialog, DataTimes, NEXIS, NewsNet, and other major hosts. LADB staff members monitor diverse print, newswire, and radio reports from Latin America to produce three timely and original electronic updates on political and economic events in the region, namely Chronicle of Latin American Economic Affairs, Notisur: Latin American Political Affairs, and Sourcemex: Economic News & Analysis on Mexico. A fourth title, Central America Update, ran for several years before its coverage was picked up elsewhere. Each weekly issue usually contains the equivalent of around 8-10 single-spaced pages of text, loaded with so many detailed reports, texts, summaries, and analyses as to be unmatched in the English-language press. The complete database now includes over 20,000 articles dating back to 1986, making LADB a virtual newspaper of record for recent events in the region. Like INFO-SOUTH, the LADB products can be acquired via direct subscription at rates substantially lower than those charged by the commercial resellers.

Next on the scene was the online version of the Hispanic American Periodicals Index (item 46) from the Latin American Center at the Univ. of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). HAPI is a standard annual print index for Latin American studies, providing citations to articles, book reviews, documents, original literary works, and other materials appearing in some 400 key humanities and social science journals. Despite its considerable value to the Latin Americanist community, the first attempt to place a computerized version of HAPI on a national online system failed owing to unfavorable market projections made by the candidate vendor (area studies resources have low use, the company said in 1984). In Sept. 1991, however, HAPI Online was introduced to the world as part of the UCLA library catalog system, and a second avenue opened in 1993 with its debut as a Eureka database from RLG. With over 180,00 citations dating back to 1970, HAPI Online is indeed "the largest body of journal information from and about Latin America" to appear in computerized form, and ranks as one of the strongest database sources for articles on Latin American history, literature, and arts. The present online rush toward better Latin American coverage is concentrated in current politics, business, news, and related areas, so HAPI Online, a few disciplinary files, and the library union catalogs are virtually the only resources with retrospective strengths in the humanities. Like its companions from Florida and New Mexico, HAPI Online is available at moderate prices attuned to the academic user market.

The fourth and potentially largest "tiger" is the Handbook of Latin American Studies itself (item 45), which gained general distribution in 1993 when the Library of Congress released several of its databases for direct (and free) outside use. Although HLAS citations are subsumed in a general Library of Congress file rather than being treated as a separate database, there are simple search techniques that will retrieve only Handbook entries from the millions of records online. In addition to the obvious advantage of rapid author and word searchability, the online Handbook is more up to date and contains even more information than its print counterpart, for both published and unpublished citations are posted to the database well before the annual volumes are shipped. As of early 1994 the online Handbook contains over 40,000 citations [3] dating back through volume 50, although the prospective mother of all Latin Americanist databases resides in the more than 213,000 book, article, and chapter entries still offline in the prior volumes dating from 1935-89. Nevertheless, the young HLAS database is developing into a central resource for the entire Latin American studies field, with free global connectivity, equitable coverage for humanists and social scientists, unique access to book chapters and many journals not treated elsewhere, and greater size and currency over the print edition. In addition to its Library of Congress load, HLAS is available on the Eureka online system from RLG and the two-disk Latin American Studies CD-ROM from National Information Systems Corporation (item 55; the NISC set also includes INFO-SOUTH, LADB, and HAPI, among other databases).

The principal remaining sectors of the present Latin Americanist database field are: 1) statistical files; and 2) Internet resources, both of which will be treated in more detail by the next volume of the Handbook. This arrangement will afford these resources a proper review within their social sciences milieu, plus give the young but superheated Internet arena another year to coalesce. Briefly, therefore, statistical databases for the study of Latin America are largely issued by national government agencies, international organizations, econometric firms, and financial information services, with data generally available from the producer via network connection, magnetic tape, diskette, or, in some cases, CD-ROM. Among the most accessible general files of interest to Latin Americanists are the International Monetary Fund's International Financial Statistics, the World Bank's World Tables, and the US Dept. of Commerce's National Trade Data Bank (item 60), although hundreds of additional numeric databases exist at costs ranging from free through moderate to exorbitant. As mentioned before, there are also excellent directories of global databases that can lead interested researchers to relevant files in various formats.

The rise and global expansion of the Internet during the early 1990s ranks as one of the most portentous developments ever in the young life of the electronic database field, offering wonderful opportunities for enhanced information retrieval as readily as it poses unprecedented challenges of description and education. Given the tremendous present growth and change in the Internet sector, it can be difficult for network beginners and veterans alike to comprehend and manage the terrible beauty that faces them through the computer screen, and extracting pertinent Latin Americana from the millions of retrievable items on the net remains a tricky proposition. Nevertheless, the power of the Internet is already undeniable and irresistible, and will become even more so as new players, services, resources, and tools join the infrastructure. Insofar as a substantial review of the Internet will appear in the next Handbook volume, this section will only highlight some key network pointers or gateways, starting with Tuss' helpful review of leading user handbooks (item 25) and Molloy's introductory list of Latin Americanist resources (item 20). Perhaps the best starting point for guided Latin Americanist forays across the Internet is the UT-LANIC system (item 73) provided by the Institute of Latin American Studies at the Univ. of Texas, which organizes many far flung resources into convenient topical and geographic menus. Databases accessible through UT-LANIC and similar servers include research library catalogs with strong Latin American holdings, periodical indexes, news archives, texts of treaties and other documents, national and international statistics, government reports, literary texts, economic working papers, and much more. In addition, most of the bibliographic and full-text databases cited above, including the four Latin Americanist tigers, are available on the Internet, although generally with password controls as appropriate to screen out unlicensed users. (HLAS and UnCover, however, are open to all at no charge.) A fee-based but highly affordable Internet system that offers strong Latin American news and conferencing content is PeaceNet (item 63).

This survey of major database resources for Latin American studies has necessarily been heavy with North American and European sources, insofar as the first, and for many years the only, available files were produced and stored in those regions. Of course, Latin America was not without its own computerized resources and networks, but the files were largely scientific in content or difficult to access remotely. Since the late 1980s, however, the database scene in Latin American has fairly erupted with new and promising releases, facilitated and encouraged in large part through the parallel diffusion of CD-ROM technologies and Internet connectivity throughout much of the region. Both developments offer distribution outlets for specialty electronic resources from Latin America that stand little chance of placement on the established commercial hosts. Among the first (1988) Latin American CD-ROM databases to appear on the market was Multiconsult's one-disk package of several bibliographic files from the Univ. Nacional Autónoma de México, including the major CLASE, BIBLAT, and PERIODICA indexes from the Centro de Información Científica y Humanística (item 36). Dozens of other hitherto inaccessible national and local databases from Mexico and elsewhere followed on compact disk during the next five years, with Mexico's Univ. de Colima emerging as a regional leader in CD-ROM mastering and production (items 33, 34, 35, 40, etc). Many Latin American disks contributed new depth to core periodical indexing on themes ranging from art to Central American politics, and some files brought massive collections of full-text newspaper articles and legal materials online for the very first time. One pathbreaking CD-ROM was the CDPRESS archive of over 200,000 complete articles selected from some 60 Mexican national and state newspapers (item 38), later followed by separate disk products containing El Financiero (item 43) and El Norte (item 50). Another promising Mexican release was Códice 90 (item 39), offering computerized results and cartography from the most recent national census of population and housing. Statistical information from Latin America is poorly represented online, but the compact disk medium's portability, reasonable cost, and high storage capacity may serve to attract other key numeric products from appropriate national and international agencies. For example, the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) has already issued a CD-ROM containing certain of its bibliographic databases (item 51), and there are statistical files in Santiago that could receive similar treatment. Finally, we may eventually enjoy disk-based collections of manuscript and archival images. The Univ. de Colima released a CD-ROM in 1993 with full-text finding aids from the Mexican national archives (item 30), and various pilot projects have been undertaken in Latin America, Spain, and the US to reproduce actual historical papers in computerized image form.

Internet connections are available in some form within many Latin American countries, giving local investigators access to global research tools while bringing some heretofore isolated materials to the attention of Latin Americanists worldwide. It should be stressed that the Internet arena defies inventories of more than daily currency, but there are some representative products from Latin America that deserve mention at this early juncture. Among the open Internet resources are library catalogs, periodical indexes, news publications, research reports, statistics, and discussion group archives. The UT-LANIC server offers a convenient gateway to many of these files, but other pathways are available to the enterprising Internet explorer. One recent Internet arrival that complements the various Latin Americanist article databases noted above is CLASE (Citas Latinoamericanas en Ciencias Sociales e Humanidades) from UNAM. This large periodical index (over 85,000 citations from 1,000 journals dating back to 1979) was first released in 1988 on the pioneering Multiconsult CD-ROM (item 36), but online access through the Internet offers greater currency and prospects for reaching more users. In a similar fashion, the powerful Delphi en Español database system (item 41), featuring real-time wire feeds and news from across Latin America, gave its subscribers an Internet access option in 1993. Perhaps most promisingly of all, text and image repositories of some Mexican newspapers have been connected to the Internet, and electronic distribution of certain Latin American dailies is also on the horizon.

The last decade has witnessed promising changes in the database environment for Latin American studies. Throughout most of the 1980s, Latin America was treated in scattered, uneven, and rather unsatisfactory fashion by an assortment of commercial bibliographic files. Except for library cataloging databases and a few disciplinary files, most available resources had little content from Latin America, with regional newspaper and magazine articles virtually unreported online. Likewise, the existing full-text resources were mostly generalist publications emanating from North America and Europe, leaving the exemplary BBC radio broadcasts database as perhaps the only source of primary news from Latin America. Beginning in 1988, however, Latin American studies underwent a remarkable turnaround in online power, as crucial specialty databases emerged from government and academic channels, established commercial resources responded to market demands for more current information on Latin America, and new information technologies and networks brought scholars closer to electronic resources from across the hemisphere and beyond. These recent developments have given us a greatly improved position for the study of Latin America through electronic means, but continued progress in all sectors is required to fulfill the promise of our present boom. Still, considering where we stood only five or six years ago, these are the best of times for online Latin Americana.


1. See the essay by Martha E. Williams (item 5) for statistical compilations and trend analyses on the world database industry.

2. 133 Congressional Record, H5005, June 16, 1987.

3. As of April 1995, the Handbook database contained just over 59,000 records.

4. To access the Handbook via the Internet using the Library of Congress gopher, point to marvel.loc.gov on port 70, and the main menu will appear. Select "Library of Congress Online Information Systems," and then select "Connect to LOCIS." Once in LOCIS, select the "LC Catalog" and then select "Books Cataloged since 1968." For documentation, from the main menu choose "LC Online Systems," choose "Quick Search Guides to LOCIS," and then select the Handbook guide.

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