Glossary -- Yugoslavia
- Cetnik (pl., Cetnici)
- Name derived from the Serbian word for detachment; in full,
Detachments of the Yugoslav Army of the Fatherland. Given to
several Serbian resistance groups in World War II organized to
oppose occupying Nazis and Croatian collaborators. Avoiding large-
scale conflict with the invaders, the Cetnici mostly fought the
communist Partisans (q.v.) of Josip Broz Tito. The most
important Cetnik group was in Serbia, led by Draza Mihajlovic.
- collectivization of
- The process of imposing state control of agriculture by forming
privately held land into socially owned and managed farms.
- Comecon (Council for Mutual Economic
- A multilateral economic alliance headquartered in Moscow.
Members in 1990 included Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, the German
Democratic Republic (East Germany), Hungary, Mongolia, Poland,
Romania, the Soviet Union, and Vietnam. Also referred to as CMEA or
- Cominform (Communist Information
- An international communist organization (1947-56) including the
communist parties of Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, France, Hungary,
Italy, Poland, Romania, the Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia (expelled
in 1948). Formed on Soviet initiative, it issued propaganda
advocating international communist solidarity as a tool of Soviet
- Alphabet ascribed to missionary Cyril (ninth century),
developed from Greek for church literature in Russian. Now the
alphabet of the Soviet republics, Serbia, and Bulgaria, it is one
of the three principal alphabets of the world.
- Yugoslav national currency unit consisting of 100 paras.
Devalued frequently since 1980. In 1980 exchange rate was YD24.9
per US$1; in 1985, YD270.2 per US$1; and in 1988, YD2,522.6 per
US$1. In 1990 new "heavy" dinar was established, worth 10,000 old
dinars; 1990 exchange rate was fixed at 7 dinars per West German
deutsche mark. New rate January 1991 was YD10.50 per US$1.
- Dual Monarchy
- Popular name for the Habsburg Empire after the 1867 Ausgleich
(Compromise) that united Austria and Hungary under a common
monarch; arranged to bolster the waning influence of Austria in
Europe. Also known as the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
- EC (European Community)
- A group of three primarily economic communities of West
European countries, including the European Economic Community (EEC-
-q.v.), the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom or
EAEC), and the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). Executive
power rested with the European Commission, which implemented and
defended the community treaties in the interests of the EC as a
whole. Also known as the European Communities.
- EEC (European Economic Community)
- The "Common Market" of primarily West European countries
organized to promote coordinated development of economic
activities, continuous and balanced expansion, increased stability,
and closer relations among member states. Methods included
elimination of customs duties and import restrictions among member
states and a common customs tariff, a common commercial policy
toward outside countries, and a common agricultural and transport
- EFTA (European Free Trade Association)
- Created in 1960 to bring about free trade in industrial goods
and expansion of trade in agricultural goods among member
countries. In 1990 members included Austria, Finland, Iceland,
Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland. The Joint EFTA-Yugoslavia
Committee was established in 1978 to expand trade and industrial
cooperation with Yugoslavia.
- GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and
- An integrated set of bilateral trade agreements among nations,
formed in 1947 to abolish quotas and reduce tariffs. Yugoslavia
became a member of GATT in 1965, when its tariff and trade
regulations were brought into line with international practices.
- GDP (gross domestic product)
- A measure of the total value of goods and services produced by
a domestic economy during a given period, usually a year. Obtained
by adding the value of profits, employee compensation, and
depreciation of capital from each sector of the economy.
- GMP (gross material product)
- The value added by the productive sectors before deduction of
depreciation. GMP excludes the value of services in the
nonproductive sectors such as defense, public administration,
finance, education, health, and housing. Also known as social
- GNP (gross national product)
- The sum of the gross domestic product (GDP--q.v.) and
the income received from abroad by residents, minus payments
remitted abroad to nonresidents.
- Green Plans
- A series of federal government agricultural plans in Yugoslavia
for the period 1973 through 1985, aimed at stimulating agricultural
production. They provided for large foreign and domestic investment
in agriculture and incentives for private agriculture.
- hard currency
- Currency freely convertible and traded on international
- Helsinki Accords
- Signed August 1975 by all European countries except Albania,
plus Canada and the United States, to endorse general principles of
international behavior, especially in economic, environmental, and
humanitarian issues. Helsinki Accords is short form for the Final
Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE).
- IMF (International Monetary Fund)
- Established with the World Bank (q.v.) in 1945, a
specialized agency affiliated with the United Nations and
responsible for stabilizing international exchange rates and
payments. Its main business was providing loans to its members when
they experienced balance of payments difficulties.
- LCY (League of Communists of Yugoslavia)
- Until 1990 the sole political party of Yugoslavia. Each
republic and province had a separate organization, such as the
League of Communists of Macedonia. Until 1952 called the Communist
Party of Yugoslavia (CPY). In 1990 the national organization split
at the Fourteenth Party Congress; some republic parties took
different names, e.g., the Serbian party changed its name from
League of Communists of Serbia to Socialist Party of Serbia. All
the republic communist parties remained intact (although reduced in
membership) and ran candidates in the multiparty 1990 republic
- market socialism
- The economic system introduced in 1963 in Yugoslavia based on
worker-managed enterprises, using domestic and foreign market
forces as a management guide.
- nation and nationality
- Juridically important distinctions that have played significant
roles in Yugoslav political life, in spite of legislation that gave
full equality to minorities in culture, public life, and language.
The term nation was used in reference to ethnic groups
whose traditional territorial homelands lay mostly within the
modern boundaries of Yugoslavia, i.e., the Croats, Macedonians,
Montenegrins, Muslim Slavs, Serbs, and Slovenes. The term
nationality, or national minority, designated
groups in Yugoslavia whose homelands were outside Yugoslavia; the
largest of these were the Hungarians and the Albanians.
- A nineteenth-century intellectual movement that sought to unite
the Slavic peoples of Europe based on their common ethnic
background, culture, and political goals.
- Popular name for resistance forces led by Josip Broz Tito
during World War II. In December 1941, adopted formal name People's
Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments.
- Serbia proper
- The part of the Republic of Serbia not including the provinces
of Vojvodina and Kosovo; the ethnic and political core of the
- social product
- See GMP (gross material product).
- social sector
- The sector of the Yugoslav economy in which assets were
socially owned and self-management governed economic activity.
- Ustase (sing., Ustasa)
- From the word ustanak, meaning uprising or rebellion.
An extremist Croatian movement that began as an interwar terrorist
organization, then adopted fascist guidelines and collaborated with
German and Italian occupation forces in World War II. The
movement's genocidal practices against Serbs, Muslims, and other
minorities in Croatia and Bosnia and Hercegovina caused animosities
that lasted long after the war.
- World Bank
- Informal name used to designate a group of three affiliated
international institutions: the International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), providing loans to
developing countries; the International Development Association
(IDA), providing credits to the poorest developing countries on
easier terms than the IBRD; and the International Finance
Corporation (IFC), supplementing IBRD activity by loans to
stimulate private enterprise in less developed countries. The three
institutions are owned by the governments of the countries that
subscribe their capital. To participate in the World Bank group,
member states must first belong to the International Monetary Fund