Glossary -- Uganda
- A group of persons of the same sex and approximately the same
age who have been initiated together or who have passed through
other social experiences together.
- A group whose members are descended in the male line
from a putative common male ancestor (patriclan) or in the female
line from a putative common female ancestor (matriclan--not reported
in Uganda). Clans may be divided into subclans organized on the same
principle or into lineages (q.v.) believed to be linked by
descent from a remote common ancestor.
- fiscal year (FY)
- Uganda's fiscal year runs from July 1 to June 30. Fiscal year
dates of reference correspond to the year in which the period ends.
For example, fiscal year 1990 began July 1, 1989 and ended June 30,
- gross domestic product (GDP)
- A measure of the total value of goods and services produced by a
domestic national economy during a given period, usually one year.
Obtained by adding the value contributed by each sector of the
economy in the form of profits, compensation to employees, and
depreciation (consumption of capital). Only domestic production is
included, not income arising from investments and possessions owned
abroad, hence the use of the word "domestic" to distinguish GDP from
gross national product (q.v.). Real GDP is the value of GDP
when inflation has been taken into account. In this book,
subsistence production is included and consists of the imputed value
of production by the farm family for its own use and the imputed
rental value of owner-occupied dwellings. In countries lacking
sophisticated data-gathering techniques, such as Uganda, the total
value of GDP is often estimated.
- gross national product (GNP)
- The total market value of all final goods and services produced
by an economy during a year. Obtained by adding the gross domestic
product (q.v.) and the income received from abroad by
residents and then subtracting payments remitted abroad to
nonresidents. Real GNP is the value of GNP when inflation has been
taken into account.
- International Monetary Fund
- Established along with the World Bank (q.v.) in 1945,
the IMF is a specialized agency affiliated with the United Nations;
it is responsible for stabilizing international exchange rates and
payments. The main business of the IMF is the provision of loans to
its members (including industrialized and developing countries) when
they experience balance-of-payments difficulties. These loans
frequently carry conditions that require substantial internal
economic adjustments by the recipients, most of which are developing
- A group whose members are descended through males from a common
male ancestor (patrilineage) or through females from a common female
ancestor (matrilineage--not reported in Uganda). Such descent can in
principle be traced. Lineages vary in genealogical depth from the
ancestor to living generations; the more extensive ones often are
- Paris Club
- The informal name for a consortium of Western creditor countries
that have made loans or have guaranteed export credits to developing
nations and that meet in Paris to discuss borrowers' ability to
repay debts. The organization has no formal or institutional
existence and no fixed membership. Its secretariat is run by the
French treasury, and it has a close relationship with the World Bank
(q.v.), the International Monetary Fund (q.v.),
and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).
- A group of male and female descendants of a male ancestor, each
of whom is related to the common ancestor through male forebears.
- special drawing right(s) (SDRs)
- Monetary unit(s) of the International Monetary Fund (IMF--
q.v.) based on a basket of international currencies
consisting of the United States dollar, the German deutsche mark,
the Japanese yen, the British pound sterling, and the French franc.
- Uganda shilling
- USh; basic unit of currency divided into 100 cents. The Uganda
shilling was introduced in 1966 and was tied to the United States
dollar until 1975, when its value was tied to the special drawing
right (SDR; q.v.) of the IMF (q.v.). In 1986 the
Uganda shilling was officially valued at US$1 = USh1450. A new
Uganda shilling was introduced in May 1987. It involved an effective
devaluation of 76 percent, was given an official value equal to 100
old shillings, and had an international exchange rate of US$1 =
USh60. Successive devaluations in 1988, 1989, and 1990 reduced the
official dollar value to US$1 = USh510 by late 1990.
- World Bank
- International name used to designate a group of three affiliated
international institutions: the International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International Development
Association (IDA), and the International Finance Corporation (IFC).
The IBRD, established in 1945, has as its primary purpose the
provision of loans to developing countries for productive projects.
The IDA, a legally separate loan fund administered by the staff of
the IBRD, was set up in 1960 to furnish credits to the poorest
developing countries on much easier terms than those of conventional
IBRD loans. The IFC, founded in 1956, supplements the activities of
the IBRD through loans and assistance designed specifically to
encourage the growth of productive private enterprises in the less-
developed countries. The president and certain senior officers of
the IBRD hold the same positions in the IFC. The three institutions
are owned by the governments of the countries that subscribe their
capital. To participate in the World Bank group, member states must
first belong to the IMF (q.v.).