Appendix A. Tables

Table 1. Metric Conversion Coofficients and Factors

When you kowMultiply byTo find
Millimeters0.04inches
Centimeters0.39inches
Meters3.3feet
Kilometers0.62miles
Hectares2.47acres
Square kilometers0.39square miles
Cubic meters35.3cubic feet
Liters0.26gallons
Kilograms2.2pounds
Metric tons0.98long tons
1.1short tons
2,204pounds
Degrees Celsius (Centigrade)1.8 and add 32degrees Fahrenheit

Table 2. Level of Education of Females Aged Fifteen and Over, 1990

Highest Level CompletedPer 100 MalesPercentage of All Females
UrbanRural
Higher education898.31.8
Secondary education15036.015.8
Basic vocational education5616.116.8
Primary school12635.951.5
Did not complete primary school1813.714.1

Source: Based on information from Poland, G■ówny Urz■d Statystyczny, Sytuacja spo■eczno-zawodowa kobiet w 1990 r., Warsaw, 1990, 18.

Table 3. Marital and Family Position of Females Aged Eighteen to Fifty-Nine, 1987 and 1991

(in percentages of age range)
YearChildrenTotalSingle MarriedDivorcedWidowedSeparated
1987None37.493.625.829.264.727.7
1991"37.594.625.832.368.818.3
1987One23.46.125.740.218.040.4
1991"22.44.724.240.416.240.9
1987Two25.30.331.022.712.029.9
1991"26.80.732.922.69.932.4
1987Three or more13.90.017.57.95.32.0
1991"13.30.017.14.75.18.4
All females
1987*n.a.n.a.13.675.24.55.11.0
1991*n.a.n.a.12.169.64.55.11.6

* Totals many not add to 100 because of rounding.
n.a.--not applicable.

Source: Based on information from Poland, G■ówny Urz■d Statystyczny, Sytuacja spo■eczno-zawodowa kobiet w 1991 r., Warsaw, 1991, 7.

Table 4. Housing Capacity, 1981-90

Category1981-85*1986- 90*1990
Dwellings completed (in thousands)190.9170.0134.2
Urban144.8124.598.8
Rural46.145.535.4
Housing cooperatives99.379.868.4
Privately built54.256.947.4
Communal2.85.23.0
Other34.628.115.4
Rooms completed (in thousands)740.4698.6567.3
Urban535.5486.6396.3
Rural204.9212.0171.0
Housing cooperatives344.8292.0254.6
Privately built266.1291.6248.0
Communal9.117.110.0
Other130.497.954.7
Average useful floor space per dwelling (in square meters)67.1 74.177.2
Urban60.466.869.6
Rural88.093.998.4
Housing cooperatives53.457.959.4
Privately owned99.9106.5109.9
Communal52.254.056.8

*Annual averages.

Source: Based on information from Poland, G■ówny Urz■d Statystyczny, Concise Statistical Yearbook of Poland, 1991, Warsaw, 1991, 114-15.

Table 5. Religious Instruction in Primary and Secondary Schools, 1991

Level of EducationPercentage of Total Receiving InstructionNon-Roman Catholic Students Receiving InstructionTotal
Primary
Urban97.926,6005,161,200
Rural99.315,8001,868,300
All primary95.842,4007,029,500
Secondary
College preparatory92.21,900409,300
Vocational88.52,600551,100
All secondary90.14,500960,400

Source: Based on information from Poland, G■ówny Urz■d Statystyczny, Concise Statistical Yearbook of Poland, 1991, Warsaw, 1991, 128.

Table 6. Schools, Students, and Teachers by Level of Education, 1981, 1986, and 1991

Level of Education198119861991
Schools
Primary113,52417,01318,501
College preparatory secondary21,2301,1311,334
Vocational secondary5,9774,8015,190
Postsecondary1,272960893
Students
Primary14,259,8004,897,6005,276,400
College preparatory secondary2415,000382,900493,600
Vocational secondary909,000634,800795,000
Postsecondary589,200435,700502,600
Graduates
Primary494,800503,200590,400
College preparatory secondary105,30085,80099,900
Vocational secondary207,100127,500150,600
Postsecondary141,60097,00091,800
Teachers
Primary204,300277,900328,900
College preparatory
secondary22,90022,30025,100
Vocational, all levels77,40080,20085,700
Postsecondary54,70057,30062,100

1 In 1991 eighty-six nonpublic primary schools enrolled 4,800 students.
2 In 1991 ninety-three nonpublic college preparatory secondary schools enrolled 6,700 students.

Source: Based on information from Poland, G■ówny Urz■d Statystyczny, Concise Statistical Yearbook of Poland, 1991, Warsaw, 1991, 128.

Table 7. Foreign-Language Instruction in Primary and Secondary Schools, 19911

Secondary 2
LanguagePrimary 2College Preparatory VocationalTotal
Required
English5.052.617.5627,600
French0.816.25.0147,400
German3.744.131.7628,200
Russian40.685.673.03,648,300
Other0.08.94.568,800
Elective
English5.80.55.7339,500
French0.70.11.344,600
German3.80.310.0263,900
Other0.76.61.581,900

1 Excludes special schools.
2 In percentages.

Source: Based on information from Poland, G■ówny Urz■d Statystyczny, Concise Statistical Yearbook of Poland, 1991, Warsaw, 1991, 128.

Table 8. Incidence of Selected Diseases and Disability Days Caused, 1980, 1985, and 1989

Category198019851989
Incidence of selected diseases
Tuberculosis25,80721,65016,185
Venereal diseases42,37014,97310,399
Influenza1,410,3572,309,8751,642,126
Cancer64,95976,93882,494
Mental and nervous conditions155,317150,596145,756
Disability days caused by disease (per 100 employees)
Respiratory system350.7382.4420.1
Circulatory system207.2196.1215.2
Nervous system163.4186.5230.4
Bone, muscle, or connective tissue158.3168.9203.0

Source: Based on information from Poland, G■ówny Urz■d Statystyczny, Concise Statistical Yearbook of Poland, 1991, Warsaw, 1991, 121.

Table 9. Medical Personnel, 1980, 1985, and 1990

Category198019851990
Physicians63,55073,17281,674
Dentists16,83417,44018,219
Hospital attendants3,7473,2442,708
Nurses156,975179,727207,654
Midwives15,09219,85023,868

Source: Based on information from Poland, G■ówny Urz■d Statystyczny, Concise Statistical Yearbook of Poland, 1991, Warsaw, 1991, 117.

Table 10. Medical Facilities, 1980, 1985, and 1990

Category198019851990
Dispensaries
Regionaln.a.2,3222,410
Industrial2,4812,4692,450
Cooperative418377316
Other3,0191,2371,383
Total dispensaries5,9186,4056,559
Health service centers3,2183,2833,328
Beds
General hospitals200,752210,611217,717
Mental hospitals36,53534,38133,135
Delivery rooms1,9681,487811
Tuberculosis sanitoriums8,8508,8505,977
Alcoholism treatment centers755946750
Drug addiction treatment centersn.a.44504
Total beds248,860256,319258,894
First aid sections397404412
Emergency stations495361
Ambulances4,7844,6354,814
Hospital aircraft757869

n.a.--not available.

Source: Based on information from Poland, G■ówny Urz■d Statystyczny, Concise Statistical Yearbook of Poland, 1991, Warsaw, 1991, 118-19.

Table 11. Births, Marriages, and Deaths, 1984-90

Live BirthsDeaths
YearNumberPer 1,000 PopulationMarriagesNumberPer 1,000 Population
1984699,04118.9285,258364,8629.9
1985677,57618.2266,816381,45710.3
1986634,74817.0257,887376,31610.1
1987605,49216.1252,819378,36510.1
1988587,74115.5246,791370,8219.8
1989562,53014.8255,643381,17310.0
1990545,80014.3255,369388,44010.2

Source: Based on information from The Europa World Year Book, 1991, 2, London, 1991, 2252.

Table 12. Civilian Labor Force by Type of Occupation, 1987, 1988, and 1989

Type of Occupation198719881989
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing5,059,0004,923,9004,729,500
Mining and quarrying612,900609,800614,700
Manufacturing4,710,8004,684,9004,630,600
Construction1,457,6001,471,4001,418,300
Trade, restaurants, and hotels1,816,3001,808,6001,787,000
Transportation, storage, and communications1,378,5001,367,600 1,303,200
Community, social, and personal services2,860,9002,917,200 3,066,600
Other700,200690,700814,100
TOTAL18,596,20018,474,10018,364,000

Source: Based on information from The Europa World Year Book, 1992, 2, London, 1992, 2252.

Table 13. Selected Balance of Payments Data in Transferable Rubles, Selected Years, 1985-91

(in millions)
1985198719891991*
Merchandise exports9,07310,66511,3201,236
Merchandise imports-10,303-11,219-10,342-816
Balance of trade-1,230-554978420
Balance of services319373427n.a.
Interest payments-1,097-424-1,104n.a.

n.a.--not available.
* Through November 1991.

Source: Based on information from Poland, G■ówny Urz■d Statystyczny, Rocznik statystyczny handlu zagranicznego, Warsaw, 1989, 88; Poland, G■ówny Urz■d Statystyczny, Rocznik statystyczny handlu zagranicznego, Warsaw, 1989, 88; and ■ycie gospodarcz■, No. 14, 1992, 12.

Table 14. Selected Balance of Payments Data in Convertible Currencies, Selected Years, 1985-91

(in millions)
1985198719891991
Merchandise exports5,7686,9208,11312,760
Merchandise imports-4,594-5,878-7,987- 12,709
Balance of trade1,1741,04212651
Balance of services-17-37-211236
Cost of credits-2,444-2,804-3,069- 2,863
Current account balance-523-392-1,922- 1,359

Source: Based on information from Poland, G■ówny Urz■d Statystyczny, Rocznik statystyczny handlu zagranicznego, Warsaw, 1989, 88; Poland, G■ówny Urz■d Statystyczny, Rocznik statystyczny handlu zagranicznego, Warsaw, 1989, 88; and ■ycie gospodarcz■, No. 14, 1992, 12.

Table 15. Industrial Output and Consumer Price Index, July 1990 to November 1991

MonthOutput*Consumer Price Index
July 199087.8103.4
August 1990107.6103.6
September 1990108.0104.6
October 1990100.4105.7
November 1990100.0104.9
December 1990103.2105.9
January 199182.4112.7
February 1991100.8106.7
March 1991100.1104.5
April 199191.7102.7
May 199198.4102.7
June 1991102.2104.9
July 199187.9100.1
August 1991105.9100.6
September 1991103.5104.3
October 1991101.5103.2
November 1991105.9103.2

* The figure for each month is the percentage of the previous month.

Source: Based on information from Jan Winiecki, "The Polish Transition Programme: Underpinnings, Results, Interpretations," Soviet Studies [Glasgow], 44, No. 5, 1992, 814.

Table 16. Unemployment Rate by Age-Groupand Sex, Summer 1992

(in percentages)
Age- GroupMalesFemalesTotal
18 and over12.014.013.0
18-1932.037.534.0
20-2425.028.026.0
25-2914.518.016.0
30-349.517.013.0
35-449.512.010.5
45 and over7.07.07.0

Source: Based on information from Antoni Kowalik, "`Bluebirds' or Voluntarily Unemployed?" Rzeczpospolita [Warsaw], September 4, 1992, Joint Publications Research Service, JPRS Report: East Europe (JPRS-EER-92-146.), October 16, 1992, 29.

Table 17. Output of Selected Engineering Products,Selected Years, 1980-91

Product19801985198919 91
Automobiles (in thousands of units)351283285167
Trucks (in thousands of units)615451n.a.
Tractors (in thousands of units)58594818
Train passenger cars (single units)328350230n.a.
Television sets (in thousands of units)900610772443
Radios (in thousands of units)2,6952,6902,523n.a.
Washing machines (in thousands of units)809739811335
Metallurgical machines (in thousands of tons)602830n.a.
Agricultural machines (in thousands of tons)343460381n.a.

n.a.--not available.

Source: Based on information from Poland, G■ówny Urz■d Statystyczny, Rocznik statystyczny, 1990, Warsaw, 1990, 267-69.

Table 18. Principal Agricultural Products, 1988, 1989, and 1990

(in thousands of tons)
Crop198819891990
Potatoes34,70734,39036,313
Sugar beet14,06914,37416,721
Wheat7,5828,4629,026
Rye5,5016,2166,044
Barley3,8043,9094,217
Mixed grains3,3873,4663,554
Oats2,2222,1852,119
Cabbages1,5741,6171,749
Apples1,3931,312812
Rapeseed1,1991,5861,206

Source: Based on information from The Europa World Year Book, 1992, 2, London, 1992, 2253.

Table 19. Principal Trading Partners, 1988, 1989, and 1990

(in millions of zloty)1
Country198819891990
Imports
Soviet Union1,228,4472,608,80215,369,501
West Germany687,1422,337,78115,586,5652
Czechoslovakia335,978846,1662,761,817
East Germany264,990662,884
Switzerland239,866782,3924,988,089
Austria230,123886,8924,403,499
Britain221,728663,9184,382,049
Other2,064,0396,075,34030,028,335
Total imports5,272,31314,864,17577,519,855
Exports
Soviet Union1,474,5804,048,25519,767,703
West Germany747,1562,757,73632,502,8402
Czechoslovakia359,1391,075,3015,282,084
Britain301,7661,262,5639,227,183
East Germany264,251815,520
Austria183,865690,8654,988,514
Switzerland153,738504,3756,078,434
Other2,527,2508,321,55951,608,189
Total exports6,011,74519,476,174129,454,947

1 For value of the zloty--see Glossary.
2 1990 figures combine West Germany and East Germany.

Source: Based on information from The Europa World Year Book, 1992, 2, London, 1992, 2256.

Table 20. Election Results for Sejm and Senate, 1991

Party or CoalitionPercentage of Sejm SeatsNumber of Senate Seats
Alliance of the Democratic Left13.04
Center Alliance9.69
Christian Democracy1.11
Christian National Union10.79
Confederation for an Independent Poland10.94
Democratic Union13.521
German Minority1.51
Liberal-Democratic Congress8.06
Party of Christian Democrats0.93
Peasant Alliance6.17
Polish Peasant Party10.48
Solidarity5.911
Parties with single seats in Senate2.416
Parties with no seats in Senate6.10
TOTAL100.0100

* Figures do not add to totals because of rounding.

Source: Based on information from Louisa Vinton, "Poland's New Election Law: Fewer Parties, Same Impasse?" RFE/RL Research Report [Munich], 2, No. 28, July 9, 1993, 10.

Table 21. Naval Craft and Personnel, Selected Years, 1970-95

Category1970198019851 9901995*
Destroyers and frigates31122
Submarines64333
Missile craft122920110
Corvettes00245
Patrol boats6425888
Mine countermeasures5144493226
Amphibious craft162323265
Personnel20,00025,00019,10019,30010,000

* Projected.

Source: Based on information from John L. Green, "The Baltic: A Sea in Transition," Monterey, California, 1991, 80.

Table 22. Declared Holdings of the Polish Army and Arms Limitations According to the Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty, 1991

CategoryHoldingsArms Limitations
Battle tanks2,8501,730
Armored combat vehicles2,3772,150
Artillery2,3001,610
Combat aircraft551460
Attack helicopters29130

Source: Based on information from Jane's Defence Weekly [Coulsdon, United Kingdom], 16, No. 1, July 6, 1991, 18-19.