Appendix A. Tables

Table 1. Metric Conversion Coofficients and Factors

When you kowMultiply byTo find
Millimeters0.04inches
Centimeters0.39inches
Meters3.3feet
Kilometers0.62miles
Hectares2.47acres
Square kilometers0.39square miles
Cubic meters35.3cubic feet
Liters0.26gallons
Kilograms2.2pounds
Metric tons0.98long tons
1.1short tons
2,204pounds
Degrees Celsius (Centigrade)1.8 and add 32degrees Fahrenheit

Table 2. Annual Growth Rate by Region, Intercensal Periods, 1950-82

RegionAnnual Growth Rate
1950-621962-741974-82
Sierra2.002.502.30
Costa4.113.402.66
Oriente3.987.284.95
Galápagos4.794.544.91
Ecuador2.953.102.62

Source: Based on information from Ecuador, Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos, IV Censo Nacional de Población y III de Vivienda, 1982--Resumen Nacional: Breve Análisis de los Resultados Definitivos, Quito, 1985, 32.

Table 3. Population and Annual Growth Rate of Guayaquil and Quito, 1950-82

CityPopulation Annual Growth Rate*
1950196219741982 1950-621962-741974-821950- 82
Guayaquil258,966510,804823,2191,199,3445.824.064.824.91
Quito209,932354,746599,828866,4724.474.474.704.53

*Intercensal periods.

Source: Based on information from Carlos Larrea, "Crecimiento Urbano y Dinámica de las Ciudades Intermedias en el Ecuador (1950- 1982)," in Fernando Carrión (comp.), El Proceso de Urbanización en el Ecuador del siglo XVIII al siglo XX--Antología, Quito, 1986, 104, 106.

Table 4. Urban Growth Rate in the Costa and Sierra Regions and in Ecuador by Size of City, Intercensal Periods, 1950-82

Region
Size of City1950-621962-741974- 821950-82
Costa
Metropolitan15.824.064.824.91
Intermediate27.716.246.136.76
Small35.613.725.514.87
Sierra
Metropolitan4.474.474.704.53
Intermediate3.963.914.073.97
Small1.652.793.422.52
Ecuador
Metropolitan5.244.234.774.74
Intermediate5.515.075.215.27
Small3.533.445.023.87

1 More than 200,000.
2 50,000 to 200,000.
3 Less than 50,000.

Source: Based on information from Carlos Larrea, "Crecimiento Urbano y Dinámica de las Ciudades Intermedias en el Ecuador (1950- 1982)," in Fernando Carrión (ed.), El Proceso de Urbanización en el Ecuador del siglo XVIII al siglo XX--Antología, Quito, 1986, 113.

Table 5. Landholding in the Sierra and Costa Regions by Size of Farm, 1954 and 1974

Region19541974
Size of Farm1Percentage of FarmsPercentage of Agricultural LandPercentage of FarmsPercentage of Agricultural Land
Sierra
0 to 1090.416.587.118.3
10 to 204.04.75.77.8
20 to 1004.414.56.125.7
100 to 5000.915.60.916.4
More than 5000.348.70.231.8
Total Sierra100.0100.0100.0100.0
Costa
0 to 1063.07.067.48.9
10 to 2012.85.111.97.4
20 to 10019.423.517.732.2
100 to 5004.023.02.924.3
More than 5000.741.40.427.2
Total Costa100.02100.0100.02100.0

1 In hectares.
2 Figures do not add to total because of rounding.

Source: Based on information from Howard Handelman, Ecuadorian Agrarian Reform: The Politics of Limited Change, American Universities Field Staff Reports, 1980, 49, South America, 12-13.

Table 6. Organization of the Roman Catholic Church, 1986

StructureArea*Catholic PopulationNumber of Priests
Archdiocese
Cuenca9,672363,000109
Guayaquil20,2691,805,000248
Quito17,0901,251,540430
Diocese
Ambato3,844336,20064
Azogues4,514181,20032
Guaranda3,336197,00029
Ibarra5,669244,50075
Latacunga5,093314,00056
Loja11,000377,00080
Machala5,816313,00026
Portoviejo19,0001,050,00086
Riobamba6,161507,00062
Tulcán5,000135,00031
Territorial prelature
Los Ríos6,521368,00018
Apostolic vicariate
Aguarico28,00039,60020
Esmeraldas15,000283,30037
MÚndez35,00063,70034
Napo25,00052,13527
Puyo24,00027,00011
San Miguel de Sucumbíos20,00043,50012
Zamora20,00050,40013
Apostolic prefecture
Galápagos7,8607,0005
TOTAL297,8458,009,0751,505

*In square kilometers.

Source: Based on information from Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 1986, Vatican City, 1986.

Table 7. Enrollment by Level of Education, Selected Years, 1967-85

Level1967197119751979 198319841985
Primary897,5391,052,4841,254,8501,427,6271,677,364 1,672,0681,741,9671
Secondary
First Cycle106,831161,446256,196345,569405,445438,718 452,2621
Second Cycle44,37178,135126,515189,876244,833267,058 277,3681
Total Secondary151,202239,581382,711535,445650,278705,776 729,630
Higher Education19,60045,355129,130225,343---2---2---2

1 Provisional.
2 Figures not reported.

Source: Based on information from Banco Central del Ecuador, Boletín Anuario, 8, Quito, 1985, 241; and Banco Central del Ecuador, Boletín Anuario, 11, Quito, 1988, 243.

Table 8. Literacy Rate among Population over Ten Years of Age, Census Years, 1950-82

(in percentages)
1950196219741982
Urban
Males89929496
Females79868994
Total urban83899195
Rural
Males51637080
Females38536071
Total rural45586576
Ecuador
Males62737988
Females51667383
Total Ecuador56707685

Source: Based on information from Ecuador, Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos, IV Censo Nacional de Población y III de Vivienda, 1982--Resumen Nacional: Breve Análisis de los Resultados Definitivos, Quito, 1985, 45.

Table 9. Social Security Participation among Economically Active Population, 1982

(in percentages)
MalesFemalesTotal
Urban344236
Rural9129
Ecuador213323

Source: Based on information from Ecuador, Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos, IV Censo Nacional de Población y III de Vivienda, 1982--Resumen Nacional: Breve Análisis de los Resultados Definitivos, Quito, 1985, 59.

Table 10. Gross Domestic Product by Sector, 1950, 1971, and 1987

(in percentages)
Sector195019711987
Agriculture, livestock, fishing, and forestry38.824.717.8
Petroleum and mining2.3-3.47.6
Manufacturing16.017.017.6
Utilities0.50.71.6
Construction2.77.64.1
Wholesale and retail trade10.317.515.7
Transportation and communications4.86.08.3
Financial services1.42.42.3
Public administration5.88.89.3
Other services9.313.613.0
Indirect taxes8.15.12.7
TOTAL100.0100.0100.0

Source: Based on information from Banco Central del Ecuador, Boletín Anuario, 10, Quito, 1987.

Table 11. Labor Force by Sector, 1974, 1982, and 1987

(in percentages)*
Sector197419821987
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing46.233.534.8
Government and community services17.023.723.9
Manufacturing11.712.210.8
Commerce9.711.610.8
Construction4.46.77.3
Utilities and transportation3.24.94.9
Finance and insurance1.01.92.3
Mining0.30.30.1
Other6.45.14.9
TOTAL100.0100.0100.0

*Figures do not add to total because of rounding.

Source: Based on information from Banco Central del Ecuador, Boletín Anuario, 10, Quito, 1987.

Table 12. Production of Selected Agricultural Commodities, 1983, 1984, and 1985

(in thousands of tons)
Commodity198319841985
Export crops
Bananas1,642.11,677.61,969.6
Cacao45.048.7130.8
Coffee81.197.2120.9
Sugar (centrifugal)2,625.53,041.92,693.6
Sugar (noncentrifugal)2,994.52,656.32,301.2
Major food crops
African palm oil354.2372.5457.9
Barley29.625.026.7
Cassava194.8239.2228.8
Corn229.4325.8371.4
Oranges355.2272.0230.7
Plantains687.2744.0945.5
Potatoes314.0389.6423.2
Rice (paddy)273.5437.2397.4
Wheat26.925.218.5
Other crops
Castor beans2.21.91.7
Cotton4.27.818.9
Hemp7.618.310.0
Soybeans14.147.462.9
Tea2.62.84.3
Tobacco1.84.43.1

Source: Based on information from Vjekoslav Mardesic (ed.), Estadísticas del Ecuador, Quito, 1988; and Ecuador, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería, Estimación de la superficie cosechada y de la producción agrícola del Ecuador, 1983 to 1985, Quito, 1989.

Table 13. Crude Petroleum Production in the Costa and Oriente Regions, 1980-89

(in thousands of barrels)
YearCostaOrienteTotal
19805,503742,219774,769
19815,116765,164770,280
19825,193765,703770,896
19832,773864,138866,611
19844,171934,626938,797
19854,3801,019,9781,024,159
19864,1231,065,8241,069,947
1987n.a.n.a.669,000
1988n.a.n.a.1,240,000
1989n.a.n.a.1,246,000

Source: Based on information from Banco Central del Ecuador, Boletín Anuario, 10, Quito, 1987, 170; and Economist Intelligence Unit, Ecuador: Country Report, No. 4, 1990, London, 1990, 23.

Table 14. Value of Manufacturing Production by Sector, 1986

(in percentages)
SectorValue
Food and tobacco processing39.7
Textiles22.1
Minerals and metals12.2
Paper and printing6.9
Chemicals and plastics5.8
Wood products and furniture5.6
Machinery and metal products2.9
Other4.8
TOTAL100.0

Source: Based on information from Banco Central del Ecuador, Boletín Anuario, 1987, Quito, 1987, 154-55.

Table 15. Principal Exports, 1981-87

(in millions of United States dollars)*
Commodity198119821983 1984198519861987
Crude petroleum1,5601,3881,6391,6791,825912739
Fuel oil150120941561027078
Bananas216213153136220263267
Coffee106139149175191299192
Raw cacao44618961387183
Processed cacao106562650787757
Shrimp and fish82128178167169315409
Processed food1381185610012311087
Industrial products and chemicals11310244485261105

*Free on board.

Table 16. Merchandise Imports, 1982- 87

(in millions of United States dollars)*
Commodity198219831984 198519861987
Nondurable consumer goods8652768593116
Durable consumer goods371208230138126139
Fuels and lubricants22025614415882354
Raw materials (agriculture)453654645446
Raw materials (industry)667490654660624689
Construction materials793237395053
Capital goods (agriculture)29914293124
Capital goods (industry)434237246309369447
Transportation equipment25088112131203186
TOTAL2,1811,4081,5671,6131,6322,054

*Free on board.

Table 17. Principal Trading Partners, 1985, 1986, and 1987

(in millions of United States dollars)
Country198519861987
Imports
Brazil123120119
Italy5010065
Japan207205257
Spain505258
United States575509575
West Germany167165170
Other566625675
Total imports1,7381,7761,919
Exports
Chile444731
Colombia473023
Japan625748
Panama1205943
United States1,6361,3221,243
West Germany597880
Other1,088578561
Total exports3,0562,1712,029

Source: Based on information from James W. Wilkie and Enrique Ochoa (eds.), Statistical Abstract of Latin America, 27, Los Angeles, 1989, 639-40.

Table 18. Balance of Payments, 1983- 88

(in millions of United States dollars)
1983198419851986 19871988
Merchandise*
Exports2,3482,6222,9052,1862,0212,203
Imports-1,421- 1,567-1,611-1,631-2,054-1,614
Trade balance9271,0551,294555-33589
Services
Exports340350418431444446
Imports-1,295- 1,573-1,643-1,644-1,674-1,692
Balance on goods and services- 28-16869-658-1,263- 657
Government unrequited transfers (net)2420804513260
Current account balance-4-148149- 613-1,131-597
Direct capital investment (net)505062707580
Other long-term capital (net)- 1,200-896-752-33983- 891
Short-term capital (net)-1,098-267-287- 9572138
Net errors and omissions-182-7477- 173-133192
Total monetary movement (net)- 2,434-1,335-751-1,150-1,034- 1,078
Valuation changes1422-27- 29-62-23
Exceptional financing2,4731,3278811,0259361,026
Official financing74-72-107- 47-165
Changes in reserves127-58-4- 201-161-10

*Free on board.

Source: Based on information from International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics, 43, No. 6, Washington, 1990, 206.

Table 19. Law-Making Process, 19

StepDescription
Step 1Bill is initiated by legislators or Plenary of Legislative Commissions (PCL), the president of the republic, judicial organs, or popular initiatives.
Step 2Text is provided to each legislator fifteen days prior to debate in Congress.
Step 3Proposed bill is discussed in two debates on different days. After first debate, it may be returned to the originating commission, which must report on new observations to modify, alter, or change it.
Step 4At second debate, observations may be presented only if supported by two-thirds of the legislators present.
Step 5If the president has presented the proposed bill, he may intervene in a specially convened discussion without voting rights.
Step 6On being approved by Congress or the PCL, proposed bill must be submitted to the president, who may approve or object to it. President may also approve it tacitly by allowing ten days to pass without vetoing it. President may object either totally or partially. If the objection is partial, the part not objected to must be adopted immediately. In that case, Congress may accept the partial objection, correct the bill accordingly, and resubmit it to the president. Congress may also insist on the original version of the proposed bill by a vote of two-thirds of its members and proceed to promulgate it.
Step 7Final stage is promulgation, which requires publishing the law in Registro Oficial del Estado (Official Register of the State).

Table 20. Major Army Equipment, 1988

TypeCountry of OriginNumber in Inventory*
Tanks
M-3United States45
AMX-13France104
Armored vehicles
AML 60/90 reconnaissance-do-35
EE-9 Cascavel reconnaissanceBrazil10
M-113 tracked personnel carriersUnited States20
AMX-VCI personnel carriersFrance60
EE-11 Urutu wheeled personnel carriersBrazil18
Artillery
Oto Melara M-56 105mmItalyn.a.
M-101 105mmUnited States50
M-198 155mm-do-10
MK 73 155mm self-propelledFrance10
Mortars
Soltam 160mmIsrael12
Recoilless rifles
M-67 90mm and M-40 106mmUnited States400
Air defense guns
M-1935 20mm-do-28
Oerlikon GDF-002 twin 30mmSweden30
Bofors M-1A1 40mm-do-30
Surface-to-air missiles
Blowpipe shoulder-firedBritain150
Aircraft
Liaison, utility, and survey, various typesUnited States21
Helicopters
SA-330 PumaFrance3
SA-315 Lama-do-3
AS-332 Super Puma-do-4
SA-342 Gazelle-do-4

n.a.--not available.
*Estimated.

Source: Based on information from The Military Balance, 1988- 1989, London, 1988, 195.

Table 21. Major Naval Equipment, 1988

TypeCountry of OriginNumber in InventoryDate Commissioned
Destroyer
Gearing-class, 3,500 tons, four 5-inch gunsUnited States11946; modernized 1980
Frigate
Lawrence-class, 2,130 tons, one 5-inch gun-do- 11943
Submarines
Shyri (T-209), 1,300 tonsWest Germany21977-78
Corvettes
Esmeraldas, 550 tons, each with six Exocet missilesItaly61982-84
Fast attack craft
Quito (LŘrssen 45), 255 tons, each with four Exocet missilesWest Germany31976-77
Manta (LŘrssen 36), 120 tons, each with four Gabriel missiles-do-31971
Coastal patrol craft
77-foot-do-31954-55
65-footUnited States3Delivered 1976
Amphibious
Landing ship, tank, 1,650 tons-do-1Recommissioned 1977
Landing ship, medium, 750 tons-do-11945

Source: Based on information from Jane's Fighting Ships, 1988- 89, London, 1988, 139-43.

Table 22. Major Air Force Equipment, 1988

TypeCountry of OriginNumber in Inventory
Fighters (ground attack)
Jaguar S, BBritain12
Kfir C-2, TC-2Israel11
Fighters
Mirage F-1JFrance16
Light attack and jet conversion training
Cessna A-37BUnited States7
Lockhead At-33 (reconditioned T-33)-do-25
Strikemaster Mk 89Britain6
Transports
TAME
Boeing 727United States4
Lockheed C-130H Hercules-do-1
C-160France1
BAe 748Britain2
DHC-6 Twin OtterCanada3
Ecuatoriana
Boeing 720United States3
Boeing 707-do-2
Helicopters (liaison and sea-air rescue)
AS-332 SuperpumaFrance2
SA-330 Puma-do-1
Alouette III-do-6
Bell 212, 214United States3
Bell UH-1H-do-3
Trainers
Beech T-34C-do-20
Cessna T-41-do-2

Source: Based on information from The Military Balance, 1988- 1989, London, 1988, 195-96; and DMS Market Intelligence Report: South America/Australasia, Greenwich, Connecticut, 1989.

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