APPENDIX B -- Chad
PRINCIPAL ARMED FACTIONS, 1975-87
- see National Liberation Army.
- Armed Forces of the North (Forces Armées du Nord--FAN)
- Composed of FROLINAT (q.v.) units that remained loyal
to Habré following his break from Goukouni Oueddei in 1976.
Consisting at first of only a few hundred Toubou and some Hajerai
and Ouaddaïan fighters, FAN began its operations from bases in
eastern Chad, where it received help from Sudan. Driven from
N'Djamena back to its eastern refuge after the Libyan incursion of
1980, FAN scored a series of victories over Goukouni's GUNT
(q.v.) forces in 1982, which culminated in the recapture
of N'Djamena and Habré's assumption of the presidency. FAN became
the core of the new national army, FANT (q.v.), in January
- See Second Liberation Army of FRONLINAT.
- see Democratic Revolutionary Council.
- Chadian Armed Forces (Forces Armées Tchadiennes--FAT)
- The army of the central government of President Félix Malloum
until his downfall in 1979, when the head of the gendarmerie, Wadel
Abdelkader Kamougué, assumed command. Joined by gendarmerie units,
FAT became a regional force representing primarily the Sara ethnic
group of the five southern prefectures. It joined with GUNT
(q.v.) forces fighting against Hissein Habré and was a
recipient of aid from Libya. FAT began to disintegrate during 1982
as a result of defeats inflicted by Habré's FAN (q.v.).
Most remaining soldiers accepted integration into FAN or resumed
their insurgency as codos.
- Chadian National Armed Forces (Forces Armées Nationales
- The army of the central government since January 1983, when
pro-Habré forces were merged. Consisting of about 10,000 soldiers
at that time, it swelled with the assimilation of former FAT
(q.v.) and codos rebels from the south and, in
1986, with the addition of GUNT (q.v.) soldiers who had
turned against their Libyan allies. Freshly outfitted by France and
the United States, FANT drove Libyan troops from their bases in
northern Chad in a series of victories in 1987.
- see Commandos.
- Commandos (codos)
- Southern guerrilla groups, active from 1983 to 1986, that
resisted domination of their region by Habré's army. Many were
veterans of the government army of the 1970s or Kamougué's FAT
(q.v.). Totaling as many as 15,000, they operated
independently under such names as "Red Codos," "Thunder Red Codos,"
"Coconut Palms," "Hope," and "Green Eagles." The Red Codos under
Colonel Alphonse Kotiga were the most effective. Kotiga exercised
some influence over the other groups and was instrumental in
persuading them to abandon their insurgency by promises of rewards
and rehabilitation. About 1,500 had been assimilated into FANT
(q.v.) as of 1986.
- Democratic Revolutionary Council (Conseil Démocratique
- Members were Chadians of Arab origin, most originating in
Ouaddaï Prefecture or Batha Prefecture, with close ties to Libya
and receptive to some of the ideological precepts of Muammar
Qadhafi. After the death of its founder, Acyl Ahmat, the CDR was
headed by Acheikh ibn Oumar. The most pro-Libyan faction in GUNT
(q.v.), it fought to prevent the defection of FAP
(q.v.) units from Libya in 1986. Believed to number up to
3,000 at its peak in the early 1980s, the CDR dwindled to fewer
than 1,000 adherents before it was battered by FANT (q.v.)
attacks in 1987.
- see Armed Forces of the North.
- see Chadian National Armed Forces.
- see Western Armed Forces.
- see People's Armed Forces.
- see Chadian Armed Forces.
- First Liberation Army of FROLINAT
- Operated in eastern Chad as one of the original armies of the
FROLINAT insurgency under General Mohamed Baghlani. After
Baghlani's death in 1977, its personnel gravitated to the First
Volcan Army of Adoum Dana or Acyl Ahmat's New Volcan (see
Volcan Forces). The First Liberation Army reemerged under
Mahamat Abba Said in 1984, joining the GUNT (q.v.)
coalition against Habré, but was one of the factions disapproving
dependence on Libya.
- see National Liberation Front of Chad.
- see Transitional Government of National Unity.
- see Third Liberation Army of FROLINAT.
- National Liberation Army (Armée Nationale de
- The military wing of the GUNT coalition under Goukouni that had
been formally constituted in October 1982 (see Transitional
Government of National Unity).
- National Liberation Front of Chad (Front de Libération
Nationale du Tchad--FROLINAT)
- See First Libeartion Army of FROLINAT, Second
Liberation Army of FROLINAT, and Third Liberation Army of
- People's Armed Forces (Forces Armées Populaires--FAP)
- Composed of followers of Goukouni after the schism with Habré
in 1976. With an ethnic base in the Teda clan of the Toubou from
the Tibesti area of northern Chad, the force was armed by Libya and
formed the largest component of the GUNT (q.v.) coalition
army opposing Habré's rule. FAP troops rebelled against their
Libyan allies in the latter part of 1986. Many of them were
subsequently integrated into the national army, FANT
(q.v.), and participated in the 1987 attempt to drive
Libya out of Chadian territory.
- Popular Movement for the Liberation of Chad (Mouvement
Populaire pour la Libération du Tchad--MPLT)
- see Western Armed Forces.
- Second Liberation Army of FROLINAT
- One of the original groups in rebellion against the regime of
François Tombalbaye. The Second Liberation Army was composed of the
Toubou active in Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Prefecture, first under
Goukouni's command and later under Habré's command. Renamed the
Command Council of the Armed Forces of the North (Conseil de
Commandement des Forces Armées du Nord--CCFAN), it was in a bitter
struggle with the First Liberation Army in the early 1970s. After
the rift between Habré and Goukouni in 1976, Habré's followers
adopted the name of Armed Forces of the North (Forces Armées de
Nord--FAN), and Goukouni's followers adopted the name of People's
Armed Forces (Forces Armées Populaires FAP).
- Third Liberation Army of FROLINAT
- A small group from among the Kanembu people of western Chad,
the Third Liberation Army splintered off from FAP (q.v.)
in 1977; initially headed by Aboubaker Abderrahmane, it later
became known as the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Chad
(Movement Populaire pour la Libération du Tchad--MPLT). In a
subsequent split, part of the MPLT became the Western Armed Forces
- Transitional Government of National Unity (Gouvernement d'Union
Nationale de Transition--GUNT)
- A coalition of factions occupying the north with the aid of
Libya, GUNT formed the principal opposition to Habré after 1981.
Its component factions (q.v.) included initially FAP, FAT,
the CDR, the FAO, and Volcan Forces. The National Liberation Army
(Armée Nationale de Libération--ANL) was formally constituted as
the military arm of GUNT in October 1982. Although Goukouni served
as commander in chief, the various GUNT military factions remained
as distinct units under their individual commanders. In general
usage, the term GUNT continued to be used to refer to the
northern rebel army. After Goukouni's FAP mutinied against Libyan
domination in 1986 and Goukouni was removed as head of GUNT, the
remaining GUNT contingents under the CDR's Acheikh ibn Oumar were
sometimes referred to as "Neo-GUNT" or "GUNT/CDR."
- Volcan Forces
- The First Liberation Army of FROLINAT (q.v.) split up
in 1977 into two Volcan (volcano) armies. The First Volcan Army of
Adoum Dana was an ethnic Arab force receiving support from Sudan.
It was absorbed into GUNT (q.v.) in 1981 and fought
against Habré. New Volcan, the predecessor of the CDR
(q.v.), was commanded by Acyl Ahmat, a protégé of Libya.
Acyl aligned his followers with Goukouni against Habré in 1979.
Although initially among the smallest elements (400 to 500 men),
New Volcan constituted a corps of shock troops who were among the
most resolute fighters in GUNT.
- Western Armed Forces (Forces Armées Occidentales--FAO)
- An offshoot of the MPLT (q.v.), the FAO recruited its
forces mainly among the Kanembu group located along the shores of
Lake Chad and enjoyed support from some political elements in
Nigeria. Initially part of GUNT (q.v.), the FAO had
reportedly divided into pro- and anti-Goukouni factions. Its
leader, Moussa Medela, rejected Acheikh ibn Oumar as head of GUNT
after Goukouni was deposed at the close of 1986.
* * *
Additional background on the rivalry between the numerous armed
factions in Chad during the 1970s and early 1980s can be found in
Virginia M. Thompson and Richard Adloff's Conflict in Chad
and in Why Chad?, a monograph by Alex Rondos in the
CSIS Africa Notes series. Each of the groups, together
with its antecedents, is briefly sketched in Peut-on encore
sauver le Tchad? by Michel N'Gangbet. Samuel Decalo also
provides sketches of most factions in Historical Dictionary of
Chad. (For further information and complete citations, see