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Interview with Charlotte Ione Temerario [4/29/2003]

Robert Winters:

Today is Monday, April 29, 2003. We are at the Andrews Air Force 89th Airlift Wing Headquarters Building in Camp Springs, Maryland. Charlotte Temerario, who is being interviewed, was born on October 10th, 1919. Ms. Temerario resides at 5499 Vantage Point Road, Columbia, Maryland 21044. The interviewer is Mr. Robert Winters, Commander of the sponsoring organization, VFW post 7459, Ft. Foote Memorial Post. Mrs. Temerario is a life member of the post. Camera technician operator is Master Sergeant Sonja Mason, of the Communications Squadron Support Group.

Robert Winters:

Mrs. Temerario is a retired Navy Commander, Navy back-up Commander.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Lieutenant Commander.

Robert Winters:

Lieutenant Commander, Navy Nurse Corps... I'm sorry.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Regular Navy.

Robert Winters:

Yeah, regular Navy.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

(laughs)

Robert Winters:

Charlotte would you tell us where you were born, and something about your family?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

I was bora in Iowa, southeastern Iowa, which is near the Mississippi River, on a farm. My father and mother had four children, an older sister, an older brother, and me, and a younger sister. And we lived on a farm during the Depression, the Great Depression, and there was a mortgage on it, and my father was unable, with com selling at ten cents a bushel, my father was unable to pay the interest of a hundred dollars each year for 3 years, and we lost the farm. And that was very bitter. It didn't seem fair, and we had to move, and we didn't have another farm to move to. And as a result, someone came to him and asked him to take over their family farm which was a wooded area. It was not worth much of anything for farming, but he was able to rent some land, and farm enough to raise grain, and then the actual 80 acres that we bought with the house, my father raised cattle and fed them with the grain that he raised. And we kids loved that farm. It had a creek running through it, and hills all over. We had horses, we didn't have any tractors. We had I think 12 horses, and sometimes, I think the neighboring kids from the little town that we lived nearby would come out and we would all ride horse back, even some of those who weren't fit for anything except work horses. So we had a wonderful childhood, as a teenager. Three of we four kids were teenagers, and we loved that area. Now, let's see, where can I go from there?

Robert Winters:

Go to how about your schooling? Where did you go to school in elementary school?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

We went, we went to Danville, which was half way in between our farm that we lost and the farm that we moved to and I went twelve years to that school, Danville School, Grade School and High School. And I wasn't much of any mark of anything in the way of grades, in fact I sort of had to pass 4th grade mathematics into 5th grade on condition that I caught up and was able to keep up with the rest of the class, which I did. And um, up into my 7th grade, and we had a different kind of teacher, a lovely older woman. I think she taught school for 80 years, and she was just a wonderful teacher in bringing out the best in each one of us. Some way, she gave me a stability as to what I could do, and most of all she taught all of us in her 7th and 8th grades, for Parliamentary Procedure. And that learning Parliamentary Procedure, how to nominate, how to elect, how to man a meeting, how to take minutes, all of those things we learned, and that has served me so well throughout the rest of my life.

Robert Winters:

When a motion can be tabled?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Right.

Robert Winters:

Right.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

And when you can permit another motion and when you cannot! And the Parliamentary Procedure was... And most of all I think it brought out, the Federal Government was set up on Parliamentary Procedure, so that our Senate and our House of Representatives were sort of similar to the British House of Lords and House of Commons. So we learned about the world and more or less, just how it affects all of us to know, a little bit more what we're doing, what's going on.

Robert Winters:

How do you feel now when you're involved in groups where they're running Parliamentary Procedure and they seem to be fumbling around, and they don't know what to do?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

I have to take a deep breath! (Laughs) This too shall pass!

Robert Winters:

You mentioned the school, was this a regular school building, or was it a one room school?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

No no, we had two grades in each room, so we had the four rooms that took us through 8th grade.

Robert Winters:

Okay.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

And then the high school, was freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior. I didn't do much in the grade school, and I felt a little bit pushed aside by some of the other members of the class. I didn't feel as good as them, and some of the experiences of losing the farm I think sort of dwelled on all of us, each of us. When I became a freshman in high school I broke loose from the gang had gone eight years to school with. I had new friends, and I enjoyed just being me. And I developed a little bit of an ability with declamatory work which was sort of play acting, and a little bit giving readings. I always preferred those that were depicting an old man, and especially when he spit tobacco, because [she mimic's spitting] which was I copied from my grand father who chewed tobacco.

Robert Winters:

How did your grandfather feel about your..?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

He didn't appreciate it one bit, he kind of got me aside and he had heard from my grandmother how well I had done, and how I sort of spit tobacco, and she said you could, "I could just see you!" She made the mistake of telling him that, and he got me aside, and said he didn't feel that that was respectful on my part, to imitate my seniors. And he just looked me in the eye that he didn't quite appreciate it. Well he only made me feel that I had made me that I had imitated him quite well!

Robert Winters:

He didn't indicate that this was unladylike or anything?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

No! (Laughs)

Robert Winters:

Speaking of that and coming from a rural farm from a rural area. Were there any of the women in the area that might have smoked pipes or that sort of thing?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

No.

Robert Winters:

Okay.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Tobacco was not used much, and I did have an uncle that smoked cigarettes, and my mother and my father never smoked, and didn't approve of my uncle smoking. But they, we really were not up against it, and my grandfather, there were other older men who chewed tobacco but not in our family.

Robert Winters:

Now in your home life, on the farm that you moved to later, did you maintain your own, what we call "kitchen gardens", did you grow your own vegetables and that?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Especially during the depression, we didn't have any money. There was not any money in house because we traded sour cream to get the groceries that we needed in the way of flour and salt and sugar. The rest of our food we raised ourselves and we kids all had our own httle plot of garden, and it was competitive as to whether my garden looks better than yours. And my mother would say well, "We've got weeding to do", and there was always weeding to do, but the fruit and we raised blackberries, raspberries, three colors of raspberries, and grapes, and a pear tree, and apples. All of those types of things we raised and mother canned. That was quite en vogue at that time, where you canned.

Robert Winters:

Right.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

And then boiled, and brought things to the point when they stopped any fermenting and then of course that was our food in the winter, and we didn't have fresh vegetables, in some of the middle of the winter, but the early spring brought in a lot of things that we grew, and of course we couldn't wait for those days to come, asparagus...

Robert Winters:

Potatoes and carrots?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes, yes.

Robert Winters:

How about chicken, do you have chicken?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

We grew chickens and our own eggs, and my sister and I had to hunt the eggs when we got home from school, and my father I think brought food, brought the grain and anything that was needed to feed the chickens, so that we didn't have far to go to take care of them. But that was always something, and of course, we butchered the meat. We had hogs, and especially the yearling calves.

Robert Winters:

Now you pay extra for that because they call it veal!

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes, yes. But we were raised on that. And yet, Mother did have steak from the half grown cattle, cows, calves....

Robert Winters:

Now, how would you express your life at that time, as a life experience for others to emulate in these times?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

I didn't think of my childhood and certainly not my husband's childhood when it came to our son. We encouraged him to just go along with what the other kids were doing. There was a time Tony spent two summers on the farm with my nephew who was in farming. Some of that was that I think was a good experience, but some of it was the kind of how not to do things. For instance, my nephew left him to cut the weeds with a hand scythe around the field, and he came back and Tony's hands were full of bhsters. And my father always wore gloves, and Tony's father always wore gloves. There was no reason why Tony didn't have gloves on to do that, and I was horrified at that.

Robert Winters:

Now, you remember your high school, and you menttoned your declamatory work in that. Did you belong to a club or a group that did this sort of thing?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Oh, I was active in music, so I sang in a trio. We had three of us that could just sing any song you name, I think. We harmonized so well, without accompaniment. One was a blond, and one was a brunette, and I was the red head. So we did very well with "Comin' Through the Rye", and some of the old favorites that we could just sing, and enjoyed singed. I sang in the chorus, I played the violin, so I played in the orchestra, and enjoyed that communion with other people through music, enjoyed it very much. Then that junior year, I was elected class president, and I enjoyed that, and I had an active par, in the Junior and Senior banquet. I was ltastmistress and had hung up little jokes, and I felt I did well with that, I felt I did.

Robert Winters:

I'm sure you did!

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

And then as a senior, I was a cheerleader, and I enjoyed leading cheers, and we had a wonderful basketball team. My brother and cousin both played, and here I was on the side lines leading, because we didn't have girls' basket ball in those years, but I was active in leading cheers for it and enjoyed it.

Robert Winters:

You mentioned being class president in your junior year. How did your knowledge of Parliamentary Procedure...

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

You know it served me well! I think I led the group, I learned to get done what I needed to have done from the group. I learned to draw from the group that I was leading and I did very well. And we had to, what did we do? We had to sell candy, I think, at the sports activities to make money so that we could contribute a gift to the school, and we did that. I've forgotten what it was that we bought, but something that the school needed.

Robert Winters:

You high school class then would have been what year?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

That was the junior year that we were, well, junior and senior year.

Robert Winters:

What was your class year that you graduated from high school in?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

In 1937.

Robert Winters:

1937.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

33 and 37, yes.

Robert Winters:

'37 and did your class do a play or anything like that?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Oh, yes.

Robert Winters:

What was the play?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

The play was, I was an old lady just fussing and carrying on awful, but I had a lot of wit in my speech. It was nothing in the way of the lead, but I always got the attention and got the laughs when I was on stage.

Robert Winters:

Do you remember whether this was a play borrowed from something off Broadway, or did you people write the play?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

No, we did not write it. But it was something that we had to go by the... We had had only 3 boys in the class, and 15 girls I think it was. And we had to pick out a play that, none of the boys were shining example of young manhood, by any means, so we had to...

Robert Winters:

Right.

Robert Winters:

So we had to low key the men's part. No romance for instance!

Robert Winters:

Let me take a guess at something, you're high school class of 1937?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes.

Robert Winters:

Have some of the boys gone off to what was then called the Civilian Conservation Corps?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

No.

Robert Winters:

Okay.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

No.

Robert Winters:

They just, they just weren't there?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

They were farmers' sons, so they were active on the farm. As we were, the girls were. But out of the 15 of us, 3 of was became nurses.

Robert Winters:

Now, lets-back up, and then we'll start... You graduated from high school, and what did you do after high school, did you go into some type of work then?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yeah well, the only thing available for young girls at that time was cleaning house for someone who wasn't able to manage it themselves. I did that on one or two occasions, and made 5...3 dollars I think I got each day I worked. I didn't care for it, I didn't want to have any part of it. However, I was stymied because my birthday was in October, and in September the nursing school's classes started and you had to be eighteen in September. And I had to wait. whole year before I was eighteen and could then enter nurses training.

Robert Winters:

Now, was the nursing school in your home down?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

In Burlington, which was seven or eight miles.

Robert Winters:

You had to go to Burlington?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes.

Robert Winters:

I imagine Burlington was still operating somewhat still during the Depression?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes.

Robert Winters:

Because it was a section on the C, B and O Rail Road?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Right, that's right. It's on the Mississippi, that's right! Quincy! Right! As a part of updating the nursing schools at that time, there had to be so many hours worked in pediatrics and in psychiatry which our hospital did not have. We did not have a lot of children patients. And certainly we didn't have a lot of the psychiatric patients that we needed.

Robert Winters:

Do you remember what some of the curriculum was for your nursing school?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Anatomy! I knew all of the muscles and the bones, for heaven sake! But those came easy for me, I enjoyed those very much. But, our school sent our class was the first to go to Cook County, Chicago for three months pediatrics and two months in psychiatry and one month in neurology. To do that, we needed that special school, those classes, and working with those patients because we have to take a State Board Examination to be a Registered Nurse.

Robert Winters:

Right.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

So I did very well, especially in the psychiatric nursing, I loved it. And I remember one time having a ward full of women, and how do you keep them together and keep them quiet and sort of feel that you were giving them care and everything? And we played "Button, Button, Who's Got the Button?" But it got them together. I also played the piano and I'd get them to sing, the songs that they knew, just from knowing. So some would participate better than others, but it was a group, and that again was therapy. So, I enjoyed it very much.

Robert Winters:

I'll ask another question about a subject I know must have been a requirement in your Nursing. Had you learned biology and that sort of thing in your high school, or did you have to start the biology in the nursing school?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

In the nursing school.

Robert Winters:

In the nursing school.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Right. I don't remember taking it at all in high school.

Robert Winters:

So, I'll assume in the nursing school you learned also how to take blood pressure, and take temperatures, pulses, and that sort of thing?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes, oh I could take the pulse through from the ear, and from various places besides the wrist. And I enjoyed Nursing. I enjoyed the physical care, but I mostly enjoyed the Psychiatric Nursing, because to get a patient who was just sitting there and talking to themselves and everything, to get their attention and to kind of come along with me and get into the normal reality, that was a challenge to me and I enjoyed it.

Robert Winters:

Right.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

And I feel that that was the therapy that I was best with.

Robert Winters:

Now, how about your housing then? You said you went from Burlington to Cook County, Illinois?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes.

Robert Winters:

Now, what were your accommodations, did you live in a nursing home? A Nurse's Home, I'm sorry.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Both places it was the Nurse's Home.

Robert Winters:

Nurse's home?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes.

Robert Winters:

And were you required to wear a certain uniform?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

White ward uniform, and um, for a coat we wore a cape.

Robert Winters:

Right.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

That was all with it. We had to be in uniform.

Robert Winters:

Did you have to wear white shoes?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

White shoes and hose, white shoes and stockings. No, well, rayon was coming along, and then as a graduate, nylon hose were coming in, so I did very well with coming right into it. And you'd have a pair of nylon hose, and you took care of them so carefully. That was really sort of prestige type of thing.

Robert Winters:

Now, in the off duty hours in the Nurses' Quarters, what did you as the nurse students do for entertainment and that sort of thing?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

We read a lot, and we studied, always. And I always played the piano. I played from memory. I did have some books that I read music, but most of all I would just sit down and play for 15 minutes and feel so much better. It was an outlet.

Robert Winters:

I see.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

And later on, when I was aboard ship, if I hadn't had the piano to kind of play and as an outlet and everything, I think I would have found it quite difficult.

Robert Winters:

Now, in the Nurse's Quarters, did you eat in the...?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Dining room.

Robert Winters:

Dining room. You didn't have anything to do with the hospital cafeteria?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

No.

Robert Winters:

Okay.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

No. And we sat where the first one, at a table seating twelve I believe. And the first one, you could sit any place which was available, and empty seat, but if you started a new table, you were obligated to sit at the head of it and serve the rest. They gave us a dish of food, and then we served each individual place, but I thought that was kind of neat, beeanse none of us wanted to serve, you know? But then we had to sit at the table. And then we carried a conversation for the whole table. We were not exactly supervised, but all of the big shots in the Nurse's School were eating also, so it was obvious as to who had control over the table, and who had a good convrsation going, and who didn't. I was always supported as a nurse and as getting along with others, but every once in a while, my friend, Francis Rayburn and I would get called on the carpet. We would be in class, and this one director who sort of had a lot of pride in our particular class, because she [was] new when we were new, and she kind of brought us up the way she wanted us. So she would say "Francis Rayburn and Charlotte Bailey, I might know you two would be in on it". So we didn't get by with anything.

Robert Winters:

Speaking of food, in our nurse's training, did you get into dietary?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes. We had to spend time in the diet kitchen in which we had to weigh a diabetic tray, the trays full of food, we had to weigh each food to be a certain amount, and that had to balance out. So we would send it up to the patient on a dummy and everything, and if that patient didn't feel like eating. And there was another reason other than diabetes mostly that they were in the hospital for, pneumonia or some other thing, complicanon. So we'd get that tray back, then we'd have to weigh the food that came back. And that used to just annoy me so much because I had to transfer that into orange juice and to see that the patient drank what he didn't eat.

Robert Winters:

Right.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

And I did not like the diet kitchen.

Robert Winters:

And most of your instructors in your nurses' school...I know you must have had some doctors, were the other instructors then senior nurses?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Those with a degree and for teaching, those nurses taught us.

Robert Winters:

Okay.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

On the ward, the supervisor sort of supervised our nursing.

Robert Winters:

Right.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

And if a patient had a messed up bed that hadn't been made carefully and everything, we got called on the carpet for those. We were assigned one to three patients to take care of in the way of everything that they needed, which included dusting the floor with a dust mop.

Robert Winters:

I know that nurses making beds, they're legendary.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Square corners.

Robert Winters:

Square corners. And dropping the coin on the...

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

On the sheet, so that it bounced.

Robert Winters:

Now, you're in Cook County, what's it like for a girl? Were you in Chicago?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

In Chicago.

Robert Winters:

In Chicago, what's it like to be a farm girl in the big city?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

I loved the psychiatric nursing, so I went back to work there. After I graduated and had taken the state boards, they asked me to come back and work. They liked my work there in psychiatric nursing. And I did this, and lived in the nurse's quarters, in a room by myself, no roommate. They had beautiful new Nurse's Quarters, a Nurse's Home, and so I worked there another year, and I learned to bowl, I learned to play tennis, I learned to dance, at a nearby Y, YMCA, YWCA, whatever. And we went as a group, several of us nurses, we rarely went anyplace alone.

Robert Winters:

In Chicago?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

In Chicago. And that was fun too. And I did meet some boys, and but again we dated as a group. There were three boys and three girls that did things together, different things, went to a movie, and sometimes then bowling. Especially, I learned to love bowling, and tennis too.

Robert Winters:

They bowled queen-pin in Chicago, if I remember correctly, not duck pins?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Right, it was a big pin, yes.

Robert Winters:

In Chicago, and now World War?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

December 7th came.

Robert Winters:

December 7th.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

I was on night duty.

Robert Winters:

Night duty.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

And I had a date with a dentist that was, we were just good friends, and I bowled with him quite a little bit, and we talked, interesting talk. I met him at the Y. And so I had a date, I was on night duty, and I had a date at four o'clock on the day of December 7th. And we each talked the whole darn evening over what each of us could do. And some of the reserve nurses had been called up on active duty already, so we were sort of aware that this war could be coming. But he was a dentist, and an Army Reserve, and wouldn't you know, he was sent to Alaska! He hated it! But he looked so nice in his uniform. I remember one time when I...and I joined the Navy because I liked the Navy colors better than the Army colors. They were prettier.

Robert Winters:

Blue and gold!

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

They were far better than the fatigue.

Robert Winters:

Olive drab.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Olive drab, yeah. So I started applying in January, after December 7th writing to the Navy about how to get in. And unfortunately their description of Reserves would be called up only when needed. And the active duty USN would be called up, would be appointed, and go. And I wanted to go to war right then. So I applied to the regular Navy, not Reserve. And I, they lost my papers, and various other things, and it took me almost a year to get in the Navy, and I just never can understand that. It was... that's the way it turned out.

Robert Winters:

So you got into the Navy on what date?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

The 17th of November 1942. And I was sent to Chicago at Great Lakes a physical. And to go to, and then the group of us, I think, were sent to San Diego and we by train. It took us 3 days to get there by train.

Robert Winters:

Did you go by on the coach on the train or did you go?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

I want you to know the Navy sent us First Class. That meant the lower bunk. The Army got the top bunk! But no, we were well cared for, and we had a good trip. And it was so exciting, and it was away from home, and in a place altogether new, and we'd never seen desert. And here we were going through states that we'd studied in geography and had no idea ever seeing. I'd been in three states other than Iowa, two states other than Iowa, when I went in the Navy, and now I've been in 49 of the 50. I missed Vermont, for some reason or another.

Robert Winters:

The train that you went to San Diego on, were you in a Pullman car or were you what we call a Troop Train, which were nothing but barracks-type racks?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

No we sat in the seat, and then the Pullman made up the seats.

Robert Winters:

Okay, Pullman. That was the point.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Into a bed.

Robert Winters:

Alright.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

And I met a friend. I didn't know anybody out of the twelve nurses who were going there. And I met and friend when was, turned out to be a life long friend, practically. I knew her the rest of her life. And we were given a bedroom, so we had, it was kind of nice to double up just the two of us in that bedroom because we were going to same place.

Robert Winters:

You sure they didn't favor red heads? Was she a red head?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

She was a red head! That did it! They were good to us, the Pullman, the Porter, was good.

Robert Winters:

You got to San Diego?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes.

Robert Winters:

Where, Balboa?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes. The pink stucco hospital, they called it the Pink Elephant, I think. And again, my roommate was the same one I traveled out there together with. We were assigned at a medical ward, not psychiatric, or anything special. Of course, there were so many of the boys that had been in Guam, and the early war casualties were sent to San Diego, so many of them. So we talked with people just back from the beginning of the war, and that was quite different. However, they were combat fatigue diagnosis, and mostly that meant a failure as far as they were concerned. And we kind of had to support them and get them to feel that they were alright, and that what they had not been able to do, that was alright, they would learn to do it, as a civilian. And, or whatever, and some of them did go into military training, but in the States. Not back overseas.

Robert Winters:

Right.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

So all those things were kind of supportive to make them feel that they were not a failure. And I was good with that, even though it was not a psychiatric ward it was just because I liked to swing people along, into the group, and "Let's do this, and let's all do that." I ran a taut ship on my ward, but it was a pleasant...

Robert Winters:

Where did you learn that expression, a "taut ship?"

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

I don't know... In those days anyway, yes!

Robert Winters:

You must have picked it up from some of the other sailors.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Oh, yes. Well that's what we're in there for, you know! And I wanted them to make the bed the way, as if I had made it. So I taught my corpsmen to be another pair of my hands. I felt I was another pair of the doctor's hands, and I was the nurse on the ward. And then the corpsmen were another pair of my hands, whether I had two corpsmen or six corpsmen. They were to work as I would have.

Robert Winters:

In those days, they were called Pharmacist's Mates. I believe that is correct, is it not?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

They were, but I called them corpsmen. They were my corpsmen.

Robert Winters:

Okay. Right.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

And I sometimes referred to them as "my boys."

Robert Winters:

Okay.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Because it was easy, I was attractive in uniform, I looked neat, I had a decent weight and all, but I kept them all at a distance. I behaved myself.

Robert Winters:

Right.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

And they respected me, and I saw to it that they kept on. I didn't do things that would make them ashamed of me. It was "My Nurse". When I heard them talking it was "My Nurse is this...." That was what I was looking for.

Robert Winters:

I can speak from experience. I've known patients of several Navy Nurses. I know what it's like.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

They were all always classes going on so we had challenges. I had to teach the coipsmen, but I also had to go to classes to learn new things, new medicines. My gracious, all of the new medicines that came along, and the new procedures!

Robert Winters:

I think we had the introduction of sulfa drugs?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes.

Robert Winters:

Penicillin?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes, penicillin a few years later.

Robert Winters:

Now, you've?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Now, I finished at San Diego, and then I went to Pleasanton, California, which was a new hospital kind of near Oakland, California. And I was there a few months, and then I had been given an assignment, let's see, about 6 months after I was in the Navy. I worked with the nursing home, a new nursing home, and I had a detail of enlisted men that we had to keep some of the patios, and the flowers watered, and the patios swept. And straighten up this, and keep that and everything, and I ran those boys, very, very, a taut ship! But my chief nurse appreciated it, and she said that the group of three nurses working this nursing home, particularly when we were starting getting it going, she said "I'm going to see that you get your duty assignment that you prefer. I'm going to see that you get good marks on your fitness that goes to the Bureau." And all I ever asked for was Hospital Ship duty. And they were nice to me in that I got to the ocean side. Then they sent me to a Dispensary duty, down in San Diego, at the repair base. Submarine, wasn't it?

Robert Winters:

National City, I believe, it was a repair base.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Anyway, there was a dispensary duty there, and I enjoyed that duty very much. I had only a.m.'s and p.m.'s, I didn't have any night duty there. And we took care of kind of the minor illnesses. Any drastic illness, they were sent to the hospital in San Diego. Then, I got sent to see Seattle, Washington for about 3 months. Again, we're thinking about my request for the Hospital Ship. So here I am up there in Seattle Washington, anywhere else but the Hospital Ship. Other people are off going to Guam, and the Philippines, and the exciting places, and everything. And all I get is State-side duty! But in Seattle, I got my orders to the Hospital Ship.

Robert Winters:

And where was the Hospital Ship?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

U. S. S. Consolation. It was just being constructed and they just were ready for commissioning, in May 1945. And I was there for the commissioning. I went aboard, didn't have to salute anything, because it wasn't in a commissioned ship. Then we had the commissioning ceremony, and I had to learn to go off the ship by saluting the officer of the deck, and asking permission to leave the ship, which was granted. Then I turned and saluted the flag...

Robert Winters:

Right.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

...which was at the bow of the ship.

Robert Winters:

Right.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

And then I could go down the steps, or the plank... What's that plank thing that we had to go down?

Robert Winters:

The gangway.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

The gangplank, yes. Though sometimes they were stairs, but many times there was just a plank with some ridges on it, and we were wearing heels, not high heels, but heels And you had to watch your footing. But I loved it aboard that ship.

Robert Winters:

They weren't white shoes though?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

No, dress black shoes.

Robert Winters:

Yup.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

But we wore only uniforms, dress blues, Andd we also had a gray rayon dress. But with biack shoes, and at first black hose, but when the Waves came in, they kind of updated us a little bit and we were able to wear the, fledge color.

Robert Winters:

Now, were you given a certificate on he Consolation that you were indeed a plank owner?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes, I was, because that meant that I had been aboard for commissioning.

Robert Winters:

Right.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

And remained aboard for one year. I was aboard for 13 months. So I am a plank owner for the U.S.S. Consolation AH 15, Auxiliary Hospital 15.

Robert Winters:

Do you have that certificate somewhere?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes, someplace.

Robert Winters:

Okay.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

But I don't know where! [laughs]

Robert Winters:

Do you recognize or realize that there are probably damn few women in this world that have a plank owner certificate for a United Slates Naval vessel?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

That's true, but I have to tell you something else. I crossed when aboard the ship, we went through the Canal. We're not going into all this detail, are we?

Robert Winters:

Start there, now after the commission, let's go.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Well, we had to try the ship out, to see that, because it was new. So we went in and out of the port, from Brooklyn Naval Yard down to Norfolk, and in and out for several weeks. And we ended up, this was in May that it was commissioned, the 5th of May. And so in August, we went through the Panama Canal and over to Hawaii and the war ended. One day out of Pearl Harbor, when we were own our way out to the South Pacific.

Robert Winters:

Wasn't your brother at Pearl Harbor?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes, his ship was coming in, and we watched for each other's ships. So he saw mine, but of course who wouldn't see that big, beautiful white ship with three red crosses on the side? Even when we were sailing at night, we kept the crosses lighted, so that it was easy to spot. But the other ships had to be dark.

Robert Winters:

So you did get to see your brother there?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes, yes. He sent a message by radio that he was coming and would try to be there early the next morning. And I was at breakfast at 8 o'clock in the morning, and hear over the loud speaker came the announcement, " Ms. Bailey, you have a visitor on the Quarterdeck." And I right quick asked my chief nurse if I could bring my brother, who was enlisted, and I of course was the officer, I was a Lieutenant in those days, I think, J.G. And she gave permission, so I brought him up for a cup of coffee in the wardroom, and gave him a tour of the ship, and then he came on, and went back to his ship and back to the States, and I was on my way out. But it thrilled the whole family and the neighborhood and everything because you kept track of everybody, that we had seen each other. Of course when I commissioned the ship, my younger sister was a Wave. So she was aboard for the commissioning. So I got to see both of them, all three in uniform, Navy, all Navy.

Robert Winters:

So you left Pearl Harbor now and, headed west?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes, to South Pacific. We went to Okinawa, which was near Japan, because we expected to bring out the Allied Prisoners of War, and we were just there in case the war really wasn't over and in case, we were available there as a hospital for any other ship's crews that needed.

Robert Winters:

Did something happen on your way to Okinawa, didn't you become converted from a Slimy Lizard into a Golden Dragon?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

[Laughs] That's what I was trying to remember, wasn't it? I was given a subpoena because and accused of being a Slimy Lizard, and I was good to my corpsmen, and I held special classes in training them. All of these, I think I had about five accusations of that I had to go to court for. And of course I was guilty on all of those things, and I got punished. I had to have a vinegar shampoo, and ended with a raw egg broken on top of my head, and then I had to sit on the railing and got hosed down with salt water. Not nice water, salt water. It was terrible afterwards. And all of this, as we watched the rest of the ship go through this maneuver. And I had to take a cough medicine that was vinegar and kerosene and olive oil, and, mineral oil and everything. It was terrible, just terrible. I just reread that not very long ago.

Robert Winters:

For those who don't understand what's going on here, this is the initiation for crossing the 180th parallel.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Parallel.

Robert Winters:

No, yes?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

[Some background discussion.].

Robert Winters:

International date line.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

That did it. Just as a matter of interest, on the way back, someone had a birthday. Two days. Two different days, his birth day was two different days!

Robert Winters:

Yes. Now, you're at Okinawa, and feeling much better after your initiation?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Oh, yes, because then I was a Golden Dragon.

Robert Winters:

Right.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes, I have a little card to that effect.

Robert Winters:

Once again, there are not very many women in this world that are a Slimy Lizard.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Slimy lizard and Golden Dragon! Yes, that' s true.

Robert Winters:

So we got to Okinawa, what's at Okinawa?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Let's see, we were waiting there to work with the army about bringing out the Allied Prisoners of War from seven POW camps. We processed them, as we met the train from Okinawa at different places, they had been taken, some of them had been taken prisoners. The British were had been taken prisoners in India, and then moved to Korea, and then North Korea, and then had ended up in Japan. They had been prisoners of war seven years.

Robert Winters:

Right.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

And this one unit had an officer in charge of them. I think there were around 14 or 15 of them. And they had all their equipment, they had the spoon, they had a dish to eat with, and all of their clothes, their uniforms, and everything was pretty much intact. Now, other prisoners of war would be there with nothing. But this officer had made them take care of their equipment because it didn't belong to them, because they were using it, it belonged to Great Britain. He was really very, very demanding of them, to the point when where we were processing them, some of our doctors wondered if that man would ever really end up back in Great Britain or if somebody would throw him overboard because there was a little bit of hostility at the way he demanded they take care of themselves when other prisoners didn't have anything to do, didn't take care of themselves.

Robert Winters:

Have you seen the movie "Bridge over the River Quay"?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes.

Robert Winters:

Is that some of the stuff?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes, little bit. But they also, this country studied this group that had been prisonered for so long, and they felt that they learned from that officer demanding that they get up and march, and that they do exercises, and that they take good care of themselves and were clean, and kept all of their belongings. This gave them something to live for. Others would wrap up in a blanket and just lay around, and they were practically no life to them. So this, I think we are trained, in fact I have a little booklet on what to do if you're taken prisoner. How to keep alive on the land, and how to catch rain water, and not try and drink the salt water, and a few little things like this that they learned from that group of prisoners.

Robert Winters:

They wrote a lot of the rules and regulations, the responsibility of prisoners.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes.

Robert Winters:

Now, you load these people aboard, and where do you take them on the Hospital Ship? Where's your port of call for them?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

We had them aboard only the sickest one we had for five days, and then we kept care of them until the ship could come in that was going to their home. We had the Allied prisoners, this meant great Britain, Dutch...

Robert Winters:

Australian?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Australian and I think it was Switzerland, or Sweden... I'm not sure. There were one or two from those countries, and of course you had to realize that there had been more, but they didn't live. And these people were on their way home. And I remember I had one in an upper bunk who was called down, he was resting on my wards, and I awakened him. I called his name, and he didn't arouse. I took his wrist to see just kind of touch him to see if I could arouse him and his hand fell away, and I thought. Oh! He's dead! Imagine going through this prisoner of war camp, and here he is dead, because he just let his arm fall. And it was because he had been in the Japanese camp, and he thought it was the Japanese that were trying to awaken him, in his half awake, half sleep. And but he looked like death, he smelled like death. They all did. And it was just from starvation, and just again, not the cleanliness that he was used to. But they gained weight while they were aboard five days, and were able to take food, and keep it down. If they ate too much, they up-chucked. So we had to give them a ticket to get into the dining room, once for each meal. If they would come back and asked for another ticket, they would eat too much, and lose it!

Robert Winters:

How often did you take the vitals on these people, the prisoners?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Three times a day, morning, noon and night. And then we let them sleep, and we tried to give them...there were entertainment in the way of music that they heard over there. But nothing, mostly they just needed rest and food, and clean clothes.

Robert Winters:

Alright, you've worked, and the Consolation then comes back to the States. You didn't make any stops on your way home?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

No, we came directly from Okinawa to San Francisco, and then we shuttled back and forth. I think we stopped in Hawaii and then came up to San Francisco. And we always transported the woman military, because it was a nice break for them. And there weren't mixed up with the men and boy's facilities.

Robert Winters:

Right.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

They had nice facilities for women aboard our ship in our patient area. And so we shuttled between San Francisco and Hawaii. We toolc over the families for people stationed in Hawaii, and we returned the female military back to San Francisco.

Robert Winters:

Okay.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

And it was a nice group always.

Robert Winters:

So you leave the Consolation, what happens? Where do you go? [Pause in tape. They are changing the video tape.]

Robert Winters:

So the Consolation is home, and now what did the bureau give you, what duty?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

We got orders, and we dropped off people at Hawaii, and came through the canal again. And up to New York. Brooklyn, New York, and I was assigned to Psychiatric Nursing School for four months, a special course to specialize in Psychiatric Nursing. And I enjoyed that very much. That was in Philadelphia.

Robert Winters:

Right.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

And when we finished that four months, I think there were eight of us in that special course at 44th and Market, so two of us were assigned to San Diego again. And Eileen, my good friend said "Let's drive!" If we go by train or fly we'll get there in too much of a hurry, and if we drive, if we buy a car, we can have 26 days to get from Philadelphia to San Diego. So, that was alright with me, and my folks were horrified at it! We bought [a] convertible! A black convertible with a white top, and this white stream down, a Ford. And it was a '42, but it hadn't been driven much. So here we started out, and we stopped off in Iowa for 3 days where my home was, and then we kept on going. Well I want you to know, we learned a lot on that trip. Twenty-six days, and Eileen had a permit to learn to drive, and I had an expired Iowa driver's license, but that didn't stop us. We just got in there and gung ho! So then when Eileen would drive, and smoke a cigarette. I never did smoke, but she did, and she loved to drive and just sit up there and just think she was Queen of the Road! But whenever we came to a bad strip of travel, the roads not so smooth, and everything, she'd ask me to drive. And I remember going down this one hill, and it looked like ice, and she just got...We were at the top of this hill, and she got out and she says "You drive, you can take it". And here it was ice! And goin' down we slipped, and goin' up, we slipped and everything. But we got to the top of the hill, and I want you to know, we found a motel right as quick as we could! It was the end of the day, and we'd had enough. The next day, there was no ice on the road, so we did alright. And as I said, we stopped in Iowa and then drove on. And in Utah we had the oil changed and as they had the car up on the rack, they said, "Well now you need some new tires. These front two tires are not very good". We said, "Well, we don't have any money". And he said "Well, you better get two new tires, I've got some used car tires that are better than these. Now, Brother so-and-so over there, he's a Mormon preacher. He'll pray for you! So that did it! We bought the two new tires!

Robert Winters:

We need to find out, this year is what, 1945?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

'45.

Robert Winters:

1945, alright. That sets the people in mind what the conditions were on cars and automobiles.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Or was it'46?

Robert Winters:

'45 or'46.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

The war was over, it was '46, because '45, it was August and September when the war was over, and here I am back over...

Robert Winters:

So you must have made it to San Diego?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes, let's see.

Robert Winters:

And it must have been the Mormon preacher's prayers!

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes, he helped us too. And then, what happened then?

Robert Winters:

You were back in San Diego with the nurse. This is your life!

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes.

Robert Winters:

And what duties were you at San Diego this time, psychiatric ward?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

No, that's when I didn't want the psychiatric ward. That's not right, I'm tired of thinking! That was '46 and I didn't retire until I was 62... In 1962. So what did I do there, from San Diego?

Robert Winters:

You left Brooklyn, and had gone to San Diego and a Ford convertible, with Eileen.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes, then I went home and bought my own car, and made another trip out there, and then I went to...Oakland. That was in '52. Where did I go between then? I went to Philadelphia 3 times, I haven't met Tim yet!

Robert Winters:

Okay, San Diego, you're in San Diego in 1946, you must have done the tour of maybe a year or 18 months, general war duty in San Diego?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yeah, and we went down into Tijuana, and the corpsmen, two corpsmen and I were trying to look for a new beach to have a beach party. 'Cause when all were together up the ward, and we had a beach party and then we always worked together well after that. Well, were looking for a new beach, and we were down there, and they were underage, and we had a short drink or so, and one of the corpsmen backed up and knocked a camera off the tripod, and wouldn't you know, they said 65 dollars to fix it. Well, we said "That would buy a new camera! We'll see that you get paid for the camera being broken, but it didn't hurt the camera any, it just hurt this little lever in here." And they called the police, and wouldn't you know, they put those two corpsmen in jail. And I just threw a fit! I said, "What did they do with my boys? Why did they take them away? What is the matter?" And one of the bystanders said, "Oh Senora, I'll take you to where your boys are". They thought that I was the mother! We went down, and here is the policeman, behind the cage. And my two little corpsmen sitting over there afraid to move. And they said they didn't know whether to disown me for showing up, why didn't I go home? But they were also proud of me too. So I said, well, to this man, behind the cage, I said "What it is you want, you want 65 dollars?" So I gave it to him to pay for that camera, and then I turned to him, and he accepted it and I said "I hope you sleep well tonight!" And he said, "Here! Take this back!" And motioned to someone else, and they led me out, left my corpsmen there, and the poor man never did get the money for his camera. So I had to go home, leaving my corpsmen down there, and I cried all the way home. The next day, I told the doctor, and he had met the ambassador to Mexico, who lived in San Diego. And they got the boys out the next day, no problem. But that shook me up! Because I almost got thrown in jail!

Robert Winters:

Mother Charlotte comes to help!

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes!

Robert Winters:

Now, you've done your duty in San Diego now and you come back to the east coast. What happens after San Diego, in '46? Do you come back to Philadelphia for more psychiatric schooling?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

I came back three times... I'm all mixed up. This is '48? '47? '48? Should have written this down, shouldn't I? What can I do, why can't I think of that? Let's some back to San Diego, not the ward, not the ship...Philadelphia [trying to think...].

Robert Winters:

Alright, you're working at the yard at the Naval Hospital in Philadelphia. Who do you meet that's coaching at the University of Pennsylvania?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

That's '57.

Robert Winters:

'57?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

No, '56, I met him.

Robert Winters:

Okay, but you've done some duty at the psychiatric ward in Philadelphia in '56?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

That's when I came back to teach the corpsmen! I taught the corpsmen in '47 for a year and a half in there, psychiatric nursing.

Robert Winters:

Right, okay?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

And I didn't have a degree. I was taking some courses at the University of Pennsylvania, but I didn't have a degree in it, so wouldn't you know, some big shot, after a year and a half of teaching all those corpsmen, some big shot nurse came in with a degree in psychiatric nursing and took over the school, and they hated her! But in the mean time, I went back on the wards, and I enjoyed working on the wards again, so that was alright. Then in, let's see, where are we now? That was '47, '48, and then I got sent to Oakland, California, Naval Hospital, in the Naval Hospital, not Pleasanton. And I enjoyed that. But I was always known as the nurse in charge of the Philadelphia school, and Oakland had a psychiatric training of the corpsmen too, and ours in Philadelphia was much better! Far superior! Would you think I'm a little prejudice?

Robert Winters:

Yes, now, you're finished this tour in Oakland?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Yes, that's two years, and I got sent to Philadelphia again, and somewhere in there, I had to live in an apartment. I moved into the apartment with my cousin, we lived together in South Philadelphia. We were both nurses. And she worked in the civilian hospital, and she went to the school at the University, got her masters and eventually taught nursing. But she moved into, when I got orders out of there, she moved into the apartment and lived alone. So then she had a job, finished her training there, ask went back to Missouri to teach the nursing school, and I just moved into that apartment. I had a Siamese cat at that time, and I had the electric organ that I could carry instead of the piano, and I was doing great! And I came home from work one day, and I couldn't find a place to park. I went around the block three times. And here was a car, out in front of the used car lot right next door to my apartment house. He was parked in two spaces! I couldn't park behind him, and I couldn't park ahead of him! And I just went storming in to see Bill, the manager of that used car lot, and I said, "Where's Bill?" And this man said, "Oh, he went for coffee, can I help you?" And I said "Someone has parked in two spaces out there and I can't park in front of him, can't park behind him!" "Just a minute, just a minute, I'll move my car." So he moved his car, and then I felt, well now he'll just think I'm some tyrant of some kind, so I fixed a cup of tea, went back over to join him with their coffee, and the coffee hadn't come up, hadn't been delivered to them. I felt kind of funny, ridiculous and I said, "Well can I fix you a cup of tea?" This is Tim! That little man! Haha, So anyway, I invited them over, and I think there were five men, and three of them came and stayed for quite a little while in my apartment living room. One wanted a beer, one wanted tea, one wanted coffee, and the other two didn't stay long enough, I think they had coffee, but didn't stay long enough. But this one man said, well the biggest thing in the living room was the electric organ, and someone said, "Do you play?", and I said, yes, I do play a little bit. So I played the organ. And Tim said, "Just a minute!", and he went home to his apartment a few blocks away, got his ukulele. And came back, and here's one man sitting there listening to us making this beautiful music with the organ and the ukulele! That you never think of combining, but we made beautiful music.

Robert Winters:

Right!

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

So then he stopped by after work if he saw my car. They were having a hard time at the University of Pennsylvania in that transition of trying to get ready to go into the Ivy League. So I would listen about football from him, and he would listen about psychiatric nursing from me, and all the problems and everything. And we developed a deep respect for each other in just learning about the other one's job, before the romance came in. And then somewhere along in there, he took me out to dinner and that started things. And I respected him, and he always respected me.

Robert Winters:

I'm going to interject here for the tape so that we can explain it. Tim Temerario's autobiography is titled "Root, hog or die." Published by Silesia printers. We plan to include a copy of that book with this tape. Okay, go ahead. You and Tim, he's romancing you now?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

We were married in June of 1957. And we moved into an old house near Pennsylvania, the University of Pennsylvania. And I was stationed still at the Naval Hospital in Philadelphia. And then the '58-'59, the 3rd year, in '59, we became, they won the Ivy League Championship, then all of the coaches were fired. They'd been fired the year before, and the head coach just kind of said, "Well, you didn't win for me this time, so you take over and you run it." Well, Tim ran it. And I think there were two other assistants and they became Ivy League champions with Tim running it. He was so good at evaluating personnel, both his assistant coaches as well as the players, and everybody loved him. So they just did it, they got the job done. But then they were all fired! So what happens to him? Well he knew somebody who was working as a head coach with the Redskins, and I still had two years to do in the Navy, so he phoned and got the job, and I then had to ask the director of the nurse corps down here in Washington if I could be transferred to be down here with him. Now, Tim and I had before we were married in '57 had come down to ask her permission because I was due for orders could I still count on being left there or near there? For him to have his job there, and she said she'd heard the sports news the night before, and so she figured she'd be hearing from me about where 45 to send, where to give me orders. So I got sent to Bethesda Naval Hospital and he came to the Washington Redskins in 1960.

Robert Winters:

You are in Bethesda now, what happens in Bethesda?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Well, they don't know what to do with me because I'm senior! But I'm sort of at a loss, I don't have the degree that would make me a supervisor. But I did do night duty and afternoon supervision of the whole hospital and grounds. And I also worked in the Emergency Room at Bethesda and I enjoyed that, working in the Emergency Room. I'd been in two before, but I liked this one here at Bethesda. I retired the last day of December in 1962. And the Cuba crisis was coming along in there. They extended me a year, and I was having conniption fits, two at a time! Being extended another year. But it was soon over, so I was retired the last day in December. And the next spring in February or so, Tim started on his visiting college campuses for evaluating players to play for the Redskins, and I went with him. And somewhere along the line, I got pregnant! So our son was born, we were too old to be parents! I was 44, and Tim was 57. And we had that baby out here at Bethesda! And they tell me, that day that he was born, he was born about midnight, and the next day the chief nurses office was... many people were stopping by! "It is time?" [laughs] The Commanding Officer, Captain Canada I think his name was, told me later that he had received a call. There was a notice on the sports page: "Tim's a Dad!" So here is the baby born at Bethesda Naval Hospital. So the Commanding Officer told me afterwards that he had had a call from one of the Senators saying, "Now, just what right does that football coach have? How did it happen that he had his baby out here at Bethesda Naval Hospital?" And the Captain told me that he said "Now, I'd be glad to tell you why that baby was born here in Bethesda. His mother is a retired Navy nurse, who retired and then had this baby. And to my knowledge, she's the first Navy nurse to do this, and I'm very proud of her!"

Robert Winters:

Yes! Now I know that you and Tim then moved to Broad Creek in Prince George's County. And that you were involved in many things in your community of Broad Creek. And would you tell us about some of your activities with the flower arranging and Garden Clubs?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

The DAR.

Robert Winters:

And the DAR, also, could you explain? You mentioned your paying piano and, I think violin you mentioned? Tell us about the Broad Creek Music Festival.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

That baby was just about three months old, and Tim was President of the Broad Creek Citizen Association We sponsored the Broad Creak Music Festival. And they said they needed somebody of answer the phone they were busy working, all the teachers were busy working. They just needed somebody to answer the phone. I said "Well, I can answer the phone, I'm here all the time with the baby. I'll be glad to answer the phone." The next thing you know, I had a list of names and they met at our house to kind of talk with Tim as to how it would be financed, and various other things. And the next thing I know, it was so muddled and nobody was taking over, so I ended up dividing into classes and how many students were to be seen playing this song, others would be in another class and playing another song. I kept those records so I kind of organized it so that this class, this four or five classes will be sponsored by 47 this judge, she'll listen to all of these. The next thing I know, I was chairman of the Broad Creek Music Festival.

Robert Winters:

Right.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

And it turned out we were able to increase the number of students who were given an evaluation by a qualified judge as to what they needed to work on, what they were strong with, and we gave them a certificate. And I think they're still doing it!

Robert Winters:

I think so. How about your flowers now?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Well, that baby again was about four years old, he was kind of getting on my nerves a little bit. I was kind of tired of him, and he was tired of me, at that age. So I put him in nursery school for a half day, three days a week. And then I joined the Garden Club and DAR, both, the same woman helped get me in. And so the first thing of interest in Garden Club was flower arranging classes. Well, I didn't know a thing about it, so I took the classes, and one of my first teachers knew that I showed up at class with a different flower each time. I didn't use the same flowers to take the lesson with, and I always used material that I grew, or picked along the road side that grew in the area. So in the bicenter^nial year. Queen Elizabeth came and she requested, before she came she requested flowers that grew in this ai-ea. You have to remember that early Americans brought seeds and cuttings from England, so she wanted to know what was crowing here, naturally. And... Oh I lost my train of thought again! I'm tired of thinking!

Robert Winters:

So, you were arranging flowers for Queen Elizabeth?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

Oh! And then Mrs. Ford asked us to bring volunteered flowers in, and to tie some ribbons around the napkins, that sort of thing. And when Mrs. Carter came, we were kind of familiar with the Flower Room, and if they had a lot of arranging to do, my Rusty would ask us to help him, to make an arrangement just like this one.

Robert Winters:

In the White House?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

In the White House, in the Flower Room, yup! And so my volunteer donations of the flowers and some things, this impressed Mrs. Carter because she had worked in Garden Club. So she invited us back to donate the flowers and to work, and she kind of enjoyed that relationship. And I remember one time taking in a spatial narcissus, little white flower with a little center in it, and making a spatial arrangement in the Green Room in these beautiful vases that had been donated, given as a gift from China. And they were I think three thousand years old, and I'm making a flower arrangement in it! And I nearly had a conniption fit on that one! But he helped me a little bit, but Mrs. Carter liked to say "the Garden Club people did this." Is that it? No, no! Then I went from Mrs. Carter. They needed help with the Mondale's art exhibit. They were living in the Admiral's House in the Navy base, so she asked for somebody to come out. Because more people were attended Fritz's cookouts out in the yard then they were at the White House downtown a little bit. So I took in flowers but we did it in a different entire arrangement in front of the ait exhibit. We used a little bit of flowers as an accessory to the painting, which was just opposite. Because mostly, you had the flowers that were the massive 49 arrangement, and you had the little tinny figurines of dogs or people or something to make an accessory to them. We, we did it just opposite. Here's the beautiful paintings done by [people] in this day, contemporary artists. And then a little bit of a flower to pick up the same color. It was very impressive, and it was an entirely new, different way. And we couldn't show the container, because if we put a fancy container everyone thought that was part of the exhibit, so we hid the container, and just had the flowers. I used cat food cans, with oasis. And covered them up with leaves. How did we get on that subject?! [Laughs] Isn't that it?

Robert Winters:

I think we're pretty close to it... Is there anything that you'd like to add to this life story that we've discussed here?

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

I've had such a good life.

Robert Winters:

Amen.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

I just am glad I'm me. I took advantage of a few special things, but a lot of it came to me. And of course my military, twenty years in the military, I still say I'm a retired Navy nurse. And that meant a great deal to me.

Robert Winters:

I, for one, am glad that you are a member of our VFW Post, and particularly glad that you decided to let us interview you, because, to Russ and I, this is a labor of love, and we enjoy doing it, and if I didn't enjoy doing it, I wouldn't be here.

Charlotte Ione Temerario:

That goes for all of us I think.

Robert Winters:

Alright, thank you again.

 
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  October 26, 2011
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