Today in History: March 11
Sherman Captures Fayetteville
During March and April of 1865, troops under command of Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston fought General William T. Sherman's 60,000-man force as it marched north through the Carolinas during the final weeks of the Civil War. On March 11, Sherman captured the town of Fayetteville, North Carolina, and promptly destroyed the Fayetteville arsenal.
Prior to Sherman's arrival many Southern women worked at the Fayetteville Arsenal, turning out the .58 caliber lead ball cartridges called "minnies" as well as rockets and shells. Approximately 900,000 rounds of small arms munitions were manufactured at the Fayetteville Arsenal over a seven-month period in 1864. Much of the arsenal's machinery was manufactured at Harper's Ferry prior to the war.
Sherman's Troops Removing Ammunition from Fort McAllister
Savannah, Georgia, December 1864.
Selected Civil War Photographs
This photograph of Sherman's troops removing ammunition in wheelbarrows from Fort McAllister in December 1864 is part of a series documenting Sherman's March to the Sea in Selected Civil War Photographs.
After marching through Georgia for a month, Sherman stormed Fort McAllister on December 13, 1864. He captured Savannah eight days later. The photos in this series show the dismantling of the fort prior to Sherman's movement further north.
During the Civil War, women were active on both home fronts. In Fayetteville, women formed groups like the Soldier's Aid Society, the Sick Soldier's Relief Society, and the North Carolina Soldier's Benevolent Society. In Richmond, Mrs. Robert E. Lee and others made bandages for the wounded. Women North and South scraped cotton to make lint for packing wounds, and knit socks to keep their soldier's feet warm and dry. A few, Louisa May Alcott among them, braved the battlefront as nurses.
In a 1939 interview, Moina Belle Michael placed her grandmother's story within the context of a popular new novel:
Oh, what a time people had in those days, I think it was remarkable how my grandmother carried on after her father died…she was only eighteen…she took the plantation over and managed it successfully. He was a large land owner and had many slaves. But Sherman's March…changed all that. I think that the things in Margaret Mitchell's book 'Gone With The Wind' were true…When I was a child and saw those stately men and women so noble and fine it never occurred to me a bad person ever lived.
"The Poppy Lady," Athens, Georgia, February 8-9, 1939.
American Life Histories: Manscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1940
Nurses and Officers of the U.S. Sanitary Commission
Fredericksburg, Virginia, May 1864.
Selected Civil War Photographs
To learn more about the role of women in American wars:
- Search The Spanish-American War in Motion Pictures on the term nurse to view two films featuring Red Cross nurses.
- Search across the pictorial collections on nurse to find WWI era images including Officers, Nurses and Hospital Corps,Camp MacArthur,Texas, June 4, 1918 and Woman in Red Cross Nurse's Uniform.
- Search on women in America from the Great Depression to World War II: Photographs from the FSA-OWI, 1935-1945 to view photographs of female war workers in WWII.
- For more images of WWII-era women, see It's A Women's War Too!, part of the National Archives online exhibition Powers of Persuasion: Poster Art from WWII.
- To read about the transformation of Margaret Mitchell's novel into film, visit the online exhibition Gone With The Wind (external link), presented by the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center (external link) at the University of Texas at Austin.