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1. For a comprehensive study of the lives of California Indians prior to contact with European cultures and for a detailed bibliography, see Ramón Gutiérrez and Richard J. Orsi, eds., Contested Eden: California before the Gold Rush. California History Sesquicentennial Series, no. 1 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998; F864.C735 1998 GenColl).[back]

2. Ibid., 14. See also Stephen A. Flanders, Atlas of American Migration (New York: Facts on File, 1998; G1201.E27 F5 1998 G&M), 30.[back]

3. Ibid., 16. In their essay “A World of Balance and Plenty,” pp. 12-47, in the same source, M. Kat Anderson, Michael G. Barbour, and Valerie Whitworth spell out in more detail women's roles in maintaining the balance of nature and using gardening techniques to provide for their needs. See especially p. 41, endnote 15.[back]

4. See Albert L. Hurtado, Indian Survival on the California Frontier (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988; E78.C15 H87 1988 GenColl) and Victoria Brady, Sarah Crowe, and Lyn Reese, “Resist! Survival Tactics of Indian Women,” California History 63: 2 (Spring 1984), 140-51 (F856.C24 GenColl).[back]

5. “Spanish Missions, Presidios, and Pueblos to 1824,” map, in Gutiérrez and Orsi, Contested Eden, 207.[back]

6. Quintard Taylor, In Search of the Racial Frontier: African Americans in the American West, 1528-1990 (New York: Norton, 1998; E185.925.T39 1998 GenColl), 30-52.[back]

7. Jacob N. Bowman and Robert F. Heizer, Anza and the Northwest Frontier of New Spain (Los Angeles: Southwest Museum, 1967; F869.L8 S65 no. 20), 14 (map), 97. More detailed information helpful in exploring the Library's holdings documenting these expeditions is given in notes 8, 18, and 20 below.[back]

8. Herbert Eugene Bolton, Anza's California Expeditions, 5 vols. (New York: Russell & Russell, 1966; F864.B68 1966 GenColl; Berkeley: University of California Press, 1930; F864.B68 GenColl). Volumes 2-5 contain translations from original Spanish manuscripts edited by Bolton of correspondence, narratives by Francisco Palóu and José Joaguín Moraga, and diaries of Anza, Father Pedro Font, Juan Diaz, Francisco Tomás Hermenegildo Garcés, Francisco Palóu, and Thomas Eixarch.[back]

9. Ibid., vol. 1, An Outpost of Empire, 247.[back]

10. Ibid.[back]

11. Vicki Ruiz, e-mail, August 1, 2000.[back]

12. Susanna Bryant Dakin, Rose, or Rose Thorn? Three Women of Spanish California (Berkeley, Calif.: Friends of the Bancroft Library, 1963), 10.[back]

13. Bolton, vol. 1, 312-13, and vol. 4, Font's Complete Diary of the Second Anza Expedition, 138.[back]

14. Antonia I. Castañeda, “Engendering the History of Alta California, 1769-1848,” in Gutiérrez and Orsi, Contested Eden, 246. See also Dakin, Rose, or Rose Thorn?, 1-11.[back]

15. Castañeda, “Engendering the History,” in Gutiérrez and Orsi, Contested Eden, 246-48, and Dakin, Rose, or Rose Thorn?, 12-24.[back]

16. Castañeda, “Engendering the History,” in Gutiérrez and Orsi, Contested Eden, 249.[back]

17. Doyce B. Nunis Jr., ed., Women in the Life of Southern California (Los Angeles: Historical Society of Southern California, 1996; HQ1438.C2 W67 1996 GenColl), xii.[back]

18. These works include Charles Edward Chapman, Catalogue of Materials in the Archivo General de Indias for the History of the Pacific Coast and the American Southwest (1919; reprint: Millwood, N.Y.: Kraus Reprint Co., 1974; CD1859.S3 C62 1974 GenColl). Since 1905 the Library of Congress has systematically supplemented its original manuscript sources by securing transcriptions, photostatic copies, or microfilm of manuscripts and archives relating to U.S. history that are located in foreign repositories. These reproductions are housed in the Manuscript Division and are described in various published and unpublished finding aids. Of specific interest to readers of this essay are the unpublished checklists titled “Foreign Copying Project-Spain” and “Foreign Copying Project-Spain and Latin America.” In addition to the reproductions acquired directly by the Library and described in these two guides, the Manuscript Division also holds two other collections of Spanish-related materials assembled by private individuals, Woodbury Lowery and James Alexander Robertson. Of particular note are the “Manuscripts, California, 1588-1800” in the Lowery Collection, container 18. Translated material from the Anza overland journeys is reprinted in the five-volume set of Herbert Eugene Bolton's Anza's California Expeditions, along with his idiosyncratic interpretations of the various references to women.[back]

19. Books related to the Anza expedition to California can be found by doing a guided keyword search on the Library's online catalog using “Anza” and “California.”[back]

20. Donald T. Garate, Captain Juan Bautista de Anza-Correspondence-on Various Subjects, 1775: Transcribed, Translated, and Indexed (with Commentary Notes): Archivo General de la Nacion, Provincias Internas 237, Section 3 (San Leandro, Calif.: Los Californianos, 1995; cataloging in process). This compilation includes photocopies of the original documents and transcripts of each with an English translation. The list of supplies and provisions can be found in Bowman and Heizer, Anza and the Northwest Frontier of New Spain,132-36.[back]

21. Jean-François de Galaup, comte de La Pérouse, Relation abrégée du voyage de La Pérouse pendant les années 1785, 1786, 1787, et 1788 (Leipzig, 1799; G420.L213 RBSC), which includes the first drawings of life in Spanish California, and Louis Choris, Voyage pittoresque autour du monde, avec des portraits de sauvages d'Amérique. . . . (Paris: Firmin Didot, 1822; G420 .K84 C5 RBSC), with its plates of Indians in and surrounding the Spanish missions. Additional first-person narratives of California from the Library of Congress book collections are available online in “California as I Saw It”: First-Person Narratives of California's Early Years, 1849-1900.[back]

22. Alfred Robinson, Life in California: During a Residence of Several Years in that Territory . . . By an American [Alfred Robinson], translated from the original Spanish Manuscript (New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1846; F864.R65 RBSC).[back]

23. Richard Henry Dana Jr., Two Years before the Mast (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1840; AC1.H4 no.127 RBSC).[back]

24. Mapa, que comprende la Frontera, de los Dominos del Rey . . . , drawn by José de Urrutia and Nicolas de la Fora in 1769 (G4410 1769 .U7 TIL Vault) can be found on the Library's Web site, available in four sections, a through d, at <>. See John R. Hébert and Anthony P. Mullan, The Luso-Hispanic World in Maps: A Selective Guide to Manuscript Maps to 1900 in the Collections of the Library of Congress (Washington: Library of Congress,1999; Z6027.S72 L43 1999 MRR Alc, LH&G), 51, item 91. See also Maps Showing Explorers' Routes, Trails, and Early Roads in the United States: An Annotated List, compiled by Richard S. Ladd (Washington: Library of Congress, 1962; Z6027.U5 U56 G&M, MRR Alc, LH&G) and The Lowery Collection: A Descriptive List of Maps of the Spanish Possessions within the present Limits of the United States, 1502-1820, by Woodbury Lowery, edited with notes by Philip Lee Phillips (Washington: Library of Congress, 1912; Z881.U5 Hisp Ref, GenColl).[back]

25. Nunis, ed., Women in the Life, 5-71.[back]

26. Taylor, In Search of the Racial Frontier, 32, where he cites Jack Forbes, Afro-Americans in the Far West (Berkeley, Calif., 1969).[back]

27. For example, see Edwin A. Beilharz and Carlos U. López, trans. and eds., We Were 49ers!: Chilean Accounts of the California Gold Rush (Pasadena, Calif.: Ward Ritchie Press, 1976; F865.W37 GenColl).[back]

28. Christiana Fischer, “Women in California in the Early 1850s,” in Nunis, ed., Women in the Life, 41-71.[back]

29. Jo Ann Levy, They Saw the Elephant: Women in the California Gold Rush (Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1990; F865.L67 1990 GenColl), 153. Levy relates the stories of two recorded Chinese prostitutes, Lee Lan and Ah Toy, both of whom had been taken to San Francisco from Canton.[back]

30. Mrs. D. B. Bates, Incidents on Land and Water, or Four Years on the Pacific Coast (Boston: J. French & Co., 1857; F865.B3 GenColl).[back]

31. Levy, They Saw the Elephant, 32-47.[back]

32. A list of ninety-six journals and diaries kept on the overland trail appears in Lillian Schlissel's Women's Diaries of the Westward Journey (New York: Schocken Books, 1982, F593.W65 1982 GenColl). The preponderance of source material, textual and graphic, is related to the overland journeys of women in the 1840s and later.[back]

33. Schlissel, Women's Diaries, 14.[back]

34. “Emigrant's Dying Child,” by Major G. W. Patten, U.S. Army. Music Composed with a Piano Accompaniment by an Amateur (Cleveland: S. Brainard's Sons, 1853). Edison Sheet Music Collection. Music Division.[back]

35. Levy, They Saw the Elephant, 188.[back]

36. Schlissel, Women's Diaries, 46.[back]

37. Ibid., 112-13.[back]

38. See John Phillip Reid, Law for the Elephant: Property and Social Behavior on the Overland Trail (San Marino, Calif.: Huntington Library, 1997; KF366.R43 1997 LAW) and Reid, Policing the elephant: Crime, Punishment, and Social Behavior on the Overland Trail (San Marino, Calif.: Huntington Library, 1997; HV9955.W4 R45 1997 GenColl).[back]

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