Full Caption: John Wallis. Cartouche. Etching. From The United States of America laid down From the best Authorities (London, April 3, 1783; G3700.1783.W3 Vault). Geography and Map Division. Full Caption: John Wallis. Cartouche. Etching. From The United States of America laid down From the best Authorities (London, April 3, 1783; G3700.1783.W3 Vault). Geography and Map Division.

The differences between the cartouches on the map used in the negotiation of the Treaty of Paris (1783) and the one drawn up to show the new, independent territories are revealing. The first, the long used and much published 1755 Mitchell map, shows the lovely Indian queen, with attendants, in a tropical setting. The Wallis map pairs Liberty with George Washington and Wisdom and Justice with Benjamin Franklin. American leaders now wanted symbols that indicated equality and dignity. Thus, generic, universal but white, females and heroic, individualized but white, males became the subject of countless celebratory and memorial designs of the period.

see caption below